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Commercial Glue Sniffing and Child Health: Indian Street Children are at a Risk

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Journal of Biosafety & Health Education
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Journal of Biosafety & Health Education
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East Tennessee State University, USA
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Digital Object Identier: http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/jbhe.1000e108
Volume 1 • Issue 3 • 1000e108
J Biosafety Health Educ
ISSN: JBHE an open access journal
Editorial
Open Access
Biosafety & Health Education
Mondal, J Biosafety Health Educ 2013, 1:3
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/jbhe.1000e108
Children are the source of hope and inspiration for the society. at
is why they have the right to be brought up in a positive environment.
But there are many children in the world who have become synonymous
with social deprivation at its worst. Children who are working and living
on the streets are found throughout the nation. Street children constitute
a marginalized population in most urban centers of the world. ere are
major diculties in trying to estimate the number of street children
and the magnitude of hardship they experience. In their marginalized
state they constitute a truly “hidden” population who were not covered
by nor nd place in the national census, educational or health data,
largely because they have no xed address [1]. is problem is further
compounded by the fact that they are also a highly mobile population.
However, it is speculated that between 100,000 and 125,000 children
live on the streets and railway stations of Indias major cities, and that
more than half of them have some form of drug addiction.
Street boys living at dierent Indian railway stations of West
Bengal, take care of themselves and each other in an otherwise uncaring
environment and surviving through begging, petty the or hawking
goods on the platforms. Most of the paltry sum they earn is spent on
tobacco or on tube of Glue (locally known as Dendritewhich is an
industrial contact adhesive and rubber cement brand marketed as
glue sticks, tubes and cans in India and South Asia, mainly in Eastern
India, Bangladesh and Bhutan) that is a particular favorite with those
children. is golden colored industrial glue (oen called as golden
glue’) containing organic solvents is cheap and readily available and
provides faster onset of action and the regular ‘high’ [2,3]. Investigators
believe that the addicts can be exposed to several thousand parts per
million (2,000-30,000 ppm) of organic solvents within a few minutes
[4]. e kids squeeze Glue onto a rag and hu its fumes through the
mouth.
Although these products are not classied as drugs because they
are not intended to be used to achieve intoxication, young children and
adolescents can easily obtain them and are among those most likely
to abuse them [5]. Besides addiction, they’re usually victims of abuse
and harassment, and are extremely vulnerable to tracking, sex trade
and child labor [6]. Inhalant abuse/dependence has been reported from
various parts of the world [7-10]. Drug usage among minors has created
a global generation of addicted and oen abandoned children bere of
family support, education and social skills. ere are epidemiological
reports indicating that chronic exposure to abuse solvents can produce
loss of appetite [5]; however, the mechanisms involved in these eects
are not well understood. Its sad that kids would come to that.
Our previous reports suggested that tobacco smoking and/or
chewing habit among street boys is associated with increased frequency
of micronucleus and γ-H2AX foci formation in oral mucosa, implying
chromosomal and DNA damage respectively [11]. Additional habit of
sning/hung of industrial glue enhances the severity of genotoxic
changes in buccal epithelial cells of these children. We also observed
marked increase in argyrophilic nuclear organizer region (AgNOR)
in buccal epithelial cells of glue-addicted children, suggesting up-
regulation of ribosome biogenesis in these cells [12]. Taken together,
these studies indicate genetic changes in oral mucosa of street boys
in association with tobacco and glue sning or hung habit. So it
is necessary to campaign biosafety and health education programme
explaining the adverse health eects of inhalant abuse by the young
futures throughout the nation. Genetic markers could provide a useful
means of detecting early mutagenic events for assessing cancer risk
associated with inhalant abuse which is quite prevalent in developed
countries also. In the United States, for example, nearly 20% of young
persons have experimented with inhalants at least once by the time they
are in eighth grade and the mean age of rst-time inhalant abuse is
13 years [13]. More importantly, children who abuse inhalants early in
life are more likely later to use other illicit drugs. us inhalant abuse
intervention programs seem important from the community health
perspective also.
References
1. Benegal V, Bhushan K, Seshadri S, Karott M (1998) Drug Abuse Among Street
Children in Bangalore. Monograph Funded by CRY.
2. Basu D, Jhirwal OP, Singh J, Kumar S, Mattoo SK (2004) Inhalant abuse by
adolescents: a new challenge for Indian physicians. Indian J Med Sci 58: 245-
249.
3. Seth R, Kotwal A, Ganguly KK (2005) Street and working children in Delhi,
India, misusing toluene: an ethnographic exploration. Subst Use Misuse 40:
1659-1679.
4. Marjot R, McLeod AA (1989) Chronic non-neurological toxicity from volatile
substance abuse. Hum Toxicol 8: 301-306.
5. Inhalants (2004) National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health,
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.
6. Gupta SK, Bali S, Jiloha RC (2009) Inhalant abuse: an overlooked problem.
Indian J Psychiatry 51: 160-161.
7. Weir E (2001) Inhalant use and addiction in Canada. CMAJ 164: 397.
8. Ramon MF, Ballesteros S, Martinez-Arrieta R, Torrecilla JM, Cabrera J (2003)
Volatile substance and other drug abuse inhalation in Spain. J Toxicol Clin
Toxicol 41: 931-936.
9. Thiesen FV, Barros HM (2004) Measuring inhalant abuse among homeless
youth in southern Brazil. J Psychoact Drugs 36: 201-205.
*Corresponding author: Nandan Kumar Mondal, Articial Organ Laboratory,
Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10 South Pine
Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA, Tel: 410-706-4549; Fax: 410-706-0311;
E-mail: nkmondal@smail.umaryland.edu
Received
May 12, 2013; Accepted May 16, 2013; Published May 18, 2013
Citation: Mondal NK (2013) Commercial Glue Snifng and Child Health: Indian
Street Children are at a Risk. J Biosafety Health Educ 1: e108. doi:10.4172/
jbhe.1000e108
Copyright: © 2013 Mondal NK. This is an open-access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and
source are credited.
Commercial Glue Sniffing and Child Health: Indian Street Children are at a
Risk
Nandan Kumar Mondal*
Articial Organ Laboratory, Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, USA
Page 2 of 2
J Biosafety Health Educ
ISSN: JBHE an open access journal
10. Wu LT, Pilowsky DJ, Schlenger WE (2004) Inhalant abuse and dependence
among adolescents in the United States. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
43: 1206-1214.
11. Mondal NK, Ghosh S, Ray MR (2011) Micronucleus formation and DNA
damage in buccal epithelial cells of Indian street boys addicted to gasp ‘Golden
glue’. Mutat Res 721: 178-183.
12. Mondal NK, Ghosh S, Ray MR (2011) Quantitative analysis of AgNOR proteins
in buccal epithelial cells of Indian street boys addicted to gasp ‘golden glue’.
Exp Toxicol Pathol 63: 677-681.
13. McGarvey EL, Clavet GJ, Mason W, Waite D (1999) Adolescent inhalant abuse:
environments of use. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 25: 731-741.
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Citation: Mondal NK (2013) Commercial Glue Snifng and Child Health: Indian Street Children are at a Risk. J Biosafety Health Educ 1: e108.
doi:10.4172/jbhe.1000e108
Volume 1 • Issue 3 • 1000e108
Citation: Mondal NK (2013) Commercial Glue Snifng and Child Health: Indian
Street Children are at a Risk. J Biosafety Health Educ 1: e108. doi:10.4172/
jbhe.1000e108
... (Nandan Kumar Mondal, 2013) There is study suggested that children who starts abusing inhalants or other solvents in early stages of life they are more likely later to use other illicit drugs in their future. Thus, inhalant abuse intervention programmes seem important from the community health perspective also (Mondal, 2013). ...
... (Nandan Kumar Mondal, 2013) There is study suggested that children who starts abusing inhalants or other solvents in early stages of life they are more likely later to use other illicit drugs in their future. Thus, inhalant abuse intervention programmes seem important from the community health perspective also (Mondal, 2013). ...
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Aim: The aim was to determine the prevalence of glue-sniffing among street children. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was adopted. Background: Children are the source of hope and could be the major ailments for the development of society, nation and the world but there are large numbers of children on the street sniff glue and struggling with multiple disease and uncertain future. Methods: A study was conducted in 52 street children to determine the prevalence of glue-sniffers and its impact on street children in Butwal, municipality of Nepal. This study was conducted in 52 street children, 5- point Likert scale and interview schedule was performed with the help of structured and semi-structured questionnaire to collect data. Finally, the collected data are analysed by using descriptive statistical methods such as frequency, percentage and mean. Results: The study findings revealed that a large number of children, that is 40.38% was between the age group of 9-12 years and 92.31% were male. The current prevalence of glue-sniffing among street children is 88.46%. Similarly, 58.7% of respondents had started glue-sniffing 1 year ago. Out of 46 respondents who sniffed glue, 89.13% were unaware of its effect. Nearly, half of the respondents 45.65% had encountered health issues such as headache, chest pain and stomach ache. Conclusions: They have deprived children and denied not only of their rights as children but also of their normal childhood. Without guidance, education and security, they are heading towards an uncertain future. They can have enough potentiality and talent if they are brought into a better environment and might have real hope for the bright future.
... 26 Another meta-analysis study by Mondal states that streets boys living in railway platforms and footpaths of West Bengal, Bhutan, Bangladesh were addicted to glue tubes, cans and rubber cement (type of adhesive) are favorite particulars of children. They also demonstrated that sniffing or huffing of glue/adhesive enhance the genotoxic affect in epithelial cells of mucosa of these children which suggest that there might be genetic alternations that may cause mutagenic events and cause cancers 25 . Another case illustrates a 22-year-old man covered his face with plastic bag having large amount of glue in it. ...
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This review article explores the studies of inhalants and inhalant misuse in India. Since much research is focused on illegal drugs not much work had concentrated on the commonly available inhalants. The abuse of inhalants is common phenomenon in the world. In this review, we will explain why these inhalants addiction is an inalienable thing which depressed youths can't avoid. Then we will look into various inhalants commonly used and also into various case studies available in the literature hence knowing the abuse of inhalants among youths and techniques employed by them to get a kick.
... The age of initiation was between 10 and 13 for street children who commonly use and abuse substance like alcohol, cigarettes, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, heroin, shoemakers glue, correction fluid, paint thinner; and coca paste (Nada KH et al.; Hillis SD et al.; Elkoussi A et al.) as quoted in Cumber SM et al. Young persons have experimented with inhalants at least once by the time they are in eight grade and mean age of first-time inhalant abuse is 13 years, McGarvey EL et al. as quoted in Mondal NK[23]. Sampasa-Kanyinga H et al.[24], some students reported having tried cannabis for the first time as early elementary school. ...
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