Article

Ecological and economic evaluation of Dutch egg production systems

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The studies include egg production in Sweden (1.4 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg, Cederberg et al., 2009), Australia (1.3e1.6 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg, Wiedemann and McGahan, 2010), the UK (2.92e6.18 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg, Leinonen et al., 2012, Williams et al., 2006, the Netherlands (2.2e2.7 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg, Dekker et al., 2011) and the USA (5 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg, Pelletier et al., 2013) for intensive and free-range egg production, but less for organic production (2.5e3.42 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg, Dekker et al., 2011, Leinonen et al., 2012. ...
... The studies include egg production in Sweden (1.4 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg, Cederberg et al., 2009), Australia (1.3e1.6 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg, Wiedemann and McGahan, 2010), the UK (2.92e6.18 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg, Leinonen et al., 2012, Williams et al., 2006, the Netherlands (2.2e2.7 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg, Dekker et al., 2011) and the USA (5 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg, Pelletier et al., 2013) for intensive and free-range egg production, but less for organic production (2.5e3.42 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg, Dekker et al., 2011, Leinonen et al., 2012. ...
... Leinonen et al. (2012) found the lowest GHG emissions for caged production in the UK (2.92 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg), followed by free range (3.38 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg) and highest emissions for organic (3.42 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg) and barn (3.45 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg) eggs. Dekker et al. (2011) in a Netherlands-based study, also found the lowest emissions for caged production (2.2 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg), but highest emissions for barn (2.6 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg) and free range (2.7 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg) production; organic egg production (2.5 kg CO 2 eq kg À1 egg) is in-between. Both studies included transport, and embedded emissions in feed had the highest impact on the results. ...
Article
Models and tools are used to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture from management processes when measurements are not available. The Cool Farm Tool is widely used by farmers for this purpose. Previously, methods to calculate emissions from crop production have been presented; this paper focuses on the livestock part of the tool. GHG emissions from livestock include enteric methane emissions from ruminants, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from manure management, land use and land-use change, feed production, processing and transport. A case study is presented of 10 large-scale egg producers, who used the Cool Farm Tool over three years to calculate their emissions. The highest GHG emissions were produced through feed, followed by transport and manure management. Through using the tool, the farmers became aware of the sources of emissions in egg production and without targets, took action to reduce emissions. The results show that the averaged GHG emissions decreased over the three years of the study by nearly 25%.
... There are papers targeting different aspects of the poultry meat chain (Cesari et al., 2017;Da Silva et al., 2014;Gonz alez-García et al., 2014;Kalhor et al., 2016;Skunca et al., 2015;Wiedemann et al., 2017), but there is an evident lack of studies involving a life-cycle assessment approach for the environmental performance of egg production in egg producing farms. In fact, there are very few published studies regarding egg production (Cederberg et al., 2009;Dekker et al., 2011;Ghasempour and Ahmadi, 2016;Leinonen et al., 2012;Mollenhorst et al., 2006;Pelletier et al., 2013;Pelletier, 2017). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the environmental performances of egg production in a laying hen farm in Asturias (a region in NW Spain), which has been selected as being representative of intensive European egg production. ...
... Animal feed was responsible for more than 90% of impact in terrestrial ecotoxicity and natural land transformation categories. Additionally, it must be mentioned that the feed conversion ratio of the farm under study was 2.8 kg feed / kg egg , a value slightly higher than those found by Dekker et al. (2011) in loose housing systems (2.3e2.6) and in battery cage systems (2.0). It should be taken into account that the non-enriched battery cage systems studied in the previous investigation have been prohibited since 1 January 2012 by the Council Directive 1999/ 74/EC due to animal welfare concerns. ...
... As mentioned above, the activity responsible for most environmental impacts derived from intensive egg production in Spain was found to be the production of the hen feed, which is in accordance with results reported for egg production in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Iran and Canada (Dekker et al., 2011;Leinonen et al., 2012;Ghasempour and Ahmadi, 2016;Pelletier, 2017). Similar conclusions were reached for broiler chicken production (Gonz alez- García et al., 2014;Da Silva et al., 2014). ...
Article
Food production in intensive farming systems can be unsustainable in several ways. Although hen egg is consumed worldwide as a very valuable and cheap source of protein, there is an evident lack of studies concerning the environmental performance of egg production. The European Union produces approximately 7 million tonnes of useable eggs per annum and Spain is one of the largest egg producers. In this work, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was applied to analyse the environmental impacts of intensive egg production using as a model a Spanish farm with 55,000 laying hens, producing about 13 million eggs per year. High quality inventory data was obtained directly from this facility. The main factors involved in egg production were included (hen feed, water, electricity, transport, cleaning elements, packaging material, replacement of exhausted laying hens, wastes and gas emissions). Inventory data were analysed using the ReCiPe Midpoint (H) V1.12/Europe Recipe H, the ReCiPe Endpoint (H) V1.12/Europe Recipe H methods and the Greenhouse Gas Protocol V1.01/C02 eq (kg) by means of the LCA software package SimaPro v8. LCA results showed that, according to normalization results, natural land transformation was the most prominent category, followed by terrestrial ecotoxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity. The most important source of harmful environmental impacts in all the categories under assessment was the production of the hen feed and, to a lesser extent, the purchase of new laying hens to replace the old ones. On the contrary, water consumption and the employment of chemicals for cleaning barely influenced the impact. One aspect that was noteworthy was the beneficial effect on environmental impact produced by the sale of old laying hens for meat production, especially on the urban land occupation and metal depletion categories. Additionally, the carbon footprint of egg production was calculated and a value of 2.66 kgCO2eq per dozen eggs was obtained. Environmental improvement actions should be directed mainly towards optimizing the hen feed formulation, not only from an economic perspective, but also considering the environmental aspects involved.
... In addition, a range of individual studies has been published in recent years, mainly as LCAs, investigating energy use on individual farms in specific agroecological contexts and providing data on the energy embedded in animal feed as well as direct on-farm energy use [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. These include studies that investigated the environmental impacts of beef production systems [12,20,23], pig production systems [13,14,18,22], poultry meat and egg production systems [15,19], and milk production systems [23][24][25], as well as smaller livestock production systems, such as sheep and goat [16,17]. ...
... In addition, a range of individual studies has been published in recent years, mainly as LCAs, investigating energy use on individual farms in specific agroecological contexts and providing data on the energy embedded in animal feed as well as direct on-farm energy use [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. These include studies that investigated the environmental impacts of beef production systems [12,20,23], pig production systems [13,14,18,22], poultry meat and egg production systems [15,19], and milk production systems [23][24][25], as well as smaller livestock production systems, such as sheep and goat [16,17]. Similarly, there are a number of publications that focus on the production and use of animal feed, which highlights that 60-70% of European farmland is used to produce feed for livestock [10,[26][27][28]. ...
... There is relatively little information available on chicken egg production in the EU, which makes it difficult to draw conclusions. Dekker et al.'s (2011) study looked at four egg production systems in the Netherlands, which, although geographically limited, covered the main production systems in the EU [19]. This study found that to produce 1 kg of eggs, 20.5-23.5 MJ of energy inputs were needed and that in all cases, at least 50% of all energy inputs were associated with feed ( Figure 7 and Table A5). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study conducts a review bringing together data from a large number of studies investigating energy use in EU livestock systems. Such a study has not been conducted previously, and improvements in our understanding of energy use concentrations in livestock systems will aid in developing interventions to achieve the EU’s 2030 and 2050 sustainability targets. The results from the Life Cycle Assessments included in this review indicate that energy use is concentrated in feed, housing, and manure management. In most systems, animal feed is the dominant energy use category. Regarding specific livestock categories, the studies covered indicate that energy use requirements range from 2.1 to 5.3 MJ/kg per ECM for cow milk, 59.2 MJ/kg for a suckler cow–calf, and 43.73 MJ/kg for a dairy bull, 15.9 MJ/kg to 22.7 MJ/kg for pork production, 9.6 MJ/kg to 19.1 MJ/kg for broiler production, 20.5–23.5 MJ/kg for chicken egg production. Our review indicates dominance of and dependence on fossil fuel and discusses the situation and research around transitioning towards renewable energy sources and improving energy efficiency. Our analysis indicates that existing energy use data in livestock systems are fragmented and characterized by multiple methodologies and considerable data gaps. In our view, there is a need for the development of a standardized methodology for measuring energy use in livestock systems, which we consider a necessary step to develop interventions that reduce fossil energy use in livestock systems and its contribution to climatic change.
... These studies showed that the majority of measures to improve AW lead to an increase in production costs. Studies that, to some extent, include the issue of returns and potential price premiums are scarce (Dekker et al., 2011;Verspecht et al., 2011). That is possibly due to the limited information on price premiums. ...
... That is possibly due to the limited information on price premiums. In the study of Dekker et al. (2011) on laying hen systems, both costs and returns were addressed. The study suggested that laying hen systems that comply with a higher level of AW standards result in higher net farm income compared with the system that fulfills the legal minimum standards. ...
... Enriched cage systems as an alternative for battery cages were not publicly or politically accepted in the Netherlands, therefore loose-housing systems became the predominant systems for egg production, already prior to the introduction of the ban in 2012. (Dekker et al., 2011). Loose-housing systems, i.e., aviary systems (single-tiered or multi-tiered), free-range systems, and organic systems, account for 82% of the total egg production in the Netherlands (PVE, 2013). ...
Article
This study compared the economic feasibility of production systems with different levels of animal welfare (AW) in the broiler, laying hen, and fattening pig sectors. Economic feasibility over a five-year time horizon was assessed using stochastic bio-economic simulation models. The results suggest that the main determinant of economic feasibility in each sector is the producer price. It is not only the level of the price premium but also the certainty and variability of this premium that is important in the decision to convert to an alternative system. From the perspective of the farm, different approaches should be followed in the three sectors to further develop the market for products with higher levels of AW. The results imply that the broiler sector has the best perspective in the short to medium term for developing this market. In the fattening pig sector, conversion options should be made more financially attractive, for example by increasing price premiums or providing conversion subsidies. The laying hen sector has the worst prospects for improving AW in the short to medium term. Therefore, given the current production systems in this sector, producer price premiums need to be increased in order to increase the adoption of alternative production systems.
... Although the carbon footprint of eggs is relatively low compared to other animal sourced products (De Vries and De Boer, 2010;Poore and Nemecek, 2018), stakeholders expressed that systems with higher levels of animal welfare generally perform worse in terms of their carbon footprint as a result of a higher feed conversion ratio (Dekker et al., 2011). Nevertheless, with regard to sustainability issues, consumer interest has predominantly been focused on animal welfare: ...
... The efficient use of feed, in relation to a growing demand for animal source food, was a prominent issue in the interviewees with stakeholders. As feed represents the main economic cost in egg production and feed conversion is important in terms of carbon footprint and land use, feed conversion has received a lot of focus (Dekker et al., 2011). Nevertheless, reducing the feed conversion ratio can result in feeding higher quality feed with a higher risk on competition with human food. ...
... Several studies have looked at sustainability issues in Dutch egg production (Dekker et al., 2011;Mollenhorst et al., 2006;Mollenhorst and de Boer, 2004;van Asselt et al., 2015). Although there are many similarities with the issues mentioned in these papers (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
While global demand for eggs is increasing, concerns are being raised about the environmental, economic and social impact of egg production. Efforts to address these sustainability concerns can, however, result in trade-offs. To enhance a transparent debate about future options and limitations in the egg sector, insight is needed in environmental, economic and social sustainability challenges as well as in potential trade-offs involved in addressing these challenges. Based on interviews with 24 stakeholders and supported by scientific literature, this paper presents an overview of current sustainability challenges and trade-offs in the Dutch egg sector. Moreover, the paper provides an overview of innovations suggested by stakeholders that can help to address the identified sustainability challenges, and describes current limitations for the implementation of these innovations. Innovations identified were related to animal health and welfare (n = 13), housing systems (n = 7), economy (n = 8), environment (n = 9), and organisation (n = 6). Stakeholders considered innovations to reduce particulate matter emissions as one with priority. In addition, controlling poultry red mite, approaches to translate costs for environmental investments to consumers, closing manure-feed cycles and improved collaboration in the chain were considered as important steps to address current sustainability challenges. Our results reveal the complex interactions between sustainability challenges in the egg sector and give insight in the different perspectives and considerations stakeholders have. Steps towards sustainable egg production therefore require multi-stakeholder dialogue to find consensus and jointly identify so-called small wins, i.e. meaningful and feasible steps that can contribute to a more sustainable food system.
... A simultaneous rather than separate assessment of environmental and human health impacts may provide more thorough insight into the challenges that arise when responding to them. The importance of such an integrated approach becomes clear in the example of the historic ban on battery cages for laying hens, with the focus on animal welfare, but concurrent increases in particulate matter emissions, nitrogen emissions, and carbon emissions (Dekker et al., 2011;Takai et al., 1998;Winkel et al., 2016). Another example is the increase in the number of goat farms, which appears to have been driven by introduction of the European milk quotation system for dairy cattle farmers in 1984, as well as by the classical swine fever and foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks of the 1990s and earlier 2000s. ...
... The contribution of livestock production to emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) has been described extensively (de Boer et al., 2011;Gerber et al., 2013;Herrero et al., 2011;Rojas-Downing et al., 2017). Dutch livestock production is responsible for national emissions of 18 × 10 9 kg CO 2 -equivalents in 2015 (Supp15b), 9% of total national emissions (Supp15b). ...
... Dutch livestock production is responsible for national emissions of 18 × 10 9 kg CO 2 -equivalents in 2015 (Supp15b), 9% of total national emissions (Supp15b). GHG emissions attributable to livestock production mainly originate from feed production, enteric fermentation, manure management and fossil energy use (de Boer et al., 2011;Gerber et al., 2013). Due to the imported feed, a large part of these emissions occur outside the Netherlands. ...
Article
Full-text available
Observed multiple adverse effects of livestock production have led to increasing calls for more sustainable livestock production. Quantitative analysis of adverse effects, which can guide public debate and policy development in this area, is limited and generally scattered across environmental, human health, and other science domains. The aim of this study was to bring together and, where possible, quantify and aggregate the effects of national-scale livestock production on 17 impact categories, ranging from impacts of particulate matter, emerging infectious diseases and odor annoyance to airborne nitrogen deposition on terrestrial nature areas and greenhouse gas emissions. Effects were estimated and scaled to total Dutch livestock production, with system boundaries including feed production, manure management and transport, but excluding slaughtering, retail and consumption. Effects were expressed using eight indicators that directly express Impact in the sense of the Drivers-Pressures-State-Impact-Response framework, while the remaining 14 express Pressures or States. Results show that livestock production may contribute both positively and negatively to human health with a human disease burden (expressed in disability-adjusted life years) of up to 4% for three different health effects: those related to particulate matter, zoonoses, and occupational accidents. The contribution to environmental impact ranges from 2% for consumptive water use in the Netherlands to 95% for phosphorus transfer to soils, and extends beyond Dutch borders. While some aggregation across impact categories was possible, notably for burden of disease estimates, further aggregation of disparate indicators would require normative value judgement. Despite difficulty of aggregation, the assessment shows that impacts receive a different contribution of different animal sectors. While some of our results are country-specific, the overall approach is generic and can be adapted and tuned according to specific contexts and information needs in other regions, to allow informed decision making across a broad range of impact categories.
... With these alternative diets, it was possible to notably reduce the impact of hen feed on natural land transformation, freshwater ecotoxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity categories. Dekker et al. (2011) analyzed the environmental performance of seven egg production systems. The composition of conventional feed concentrates was obtained from literature data, whereas the composition of organic concentrates was obtained from organic feed companies. ...
... According to the latter authors, these different results can be due to a higher degree of experience and optimization with enriched cage systems in Europe compared to Canada. In the Netherlands, Dekker et al. (2011) found small differences in total energy use between organic and battery cage systems (values within 20.3 and 20.8 MJ kg 21 egg), whereas it was slightly higher for free-range and barn systems (values within 22.5 and 23.8 MJ kg 21 egg). Also in the Netherlands and, as commented previously, van Hal et al. (2019) analyzed a particular type of laying farm, where solar energy is employed and hens are fed with by-products unsuitable or undesired for human consumption. ...
... Certainly, differences in environmental impacts derived from different housing systems seem to be determined not only by the poultry rearing system but also by hen diet and productivity, which can be different for the same housing system. Several authors (Dekker et al., 2011;Mollenhorst et al, 2006;Pelletier, 2017;Van Asselt et al., 2015) agree that, in general, cage systems imply lower impacts due to their higher productivity per hen in comparison to free-range systems. Leenstra et al. (2014), who analyzed the environmental performance of different egg production systems, indicated that in free-range systems, the feed consumption is higher as a consequence of extra locomotion and thermoregulation at lower temperatures due to outside access and lower density of hens. ...
Chapter
Hen egg is a basic foodstuff, which is extensively consumed around the world due to its high nutritional quality. In addition, as one of the most versatile products and on account of its multifunctional properties, that is, emulsifying, foaming, gelling, co, and flavoring, it is also widely employed in the food industry. The egg industry has expanded worldwide during the last decades, and now, over 70 million tonnes of eggs are produced annually. The agro-food industry consumes a large number of resources and produces a notable amount of wastes. In this sector the potential environmental impact of livestock is well known and laying farms are not an exception. Specifically, the environmental impacts associated with poultry farms can be attributed to three main sources: feed production, energy use, and emissions from housing and manure management. In addition, other factors such as productivity, poultry genetics, mortality rate, and coproducts generation are also important issues to be considered. Life cycle assessment methodology, which allows an environmental approach to analyze the complete “life” of products and services, has extensively been employed in the agro-food sector in order to give a comprehensive view about the main environmental impacts involved in food production. This chapter is focused on the environmental impacts associated with egg production and egg industry to provide an update of the global situation with the final aim to identify the main opportunities for reducing these impacts.
... No heating was required as the heat generated by chicks was sufficient to maintain optimal temperature range, unless the batch production starts during winter (Sonesson et al., 2009). Farm water use and manure production rates were adapted from Dekker et al. (2011) as 90 L/hen and 20 kg/hen, respectively. ...
... If the exhaust air of the hen houses of this study should be treated with such a scrubbing operation, the processes would be more environment friendly, and the cumulative energy and exergy utilisation, and CO 2 emissions will not be affected, since the energy needed to run the scrubber and the energy of the nitrogen fertiliser produced are negligibly small. Sustainable production of eggs (Wiedemann and McGahan, 2011;Dekker et al., 2011;Pelletier et al., 2013;Pelletier et al., 2014), chicken (Pelletier, 2008;Nielsen et al., 2011;Gonzalez-Garcia et al., 2014;Prudencio da Silva et al., 2014), vegetables (Ozkan et al., 2004;Canakci and Akinci, 2006;Esengün et al., 2007;Mohammadi et al., 2008) and sustainable operation of a chicken restaurant (Bengtsson and Seddon, 2013) drew attention of the researchers during the last decade. The results of this study may be regarded a step towards that purpose in a broader sense via reducing the cumulative energy and exergy utilisation and reduction of the CO 2 emissions in the entire model network of the chicken meat and egg producing and consuming industries. ...
Article
A conceptual network of chicken meat and egg producing and consuming businesses consisting of a chicken farm, a restaurant, a pet food manufacturing plant, a vegetable garden, an olive garden, a grain field and a manure gasifier was assessed in terms of cumulative degree of performance (CDP) and cumulative carbon dioxide emission (CCO2). Five different cases with different resource utilization preferences were assessed. Case 1 was the base line, where manure was not gasified and chemical fertilizers were used in agriculture. In Case 1, CDP and CCO2 were 0.66 and 7,500 kgCO2/year, respectively. As chemical fertilizers were replaced with microbial fertilizers and manure was gasified sustainability improved. In Case 5, only microbial fertilizers were used in agriculture and the manure was gasified. The highest CDP, 1.05, and the lowest CCO2, 2,539 kgCO2/year, were obtained in Case 5, therefore, it was regarded as the most sustainable case, among the alternatives assessed.
... We used a ratio of 11:1 as price ratio per kg between meat and milk (More O'Ferrall 1982). For eggs, value fractions were derived from the revenue of eggs compared to that of meat from spent hens which are provided for different egg production systems (Dekker et al. 2011). When catching shrimps, some of the accidentally caught other species are not discarded but used as additional food (by-catch) (Ziegler et al. 2011). ...
... CV is the coefficient of variation between the eight product averages. The last three rows indicate the sensitivity (S) of the respective animal welfare indicators to changes in any of the criteria a (Hanboonsong et al. 2013;Tran et al. 2016;Finke 2002) b (Ziegler et al. 2011) c (Alig et al. 2012;Castellini et al. 2006;Boggia et al. 2010) d (Johansson et al. 2006;Bergheim et al. 2009;FRS Marine Laboratory 2006) e (Dekker et al. 2011, Leinonen et al. 2012 (Ridoutt et al. 2012;Nguyen et al. 2010;Pelletier et al. 2010b) h Hietala et al. 2015) Fig. 1 Animal welfare loss of various food products using three alternative indicators. Different estimates (circles) for the same animal product represent different production systems and/or countries Previous indicators, such as those by Bartussek (1996, Bartussek 1995a, 1995b and the Welfare Quality® Consortium (Welfare Quality® 2009a, 2009b, 2009c, neglected the temporal aspect and the number of animals affected. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study seeks to provide a framework for integrating animal welfare as a fourth pillar into a life cycle sustainability assessment and presents three alternative animal welfare indicators. Methods Animal welfare is assessed during farm life and during slaughter. The indicators differ in how they value premature death. All three consider (1) the life quality of an animal such as space allowance, (2) the slaughter age either as life duration or life fraction, and (3) the number of animals affected for providing a product unit, e.g. 1 Mcal. One of the indicators additionally takes into account a moral value denoting their intelligence and self-awareness. The framework allows for comparisons across studies and products and for applications at large spatial scales. To illustrate the framework, eight products were analysed and compared: beef, pork, poultry, milk, eggs, salmon, shrimps, and, as a novel protein source, insects. Results and discussion Insects are granted to live longer fractions of their normal life spans, and their life quality is less compromised due to a lower assumed sentience. Still, they perform worst according to all three indicators, as their small body sizes only yield low product quantities. Therefore, we discourage from eating insects. In contrast, milk is the product that reduces animal welfare the least according to two of the three indicators and it performs relatively better than other animal products in most categories. The difference in animal welfare is mostly larger for different animal products than for different production systems of the same product. This implies that, besides less consumption of animal-based products, a shift to other animal products can significantly improve animal welfare. Conclusions While the animal welfare assessment is simplified, it allows for a direct integration into life cycle sustainability assessment. There is a trade-off between applicability and indicator complexity, but even a simple estimate of animal welfare is much better than ignoring the issue, as is the common practice in life cycle sustainability assessments. Future research should be directed towards elaborating the life quality criterion and extending the product coverage. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s11367-017-1420-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... Accommodation System GHG (kg CO 2 -eq/kg Egg) References [14] Mexico is the world's leading egg consumer, with an estimated annual per capita consumption of 23.3 kg [15]. There is a high demand in the national diet, so the poultry sector has considerable participation in the production of shelf eggs and gross domestic product (GDP). ...
... There are tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) that allow us to estimate potential environmental impacts within a supply chain, and that can integrate improvement strategies into the process [18]. Globally, LCA has been applied to the study of egg production, considering inputs such as diets, electricity, water expenditure, and land-use change [14]. Value stream mapping (VSM) is one of the techniques that can be integrated into LCA. ...
Article
Full-text available
Intensive poultry farming transforms vegetable protein into animal protein through shelf egg and chicken meat production. Mexico is the largest egg consumer and fifth-ranked egg producer worldwide. However, the environmental impact of egg production in this country is scarcely reported. This research aimed to design an eco-efficient approach for egg production in a semi-technified farm based on door-to-door life cycle assessment (LCA) and value stream mapping (VSM) methodologies. The LCA points out that the climate change category is a hotspot in egg production, with emissions of 5.58 kg CO2 eq/kg per egg produced. The implementation of an eco-efficient scheme focused on energy usage could result in a 49.5% reduction of total energy consumption and 56.3% saving in environmental impacts. Likewise, by using an environmental economic evaluation system, it is identified that the eco-efficient scheme allows more sustainable production through the internalization of externalities. From an environmental–economic point of view, externalities—that is, those environmental damages that are not initially considered part of the production cost—were included, meaning they were internalized. The integral framework for LCA and VSM provides a possible path for sustainable productivity.
... Acceptable flock sizes and housing styles are also matters for debate. Multitiered aviaries with manure belts are accepted for free-range and organic production in countries, such as The Netherlands, where they offer higher net farm income and lower ammonia emissions than single-tier housing (Dekker et al., 2011), whereas aviaries tend to be rejected as too "industrial" in other countries (e.g., France, Spain, United Kingdom) where single-tier housing is preferred. Mistrust of commercial free-range and organic egg production can fuel smallscale "backyard" production that may lack adequate biosecurity, disease control measures, and quality control for food safety (Whitehead and Roberts, 2014). ...
... Considering the growing public interest in the environmental sustainability of animal production methods, such efforts would be complemented by life cycle assessment according to regional conditions. For example, the analysis by Dekker et al. (2011) revealed that organic systems in The Netherlands had a lower global warming potential, energy use, and fossil phosphorus use than free-range systems, whereas free-range systems had lower acidification potential and provided higher net farm income, especially if multitiered. There are both costs and benefits to all production systems (Lay et al., 2011), and life cycle assessment can be useful for identifying key areas for improvement within each system (e.g., in manure handling, improving feed conversion, and efficient transport). ...
Chapter
This chapter addresses commercial egg production from hens with access to the outdoors. The focus is on domestic fowl (chickens), with a few notes on ducks. Factors affecting hen use of outdoor range include weather conditions, forage, trees and other cover structures, exit space to the outdoors, and rearing experience. Extensive use of the range can reduce the risk of behavioral problems such as cannibalism and feather pecking. Health risks from outdoor access must be controlled such as exposure to parasites, predators, soil contaminants, and diseases carried by wildlife. Consumption of plants, insects, and soil on the range affects nutrition, which influences egg characteristics. Third-party audits, labels, and analytical methods are used to assure the authenticity of free-range eggs. As consumers pay extra for perceived benefits of free-range eggs, this market sector presents profitable opportunities for producers with expertise in managing hens with enhanced behavioral freedom.
... No heating was required as the heat generated by chicks was sufficient to maintain optimal temperature range, unless the batch production starts during winter (Sonesson et al., 2009). Farm water use and manure production rates were adapted from Dekker et al. (2011) as 90 L/hen and 20 kg/hen, respectively. ...
... If the exhaust air of the hen houses of this study should be treated with such a scrubbing operation, the processes would be more environment friendly, and the cumulative energy and exergy utilisation, and CO 2 emissions will not be affected, since the energy needed to run the scrubber and the energy of the nitrogen fertiliser produced are negligibly small. Sustainable production of eggs (Wiedemann and McGahan, 2011;Dekker et al., 2011;Pelletier et al., 2013;Pelletier et al., 2014), chicken (Pelletier, 2008;Nielsen et al., 2011;Gonzalez-Garcia et al., 2014;Prudencio da Silva et al., 2014), vegetables (Ozkan et al., 2004;Canakci and Akinci, 2006;Esengün et al., 2007;Mohammadi et al., 2008) and sustainable operation of a chicken restaurant (Bengtsson and Seddon, 2013) drew attention of the researchers during the last decade. The results of this study may be regarded a step towards that purpose in a broader sense via reducing the cumulative energy and exergy utilisation and reduction of the CO 2 emissions in the entire model network of the chicken meat and egg producing and consuming industries. ...
Article
A conceptual network of chicken meat and egg producing and consuming businesses consisting of a chicken farm, a restaurant, a pet food manufacturing plant, a vegetable garden, an olive garden, a grain field and a manure gasifier was assessed in terms of cumulative degree of performance (CDP) and cumulative carbon dioxide emission (CCO2). Five different cases with different resource utilisation preferences were assessed. Case 1 was the base line, where manure was not gasified and chemical fertilisers were used in agriculture. In case 1, CDP and CCO2 were 0.66 and 7,500 kgCO2/year, respectively. As chemical fertilisers were replaced with microbial fertilisers and manure was gasified sustainability improved. In case 5, only microbial fertilisers were used in agriculture and the manure was gasified. The highest CDP, 1.05, and the lowest CCO2, 2,539 kgCO2/year, were obtained in case 5, therefore, it was regarded as the most sustainable case, among the alternatives assessed.
... Feed intake of hen in rearing phase (kg/rearing hen/round) 6 Mortality rate between 17 and 20 weeks (%) 0.3 Mortality rate from 20 weeks onwards (%) 10 Feed intake of hens from 17 weeks onwards (kg/hen/round) 48.8 Egg production (kg/hen/round) 21.2 Slaughter weight of laying hens (kg/hen) 1.8 Egg price (€/kg) 0.951 Slaughter price (€/kg) 0.18 Table 2. Composition of concentrate feed for rearing and laying hens (g/kg) (based on Dekker et al., (2011) andGijsberts (2013a;2013b;2013c;2013d)). (Gijsberts, 2013a;Gijsberts, 2013b;Gijsberts, 2013c;Gijsberts, 2013d). ...
... Rearing hens were assumed to consume only one type of concentrate feed. The composition of this concentrate feed was based onDekker et al., (2011) and is reported inTable 2. Laying hens were fed a starter feed during the first 23 weeks, followed by a regular feed (personal communication, L. Start, Schothorst Feed Research, Lelystad, the Netherlands). The composition of starter and regular feed for laying hens was based on recent advices for commercial feed ...
... Anyway, spent hen meat represents a minimal part of the system's co-production, both in terms of physical quantity and value. In fact, Dekker et al. (2011), Leinonen et al. (2012b) and Costantini et al. (2020) showed that economic allocation for spent hens entails limited changes (in the order of 1%) in the environmental results of egg production. Abín et al. (2018) practiced a system expansion, considering the spent hens meat produced as an environmental credit for the replacement of the same amount of broiler meat specifically produced. ...
... As for the comparison between different farming systems, it is difficult to draw unambiguous conclusions. Regarding eggs, conventional systems presented lower environmental burdens than organic in the comparative LCA studies conducted by Dekker et al. (2011) and Leinonen et al. (2012b). For GWP, the cage farming system appeared less impacting, while the difference between organic, barn and free-range systems is lower and, according to Leinonen et al. (2012b), not statistically significant. ...
Article
Background Poultry production is an important human food pillar and is experiencing continuous growth worldwide. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach has been increasingly used for providing information on poultry production chains, in particular from the environmental point of view, which has also been coupled with economic or social considerations in some cases. Scope and approach This study aimed to undertake a critical review to the state of the art of LCA application to the poultry sector. Attention has been drawn to the different methodological approaches adopted in the literature regarding functional units, system boundaries, inventory data collection and multifunctionality management. In addition to reviewing how this sector was methodologically approached by means of the LCA, this study aimed to summarize the main findings and highlight current shortcomings of the literature. Key findings and conclusions Chicken chains were by far the most analyzed. A multiplicity of approaches was implemented to date for the evaluation of these products in a life cycle perspective but the most adopted ones were the mass based functional unit, the cradle-to-farm gate perspective and the economic allocation. As for other animal products, the agricultural phase weighs heavily on the impact of the finished food product, in particular due to feed consumption and manure management. The discussion focuses on the parameters most influencing environmental performance, as well as on possible mitigations, some already widely known while others still partially unexpressed. Finally, some research topics are identified that could increase the understanding and consequently the sustainability of this important supply chain in the future.
... Rearing hens were assumed to consume only one type of concentrate feed. The composition of this concentrate feed was based on Dekker et al. (2011) and is reported in Table 2. Laying hens were fed a starter feed during the first 23 weeks, followed by a regular feed (personal communication, L. Start, Schothorst Feed Research, Lelystad, the Netherlands). The composition of starter and regular feed for laying hens was based on recent advices for commercial feed (Gijsberts 2013a, b, c, d). ...
... Composition of concentrate feed for rearing and laying hens (g/kg) (based onDekker et al. 2011 and Gijsberts 2013a, b, c, d) CF crude fibre, CP crude protein (g/kg) b Components without associated agricultural land use feed ingredients consumed, and their yields per hectare, we quantified the area occupied to cultivate all feed ingredients. For on-farm feed production, yields per hectare were obtained from the Dutch Farm Accountancy Data Network(FADN 2014; ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Livestock already use most global agricultural land, whereas the demand for animal-source food (ASF) is expected to increase. To address the contribution of livestock to global food supply, we need a measure for land use efficiency of livestock systems. Methods Existing measures capture different aspects of the debate about land use efficiency of livestock systems, such as plant productivity and the efficiency of converting feed, especially human-inedible feed, into animal products. So far, the suitability of land for cultivation of food crops has not been accounted for. Our land use ratio (LUR) includes all above-mentioned aspects and yields a realistic insight into land use efficiency of livestock systems. LUR is defined as the maximum amount of human-digestible protein (HDP) derived from food crops on all land used to cultivate feed required to produce 1 kg ASF over the amount of HDP in that 1 kg ASF. We illustrated our concept for three case systems. Results and discussion The LUR for the case of laying hens equaled 2.08, implying that land required to produce 1 kg HDP from laying hens could directly yield 2.08 kg HDP from human food crops. For dairy cows, the LUR was 2.10 when kept on sandy soils and 0.67 when kept on peat soils. The LUR for dairy cows on peat soils was lower compared to cows on sandy soils because land used to grow grass and grass silage for cows on peats was unsuitable for direct production of food crops. A LUR
... The study by Leinonen et al. (12,13) found that organic poultry systems have higher AP and EP than other systems considered. However, opposite results have also been observed, showing that organic or other extensive forms of livestock production can reduce the use of fossil fuels, fertilisers and other inputs (19)(20)(21) or have lower emissions from housing (22) , and therefore they can be equally or less environmentally impacting than intensive systems. ...
Article
The review presents results of recent life cycle assessment studies aiming to quantify and improve the environmental performance of UK poultry production systems, including broiler meat, egg and turkey meat production. Although poultry production has been found to be relatively environmentally friendly compared with the production of other livestock commodities, it still contributes to environmental impacts, such as global warming, eutrophication and acidification. Amongst different sub-processes, feed production and transport contributes about 70 % to the global warming potential of poultry systems, whereas manure management contributes about 40-60 % to their eutrophication potential and acidification potential, respectively. All these impacts can be reduced by improving the feed efficiency, either by changing the birds through genetic selection or by making the feed more digestible (e.g. by using additives such as enzymes). However, although genetic selection has the potential to reduce the resources needed for broiler production (including feed consumption), the changing need of certain feed ingredients, most notably protein sources as a result of changes in bird requirements may limit the benefits of this strategy. The use of alternative feed ingredients, such as locally grown protein crops and agricultural by-products, as a replacement of South American grown soya, can potentially also lead to improvements in several environmental impact categories, as long as such feeding strategies have no negative effect on bird performance. Other management options, such as improving poultry housing and new strategies for manure management have also the potential to further improve the environmental sustainability of the poultry industries in Europe.
... Par rapport au système conventionnel, les élevages de porcs Label rouge fermier ou biologique présentent des émissions de GES supérieures (respectivement 50 et 70 % dans une étude de Basset-Mens et van der Werf (Basset-Mens and van der Werf, 2005), et plus globalement, des impacts environnementaux par kg de carcasse ou de poids vif de 20 à 70 % plus élevés pour toutes les catégories évaluées, du fait de moins bons indices de consommation(da Silva et al., 2014;Dekker et al., 2011 ;Dourmad et al., 2014 ). La mortalité plus élevée des porcelets pénalise en outre les performances économiques. ...
Book
Full-text available
All documents are available here: http://institut.inra.fr/Missions/Eclairer-les-decisions/Expertises/Toutes-les-actualites/Roles-impacts-et-services-issus-des-elevages-europeens Dumont B. (coord.), Dupraz P. (coord.), Aubin J., Benoit M., Bouamra-Mechemache Z., Chatellier V., Delaby L., Delfosse C., Dourmad J.Y., Duru M., Frappier L., Friant-Perrot M., Gaigné C., Girard A., Guichet J.L., Havlik P., Hostiou N., Huguenin-Elie O., Klumpp K., Langlais A., Lemauviel-Lavenant S., Le Perchec S., Lepiller O., Méda B., Ryschawy J., Sabatier R., Veissier I., Verrier E., Vollet D., Savini I., Hercule J., Donnars C., 2016, "Rôles, impacts et services issus des élevages en Europe. Synthèse de l’expertise scientifique collective" réalisée par l’INRA à la demande des ministères en charge de l’Ecologie et de l’Agriculture, et de l’Ademe", Paris, INRA.
... In many cases, manure and straw are sourced from conventional farms, which has led to the conclusion that organic farms are being 'propped-up' by conventional agriculture, and that as a result a largescale conversion to organic management would be unsustainable Oelofse et al., 2010;Nowak et al., 2013). Organic monogastric systems (in particular poultry) also often require imported feed (e.g., soy) to supply protein and essential amino acids (Dekker et al., 2011) and so these systems are supplemented by internationally imported P and K. ...
... However, it should also be noted that the relatively low productivity of organic and other extensive systems can be compensated at least in part by the low input of resources to these systems, including the inputs for production of organic feed crops. Although, for example, Leinonen et al. (2012 a,b) found that organic poultry systems have higher acidification potential and eutrophication potential than other systems considered, opposite results have also been observed, showing that extensive forms of livestock production can reduce the use of fossil fuels, fertilizers and other inputs (Haas et al. 2001;Basset-Mens et al. 2009;Boggia et al. 2010) or have lower emissions from housing Dekker et al. (2011). Other potential reduction of environmental impacts associated with organic production is that in those systems the origin of the feed must be certified and the use of crops originating from 'unsustainable' sources can be avoided. ...
Chapter
Life cycle assessment provides a useful tool for identifying where significant improvements can be made to achieve environmental sustainability in agricultural production. Potential strategies for improving the environmental performance of intensive poultry systems are discussed in this chapter. These include improving feed efficiency by using additives such as enzymes in feed or alternatively improving the efficiency of birds through genetic selection, use of alternative feed ingredients, such as locally grown protein crops and agricultural by-products, as a replacement for South American grown soya, and considering other management options, such as improving poultry housing and adopting new strategies for manure management
... The NFI measures the returns to family labour, own capital and management, also indicating the wealth of the farm family. Numerous studies have used the NFI as an indicator of profitability (van Calker et al. 2008;Blank et al. 2009;Shadbolt et al. 2009;Dekker et al. 2011;Liontakis and Tzouramani, 2016). Furthermore, in scholarly research the economic performance of agricultural enterprises has usually been assessed in terms of the NFI (Ryan et al. 2014;Weligamage, Shumway, and Blatner 2014). ...
Article
This study aims to examine the extent to which crop landraces (LRs) can serve as viable alternatives for farming within the ongoing economic crisis, especially for potential young farmers. A conceptual framework based on farm economic sustainability and the diversification strategies of farm-households is applied to four different LRs. Drawing on original data from field surveys, the economic analysis shows that LRs provide various gains for local communities as well as a series of private benefits for the farmers involved in their cultivation. Many of the examined farms are economically sustainable, even with small farm sizes. The integration of LRs into both domestic and export markets and the embeddedness of LRs’ products into the local culture and diet are two critical prerequisites for their on-farm conservation. The examined LRs are low-labour-input crops, obtaining the necessary labour mainly from family members. An LR can be the sole cultivation of a farm, part of mixed farming systems, as well as part of various strategies pursued by farm-households to diversify their sources of income. There is scope for improvement, especially by ensuring the uniqueness of LR products, establishing new marketing channels and creating special brand names. Supportive policy measures are also discussed.
... Several studies modelled trade-offs between economic and environmental indicators (e.g. Dekker et al., 2011;Dolman et al., 2012;Thomassen et al., 2009;Van Calker et al., 2004), but could not (sufficiently) incorporate animal welfare and the effect of farmers' interventions on animal welfare in their models. Some studies explored economic and environmental consequences of animal-friendly farm scenarios. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The transition towards sustainable pig production systems is receiving increasing attention nowadays. Pig behaviour plays a central role in sustainability, as it is an important indicator for pig welfare and can also affect other sustainability issues. Understanding behaviour and related welfare consequences requires to understand motivations underlying behaviour. The two aims of this thesis were: 1) to assess the use of agent-based modelling for understanding pig behaviour and underlying motivation, and 2) to apply agent-based modelling for increasing our understanding of pig behaviour, and related animal welfare and productivity performance. We first explored the use of agent-based modelling with tail biting behaviour in pigs as a case study. An agent-based model was developed to understand the causation of tail biting behaviour. Subsequently, we developed a mechanistic and dynamic simulation model to gain more understanding of feeding behaviour and internal (physiological) factors. The model integrates knowledge from physiology and ethology, and combines growth with a behavioural decision model based on motivation. This model included motivations underlying feeding behaviour and various feeding patterns of an individually housed growing pig. To deepen our understanding of mechanisms underlying feeding patterns of pigs within 24 hours, hormonal circadian rhythms were included in the model in a follow-up study. The circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin explained the alternans pattern, a small peak of feed intake at the beginning of the day and a larger peak at the end of the day, of feeding in pigs. Next, an agent-based model of feeding and social interaction in commercially group-housed pigs was developed to deepen our understanding of the complex interaction between internal physiological factors and external social factors. Social factors (e.g. competition level and social facilitation) and behavioural strategies (e.g. avoidance and approach) affected social interactions among pigs and feeding behaviour. The causation of variation among pigs was further explored in this model. Pig characteristics were important in various feeding, social interaction and growth patterns in pigs. In general, agent-based modelling proved to be a useful method to understand animal behaviour and underlying motivations. It contributed to further understanding of tail biting, feeding and social behaviour in pigs. Furthermore, agent-based modelling showed to be a novel method to find and assess behaviours as welfare indicators, and to contribute to understanding trade-offs and synergies between sustainability issues, such as animal welfare and productivity.
... Allocation. The partition of resources between eggs and hen body weight was on the basis of retained body protein and egg protein as used by [22,23]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Data from ten sources comprising 3,851 flocks were modelled to identify variation in levels of mortality in laying hens. The predicted increase with age was curvilinear with significant variation between the seven breed categories. Mortality was higher in loose housing systems than in cages and variable within system, confirming previous reports. Cumulative mortality (CM) was higher in flocks with intact beaks (χ2 = 6.03; df 1; p = 0.014) than in those with trimmed beaks. Most data were available for free-range systems (2,823 flocks), where producer recorded CM at 60-80 weeks of age averaged 10% but with a range from 0% to 69.3%. Life cycle assessment showed that the main effect of increased levels of hen mortality is to increase the relative contribution of breeding overheads, so increasing environmental burdens per unit of production. Reducing CM to levels currently achieved by the 1st quartile could reduce flock greenhouse gas emissions by as much as 25%. Concurrently this would enhance hen welfare and better meet the expectation of egg consumers. More research to understand the genetic x environment interaction and detailed records of the causes of mortality is required so that improved genotypes can be developed for different systems and different breeds can be better managed within systems.
... In many cases, manure and straw are sourced from conventional farms, which has led to the conclusion that organic farms are being 'propped-up' by conventional agriculture, and that as a result a largescale conversion to organic management would be unsustainable Oelofse et al., 2010;Nowak et al., 2013). Organic monogastric systems (in particular poultry) also often require imported feed (e.g., soy) to supply protein and essential amino acids (Dekker et al., 2011) and so these systems are supplemented by internationally imported P and K. ...
Article
Full-text available
The dynamic model Nitrogen Dynamics in Crop rotations in Ecological Agriculture (NDICEA) was used to assess the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) balance of long-term organic cropping trials and typical organic crop rotations on a range of soil types and rainfall zones in the UK. The measurements of soil N taken at each of the organic trial sites were also used to assess the performance of NDICEA. The modeled outputs compared well to recorded soil N levels, with relatively small error margins. NDICEA therefore seems to be a useful tool for UK organic farmers. The modeling of typical organic rotations has shown that positive N balances can be achieved, although negative N balances can occur under high rainfall conditions and on lighter soil types as a result of leaching. The analysis and modeling also showed that some organic cropping systems rely on imported sources of P and K to maintain an adequate balance and large deficits of both nutrients are apparent in stockless systems. Although the K deficits could be addressed through the buffering capacity of minerals, the amount available for crop uptake will depend on the type and amount of minerals present, current cropping and fertilization practices and the climatic environment. A P deficit represents a more fundamental problem for the maintenance of crop yields and the organic sector currently relies on mined sources of P which represents a fundamental conflict with the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements organic principles.
... Alternative vegetable protein sources to soya beans in organic poultry diets are faba beans, peas, lupine and rapeseed and their ability to grow in temperate climate could increase the use of these crops as home-grown protein sources and at the same time reduce import of soya beans from overseas countries, which have great environmental impact (Dekker et al., 2011). The inclusion level of the different ingredients depends on availability and quality, where vegetable protein sources of high quality from Europe can be scarce in periods (Sundrum et al., 2005). ...
Article
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of organic layer diets differing in protein and amino acid content on egg production and feed intake with two hen genotypes. Three experimental layer diets A, B and C were formulated to contain decreasing content of protein (A: 193g/kg, B: 187g/kg, C: 170g/kg) but with similar energy content (average: 11.3MJ ME/kg). No synthetic amino acids were added to the diets in line with the organic legislation, so the content of amino acids changed with the different protein content (e.g. methionine, A: 3.6g/kg, B: 2.8g/kg, C: 2.6g/kg). Diets A, B and C were fed to both genotypes (Lohmann Silver (LS); New Hampshire (NH)), together with maize silage and carrots or alfalfa silage in a complete randomised design with 4 replicate pens each of 25 hens (total 1200 hens). Each pen had a separate house and outdoor hen yard of 4m2/hen. The experiment was carried out from 18 to 41 weeks of age, and layer diets and foraging material were fed ad libitum. A balance and digestibility experiment was performed at the end of the production study. The production parameters were significantly affected by genotype, diet and foraging material. The NH genotype had an average laying rate of 70%, compared to 85% for LS, (P <0.001). The FCR was also most efficient with LS hens fed diet A, and there was a significant effect of genotype (P =0.001; LS<NH) and diet (P =0.008; A<B=C) on FCR. Both genotypes showed preference for maize silage and carrots (104g/hen/d) compared to alfalfa silage (57g/hen/d), which reduced diet intake for both NH and LS given maize silage and carrots (P =0.002). This decreased laying rate with diet B and C, which could indicate insufficient supply of essential amino acids. The retentions of N and P were low, however, the N content in excreta was significantly influenced by both genotype (P =0.002; NH>LS), diet (P =0.004; A>B=C) and forage material (P <0.001; Alfalfa silage>maize silage plus carrots). Ca retention was significantly higher with LS hens (P <0.001), and with diet A compared to diet B and C (P =0.015). The coefficient of total tract digestibility (CTTAD) of the different nutrients was affected differently, having only minor effect on CTTAD of starch, being high in all groups. The CTTAD of methionine and cysteine was higher with diet A, compared with B and C (P <0.001). It is concluded that protein and amino acid content and high intake of foraging material influence production parameters in both genotypes, where LS performed more efficiently than NH. The hens obtain most likely some nutrients from the high intake of maize silage plus carrots and alfalfa silage, however, the foraging material have diluted the total intake of nutrients to some extent, which possibly influenced the results obtained on the overall production parameters.
... In 23 SSFs, FFI is negative, while in the remaining 20 SSFs, FFI is greater than zero, with its share to the total household income not exceeding 42%; this means that with their revenue, these farms can cover the costs (all cash expenses plus the depreciations) incurred in the production process, i.e. they can reproduce their productive system. FFI has usually been used as an indicator of farm profitability and sustainability, as well as of the wealth of the farm family (Dekker et al., 2011;Liontakis and Tzouramani, 2016). Therefore, 20 out of 43 SSFs can be considered as economically sustainable. ...
... The higher investment in the housing facility was compensated for by lower demand for labour, so the cost price of egg production was comparable to that of standard organic eggs (Vermey, 2011). Measured ammonia, methane and carbon dioxide emissions, and mineral excretion of the laying hen housing system were similar to two other organic farms using aviary systems with collection of the manure on aerated conveyer belts (Dekker et al., 2010a), although excretion in the outdoor run caused an overload of N and P (Dekker et al., 2010b). Animal welfare assessments by Reuvekamp and Van Niekerk (2009a;2009b) showed that the different functional areas were well used by the birds. ...
Article
This paper tells the story of the design 2004 of two innovative design concepts in 2004 for the production of table eggs, the initiatives and activities in the subsequent period of incubation, and the final realization in practice of three Roundel houses in the Netherlands. The case shows how an interactive redesign process facilitated the successful realization of a radically new housing system for laying hens, in which fulfilment of the needs of the laying hen, the farmer and citizen/consumer was realized in an integrated way
... Following the new EU Regulation concerning the minimum standards for the protection of laying hens (Council Directive 1999/74/EU 13 ) banning conventional 'battery' cage production, alternative systems have replaced conventional cages in all MSs. This involves the use of enriched colony cages housing up to 80 birds per large cage area following new European standards, barn and aviary systems, which may be of multi-tier construction, or free range and organic production with outdoor access (Dekker et al., 2011). The choice of the type of production is clearly different between MSs, and each system has different advantages and disadvantages in terms of bird welfare and biological risk (Holt et al., 2011;Introduction The European egg product industry mainly purchases eggs directly from farms or from packing centres. ...
Article
Salmonella Enteritidis is considered the only pathogen currently posing a major risk of egg-borne diseases in the European Union (EU). The possible impact of extending the shelf-life of eggs on the risk to consumers posed by S. Enteritidis was estimated by applying a quantitative model and comparing the actual situation regarding the storage of eggs in the EU with different possible scenarios combined, considering the prolongation of the best-before and the sell-by date from 7 to a maximum of 70 days. Extending the sell-by date by one week (from 21 to 28 days), but leaving the best-before date unchanged, is estimated to result in a relative risk of illness of 1.4 and 1.5 for uncooked and lightly cooked egg meals respectively, compared to the current situation. If the best-before date is also extended by one week (from 28 to 35 days), the relative risk would be 1.6 and 1.7. In the worst case scenario considered (sell-by date of 42 days, best before date of 70 days), such figures would be 2.9 and 3.5. It should be noted that the absolute risk is greater for uncooked meals compared to lightly cooked meals. An effective way to minimise any increase in risk during extended storage is to keep the eggs refrigerated both at retail and the household. Regarding egg spoilage, such events strongly depend on the hygienic conditions of egg production and practices of egg handling, including storage times and temperatures. Finally, the impact of the prolongation of storage time on the quality criteria for eggs (3-hydroxybutyric acid and lactic acid) destined for manufacturing of egg products is considered negligible.
... However, given the pressures on food production, and the environmental sustainability goals of some food companies to reduce their overall carbon footprint, the impact of a transition from cages to cage-free housing systems will have to be tackled to better ensure loose housing systems persist. Resource use per egg produced may be higher in cage-free systems (due, mainly, to greater feed and housing inputs; Dekker et al., 2011), but recent research is demonstrating the importance of feed composition and manure management as key factors in life cycle analyses. For example, in a 2021 comparison of different types of egg production systems in Canada, organic (cage-free) systems had the lowest GHG emissions compared to battery cages, enriched cages, single-tier barns, aviaries and free-range systems, largely because of the feed composition (Turner et al., 2022). ...
Article
Full-text available
Throughout the world, most laying hens producing eggs for human consumption are still kept in small, wire battery cages. Ethologists have well documented the behavioural needs of hens, and the way that battery cage confinement thwarts highly motivated behaviour and reduces hens’ quality of life. While cage-free alternatives are now being used around the world, the more challenging management in these systems has contributed to the slower than desired uptake that would be necessary for improving hens’ welfare. As part of the 2021 International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE) virtual conference, a workshop was held with the aim to identify solutions to the common challenges. Attendees were given information about cage-free production and then sectioned into breakout groups for discussion. Following the workshop, they were asked to participate in a short survey. Breakout sessions included the topics of stakeholder engagement and further research needs, as well as identification of solutions to the common challenges. Across the two days of the workshop, there were 80 participants, from 27 countries, mostly ethologists (both students and non-students), but including egg producers, and representatives from government and non-governmental (NGO) organizations. Of the 80 participants, 35 completed the survey. Participants generated many insightful and practical ideas in both the breakout rooms and in the survey, but one particularly salient theme was that solutions already exist and what is needed is greater education and dissemination of technical knowledge (half of survey responses from participants in the developed world and 42% of ethologist’s responses fit within the theme of established producers assisting new producers or producer education and training). This was further evidenced by the noted success of cage-free producers in a variety of different geographic areas, climates, production scales and in both developed and developing regions. It was concluded that cross-sector collaboration will be necessary to speed up the transition to cage-free housing, with roles to play by the producers’ egg buying customers (retailers), end consumers, government and NGOs, and researchers. There are multiple paths forward, with many different approaches possible simultaneously, and the potential to free many more hens from their cages is promising.
... The beef production systems in the example included reproductive cattle. Livestock reproduction and production can occur in different systems too, for example, in egg production (Dekker et al., 2011), broiler production (Leinonen et al., 2014;Leinonen et al., 2012), and in beef production (Beauchemin et al., 2010;Ogino et al., 2007;Pelletier et al., 2010). Yet, we propose to account for reproductive animals when assessing production levels if the proportion of feed intake of reproductive animals in a herd unit is a significant part of total intake (e.g. in beef cattle). ...
Article
In crop science, widely used theoretical concepts of production ecology comprise a hierarchy in growth defining, limiting, and reducing factors, which determine corresponding potential, limited, and actual production levels. These concepts give insight in theoretically achievable production, yield gaps, and yield gap mitigation. Concepts of production ecology have been demonstrated to be applicable to livestock science, but so far they have not been used quantitatively for livestock production. This paper aims to define theoretical concepts of production ecology for livestock systems in more detail, to express livestock production in suitable units, and to provide a framework to analyse production levels for livestock systems and combined crop–livestock systems.
... NFI, or farm family income, has been used as a key indicator for measuring the economic sustainability of family farms. This is so because, by covering all cash expenses and depreciation, it ensures the reproduction of the productive system of the farm; also, it is a good indicator of the standard of living of the farm household, because it measures the returns to family labour, own capital, and management (Blank et al., 2009;Shadbolt et al., 2009;Dekker et al., 2011;Liontakis and Tzouramani, 2016). Thus, we use the term "effective market integration" in the sense that the higher the NFI of a farm, the more economically sustainable it is, and thus, the more strongly integrated into the markets. ...
Article
This study aims to identify the various forms of integration of olive-oil-producing small farms (OSFs) into food systems in four Southern European regions, as well as to identify the most beneficial strategies of integration. Drawing on data from the SALSA Project, the study has found that besides self-provision, OSFs are engaged in multiple types of integration, including reciprocity relations as well as relations with informal and formal markets. Multiple strategies with synergistic effects co-exist at the farm/farm household level. However, specific territorial resources are partially mobilized by actors’ strategies; consequently, olive oil identities are valorized on the market to some extent, but less so through positive externalities. Therefore, the unrealized potential of localization of food systems in which OSFs operate is identified.
... Conflicts of interest and conflict resolution are discussed; yet, it is not identified where these conflicts occur. Comparative studies on environmental performance in egg and dairy production systems, for example, showed that the systems perform differently for different sustainability indicators [13][14][15][16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Conflicts between different goals can obstruct progress in sustainability, but interests may also coincide. We evaluated relationships between environmental quality and animal welfare on Swedish farms with grazing livestock, using publicly available databases. Data were collected from 8700 official animal welfare inspections on 5808 cattle farms and 2823 inspections on 2280 sheep farms in 2012–2017. Compliance with three animal-based checkpoints was modeled using logistic regression, including a random farm effect to account for repeated inspections. Compliance was regressed on semi-natural grassland area, participation in the National Meadow and Pasture Inventory, Agri-Environmental Scheme (AES) grassland payments, presence of indicator plant species, and the presence of Natura 2000 habitats. Cattle farms complied more often if they received AES payments for grasslands of special values compared with if they did not apply for them (OR = 1.55–1.65; p ≤ 0.0001) and there was a similar tendency for cattle farms that applied for but were denied such payments (OR = 1.29; p = 0.074). There was also a strong tendency for Natura 2000 habitats on cattle farms to be associated with higher compliance (OR = 1.36; p = 0.059). These results suggest a direct or indirect causal effect of biodiversity on cattle welfare. The same associations could not be shown in sheep.
... Whereas organic beef and sheep production systems can have greater environmental efficiencies as a result of the replacement of manufactured nitrogen (N) fertiliser with biologicallyfixed N from forage legumes [6][7][8] . In organic poultry production, reduced productivities and low feed conversion ratios considerably reduce environmental efficiencies [9][10][11] . Similarly, organic pig production tends to have lower environmental efficiencies per tonne of product due to lower stocking densities and less output per hectare 12,13 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Agriculture is a major contributor to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and must feature in efforts to reduce emissions. Organic farming might contribute to this through decreased use of farm inputs and increased soil carbon sequestration, but it might also exacerbate emissions through greater food production elsewhere to make up for lower organic yields. To date there has been no rigorous assessment of this potential at national scales. Here we assess the consequences for net GHG emissions of a 100% shift to organic food production in England and Wales using life-cycle assessment. We predict major shortfalls in production of most agricultural products against a conventional baseline. Direct GHG emissions are reduced with organic farming, but when increased overseas land use to compensate for shortfalls in domestic supply are factored in, net emissions are greater. Enhanced soil carbon sequestration could offset only a small part of the higher overseas emissions. The greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential of organic methods is poorly understood. Here, the authors assess the GHG impact of a 100% shift to organic food production in England and Wales and find that direct GHG emissions are reduced with organic farming, but when increased land use abroad to allow for production shortfalls is factored in, GHG emissions are elevated well-above the baseline.
... Along with agro-ecology, type and degree of market participation shapes farming systems to a large extent (Pingali and Rosegrant, 1995;van de Steeg et al., 2010). Market participation is the result of farmer' production-and marketing strategies, which have been subject of many studies (Barrett, 2008;Barrett et al., 2012;Dekker et al., 2011;Duncan et al., 2013;Gebremedhin and Jaleta, 2010;Schiere, 2001;Udo et al., 2011). Various authors have shown how farmer' market participation is affected by market access or market quality (Akinlade et al., 2016;Barrett et al., 2012;Gebremedhin and Jaleta, 2010;Omiti et al., 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of proximity to markets on dairy farming intensity and market participation traditionally has been viewed as a market quality effect stemming from distance to end-markets with resultant travel time. This study departs from this by distinguishing three travel time components: travel time to local service center for inputs and services, to dairy delivery point, and to end-markets. Dairy farms in nine villages each in Ethiopia and Kenya were sampled and interviewed along a double proximity gradient. Effects on many production and marketing parameters were measured and compared using regression analysis, to test the hypothesis that intensity of dairy farming and degree of market participation increase with proximity to end-markets and with proximity to local service centers. Findings prove the hypothesis for proximity to local service center, which causes better market quality for inputs and outputs, smaller farms with less available labor, use of more purchased feeds and services, higher stocking rates, higher yields, and higher margins per hectare. Findings only partly prove the hypothesis for proximity to end-markets, mainly due to unexpected land scarcity in the most remote locations. Low productivity and low dairy farming intensity and market participation for remote farms in Ethiopia are attributed to limited and volatile market demand, a coarse milk-collection grid, and low quality of input and service markets, which are largely publicly organized. Implication of this study is that the common typology of dairy farms in '(peri-) urban' and 'rural' farms needs adjustment by outlining local market access and connectivity. 'Remote' rural farms need to be connected to milk collection infrastructure, input shops and services to even have the choice to increase participation in dairy-or other markets.
... A better way to deal with the feather pecking and cannibalism issues is to develop bird lines that are selected for lower aggressiveness and mortality rates (Rodenburg et al. 2012). Dekker et al. (2011) looked into the ecological and economic performance of the different egg production systems and found that land occupation and nitrogen and phosphorus deficits were lowest for barn systems, while organic systems accounted for the lowest global-warming potential, energy use, fossil-phosphorus use, and nitrogen and phosphorus surplus. Acidification potential was lowest for a multi-tiered barn system and multi-tiered systems had a higher net farm income than did single-tiered systems. ...
Article
Barn production systems in Australia are either an indoor-housing floor system or an aviary system with multilevel structures, equipped with nesting boxes, perches and feeding and watering systems. These systems offer hens the freedom of movement and an opportunity to display a repertoire of favourable behaviours as well as interact with complex housing elements as compared with caged systems. However, the system can create prospects for the hens to express detrimental behaviours such as feather pecking and cannibalism. Other aspects of welfare that may be compromised when compared with cage systems include incidence of fractures and injuries during navigation of hens among elements of housing that may result in collision or falls. Barn production systems may have an advantage over free-range production systems in relation to the protection they offer from predators and predator stress, and diseases and parasites that can be contracted from range areas. Barn systems also offer better biosecurity due to lack of direct access to wild birds and their faeces. The aim of the present review is to assess the welfare status of birds housed in barn (and aviary) production systems, while considering husbandry factors that affect welfare outcomes, the health and disease implications and sustainability. To maintain a high welfare outcome in barn production systems, it is important to keep the enclosed environmental conditions optimum by managing air quality, ventilation and lighting within sheds. Sustainability of these production systems depends on consumer preference, cost of production, environmental footprint and suitable genetics of hens.
... This aspect is contradictory, because it emerged that although dual purpose was preferred in the public questionnaire in 2008, at the end of the focus group consultations, one third opposed this type of production because of the inefficient use of resources (Leenstra et al. 2011). However, the battery cage system has been banned in the EU since 2012 because society no longer accepted that way of keeping animals, although this ban is likely to increase the global warming potential (Dekker et al. 2011). Reasons of animal welfare or respect for animals can thus outweigh environmental concerns. ...
... In addition to the additional costs associated with establishing alternative systems compared to traditional housing technologies [126], production costs are also higher, as production efficiency deteriorates in these systems (reduced egg production, lower stocking density, increased specific labor use, increased specific feed consumption, increased energy use, etc.) [88,90]. The results of Tauson [100] showed increased feed intake and mislaid eggs in non-cage systems, especially in litter. ...
Article
Full-text available
Eggs are of considerable importance in feeding the population, as they are a relatively inexpensive and complex food source of very high biological value. The daily animal protein requirement for the human body can be covered with eggs in the cheapest way and with the lowest environmental impact. As animal welfare, as well as environmental and health awareness issues, become increasingly prominent in developed countries, consumer demand for eggs has also changed significantly in recent years, with an increasing number of consumers buying eggs produced in non-cage housing systems. In recent years, cage housing has been more frequently debated in EU member states. An initiative was launched in 2018 to end cage housing technologies and the sale of eggs produced in this way. However, in addition to animal welfare, a number of other factors need to be considered in relation to sustainable production. For this reason, the aim of this research is to provide a comprehensive overview of the sustainability issues of various housing technologies, as well as quality factors affecting consumer health and egg consumption based on the relevant international references and databases. Although there is a growing demand for products produced in non-cage housing systems due to the increasing relevance of environmental protection, health awareness and animal welfare issues in Western societies, research has shown that non-caged production is not the best solution for environmentally, socially and economically sustainable egg production.
... The future of egg production will be depended on sustainability. Studies on sustainability in egg production focus on environmental, economic or welfare issues of different poultry production systems (Mollenhorst et al., 2006;Xin et al., 2011;Dekker et al., 2011;Summer et al., 2011;Leinonen et al., 2014;Shepherd et al., 2015;van Asselt et al., 2015). Mollenhorst et al. (2005) suggested using on farm sustainability indicators; such as performance (economic aspect), animal welfare (social aspect), and cost of electricity (environmental aspect) to identify strengths and weakness of the systems. ...
Article
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate egg production systems within the scope of sustainability criteria under Turkey conditions. Materials and Methods: A standardized data approach was used to measure sustainability and compare egg production systems. The study covered a one-year egg-laying cycle of 24 farms including conventional cage, organic, and free-range systems. Results: Hens in conventional cages had higher egg production and lower feed intake compared to hens in organic and free-range systems. The highest mortality was found in the free-range hens while the lowest was in the conventional cage system. All hens were fully feathered in the organic egg production system, which was followed, by free-range and conventional cage. This result led to a better social sustainability score for non-cage systems. Economic issues of sustainability had higher scores in conventional cage and organic egg production than those in the free-range system. The hen number per m2 in the total farm area was lower in organic and free-range than those in conventional cage systems (P=0.003), nonetheless, the total land occupation area was found similar. Conclusion: The high scores obtained for economic and environmental indicators of sustainability in conventional cage system led to the highest total sustainability score. The management practices should be improved in free-range and organic egg production systems to achieve higher sustainability scores in Turkey.
... Such an approach is essential to understand and prevent burden-shifting among supply chain stages, different stakeholders and kinds of impacts (Williams et al., 2011;Pelletier 2015). Several studies have used the LCA methodology to evaluate environmental burdens of egg supply chains (Mollenhorst et al., 2006;Cederberg et al., 2009;Vergé et al., 2009;Wiedemann and McGahan 2011;Dekker et al., 2011;Leinonen et al., 2012b;Leinonen and Kyriazakis 2013;Pelletier et al., 2013;Pelletier 2017Pelletier , 2018Abín et al., 2018). However, none of these studies assessed the comparative efficacy of alternative technologies and management strategies for nitrogen emissions reduction along egg supply chains. ...
Article
Full-text available
A non-trivial challenge along egg supply chains is inefficient use of nitrogen, which may have a combination of negative economic, human/animal health, and environmental implications. A variety of technologies and management strategies have been proposed to improve nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and reduce emissions at key supply chain stages. This study considered seven scenarios representing NUE strategies: (1) biochar addition to the soil and (2) application of the “4Rs” approach to fertilizer management in feed input production; (3) a reduced crude protein supplemented with synthetic amino acids diet; (4) use of acid scrubbers in poultry barns; (5) biochar addition to stored manure; (6) manure incorporation at the time of land application; and (7) joint application of all strategies. ISO 14044 compliant environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) along with NUE calculations were performed to analyze and compare these mitigation options. The functional unit was one tonne of egg production at the farm gate in Canada. The most significant increase in NUE (13%) resulted from the application of the scrubber in the layer barn. The scrubber also significantly lowered acidifying (21%) and eutrophying (16%) emissions compared to the baseline. The combined application of all strategies increased NUE by 15% compared to the baseline scenario and reduced acidification, global warming, and eutrophication potential, but at the cost of a large increase in energy consumption. Each strategy might be more or less suitable depending on the considered environmental impacts, as well as NUE outcomes. Use of LCA is essential to informed decision making in this context.
... Environmentally friendly interests manifested by consumers are reflected in their reluctance to buy from or support companies or brands involved with human rights issues and child labor. A number of studies [9,29,30] investigated the impact of (non)-ecological production in ensuring protection of employee rights. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, sustainability is assumed to have high potential for promoting ethical consumer behavior. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of sustainable behavior on consumer intention to be ethical when it comes to political, social, and environmental dimensions. Therefore, insightful results can be brought forward to explain consumer ethical behavior from a different perspective. Covariance structural equation modelling in AMOS was used for data analysis. Three antecedents, namely environmental, social, and economic dimensions of sustainable consumption, are found to have a significant and positive impact on intention to engage in ethically consumer behavior. In this context, companies seeking to proactively approach eco-friendly consumers will need to understand the complexity of the decision-making process of ethically minded consumers.
Article
Full-text available
The food industry represents a vast environmental burden to our planet. Most animal products are known to have greater environmental impacts than alternative plant-based sources of nutrition. One of the most consumed animal products are eggs, represented in most dietary habits both as a primary ingredient and processed. In the European Union (EU), eggs for consumption can be produced in four different laying systems: enriched cages, barns, free-range, and organic. In past years, discussions about the ethical perspective have been ongoing among the wider public, industry and academia. However, the essential comparison of environmental impacts of the laying systems has been missing in our region. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an excellent tool for comparing environmental impacts of various scenarios. Therefore, we performed a LCA of several egg-producing subjects in the Czech Republic, representative of all four laying systems. In addition, these regulated laying systems were compared to a community garden system. Our results suggest feed conversion ratio (FCR), feed composition, and manure management to be the most important factors influencing the total environmental impacts of eggs. Moreover, environmental benefits linked to outdoor access or using organic feed over conventional were observed in our study.
Article
Full-text available
Ma már egyre inkább ismert az étkezési tojás pozitív hatása, az anyatejhez hasonló, teljes biológiai értékű fehérjéket tartalmazó élelmiszer. Miután relatíve olcsó, magas tápértékű komplex táplálékforrás, az emberi szervezet napi állatifehérje-szükséglete a legolcsóbban és a legkisebb környezeti terhelés mellett a tojással fedezhető. Hasonlóan más élelmiszerekhez, a tojással kapcsolatos fogyasztói igények is jelentősen változtak az elmúlt években, egyre inkább előtérbe kerül az állatjólét, valamint az egészség- és környezettudatosság, s ennek okán egyre több kérdés merül fel a különböző tartásmódokkal, különösképpen a ketreces rendszerekkel kapcsolatosan. Ennek kapcsán a tanulmány célja, hogy megvizsgálja a különböző tartásmódok fenntarthatóságbeli kérdéseit, valamint a fogyasztók egészségére és tojásfogyasztásra ható tényezőit, a releváns nemzetközi szakirodalmak és adatbázisok szintetizálása révén.
Article
The supply-managed Canadian egg industry produces over 789 million dozen eggs per year, the majority of which are produced in conventional cages (∼60%). Recently, the industry committed to a complete transition to alternative (i.e. enriched cage, single- and multi-tier free run, free range, and organic) production systems by 2036. This transition may have significant sustainability implications. Here, we present updated (i.e. based on 2019 data) LCA models and results representing the cradle to farm gate environmental impacts of Canadian egg production systems based on a much expanded data set compared to previous models. Generally, input and emission levels decreased across all housing systems, with few exceptions, compared to previously reported levels. Acidifying and GHG emissions decreased across most housing systems due to increases in feed- and pullet-use efficiency, while eutrophying emissions increased across all housing systems modeled due to differences in manure management systems. Feed inputs represented the greatest contributor to most impact categories (∼18% - 84%), followed by pullet production and manure management (∼ 10% - 37% and ∼0.01% - 62%, respectively). Organic production systems had the lowest impacts in nine of the ten categories assessed, while free range systems generally performed the worst. Conventional cages generally had lower impacts than all non-organic systems. However, it can be expected that as farmers gain experience with alternative systems resource-use efficiency levels will increase and environmental impacts will decrease. Continued monitoring of environmental performance of Canadian egg production systems is therefore imperative to ensure net-positive outcomes during this housing system transition.
Article
Full-text available
Food's environmental impacts are created by millions of diverse producers. To identify solutions that are effective under this heterogeneity, we consolidated data covering five environmental indicators; 38,700 farms; and 1600 processors, packaging types, and retailers. Impact can vary 50-fold among producers of the same product, creating substantial mitigation opportunities. However, mitigation is complicated by trade-offs, multiple ways for producers to achieve low impacts, and interactions throughout the supply chain. Producers have limits on how far they can reduce impacts. Most strikingly, impacts of the lowest-impact animal products typically exceed those of vegetable substitutes, providing new evidence for the importance of dietary change. Cumulatively, our findings support an approach where producers monitor their own impacts, flexibly meet environmental targets by choosing from multiple practices, and communicate their impacts to consumers.
Article
Full-text available
Allowing farm animals to have active control and influence over their environment through the expression of intrinsically motivated behaviours contributes to their (positive)welfare. However, farm animals are predominantly seen as passive receivers of what husbandry systems should provide for them. Additionally, designers and engineers of farming systems neglect the animals’ potential in the design of husbandry systems, resulting in disadvantageous trade-offs between animal welfare and economic and environmental sustainability aspects. This paper describes, through the application of an interactive structured design approach, how laying hens can actively contribute to the functioning of the husbandry system by exercising their own goals. The ambition of this research was to allow animals to contribute to creating opportunities that might overcome existing trade-offs between animal welfare and other sustainability goals. The Reflexive Interactive Design approach was applied to achieve this ambition. This paper presents the methodological steps of the design process to contribute to the reduction of the (fine) dust problem in laying hen husbandry using the dust bath unit as an example. Also, this paper describes how we incorporated the laying hen as a contributor in the design process. We show that facilitating intrinsically motivated laying hen dust bathing behaviour can simultaneously resolve the environmental dust problem experienced in loose housing systems.
Article
The organic farming of laying hens is experiencing a growing trend in Italy, following an increase in consumer demand for organic eggs. The present study aimed to investigate the environmental performance of organic egg production for the first time in the Italian context. To this end, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of organic egg production in a farm rearing laying hens located in Northern Italy was performed. The analysis was carried out in a cradle to farm gate perspective, with 1 kg of eggs selected as functional unit. Primary data relating to animal performances and resources consumed was collected on site, and subsequently integrated with secondary data, including estimates of manure-related emissions. In order to model in a representative way the organic feed consumed, data relating to typical cropping systems of the country has been used for the various ingredients, keeping the organic production method specifications into account. Inventory data was then converted on an annual basis and characterized using the ILCD method, and twelve impact categories were assessed. Moreover, the influence on impact results of different allocation choices and efficiency in terms of hen-day egg production were explored with a sensitivity analysis. The main environmental burden for organic egg production showed to be feed production and supply, with a share ranging from 49% to 87% over all the evaluated impact categories. Other hotspots are pullets rearing, responsible for a share between 10 and 14% over all categories, and manure-related emissions, which weighed significantly for PM (35%), TA (39%) and TE (39%). A value for CC of 1.56 kg CO2 eq/kg shelled eggs was obtained, thanks to good production performances together with some benefits given by organic feed use, particularly the avoidance of mineral fertilizer consumption and of land use change related emission. At the same time, the results show clearly that environmental improvements should be sought primarily in the same feed area. This must be done both on-farm, which was highlighted also by the sensitivity analysis on hen-day egg production, and at the supply chain level, acting on the impact related to crop production and pullets rearing phases. Starting from the results, some environmental weaknesses and strengths of organic farming have been discussed. Future studies must further investigate the impact of this rearing system in a wider perspective and explore possible scenarios of mitigation practices.
Article
[Introducción]: Análisis de impactos ambientales en la producción de huevos, muestran diferencias significativas entre sistemas convencionales y orgánicos, relacionados con la alimentación, la eficiencia energética, la distribución y la gestión de residuos; sin embargo, se desconocen los impactos ambientales en sistemas agroecológicos para la producción de huevo. [Objetivo]: Evaluar los impactos ambientales de la producción agroecológica de huevos empleando un análisis de ciclo de vida. [Metodología]: La evaluación se realizó para 350 gallinas de raza Hy Line Brow de granjas agroecológicas en Cundinamarca, Colombia, contemplando toda la cadena de producción de 1 kg de huevos, es decir, desde la cuna hasta la tumba, siguiendo los lineamientos de la ISO 14040. La información se recolectó durante un año contemplando la elaboración de alimentos, la producción, la distribución, consumo y disposición final. Se consideraron cantidades de materiales, energía y residuos, para posteriormente, evaluar los impactos con la metodología CML-2001. [Resultados]: Los impactos ambientales de un huevo agroecológico son menores hasta en un 30 %, comparado con los de un huevo convencional, principalmente, por la alimentación, que en este caso es producida de forma agroecológica en la misma finca, al aprovechamiento de todos los residuos, el uso de energías alternativas y a que se reducen intermediarios en la cadena de comercialización. [Conclusiones]: Aunque, la producción de huevos agroecológicos tiene menores impactos, es necesario lograr una mayor eficiencia en la gestión del nitrógeno, buscar desinfectantes con menores impactos en el suelo, implementar sistemas de distribución más cortos y menos contaminantes y además propiciar una reutilización de los empaques.
Article
Much of the global egg industry is currently transitioning from conventional cage to alternative (i.e. enriched cage, single- and multi-tier free run, free range, and organic) housing systems. While this transition is primarily motivated by animal welfare concerns, it also has significant potential to alter the environmental footprint of egg production, which is the fastest growing livestock sector worldwide. Understanding the benefits, impacts and improvement opportunities characteristic of alternative systems is hence imperative to ensuring net-positive sustainability outcomes. This requires attention to current resource efficiency levels, key variables that influence efficiency, as well as the environmental impact mitigation potential of efficiency gains for specific interventions and housing systems. The current analysis reports a joint application of data envelopment analysis (DEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) to industrial egg production systems based on a large data set collected from egg production facilities in Canada. It was found that egg farms are generally operating at high levels of efficiency relative to one another with respect to feed and pullet inputs per tonne of eggs produced both within and between housing system types. DEA results suggest that feed and pullet inputs could decrease across all housing systems between 3.55% and 13.22%, which translated to environmental impacts reductions of up to 17.27%. Least shrinkage and selection operator models were unable to identify key drivers of efficiency for any system except enriched colony housing where an increase in lay cycle length of 1 day was associated with minor increases in efficiency, and the use of brown birds was associated with a 0.95% decrease in efficiency. Further research is necessary to determine key drivers of efficiency that may represent priority strategies for farmers to increase efficiency and decrease environmental impacts. Scenario analyses were used to calculate the cumulative environmental impacts of egg production assuming different distributions of production across housing systems and that DEA-efficient conditions are realized for all farms in each scenario. In all scenarios, 0% of production was attributed to conventional cages, reflecting a complete transition away from conventional production systems over time. The most likely of these scenarios, which included large increases in proportions of enriched and multi-tier free run housing, and moderate increases in free-range and organic housing, exhibited between 90.3%-100.1% of current (i.e. non DEA-efficient) levels of environmental impacts.
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
Global poultry meat and egg production as well as trade with poultry products have shown a remarkable dynamic during the last 35 years. Between 1970 and 2005 poultry meat and egg production increased faster than that of beef and veal or pigmeat. The trade volume of poultry meat increased even faster than production. In 2004, 12% of the poultry meat produced reached the world market but only 1.8% of the eggs. The rapid increase in poultry meat production has been very imbalanced.Whereas North and Central America as well as Europe lost market shares, China and Brazil became new centres of production in Asia and South America. In hen egg production Asia was the only winner in the analysed time period, all other continents lost market shares. The increase in regional concentration is mainly due to the dominating role of China. Developing countries surpassed developed countries in their production volume between 1990 and 2000. At the present time, they contribute about 55% to global poultry meat and 68% to egg production.The trade volume of poultry products increased parallel to the rapid growth of global poultry meat and egg production. The regional concentration of poultry meat as well as egg exports and imports is very high. In contrast to production, the contribution of developing countries to the export volume of poultry products is still much lower than that of developed countries. Even though developing countries were able to gain higher market shares during the past 35 years, the regional shift from developed to developing countries has been less dramatic than that in poultry meat and hen egg production. Especially hen eggs are still mainly traded between European as well as Asian countries.Outbreaks of Avian Influenza will have impacts on production and consumption, resulting in serious financial problems of major producers and new spatial patterns of production and trade flows. The full implementation of directive 1999/74/EU for laying hens will also have impacts on egg production and egg trade, as the EU will probably no longer be an egg surplus region but be forced to import.
Article
Recent developments in agriculture have stirred up interest in the concept of "sustainable" farming systems. Still it is difficult to determine the extent to which certain agricultural practices can be considered sustainable or not. Aiming at identifying the necessary attributes with respect to sustainability in Dutch dairy farming in the beginning of the third millennium, we first compiled a list of attributes referring to all farming activities with their related side effects with respect to economic, internal social, external social, and ecological sustainability. A wide range of people (i.e., experts and stakeholders) were consulted to contribute to our list of attributes. Our consultation showed that only one attribute was selected for economic and internal social sustainability: profitability and working conditions, respectively. The list for external social sustainability contained 19 attributes and the list for ecological sustainability contained 15 attributes. To assess their relative importance, the same experts and stakeholders ranked the attributes for external social and ecological sustainability by using a questionnaire. The most important attributes for external social sustainability were food safety, animal health, animal welfare, landscape quality, and cattle grazing. For ecological sustainability they were eutrophication, groundwater pollution, dehydration of the soil, acidification, and biodiversity. The present method for identifying and ranking attributes is universal and, therefore, can be used for other agricultural sectors, for other countries, and for other time periods.
Article
Jerome believed that the task of the commentator was to convey what others have said, not to advance his own interpretations. However, an examination of his commentaries on the Prophets shows that their contents are arranged so as to construct a powerful, but tacit, position of authority for their compiler. By juxtaposing Jewish and Greek Christian interpretations as he does, Jerome places himself in the position of arbiter over both exegetical traditions. But because he does not explicitly assert his own authority, he can maintain a stance of humility appropriate for a monk. Here, Jerome may have been a more authentic representative of the tradition of Origen than was his rival, for all that he was willing to abjure Origen's theology.
Article
In dit literatuuronderzoek is nagegaan of er een fysiologische basis is voor de mogelijke verschillen in energie- en eiwitbehoefte van biologische gehouden pluimvee in vergelijking met conventioneel gehouden pluimvee. Biologisch pluimvee lijkt wel een hogere onderhoudsbehoefte voor energie te hebben, maar niet voor eiwit. Dit pleit voor een hogere energie-eiwitverhouding in biologische pluimvee voeders
Article
In dit onderzoek zijn de emissies bepaald van fijnstof (PM10 en PM2,5) uit leghennenstallen met scharrelhuisvesting. Additioneel zijn de emissies van ammoniak, broeikasgassen en geur bepaald
Technical Report
Article
Recent developments in agriculture have stirred up interest in the concept of sustainable farming systems. Still it is difficult to determine the extent to which certain agricultural practices can be considered sustainable or not. Aiming at identifying the necessary attributes with respect to sustainability in Dutch dairy farming in the beginning of the third millennium, we first compiled a list of attributes referring to all farming activities with their related side effects with respect to economic, internal social, external social, and ecological sustainability. A wide range of people (i.e., experts and stakeholders) were consulted to contribute to our list of attributes. Our consultation showed that only one attribute was selected for economic and internal social sustainability: profitability and working conditions, respectively. The list for external social sustainability contained 19 attributes and the list for ecological sustainability contained 15 attributes. To assess their relative importance, the same experts and stakeholders ranked the attributes for external social and ecological sustainability by using a questionnaire. The most important attributes for external social sustainability were food safety, animal health, animal welfare, landscape quality, and cattle grazing. For ecological sustainability they were eutrophication, groundwater pollution, dehydration of the soil, acidification, and biodiversity. The present method for identifying and ranking attributes is universal and, therefore, can be used for other agricultural sectors, for other countries, and for other time periods.
Article
Preface. Foreword. Part 1: LCA in Perspective. 1. Why a new Guide to LCA? 2. Main characteristics of LCA. 3. International developments. 4. Guiding principles for the present Guide. 5. Reading guide. Part 2a: Guide. Reading guidance. 1. Management of LCA projects: procedures. 2. Goal and scope definition. 3. Inventory analysis. 4. Impact assessment. 5. Interpretation. Appendix A: Terms, definitions and abbreviations. Part 2b: Operational annex. List of tables. Reading guidance. 1. Management of LCA projects: procedures. 2. Goal and scope definition. 3. Inventory analysis. 4. Impact assessment. 5. Interpretation. 6. References. Part 3: Scientific background. Reading guidance. 1. General introduction. 2. Goal and scope definition. 3. Inventory analysis. 4. Impact assessment. 5. Interpretation. 6. References. Annex A: Contributors. Appendix B: Areas of application of LCA. Appendix C: Partitioning economic inputs and outputs to product systems.
Article
Livestock production has a major impact on the environment. Choosing a more environmentally-friendly livestock product in a diet can mitigate environmental impact. The objective of this research was to compare assessments of the environmental impact of livestock products. Twenty-five peer-reviewed studies were found that assessed the impact of production of pork, chicken, beef, milk, and eggs using life cycle analysis (LCA). Only 16 of these studies were reviewed, based on five criteria: study from an OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) country, non-organic production, type of LCA methodology, allocation method used, and definition of system boundary. LCA results of these 16 studies were expressed in three ways: per kg product, per kg protein, and per kg of average daily intake of each product for an OECD country. The review yielded a consistent ranging of results for use of land and energy, and for climate change. No clear pattern was found, however, for eutrophication and acidification. Production of 1 kg of beef used most land and energy, and had highest global warming potential (GWP), followed by production of 1 kg of pork, chicken, eggs, and milk. Differences in environmental impact among pork, chicken, and beef can be explained mainly by 3 factors: differences in feed efficiency, differences in enteric CH4 emission between monogastric animals and ruminants, and differences in reproduction rates. The impact of production of 1 kg of meat (pork, chicken, beef) was high compared with production of 1 kg of milk and eggs because of the relatively high water content of milk and eggs. Production of 1 kg of beef protein also had the highest impact, followed by pork protein, whereas chicken protein had the lowest impact. This result also explained why consumption of beef was responsible for the largest part of the land use and GWP in an average OECD diet. This review did not show consistent differences in environmental impact per kg protein in milk, pork, chicken and eggs. Only one study compared environmental impact of meat versus milk and eggs. Conclusions regarding impact of pork or chicken versus impact of milk or eggs require additional comparative studies and further harmonization of LCA methodology. Interpretation of current LCA results for livestock products, moreover, is hindered because results do not include environmental consequences of competition for land between humans and animals, and consequences of land-use changes. We recommend, therefore, to include these consequences in future LCAs of livestock products
Article
In dit onderzoek zijn de emissies bepaald van fijnstof (PM10 en PM2,5) uit leghennenstallen met volièrehuisvesting. Additioneel zijn de emissies van ammoniak, broeikasgassen en geur bepaald
Article
In het voorjaar van 1994 is door het Landbouw Economisch Instituut (LEI-DLO) een enqulte uitgevoerd om het energieverbruik op vleeskuikenbedrijven te inventariseren.
Article
"Stellingen" inserted. Vita. Thesis (doctoral)--Wageningen Universiteit, 2005. Includes bibliographical references.
Article
1. On-farm quantification of sustainability indicators (SI) is an effective way to make sustainable development measurable. The egg production sector was used as a case study to illustrate this approach. 2. The objective was to select SI for economic, ecological and societal issues, and to analyse the performance on selected SI of different production systems. 3. For the case study, we compared 4 egg production systems, characterised by differences in the housing systems which are most common in the Netherlands: the battery-cage system, the deep-litter system with and without outdoor run, and the aviary system with outdoor run. 4. Based on a clear set of criteria, we selected SI for animal welfare, economics, environmental impact, ergonomics and product quality. 5. We showed that on-farm quantification of SI was an appropriate method to identify the strengths and weaknesses of different systems. 6. From this analysis it appears that the aviary system with outdoor run is a good alternative for the battery-cage system, with better scores for the aviary system on animal welfare and economics, but with worse scores on environmental impact.
The excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus by pigs, poultry, turkeys, fur bearing animals, ducks, rabbits and guinea fowl in 2002 and 2006 (De uitscheiding van stikstof en fosfor door varkens, kippen, kalkoenen, pelsdieren, eenden, konijnen en parelhoenders in
  • A W Jongbloed
  • P A Kemme
Jongbloed, A.W., Kemme, P.A., 2005. The excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus by pigs, poultry, turkeys, fur bearing animals, ducks, rabbits and guinea fowl in 2002 and 2006 (De uitscheiding van stikstof en fosfor door varkens, kippen, kalkoenen, pelsdieren, eenden, konijnen en parelhoenders in 2002 en 2006). Wageningen UR, Animal Sciences Group. 05/I01077: 101 pp.
Agricultural business economics; introduction. (Agrarische bedrijfseconomie: inleiding). Educaboek, Culemborg, The Netherlands
  • Van
  • F C A Tempel
  • G W J Giesen
Van den Tempel, F.C.A., Giesen, G.W.J., 1992. Agricultural business economics; introduction. (Agrarische bedrijfseconomie: inleiding). Educaboek, Culemborg, The Netherlands. Van Horne, P.L.M., 1994. Causes of differences in energy use on laying hen farms (Oorzaken van verschillen in energieverbruik op leghennenbedrijven).
Phosphorus in agriculture: global resources, trends and developments. Report of the steering committee technology assessment of the ministry of agriculture, nature and food quality, 282. Wageningen UR, Plant Research International, Wageningen. 36 pp. Van Calker
  • A L Smit
  • P S Bindraban
  • J J Schröder
  • J G Conijn
  • Van
  • H G K J Meer
  • P B M Berentsen
  • G W J Giesen
Smit, A.L., Bindraban, P.S., Schröder, J.J., Conijn, J.G., Van der Meer, H.G., 2009. Phosphorus in agriculture: global resources, trends and developments. Report of the steering committee technology assessment of the ministry of agriculture, nature and food quality, 282. Wageningen UR, Plant Research International, Wageningen. 36 pp. Van Calker, K.J., Berentsen, P.B.M., Giesen, G.W.J., Huirne, R.B.M., 2005. Identifying and ranking attributes that determine sustainability in Dutch dairy farming. Agricultural Human Values 22, 53–63.
Dust emission from animal houses; layer hens in houses with a tunnel drying system
  • A Winkel
  • J Mosquera
  • H H Ellen
  • A Hol
  • G M Nijeboer
  • N W M Ogink
  • A J A Aarnink
Winkel, A., Mosquera, J., Ellen, H.H., Hol, A., Nijeboer, G.M., Ogink, N.W.M., Aarnink, A.J.A., 2009a. Dust emission from animal houses; layer hens in houses with a tunnel drying system (Fijnstofemissie uit stallen: leghennen in stallen met een droogtunnel), 280. Wageningen UR Livestock Research, Lelystad. 35 pp.
Handbook on Life Cycle Assessment
  • J B Guinée
  • M Gorrée
  • R Heijungs
  • G Huppes
  • R Kleijn
  • De Koning
  • A Van Oers
  • Wegener Sleeswijk
  • A Suh
Guinée, J.B., Gorrée, M., Heijungs, R., Huppes, G., Kleijn, R., De Koning, A., Van Oers, L., Wegener Sleeswijk, A., Suh, S., Udo de Haes, H.A., de Bruijn, H., van Duin, R., Huijbregts, M.A.J., Lindeijer, E., Roorda, A.A.H., van der Ven, B.L., Weidema, B.P. (Eds.), 2002. Handbook on Life Cycle Assessment;
Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories Review of the sunflower oil sector, sector review
  • Ecoinvent
Ecoinvent, 2007. Ecoinvent Data v2.0 Final Reports Ecoinvent 2000. Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories, Dubendorf, Switzerland. FAO, 2002. Review of the sunflower oil sector, sector review. Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations, Rome. 45 pp. FAO, 2004. Fertilizer use by crop in Argentina. Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations, Rome. 45 pp. FAO, 2005. Fertilizer use by crop in Ukraine. Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations, Rome. 22 pp.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories
  • Operational Guide
  • Standards
Operational Guide to the ISO Standards. Institute for Environmental Sciences. Leiden University, Leiden. IPCC, 2006. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Volume 4: Agriculture, forestry and other land use. Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program, Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (eds). Published: IGES, Japan.
Normative values for gaseous nitrogen losses from animal houses and manure storage facilities (Forfaitaire 120
  • O Oenema
  • G L Velthof
  • P W G Koerkamp
  • G J Monteny
  • A Bannink
  • Van
  • H G Meer
  • Van
  • K W Hoek
Oenema, O., Velthof, G.L., Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G., Monteny, G.J., Bannink, A., van der Meer, H.G., van der Hoek, K.W., 2000. Normative values for gaseous nitrogen losses from animal houses and manure storage facilities (Forfaitaire 120 S.E.M. Dekker et al. / Livestock Science 139 (2011) 109–121 waarden voor gasvormige stikstofverliezen uit stallen en mestopslagen), 107. Wageningen UR, Alterra. 151 pp. PVE, 2010. Productschappen voor Vee, vlees en eieren. http://www.pve.nl/wdocs/ dbedrijfsnet/up1/ZcewxoeIcB_jaarcijfers_2009_pluimvee_eieren.pdf. SKAL, 2009. Stichting Keurmerk Alternative Landbouw. http://www.skal.nl/ Portals/0/Nederlands/PDF/Skal-R33.pdf.
Fine dust emission from animal houses; laying hens with floor housing
  • J Mosquera
  • A Winkel
  • F Dousma
  • E Lovink
  • N W M Ogink
  • A J A Aarnink
Mosquera, J., Winkel, A., Dousma, F., Lovink, E., Ogink, N.W.M., Aarnink, A.J.A., 2009. Fine dust emission from animal houses; laying hens with floor housing (Fijnstofemissie uit stallen: leghennen in scharrelhuisvesting),
Energy and protein requirements of organic housed poultry (Energie-en eiwitbehoefte van biologisch gehouden pluimvee), 122. Wageningen UR Animal Sciences Group Decision of 8th december 2005, concerning the regulations for reduction of ammonia emission from housing systems of livestock farming
  • Van Landbouw-Economisch Instituut
  • A T M Knegsel
  • M M Van Krimpen
Landbouw-Economisch Instituut, Lelystad, 3.156. 36 pp. Van Knegsel, A.T.M., Van Krimpen, M.M., 2008. Energy and protein requirements of organic housed poultry (Energie-en eiwitbehoefte van biologisch gehouden pluimvee), 122. Wageningen UR Animal Sciences Group, Lelystad. 22 pp. VROM, 2005. Decision of 8th december 2005, concerning the regulations for reduction of ammonia emission from housing systems of livestock farming (Besluit van 8 december 2005, houdende regels ter beperking van de ammoniakemissie uit huisvestingssystemen van veehouderijen), 675. Staatsblad van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden. Ministerie van Volkshuisvesting Ruimtelijk Ordening en Milieubeheer, Den Haag. 67 pp. VROM, 2010. Agentschap NL, Ministerie van Volkshuisvesting Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieubeheer. http://www.infomil.nl/onderwerpen/landbouw-tuinbouw/ammoniak-en/.
Environ-mental load of three aviary houses for organic layers (Milieubelasting van drie biologische volièrebedrijven voor leghennen), 360 Council regulation (EC) No
  • S E M Dekker
  • A J A Aarnink
  • I J M Boer
  • P W G G Koerkamp
Dekker, S.E.M., Aarnink, A.J.A., Boer, I.J.M., Koerkamp, P.W.G.G., 2010. Environ-mental load of three aviary houses for organic layers (Milieubelasting van drie biologische volièrebedrijven voor leghennen), 360. Wageningen UR, Livestock Research, Lelystad. 33 pp. EC, 1990. Council regulation (EC) No 1907/90 of 26 June 1990 on certain marketing standards for eggs. Official Journal of the European Communities, Brussels L173, 1–5.
Update flat rate values for gaseous N losses from animal houses and manure storage facilities of pigs, poultry and other animals (Actualisering forfaitaire waarden voor gasvormige N-verliezen uit stallen en mestopslagen van varkens
  • C M Groenestein
  • Van
  • K W Hoek
  • G J Monteny
  • O Oenema
Groenestein, C.M., van der Hoek, K.W., Monteny, G.J., Oenema, O., 2005. Update flat rate values for gaseous N losses from animal houses and manure storage facilities of pigs, poultry and other animals (Actualisering forfaitaire waarden voor gasvormige N-verliezen uit stallen en mestopslagen van varkens, pluimvee en overige dieren), 465. Agrotechnolgy and Food Innovations B.V., Wageningen. 36 pp.
The EU egg production sector. Final report for Euro Group Agra. CEAS Consulting Ltd
  • Anonymous
Anonymous, 2008. The EU egg production sector. Final report for Euro Group Agra. CEAS Consulting Ltd. 35 pp.
Environmental load of three aviary houses for organic layers (Milieubelasting van drie biologische volièrebedrijven voor leghennen)
  • S E M Dekker
  • A J A Aarnink
  • I J M Boer
  • P W G G Koerkamp
Dekker, S.E.M., Aarnink, A.J.A., Boer, I.J.M., Koerkamp, P.W.G.G., 2010. Environmental load of three aviary houses for organic layers (Milieubelasting van drie biologische volièrebedrijven voor leghennen), 360. Wageningen UR, Livestock Research, Lelystad. 33 pp.
Council regulation (EC) No 1907/90 of 26 June 1990 on certain marketing standards for eggs
EC, 1990. Council regulation (EC) No 1907/90 of 26 June 1990 on certain marketing standards for eggs. Official Journal of the European Communities, Brussels L173, 1-5.
Council regulation (EC) No 2092/91 of 24 June 1991 on organic production of agricultural products and indications referring thereto on agricultural products and foodstuffs
EC, 1991. Council regulation (EC) No 2092/91 of 24 June 1991 on organic production of agricultural products and indications referring thereto on agricultural products and foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Communities, Brussels L198, 1-98.
Council Directive 1999/74/EC of 19 July 1999 laying down minimum standards for the protection of laying hens
EC, 1999a. Council Directive 1999/74/EC of 19 July 1999 laying down minimum standards for the protection of laying hens. Official Journal of the European Communities, Brussels L 203, 53-57.
supplementing Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 on organic production of agricultural products and indications referring thereto on agricultural products and foodstuffs to include livestock production
EC, 1999b. Council regulation (EC) No 1804/1999 of 19 July 1999, supplementing Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 on organic production of agricultural products and indications referring thereto on agricultural products and foodstuffs to include livestock production. Official Journal of the European Communities, Brussels L 222, 1-28.
Ecoinvent Data v2.0 Final Reports Ecoinvent
  • Ecoinvent
Ecoinvent, 2007. Ecoinvent Data v2.0 Final Reports Ecoinvent 2000. Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories, Dubendorf, Switzerland.
Review of the sunflower oil sector, sector review
  • Fao
FAO, 2002. Review of the sunflower oil sector, sector review. Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations, Rome. 45 pp.
Quantitative Information on agriculture and cultivation on full land
  • Kwin-Agv
KWIN-AGV, 2007. Quantitative Information on agriculture and cultivation on full land 2007 (Kwantitatieve Informantie Akkerbouw en Vollegrondsteelt 2007). Praktijkonderzoek plant en omgeving, Lelystad. 320 pp.
Quantitative Information on Animal Husbandry
  • Kwin-V
KWIN-V, 2007. Quantitative Information on Animal Husbandry 2007-2008 (Kwantitatieve Informatie Veehouderij 2007-2008). Wageningen UR, Livestock Research, Lelystad. 418 pp.
Normative values for gaseous nitrogen losses from animal houses and manure storage facilities (Forfaitaire waarden voor gasvormige stikstofverliezen uit stallen en mestopslagen)
  • O Oenema
  • G L Velthof
  • P W G Groot Koerkamp
  • G J Monteny
  • A Bannink
  • H G Van Der Meer
  • K W Van Der Hoek
Oenema, O., Velthof, G.L., Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G., Monteny, G.J., Bannink, A., van der Meer, H.G., van der Hoek, K.W., 2000. Normative values for gaseous nitrogen losses from animal houses and manure storage facilities (Forfaitaire waarden voor gasvormige stikstofverliezen uit stallen en mestopslagen), 107. Wageningen UR, Alterra. 151 pp.
Productschappen voor Vee, vlees en eieren
  • Pve
PVE, 2010. Productschappen voor Vee, vlees en eieren. http://www.pve.nl/wdocs/ dbedrijfsnet/up1/ZcewxoeIcB_jaarcijfers_2009_pluimvee_eieren.pdf.
Stichting Keurmerk Alternative Landbouw
SKAL, 2009. Stichting Keurmerk Alternative Landbouw. http://www.skal.nl/ Portals/0/Nederlands/PDF/Skal-R33.pdf.
Agricultural business economics; introduction. (Agrarische bedrijfseconomie: inleiding)
  • F C A Van Den Tempel
  • G W J Giesen
Van den Tempel, F.C.A., Giesen, G.W.J., 1992. Agricultural business economics; introduction. (Agrarische bedrijfseconomie: inleiding). Educaboek, Culemborg, The Netherlands.