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Tourism as Mass-media: a suitable global Tool acting locally - a possible Option to appraise the European Heritage on the 21st Century

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Abstract

This inductive study offers an examination of 23 cases in which informants from firms engaged in large-scale global projects reported unforeseen costs after failing to comprehend cognitive-cultural, normative, and/or regulative institutions in an unfamiliar host societal context. The study builds on the conceptual framework of institutional theory. The findings, which include propositions and a generic narrative model, contribute to theoretical knowledge of how institutional exceptions arise, how they are resolved, and how they typically involve three general phases: ignorance, sensemaking, and response. The findings also articulate the kinds of institutional transaction costs that an entrant incurs in each of the three phases, and the conditions that lead to the growth of these costs. Journal of International Business Studies (2008) 39, 562–588. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400370
MPRA
Munich Personal RePEc Archive
Tourism as Mass-media: a suitable global
Tool acting locally - a possible Option to
appraise the European Heritage on the
21st Century
rotariu, ilie
Lucian BlagaUniversity of Sibiu
2000
Online at http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5710/
MPRA Paper No. 5710, posted 11. November 2007 / 10:53
Tourism as mass media: a suitable global tool acting locally - a possible option to
appraise the European heritage on the 21st century
The ATLAS Winter University - January, 2001, Pecs, Hungary
"The past 1000 years - Our common heritage?"
There are two ideas on ATLAS Winter University:
- " The last thing that the peacemaker wants to know is the history of the region he is going into…
- " The purpose of the IP is to assess and evaluate the European heritage of the past centuries ... Will
all Europe's cultural artifacts from the past 1000 years become part of the heritage of the next
millennium ? ... Is the heritage's evaluation of the future generation going to be different? ... “I hope
to need as less as possible peace makes in the future!
I do not intend to (re) define the terms, to analyze the “heritage commodity “as a good, or
service, or a professional package, or to examine the cultural and heritage tourism from the
marketing point of view. I just want to point out a new dimension of the tourism, made possible by
nowadays heritage in media and to explore possible option to appraise the European heritage on the
21 st century.
I propose to focus on 4 main directions:
1. Mass media and tourism : in order to see if we can take tourism as a mass media
2. Some major characteristics of tourism as mass media, some attributes on this regard
3. Some major changes, present and predictable in the near future. Tourism on the horizon of the
21st century.
4. Possible option to booth the European heritage on the horizon of the 21 st century.
I shall start with a statement:
If one follows the history of development of thinking, one can find that causes were
sometimes taken for effects, and effects for causes, that led to a wrong outlook, that turned
sometimes into a dogma.
Let's illustrate it. Let’s take a general opinion like:
We live a tremendous world (time). Thinks are moving so fast that we hardly have the time to
realize the changes. At least concerning travel and tourism. Isn't it true? May be!
I have to start asking the meaning of some terms. Some of the greatest events of European
history:
THE FORTRESS EUROPE
besiegers
attackers
Indo European migrations
Homer ' s time - Odyssey
Alexander the Great
Rome - the capital of the civilized world
Barbarians against Rome
Crusaders
The Turks
Genghis Kahn
The Great discovers - colonization of New World
Napoleon
WW
The crash of Berlin Wall
Brains' hunting
ANYTHING NEW?
TRAVEL = ? = TOURISM
migration, refugees, soldiers leisure, hospitality, informal tourism
MOTIVATIONS
mass tourism => collapse of the space
We use to say or to hear the syntagm “The fortress Europe” that wants to point out that
nowadays Europe is the target of many immigrants, the “Promised Land" for may people of the
third world, the Eldorado... This obliges Europe to protect itself and its peoples. But we can say the
same about US or Canada, or Australia, or South Africa. More, during history we find constantly
places that attracted people. Anything new?
I also point out that any fortress supposes the besiegers and the attackers. And I add: its own
internal problems. I remain on the slide some moments of the history connected to Europe: the Indo
European migration, that Homer's time - just an internal, a European matter with some steps in
Minor Asia to Prim and Helen's fortress. Alexander the Great- Europe to Asia - only one culture
with detectable heritage till today. And than Rome - the city apprised to an empire. A European
internal affaire too. But barbarians against Rome were not only an internal problem, just remaining
Attila. An odder internal business: the crusaders and an international one: the Turks and Genghis
Khan. And the finest time of the Great discovers: the first foundation of the present geography.
Napoleon, the WW and the crash of wall in Berlin and to close the retrospection, the actual brain
hunting, mainly for US.
Any thing new under the sun? Nothing, that people coming to Europe, going around or just
moving from one place to an other inside Europe. Each with his business: to make fortune, to robe
some rich people or places, to solve some dispute with other... Let me conclude: every one traveled
and are still traveling. But has this anything to do with tourism? Yes, as long as tourism is travel.
No, as long as tourism is leisure, hospitality even informal tourism.
The difference is the motivation. I do not explain what is the motivation to do tourism as
anyone of you knows the subject. Allow me to point out that nowadays tourism, mass tourism
practically collapses the space. Let me give an example. Suppose we are in Amsterdam, or Munich,
or what so ever but Western Europe not Eastern one: We have not to imagine, we can find easily
two fellows on Thursday telling one to the other: what are you doing this weekend. I want to swim a
little bit. This time I want to try Malaga. I leave at 4, 30. It seams, they said: I am just getting out
buying some beer. Or even your example. You just leave to the Winter University for 10 days, as
you use to go to your grandparents.
Space does not exist anymore for travel. At least as an obstacle. The motivation is the main
difference between travel and tourism. And there are so many motivations. Let's keep in our mind
this important feature: motivation. As we still have some problem to define tourism
Defining tourism:
We have here only 3 definitions: This way of defining tourism might force us to consider as "
tourism " all travels of all people and all their movements on account of war, famine, illegal
emigration, emigration ( as the Chinese from Hong Kong), political refugees, sales of goods etc.
and last but not least travels for "tourism purposes"? Shall we take for tourism only the travel mdae
for having a holiday? What shall we do with business tourism, tourism for conferences as the winter
university?
What is "tourism"?
There where various definitions of the notion that have changed in time.
-"Tourism is about people being away from home, short-term, temporary visits, with the express purpose to
make "tourism" Rob Davidson in "Tourism" (Pitman 1991)
"tourism is any kind of activity, performed by any one away from home for more than 24 hours".
- "Tourism: the business of providing travel and services for tourists"; but also "the practice of having a holiday
as a tourist." The Oxford Student's Dictionary
It is hard to admit that tourism, a sector of the world economy with an important turnover,
which involves one of three inhabitants of the Earth self-defines itself by the term "tourism". This is
why I have considered necessary to expand the notion of tourism as we will use it further on, to the
broad meaning of the term, because the basic characteristic of tourism is movement, direct contact
with a new space, a different "reality". Classical theory use to add an explanatory adjective:
hospitality, leisure etc. I use further on "tourism” as synonym for” travel as any rule for the hole is
also the rule of a part of the hole.
Defining mass media:
What is "mass media"?
According to the tasks it has set for itself, mass media also have several definitions. But all of them focus on the
following basic characteristics:
- omnipresent and public : you can find them everywhere and they available are any time for anyone.
- rhythmical and periodical issue
- widespread, universal, their message is complex and vast
- penetrative, addressing anyone, the masses of people, directly, simplifying the distribution of information
- instant and up-to-date communication
- accessibility
Mass media facilitates :
- access to information
- access to culture, education and training
- typical social communication
- "satisfaction" by means of entertainment and fun
Every one of you knows what mass media is: newspapers, radio, television etc.
First allow me one important digression: mass media and tourism are made not for all
countries. Only for those with a certain economical level. We find mass media and tourism also in
poor countries but not as a mass activity, or goods, or tool. Taken this tell quell tourism suppliers
and clients and information might be more present as the newspapers, or people listening to radio.
And the whole touristical activity is public; any one can make a trip as they can buy a magazine.
Robert Escarpit counted the followed basic characteristics. Let see if tourism fulfill these
requirements
- omnipresent and public: YES
- rhythmical and periodical issue: the same for tourism: by season, on holidays or business travel:
YES
- widespread, universal, the massage is complex and vast. It suits for tourism too: YES
- penetrative, addressing anyone to the masses of people... just the mass tourism. TES
- instant and up -to date communication: the view seems to be the faster of the senses and the main
one used in by tourists: YES
- accessibility: same in tourism: YES
Mass media facilitates access to information - access to culture, education and training
- typical social communication- "satisfaction" by means of entertainment and fun. We are talking
the same about tourism
And more, tourism offer additionally
Heterogeneity: a lot of thinks - touchable or not, mix together.
Intangibility - you can not touch the tourist cal product before buying it, and you know what you
bought only via information
Permissibility - the life of a touristical product is short enough to give headaches to tour operators
and not only to them
International - not necessary to explain to you
(And more we have in tourism private sector versus public sector)
I shall say and you shall judge these days: during the sixties, tourism has turned into a mass
movement. By comparison with mass media, we can identify all basic characteristics of the latter: a
location where the message (information) is elaborated to be then spread through specific channels
of distribution bearing the same goals in mind. Moreover, tourism as mass media allows the "target"
to check the information on location during the trip, a kind of feed back that makes the information
the more trustworthy. We may therefore consider tourism as a means of mass communication.
Let's have a look on how mass media is working
Mass media “world”.
Any mass media product have a source, usually an institution or better a structure with all it is
involve on that: ownership, finance, constraints, control etc. >>> Any mass media product exist in
order to fulfill a need: of the audience or of the source >>> Once a mass media message is decided
to be sent on it is encode, plunged in a special production process that will make the >>>>
(message) product: The product can be used for information and persuasion. it can have genre or
realism etc. >>>>Once on the market, arrived to the audience the product must support the
decoding, under the restriction of ideology or culture and >>> in the context of all these it might
and usually determine a >>> feed back: effects, or profits or s.o. >>>> And more al this process is
continue, active, dynamic
We know now, that as a rule, not all the countries enjoy mass media experience as well as
tourism activities. The international exchanges in these fields were limited enough comparing with
the domestic market.
International exchanges on mass media.
We can see it also on this slide, and I just want to remark that the countries that export more
have a larger domestic market. US stay on itself, Western Europe is under American influence but
has also an important “local" international market with 15 % exchanges between its own countries.
The last technologies made the communication global but the same trends still remain in
international exchanges for mass media and tourism.
But and other process is developing: the internalization of the capitals and of the control: in
Great Britain b.e. some publishing institutions control many of the well known ones on the market
and they have themselves international capitals as well. And the situation is the same for each mass
media: TV or radio. etc. Taking about Internet: how many institutions control the domains name for
web sites? You have the right example of concentration of international capitals.
THE FIRST 20 HOTELS CHAINS IN THE WORLD
RANK
IN
1999
1998
Hotels chain /
Social center
rooms
1999
1998
hotels
1999
1998
1
1 Cendant Corporation
Parsippany, New Jersey, USA 542,630
528,896 6,315
5,978
2
2 Bass Hotels & Resorts
London, England 471,680
461,434 2,886
2,738
3
3 Marriott International
Washington DC, USA 355,900
328,300 1,880
1,686
4
6 Accor
Evry, Franœa 354,652
291,770 3,234
2,666
5
4 Choice Hotels International
Silver Spring, Colorado, USA 338,254
305,171 4,248
3,670
6
5 Best Western International
Phoenix, Arizona, USA 313,247
301,899 4,037
3,814
7
11 Hilton Hotels Corp.
Beverly Hills, California, USA 290,000
85,000 1,700
250
8
7 Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide
White Plains, NY, USA 217,651
225,014 716
694
9
9 Carlson Hospitality Worldwide
Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA 114,161
106,244 616
548
10
12 Hyatt Hotels / Hyatt International
Chicago, Illinois, USA 85,743
82,224 195
186
11
10 Wyndham International
Dallas, TX USA 73,215
100,989 303
472
12
13 Sol Meliá
Palma de Mallorca, Spain 69,178
65,586 260
246
13
17 Société du Louvré
Paris, France 65,970
37,630 990
601
14
14 Hilton International
Watford, Herts, United Kingdom 61,889
54,117 217
170
15
16 Forte Hotel Group
London, United Kingdom 58,636
48,407 449
249
16
15 FelCor Lodging Trust
Irving, TX, USA 50,000
50,000 188
193
17
------ TUI Group
Hanover, Germany 42,379
------ 172
-------
18
19 La Quinta Inns
San Antonio, Texas, USA 39,250
37,019 302
287
19
22 Extended Stay America
Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA 38,300
32,347 362
305
20
20 Club Méditerranée SA
Paris, France 36,510
36,010 127
127
Source: HOTELS July official publication of IH&RA (International Hotel & Restaurant Association), thank to FIHR
/ Federatia Industriei Hoteliere din România
The mirror in tourism: the first 20 hotels chains owns 30,000 hotels And the number is not all:
each of them has its own philosophy, rules and we can say its own world: Come in the world of
Club Med! Tourism is a global activity from is very beginning!
This allows me to state: "From a very young age, the child gets accustomed to holidays. Then,
from desire, alluring brochures to the holiday itself, we create the image, the illusion of happiness.
We sell them their remembrances. We are endowed with most effective means of persuasion. This
is the result of our being continuously in immediate contact with life and reality, but reality as we
present it".
Tourism is a means of mass communication. Of all mass media it is the most powerful due to
its range and especially its force: it is governed by the "principle of Apostle Thomas: touching is
believing". This force is ignored because it doesn't bring a quick return on investments; the future is
sacrificed for the sake of the present. The power to awaken the sense of history and values is
lacking. And more extensive efforts should have been made, especially in Europe, in order to avoid
the lost of rediscovered brother countries.
Let's have a closer look to the tourism activity.
We can see that tourism is not sleeping, not eating, not using transport vehicles - you all
know it very well. Tourism is something more. Information, flows of information. The main actors:
travelers, suppliers, intermediaries, tourism organizations and government agencies, market
researchers must not be analyzed for them selves but for the flows of information they handle. Their
input and output of information! Gigantic. And very strong one!
Examples of tourism information needs: by consumer, travel agents, suppliers, tourism
offices. Each piece of information flow through a media typical for tourism: these media can be
static or dynamic, pre-trip or in-trip as per example on the slide. But the real nature is much more
complex
Let try it some other way. The “world “of tourism.
Brochures
Guidebooks
CD-ROM
Phone, fax, email
Travel agent access to Internet
GDS
Kiosks
Guidebooks
TV channels in hotels
Phone, fax, email
Destination Information System
Internet
IN-TRIP
PRE-TRIP
STATIC DYNAMIC
T
es of tourism information media
I put here an image of the world of tourism: first the casum belum: the free time and disposal
money. And this is not haphazard or accidental. If we have a look on the history of economy we
shall find out that leisure has a recent life; as well as labor unions: last 100 - 150 year. To point it
out well, I remind you that Ford has based all his philosophy on the buy power of his own workers;
and he get on to raise their buy power. The history shows that things happened similar for leisure
and tourism.
Coming back to origin of tourism activity on our slide: I shall say, that under the motivation
and required information, the pour future tourist take the decision to travel> On my slide I separated
the 2 main fields of tourism production: the invisible and HORECA - basically services. But all
these have to be carried on social, political environment and nowadays on the international one.
And the guides give shape to the tourism product, which are remembrances.
I want now to point out the world of tourism as information. Not only the potential tourist is a
target, but each of the actors is a source of information and a target in the same time.
Let's suppose a restaurant: training is responsible to teach the staff about the habitudes and
traditions of different kind of tourists: Muslims do not eat pork, French like vegetables, an English
breakfast is made of, and an American one of...Hungarian papricash must served very hot and s.o
All these is modifying the world of the staff but in the same time is reinforcing local traditions.
They have to: nobody looks for international meals, every one wants something special, local too.
In the same time the tourist, once plough into tourism world, expects to find the due respect for him,
waiting to be served accordable if he is an Arabian, a Jew or he celebrate his anniversary. The
information goes both sides; We can conclude that touristical information become global but it is
generating local effects, as only local offer can be for any interest for making tourism. We can go
on with all the actors playing in tourism and we shall find similar situations.
Creating local and keeping specificity! A emerging, changing specificity, but good enough to
preserve the personality of people, groups, persons and strong enough to maintain the heterogeneity
of the humanity that made the life and the evolution possible
I hope you agree that tourism is a media and a very large one.
How popular is tourism? But how populous is it? Figures about tourism activity:
Receipts per Region: World tourism receipts (US $bn) by WTO region, 1991-96
WTO regions 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 GROWTH %
1991-1996
Africa 4.9 6.2 6.3 6.9 7.2 8.3 69
Americas 76.8 85.4 91.0 94.9 100.1 106.5 39
East Asia / Pacific 40.2 47.3 52.4 62.7 73.6 81.2 102
Europe 143.3 167.6 163.8 178.2 207.7 217.2 51
Middle East 4.3 5.4 4.8 5.4 7.2 8.0 86
South Asia 2.4 2.8 2.8 3.2 3.6 4.0 67
WORLD 271.9 314.3 321.2 351.6 399.4 425.3 56
Source: World Tourism Organization, 1998.
Note: Figures are rounded (receipts to the nearest US$ 100m) so that component figures may not add up to totals
Percentage share of world tourism receipts, 1975 and 1996
WTO region 1975 (%) 1996 (%)
Africa 3.1 2.0
Americas 25.1 25.0
East Asia/Pacific 5.3 19.1
Europe 63.5 51.1
Middle East 2.1 1.9
South Asia 0.8 0.9
Source: World Tourism Organization, 1998.
Size of the sector- number of establishments and personnel
Units
Country Hotels Restaurants Cafés Cantines ind
Belgium 1930 21057 29724
Denmark 481 7866 2441 2802
Finland 1100 3800 6900 1700
France 28698 81313 49239
Germany 40041 108677 69068 6399
Italy 34000 90000 150000
Spain 26388 58886 213987
UK 40000 100000 80000 16000
Hungary 2002 9932 41310
Norway 1274 231 604 3316
Switzerland 25000
Ireland 1072 2571 8694
Netherlands 2895 19181 19396 2866
179881 503283 670990 30371 28316
Total general 1412841
Source: World Tourism Organization, 1998
PERSONNEL
Country Hotels Restaurants Cafés Cantines ind
Belgium 12242 46601 17344
Denmark 11831 22088
Finland 14700 18200 12200 10400
France 186456 376598 90308
Germany 301000 527000 209000 26000
Italy 245000 450000 300000
Spain 158536 461300
UK 330000 320000 350000 120000
Hungary 27000 82000 105000
Norway 16400 1600 1500 16700
Switzerland 170000
Ireland 32520 40667 76239
Netherlands 20000 271000
1335685 1861066 1161691 177900 941088
5477430
Source: World Tourism Organization, 1998
10% of the population leaves for a touristical program. I know that these figures counted the
same persons several time. But the same statistics are made for papers or TV shows. Mass media do
not rely only on direct consumer but also on rumors effect: I hear it on the radio! I have seen it on
TV yesterday evening! But I do not believe: I was there last summer and it is quite different. I saw
it by myself. The power of tourism direct information!
In a small country as Romania, and poor to - I did not said not gifted - the touristical
circulation might have a much more importance.
And now the question: is it tourism a mass media? And my answer is YES:
Classic tourism as mass media: there are two main conditions that are considered to allow
practicing tourism (in the classic, usual meaning of the word): the available money and free time. In
view of this I must also point out:
There are very large direct means of communication employed in tourism. The information
emerges as a result of the activity of entire area / community in its political, social, economic,
cultural life. Their heritage, present and hopes give the image of the touristical destination, the
interaction of the tourism industry with the market, the quality of the direct contact with reality
(feed back)
Tourism is as a means of communication because it facilitates: transmission of information in
view of a predetermined scope; contact of the "target" with a certain culture / society with a great
potential to influence shaping the targets view on the subject; proves and supports a certain standard
of living as a result of a long-term social contract (the Marshal Plan included the vacations in its
promises: the German citizen for instance would hardly give up to their right to vacation)
Informal tourism as mass media : people having neither money nor time have come to travel
in the past years, during which this transit has grown to be a mass movement. Examples upholding
this idea would be for instance:
- illegal immigration : any illegal immigrant follows a certain route to get to the "promised land".
And the information he uses are accurate and effective! How can I get this information? How is this
underground world of “tourism" structured? A fair analysis will not be able to prove whether this
illegal immigration is more to the benefit of the immigrants or the citizens of the target country.
- legal immigration : relatives come up for travel expenses one way or the other etc.
- movements generated by local crises : such as : East European countries, Hong Kong, Africa and
Israel ( the latter, as an exception which keeps tourism alive in spite of all crises).
And these are not only “travels" but also direct contacts. Western Europe, its peoples and their
heritage is the main attraction point for “travelers” up to Pakistan and Africa, as in Antiquity! It
seams that the “quantity” is in Pacific area but the “quality" still remain in old Europe.
Tourism as a mass media using other means of communication : the revolution in the field of
informatics already allows the rich - mainly people in business - to travel on the electronic
highways of the global communication networks. Thus, it doesn't matter any more for them if they
are on the beach or in their office. In such situations, the tourist stays at home and the information is
the one that travels the image of the place he is “linked to. The heritage is digitalized!
Let's have a look of the present, classical tourism and the future tourism.
Actual and future distribution in tourism (1)
Actual and future distribution in tourism (2)
Actual and future distribution in tourism (3)
Advantages and disadvantages of electronic travel distribution
These slides show the distribution changes of tourism packages. We should see also the same
on supplying services. The situations are much similar. It is for sure that Internet will bring major
changes for consumers, suppliers and travel agents. The main mutation is the fact that tourism
information is world wide available as www.
Tourism is traveling in circle. That means coming back home. But after sharing the
experiences of touring that include also the new acquisitions from the heritage of visited places and
peoples. As a mass media tourism is accelerating a new “global heritage". We might ask if tourism
(and / or modern communications) generate a common and global heritage! My answer is
definitively NO, as everyday people die and new heritages are made, including their personality and
own heritage and experiences too. We can rather say that this process is similar to macroeconomics,
where the activities of many economic agents are not added but aggregated. So, the minority might
be the speaker for the group. And this is the fortune for Europe: its heritage has the chance to put its
mark on future human common experience.
Summing up, we may say that tourism, both in the "classical" and "broad" meaning of the
world is a very powerful means of transfer of the information about communities, people, their
history - their heritage, about present and future by direct contact and therefore very effective.
What will be the future? Tourism 2020 and Specific facts and figures on tourism:
Specific Facts and Figures on tourism: 1. Top World Destinations - present and future
World's 10 leading tourism destinations (arrivals in '000s)
Rank Country 1990 % 1996 %
1 France 52,497 16.0 62,406 14.5
2 United States of America 39,539 12.1 46,325 10.8
3 Spain 34,085 10.4 41,295 9.6
4 Italy 26,679 8.1 32,853 7.6
5 United Kingdom 18,013 5.5 25,293 5.9
6 China 10,484 3.2 22,765 5.3
7 Mexico 17,176 5.3 21,405 5.0
8 Hungary 20,510 6.3 20,674 4.8
9 Poland 3,400 1.0 19,410 4.5
10 Canada 15,209 4.6 17,286 4.0
Source: World Tourism Organization, 1998.
Rank Country 1996 Population
Mil. % to population
1 France 62,406 58,370 106
2 United States of America 46,325 265,280 17
3 Spain 41,295 32,320 127
4 Italy 32,853 57,380 57
5 United Kingdom 25,293 58,800 43
6 China 22,765 123,080 1
7 Mexico 21,405 96,580 22
8 Hungary 20,674 10,190 202
9 Poland 19,410 38,620 50
10 Canada 17,286 29,990 57
World's leading tourism destinations (forecast arrivals in millions) - 2020
Rank Country 2020 Market share % Growth % (pa)1996-2020
1 China 137 8.6 8.0
2 United States of America 102 6.4 3.5
3 France 93 5.8 1.8
4 Spain 71 4.4 2.4
5 Hong Kong 59 3.7 7.3
6 Italy 53 3.3 2.2
7 United Kingdom 53 3.3 3.0
8 Mexico 49 3.1 3.6
9 Russian Federation 47 2.9 6.7
10 Czech Republic 44 2.7 4.0
Source: World Tourism Organization, 1998.
Specific Facts and Figures on tourism: 1. Top World Destinations - present and future
World's 10 leading tourism destinations (arrivals in '000s)
Rank Country 1990 % 1996 %
1 France 52,497 16.0 62,406 14.5
2 United States of America 39,539 12.1 46,325 10.8
3 Spain 34,085 10.4 41,295 9.6
4 Italy 26,679 8.1 32,853 7.6
5 United Kingdom 18,013 5.5 25,293 5.9
6 China 10,484 3.2 22,765 5.3
7 Mexico 17,176 5.3 21,405 5.0
8 Hungary 20,510 6.3 20,674 4.8
9 Poland 3,400 1.0 19,410 4.5
10 Canada 15,209 4.6 17,286 4.0
Source: World Tourism Organization, 1998.
Rank Country 1996 Population
Mil. % to population
1 France 62,406 58,370 106
2 United States of America 46,325 265,280 17
3 Spain 41,295 32,320 127
4 Italy 32,853 57,380 57
5 United Kingdom 25,293 58,800 43
6 China 22,765 123,080 1
7 Mexico 21,405 96,580 22
8 Hungary 20,674 10,190 202
9 Poland 19,410 38,620 50
10 Canada 17,286 29,990 57
World's leading tourism destinations (forecast arrivals in millions) - 2020
Country 2020 Market share % Growth %
(pa)1996-2020
China 137 8.6 8.0
United States of America 102 6.4 3.5
France 93 5.8 1.8
Spain 71 4.4 2.4
Hong Kong 59 3.7 7.3
Italy 53 3.3 2.2
United Kingdom 53 3.3 3.0
Mexico 49 3.1 3.6
Russian Federation 47 2.9 6.7
Czech Republic 44 2.7 4.0
Source: World Tourism Organisation, 1998.
Around the year 2002-2003, the length of a transpacific flight will be much shorter. In addition,
several millions of millionaires from the USA, Canada to China, Korea, Thailand etc. will desire
holidays. Western Europe already prepares its tourist offers in order to meet their exigencies.
There are some tendencies that are and will be evident for Europe too:
I start with globalization: the first 10 hotels companies as global representation:
FIRST 10 HOTELS COMPANIES AS GLOBAL REPRESENTATION
COMPANY NO.COUNTRIES
Bass Hotels & Resorts 98
Best Western International 84
Accor 81
Starwood Hotels & Resorts 80
Carlson Hospitality Worldwide 57
Marriott International 56
Hilton International 53
Forte Hotel Group 51
Club Mediteranée SA 40
Choice Hotels International 36
FIRST 10 HOTELS COMPANIES OPERATING FRANCHISE
COMPANY TOTAL HOTEL
UNITS
IN FRANCHISE
TOTAL HOTEL
UNITS IN THE
COMPANY
Cendant Corporation 6.258 6.315
Choice Hotel International 4.248 4.248
Bass Hotels & Resorts 2.563 2.886
Hilton Hotels Corp. 1.357 1.700
Marriott International 998 1.880
Carlson Hospitality Worldwide 581 616
Accor 568 3.234
U.S. Franchise System 374 400
Société du Louvre 372 990
Starwood Hotels & Resorts 299 716
FIRST 10 HOTELS COMPANIES OPPERATING MANAGEMENT CONTRACT
COMPANY TOTAL HOTEL UNITS IN
MANAGEMENT TOTAL HOTEL UNITS IN
THE COMPANY
Marriott International Inc. 759 1.880
Société du Louvre 565 990
Accor 456 3.234
Tharaldson Enterprises 314 314
Westmont Hospitality Group 296 296
Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide 204 716
Hyatt Hotels / Hyatt International 191 195
Marcus Hotels & Resorts 185 185
Bass Hotels & Resorts 175 2.886
Hilton Hotels Corp. 173 1.700
Tourism becomes more and more global. The first 10 hotels companies operate in many countries.
There are countries that can not afford to have embassies in such many places as these chains have
subsidiaries. And the development is blowing up by new tools as franchise and management
contracts.
I continue with the implication of the transition of Eastern countries. What tourism is
concerned, usually only business tourism was a subject, meaning that the tourism industry is
capable to become a development factor. The lack of communication between the East and West
European countries, before 1989 has brought the Eastern peoples disastrous advice and measures
leading to the immediate and complete withdrawal of the state, which deserted its responsibility as
tourism administrator. After 50 years, we gave up traditions and took over the American system of
the "free market", which generated fierce competition and a primitive search for wealth. The history
of these past years records that the political factors in Eastern countries, while waiting for foreign
investments, often deliberately encouraged a savage tourism market and the destruction of the
existing touristical base by faulty management. But people can not forget that they could afford
holidays for half of a month’s wage - true, on communist resorts but as expensive as for Western
ones - and now mass tourism is only a dream. I do not point these out as a “nostalgic one", but
because I know, as you do, that the " state of health " means nowadays not only cure and drugs,
hospitals and social protection but also tourism, that means that part of the common income as the
average life standard.
Different way to pass from socialism to capitalism:
Kompas branches
For example : the company Kompas from Yugoslavia has reminded intact despite the war
between the republics of the former country, has opened 15 offices abroad, bringing Canadians to
Italy and Czechs to the USA and has already started investments in view of opening the first offices
in Asia in order to collect information, transmit offers, entice tourists. Where do Eastern countries
stand within this fierce competition?
The role of the state - public sector: Lionel Stoleru stated in an inquiry entitled " The State
Tomorrow" ( published in L'Expansion No. 422): ".... Europe doesn't have an organized backup.
The US have established an integrated economic area together with Canada and Mexico (...), Japan
(...) has attached an "area of the Dollar" through its "four dragons", Thailand and other South East
Asian countries. Europe could have done the same with Eastern Europe on the one hand and North
Africa on the other. These two areas should have allowed Europe to "play" with production costs
and other comparative advantages for the profit of the entire area..."
Western Europe is modernizing its touristical base and prepares to adapt its offer to Asian tourists.
In order to integrate, Eastern countries should look for that services which are not offered on the
market and, like the Yugoslavs, build up their offer, bases on their heritage. All this, after they meet
the domestic demands, which could be solved very quickly. The main problem of today tourism in
this area is the lack of political will, of a "sector policy" as it is called today, which should catalyze
energies and simultaneously cleanse legislation.
We can go on but let me conclude:
As Western Europe has welcomed us back today and listen to what we have to say with the
tolerance shown to the newcomer who still doesn't know to play by the rules I still BELIEVE in the
rebirth of Europe in a new Universe, in a common effort along with the other continents. The UE is
compulsory. “And there is hope: some 1500 years ago a European culture evolved that was to
unfold, exploit, but still educate with its values the rest of mankind. Thus, everything happening in
the world now and eventually taking place in the universe tomorrow bears the imprint of Europe"
(C. Noica - De Dignitatae Europae ). Our chance in the nowadays apocalyptical competition offered
by our heritage
The future might be like this:
Top destinations for next 15 years
Source: AIT Delphi Study 1998
Top spenders for n ext 15 years
Source: AIT Delphi Study 1998
What tremendous upside down referring the countries rank! But also about the importance of
actors in carrying on the tourism activity! Just look to the travel agencies and national authorities.
Will these trends be real? May be! At least part of them. Any way, even if it will be a small fire we
can have a lot of smog
All this allow me to say:
Purposes that can be reached by using tourism as mass media to capitalize heritage:
- in the tourism business
- to appreciate the European heritage by a large range of European "commodities "
- to " naturalize " incoming, outgoing or domestic activities for a better value
- to develop certain areas, activities or means of production using the local "niches"
- to rise the standard of living and / or cut down social costs, for instance: by developing balneary-climatic
therapies in spas the consumption of chemical medicine will decrease
- in political or social areas:
- to gain sympathy or interest in order to win a better place for European peoples in the world
- to offer a " compensation " for the quasi monopole of Europe in human civilization during the last millennium.
Conclusion
In a global world we have to live globally. But integration cannot be achieved without
learning the rules of world tourism, without learning and respecting its rules of conduct. Especially
since we cannot ignore the fact that the outcome of tourism stretches out in the future. Tourism is
not only a lecture about others but it also determines what attitude we will have towards others, how
we will live together. Our world, the one created by the producers of tourism is a global empire, a
single community: the human race, presented with all its distinguishing elements, with its past, its
present and its hopes. Any mistakes can lead to incurable traumas for the crowds of people we call
“tourists”. And Europe has, is and will contribute with its heritage.
I have started to study tourism from another point of view : as a means of mass
communication. As we have seen, the area is gigantic and there is no such thing as a scientific
research in this field. But the history of tourism after the second World War proves that there was a
certain line in the politics of many countries to support this movement. The downfall of the "Wall"
and the past years have proven the necessity of setting up a theory and practice for the use of this
tool : for building or destroying social movements through persuasion, self suggestion and
animation through tourism , for the conscious use of tourism as a means of communication, to boost
the European heritage in this case.
The way we present the world we are simultaneously physicians and wizards and
businessmen. And now, as the world is shaking under the desire for power and greatness, under
blood, famine or disease we are among the few ones capable to heal the wounds. This is why I think
we should meditate on this new dimension of our craft, the outcome of our actions. In the struggle
for the money, glory, power or organizational perfection we shouldn't break that imaginary vow of
Esculap we ought to have made before we started in this business. A European “heritage" too!
Sibiu, December 2000
... The tourism industry uses mass media a lot to inform the public about their own tourist offerings, so that through the media, communication is projected to a larger audience and a fairly wide geographic area, "tourism is as a means of communication because it facilitates: transmission of information in view of a predetermined scope; contact of the "target" with a certain culture / society with a great potential to influence shaping the targets view on the subject". (Rotariu, 2000) So the progress of technology and the mass media greatly aids the expansion and development of tourism to its maximum potential. If people communicate and forward what they hear in the media then one can say that marketing is a very good one. ...
Article
This paper aims to illustrate the role that mass-media has in promoting and developing tourism. The tourism has become a popular global recreation activity. Tourism is the most powerful economic branch in the world. The tourism and the media have a close relationship, especially when it comes to tourism promotion because the media is like a mediator in terms of tourism policy, so it has the role of bringing society and tourism to a common denominator. The role of the media is to mediate a process of transmission of tourist products from producers to consumers.
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