Article

Scores composites CHC pour le WISC-IV : normes francophones

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Abstract

Although the WISC-IV references the Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) theory in the manual, the composite scores of this battery (VCI, PRI, WMI, and PSI) were not defined according to this model. Nevertheless, we recommend examining the subtests scores of the WISC-IV in reference to the nomenclature of the cognitive abilities proposed in the CHC theory, so as to bring additional insight on the observed performance. The objective of the first part of this paper is to provide normative tables for five CHC cognitive abilities of the French WISC-IV: fluid reasoning (Gf), comprehension–knowledge (Gc), visual processing (Gv), short-term-memory (Gsm), and processing speed (Gs); these tables were created using a statistical approximation procedure. The objective of the second part is to test the validity of these tables with data obtained from 250 children. Correlation between the standard indices of the WISC-IV (VCI, PRI, WMI, and PSI) and the CHC composite scores were high, demonstrating the validity of these CHC scores. These tables, for the French version of the WISC-IV, allow using the CHC composite scores as complementary measures, in order to conduct normative and ipsative analyses.

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... Pourtant, la structure globale de la WAIS-IV ne correspond que partiellement à celle proposée dans le modèle qui fait consensus aujourd'hui, le modèle de Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC ; pour une discussion Benson et al., 2010 ). Compte tenu de l'importance du modèle CHC dans la littérature et dans le développement des batteries cognitives, nous pensons utile de pouvoir interpréter les scores des subtests des échelles de Wechsler, et plus particulièrement des subtests de la WAIS-IV, selon les facteurs proposés dans le modèle CHC (Lecerf et al., 2012 ). L'objectif de cet article est donc de proposer les normes pour la WAIS-IV de cinq scores composites CHC : raisonnement fluide (Gf), compréhension-connaissances (Gc), traitement visuel (Gv), mémoire à court-terme (Gsm), et IVT (Gs). ...
... L'objectif de cet article est donc de proposer les normes pour la WAIS-IV de cinq scores composites CHC : raisonnement fluide (Gf), compréhension-connaissances (Gc), traitement visuel (Gv), mémoire à court-terme (Gsm), et IVT (Gs). Ces tables CHC ont été établies à partir de la procédure d'approximation statistique proposée par Tellegen et Briggs (1967), comme nous l'avions fait précédemment pour l'indice d'Aptitude générale (IAG, Lecerf et al., 2010a ; 2011), l'indice de Compétence cognitive (ICC, Lecerf et al., 2011) et les cinq scores composites CHC pour le WISC-IV (Lecerf et al., 2012). On peut rappeler qu'en ce qui concerne l'IAG, les normes développées à partir de la procédure d'approximation statistique et celles établies à partir des données de l'échantillon d'étalonnage français 3 sont quasiment identiques. ...
... Rappelons succinctement que le modèle CHC actuel comprend un facteur général (le facteur g), 16 aptitudes globales (Gf, Gc, etc.) et plus de 90 aptitudes primaires (induction, connaissances lexicales ; pour une description complète, McGrew, 2009 ; Newton et McGrew, 2010). Parmi les aptitudes globales, les plus connues sont les facteurs raisonnement fluide (Gf), compréhensionconnaissances (Gc), traitement visuel (Gv), mémoire à court terme (Gsm) et IVT (Gs ; pour une description de ces cinq aptitudes globales, Lecerf et al., 2012 ; Newton et McGrew, 2010) 4 . Enfin, chaque aptitude globale comprend diverses aptitudes primaires. ...
Article
Results from contemporary research have demonstrated the importance of fluid reasoning, working memory and processing speed in cognitive functioning. The developers of the WAIS-IV have introduced new subtests to strengthen the assessment of these cognitive dimensions. The interpretation of the WAIS-IV is currently based on four factorial indexes (VCI, PRI, WMI, and PSI), as well as on the FSIQ. The developers of the WAIS-IV indicated that one of the objectives of the revision was to update the theoretical foundations of this intelligence scale. However, the overall structure of the WAIS-IV is not aligned with the consensual Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities. For instance, the technical manual of the WAIS-IV does not provide an index of fluid reasoning, although the authors emphasized the importance of this dimension in cognitive functioning. In this paper, we provide the French normative tables for five CHC composite scores of the WAIS-IV, namely, fluid reasoning (Gf), comprehension-knowledge (Gc), visual processing (Gv), short-term memory (Gsm), and processing speed (Gs). These norms were created using a statistical approximation procedure. Like the CHC norms that we have proposed for the WISC-IV, theses tables allow clinicians to switch towards the dominant interpretative framework and to use the CHC composite scores as complementary measures to the four standard index scores, in order to conduct normative and ipsative analyses.
... Therefore, we argue that with Swiss-French children the interpretation of the WISC-IV subtests might be improved by applying the CHC framework. To deal with this goal, normative tables for the five CHC composite scores have been developed on the basis of the French data and could be used for interpreting the subtest scores according to the CHC theory for the French WISC-IV (Lecerf, Golay, Reverte, Senn, et al., 2012) and the French WAIS-IV (). Our findings were also consistent with previous data that showed that a CHC-based model in which Gf and Gv were distinct was closer to the data than models including a single Perceptual Reasoning factor (PRI) (Keith et al., 2006; Lecerf et al., 2010). ...
... This finding is congruent with previous ML-CFA analyses and suggests that the CHC model would allow clinicians to make more adequate interpretations than the standard four-factor structure ( Keith et al., 2006;Lecerf et al., 2010). Therefore, to gain clinical validity of tests scores interpretation, we recommend interpreting the results of the French WISC-IV subtest scores according to the CHC classification, with the norms that we have developed for the French WISC-IV ( Lecerf et al., 2012). The superiority of the direct hierarchical and the higher order CHC-based models over the current four-factor alternatives also reinforces the idea that the PRI score should be split into two subcomponents (Gf and Gv). ...
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The interpretation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is based on a 4-factor model, which is only partially compatible with the mainstream Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence measurement. The structure of cognitive batteries is frequently analyzed via exploratory factor analysis and/or confirmatory factor analysis. With classical confirmatory factor analysis, almost all cross-loadings between latent variables and measures are fixed to zero in order to allow the model to be identified. However, inappropriate zero cross-loadings can contribute to poor model fit, distorted factors, and biased factor correlations; most important, they do not necessarily faithfully reflect theory. To deal with these methodological and theoretical limitations, we used a new statistical approach, Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM), among a sample of 249 French-speaking Swiss children (8-12 years). With BSEM, zero-fixed cross-loadings between latent variables and measures are replaced by approximate zeros, based on informative, small-variance priors. Results indicated that a direct hierarchical CHC-based model with 5 factors plus a general intelligence factor better represented the structure of the WISC-IV than did the 4-factor structure and the higher order models. Because a direct hierarchical CHC model was more adequate, it was concluded that the general factor should be considered as a breadth rather than a superordinate factor. Because it was possible for us to estimate the influence of each of the latent variables on the 15 subtest scores, BSEM allowed improvement of the understanding of the structure of intelligence tests and the clinical interpretation of the subtest scores. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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This study examined the relative contributions of measures of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities in explaining writing achievement. Drawing from samples that covered the age range of 7 to 18 years, simultaneous multiple regression was used to regress scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III; Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001) that represent CHC broad and narrow abilities onto the WJ III Basic Writing Skills and Written Expression cluster scores. At most age levels, Comprehension-Knowledge demonstrated moderate to strong effects on both writing clusters, Processing Speed demonstrated moderate effects on Basic Writing Skills and moderate to strong effects on Written Expression, and Short-Term Memory demonstrated moderate effects. At the youngest age levels, Long-Term Retrieval demonstrated moderate to strong effects on Basic Writing Skills and moderate effects on Written Expression. Auditory Processing, and Phonemic Awareness demonstrated moderate effects on only Written Expression at the youngest age levels and at some of the oldest age levels. Fluid Reasoning demonstrated moderate effects on both writing clusters only during some of the oldest age levels. Visual-Spatial Thinking primarily demonstrated negligible effects. The results provide insights into the cognitive abilities most important for understanding the writing skills of children during the school-age years. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Cognitive clusters from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) Tests of Cognitive Abilities that measure select Cattell-Horn-Carroll broad and narrow cognitive abilities were shown to be significantly related to mathematics achievement in a large, nationally representative sample of children and adolescents. Multiple regression analyses were used to predict performance on the Math Calculation Skills and Math Reasoning clusters from the WJ III Tests of Achievement for 14 age groups ranging in age from 6 to 19 years. Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc) demonstrated moderate relations with Math Calculation Skills after the early school-age years and moderate to strong relations with Math Reasoning. Fluid Reasoning (Gf), Short-term Memory (Gsm), and Working Memory generally demonstrated moderate relations with the mathematics clusters. Processing Speed (Gs) demonstrated moderate relations with Math Reasoning during the elementary school years and moderate to strong relations with Math Calculation Skills. During the earliest ages of the analysis, Long-term Retrieval (Glr) demonstrated moderate relations with the mathematics clusters, and Auditory Processing (Ga) demonstrated moderate relations with Math Calculation Skills. Visual-Spatial Thinking (Gv) generally demonstrated nonsignificant relations with the mathematics clusters. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 40: 155–171, 2003.
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Contemporary Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities has evolved over the past 20 years and serves as the theoretical foundation for a number of current cognitive ability assessments. CHC theory provides a means by which we can better understand the relationships between cognitive abilities and academic achievement, an important component of learning disabilities identification and instructional planning. A research synthesis of the extant CHC cognitive-achievement (COG-ACH) research literature is reported. Systematic and operationally defined research synthesis procedures were employed to address limitations present in the only prior attempted synthesis. Nineteen studies met the criteria for inclusion, which yielded 134 analyses. The 134 analyses were organized by three age groups (6–8, 9–13, and 14–19) and by four achievement domains (basic reading skills, reading comprehension, basic math skills, and math reasoning). The results reveal a much more nuanced set of CHC COG-ACH relations than was identified in the only prior review because of (a) breadth of cognitive abilities and measures (broad vs. narrow), (b) breadth of achievement domains (e.g., basic reading skills and reading comprehension vs. broad reading), and (c) developmental (age) status. The findings argue for selective, flexible, and referral-focused intelligence testing, particularly in the context of emerging Response to Intervention (RTI) assessment models. The results suggest that narrow CHC abilities should be the primary focus of instructionally relevant intelligence testing. Furthermore, the finding that more than 90% of the available research is based on the Woodcock–Johnson Battery argues for significant caution in generalizing the findings to other batteries. CHC-based COG-ACH research with other intelligence batteries is recommended. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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This article reviews factor-analytic research on individually administered intelligence tests from a Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) perspective. Although most new and revised tests of intelligence are based, at least in part, on CHC theory, earlier versions generally were not. Our review suggests that whether or not they were based on CHC theory, the factors derived from both new and previous versions of most tests are well explained by the theory. Especially useful for understanding the theory and tests are cross-battery analyses using multiple measures from multiple instruments. There are issues that need further explanation, of course, about CHC theory and tests derived from that theory. We address a few of these issues including those related to comprehension–knowledge (Gc) and memory factors, as well as issues related to factor retention in factor analysis. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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During the past decade the Cattell–Horn Gf–Gc and Carroll Three-Stratum models have emerged as the consensus psychometric-based models for understanding the structure of human intelligence. Although the two models differ in a number of ways, the strong correspondence between the two models has resulted in the increased use of a broad umbrella term for a synthesis of the two models (Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory of cognitive abilities—CHC theory).The purpose of this editorial is three-fold. First, I will describe the CHC framework and recommend that intelligence researchers begin using the CHC taxonomy as a common nomenclature for describing research findings and a theoretical framework from which to test hypotheses regarding various aspects of human cognitive abilities. Second, I argue that the emergence of the CHC framework should not be viewed as the capstone to the psychometric era of factor analytic research. Rather, I recommend the CHC framework serve as the stepping stone to reinvigorate the investigation of the structure of human intelligence.Finally, the Woodcock-Muñoz Foundation Human Cognitive Abilities (HCA) project, which is an evolving, free, on-line electronic archive of the majority of datasets analyzed in Carroll's (1993) seminal treatise on factor analysis of human cognitive abilities, is introduced and described. Intelligence scholars are urged to access the Carroll HCA datasets to test and evaluate structural models of human intelligence with contemporary methods (confirmatory factor analysis). In addition, suggestions are offered for linking the analysis of contemporary data sets with the seminal work of Carroll. The emergence of a consensus CHC taxonomy and access to the original datasets analyzed by Carroll provides an unprecedented opportunity to extend and refine our understanding of human intelligence.
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In the present study, the correlations of test scores between the Woodcock-Johnson-Revised (WJ-R) and the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT) were factor analyzed in order to test the replicability of the contemporary Horn-Cattell Gf-Gc model in a non-White sample and to gain a more complete understanding of the factorial structure of the KAIT. The empirically supported Gf-Gc theoretical model underlying the WJ-R was used as the criterion against which to evaluate the cognitive abilities that are measured by the KAIT. Participants were 114 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade students ranging in age from 10 years, 11 months to 15 years, 11 months. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate and compare eight a priori factor models and one post-hoc factor model. A Gf-Gc nine-factor model was the most plausible a priori model fit of the WJ-R/KAIT data, a finding that extends the replicability of the Gf-Gc model to a non-White sample. The factorial structure of the KAIT put forward by its authors (i.e., a two-factor Gf-Gc model) was not supported. It appears that the KAIT measures Glr or long-term retrieval (associative memory) and Gsm or short-term memory (memory span) in addition to fluid and crystallized abilities. These results provide support for use of the Gf-Gc theory in a non-White sample and interpreting the KAIT from contemporary Gf-Gc theory rather than a two-factor model.
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Group and individual broad ability profiles of children with mental retardation and a matched sample of children with average achievement was investigated through use of the 7 Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) factor clusters from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Results indicate that, as a group, the ranked performance of the children with mental retardation on the CHC factor clusters was largely consistent with the clusters' g loadings. When compared to average-achieving matches, the children with mental retardation scored lower on all CHC factor clusters, but the groups displayed different patterns of performance. Despite normative deficiencies in IQs, children with mental retardation demonstrated a wide range of performance across measures. Implications for assessment and diagnosis are discussed.
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The general purpose of the present article is to emphasize contemporary research-based and theory-based assessment, specifically Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory-based assessment (Carroll, 1993, 1997; Horn & Noll, 1997), in work with deaf and hard of hearing students in the school setting. The article focuses on the history of cognitive ability theory and test development and interpretation, as well as contemporary perspectives, including recent applications of CHC-based assessment useful with deaf and hard of hearing students in school-based evaluations. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.
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L’échelle d’intelligence de Wechsler pour les enfants (WISC) est aujourd'hui le test d'intelligence le plus largement utilisé par les psychologues francophones. Le professeur Jacques Grégoire a été le premier à proposer un ouvrage de base en français consacré à ce test, rapidement devenu une référence utilisée par les formateurs et les praticiens. Le présent ouvrage est consacré à la nouvelle version de ce test, le WISC-V. L’auteur a été membre du comité scientifique américain qui a supervisé le développement du WISC-V. Il a également été associé à l'adaptation française de ce test, qu’il utilise dans sa propre pratique clinique. Son livre présente une méthode rigoureuse d'interprétation des résultats au WISC-V. Cette méthode s’appuie sur une connaissance approfondie des bases théoriques et des propriétés métriques des scores obtenus à ce test. Elle permet aux praticiens d’assurer pleinement leur rôle d’interprètes des résultats et de tirer un maximum d’informations pertinentes et utiles des protocoles de WISC-V.
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L’indice d’aptitude général (IAG) a été développé dans le WISC-III pour estimer le niveau cognitif général. Il s’agissait de proposer une alternative au QI Total. Plus récemment, l’indice de compétence cognitive (ICC) a été proposé. Jusqu’à il y a peu, seules les normes américaines de ces indices étaient disponibles ; les normes françaises IAG et ICC pour le WISC-IV ont été récemment développées à partir d’une procédure d’approximation statistique. Toutefois, les normes développées de cette manière seraient moins appropriées que les normes construites sur la base d’un échantillon. Cette étude vise à comparer les normes IAG et ICC développées à partir d’une procédure d’approximation statistique à celles créées à partir d’un échantillon de 182 enfants âgés de huit à 12 ans. Les corrélations entre les deux types de normes sont de 0,997 pour IAG et de 0,999 pour ICC ; les différences absolues moyennes sont respectivement de 5,38 et de 2,24 points pour IAG et ICC. Enfin, pour les enfants présentant un score IAGS inférieur à 89, les normes IAGE semblent indiquer que leurs compétences seraient inférieures d’environ 8–10 points à celui indiqué par le score IAGS. Les résultats de cette étude indiquent que les scores IAG et ICC peuvent constituer des informations utiles sur les capacités cognitives de l’enfant.
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The main objective of this study was to examine how quantitative knowledge (Gq in the CHC model) and processing speed (Gs in the CHC model) affect scores on the WAIS-III Arithmetic Subtest (Wechsler, 2000) with aging. Two age groups were compared: 30 young adults and 25 elderly adults. For both age groups, Gq was an important predictor of Arithmetic score variance (R²=48% and R²=45%, respectively). However, in line with Salthouse, the results showed that processing speed predicted Arithmetic scores only for the older adults, not for the younger ones (additional 9% of the variance for the elderly vs. 1% of the variance for the young adults). These results can clarify the ambiguous evolution of Arithmetic scores with aging: Arithmetic performance with aging seems to follow an intermediate path between Gc and Gf. This suggests that both Gq and Gs have an impact on Arithmetic in aging.
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The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised (Wechsler, 1981) standardization data were analyzed to determine the frequency of relative intersubtest scatter. The relative scatter range was defined as the difference between the highest and lowest subtest scores based on the value of the highest subtest. This approach provides the greatest precision in scatter analysis to determine whether the amount of scatter obtained in clinical profiles is rare enough to be considered abnormal. For ease of clinical use, tables are provided that report frequency of a minimum (lowest) subtest score by each level of maximum (highest) subtest score. Potential scatter range, rather than overall level of intelligence, was the primary determinant of the magnitude of scatter; the greater the possible range the larger the magnitude of scatter. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
the 3-stratum theory of cognitive abilities is an expansion and extension of previous theories / it specifies what kinds of individual differences in cognitive abilities exist and how those kinds of individual differences are related to one another / it provides a map of all cognitive abilities known or expected to exist and can be used as a guide to research and practice / it proposes that there are a fairly large number of distinct individual differences in cognitive ability, and that the relationships among them can be derived by classifying them into 3 different strata: stratum I, "narrow" abilities; stratum II, "broad" abilities; and stratum III, consisting of a single "general" ability origin of the theory / operationalization and application of the theory / empirical support for the theory / beyond traditional theories of intelligence (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence propounded 20 years ago by the author has since accumulated support. However, the crucial issue of whether 1 or 2 general factors subtend intellectual performances has lacked an experiment adequately designed for accurate, determinate, simple-structure rotation at the 2nd order. By factoring culturally embedded with culture-fair intelligence measures on a background of pure personality primaries (N = 277 7th and 8th grade boys and girls), it is shown that 2 general factors indeed exist. A review, with some mathematical formulations, is given of the theory's implications for the nature-nurture ratio, brain injury, standard deviaiton of the IQ, growth curves, the concept of a relational difficulty hierarchy, test standardization, and the relative validities of traditional and culture-fair intelligence tests. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
There is no more central topic in psychology than intelligence and intelligence testing. With a history as long as psychology itself, intelligence is the most studied and likely the best understood construct in psychology, albeit still with many “unknowns.” The psychometric sophistication employed in creating intelligence tests is at the highest level. The authors provide an overview of the history, theory, and assessment of intelligence. Five questions are proposed and discussed that focus on key areas of confusion or misunderstanding associated with the measurement and assessment of intelligence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated the problem that most forms of pattern analysis of the Wechsler scales are essentially varieties of simultaneous statistical inference (i.e., multiple comparisons in the same sense that this term is used in the literature on ANOVA). A solution is presented for a special case of one–many comparisons, namely, the comparison of each subtest score with the average Verbal or Performance subtest score, or with the overall average. Tables are provided to facilitate this form of pattern analysis of the WISC, the WAIS, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, the WISC-R, and the WAIS-R. (21 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
[suggests that] clinicians can conduct and interpret intellectual assessments that more closely approximate the major Gf-Gc [fluid and crystallized general intellectual] abilities [see record 97-003011-004] by "crossing" intelligence test batteries in a systematic and empirically grounded manner / describes the major features of this method, which [the authors] refer to as the "cross-battery" approach to assessing and interpreting cognitive abilities foundations of the "cross-battery" approach [improving the validity of intellectual assessment and interpretation, the 3 pillars of the cross-battery approach] / operationalizing the cross-battery approach (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Gf-Gc theory was developed in response to 5 principal kinds of evidence, namely (1) that of covariation and organization among human cognitive capabilities, called structural evidence; (2) that of developmental change from infancy to old age, called developmental evidence; (3) that of relationships to indicators of physiological and neurological functioning, called neurocognitive evidence; (4) that of predictions of school performance, educational levels, and occupational performance, called achievement evidence; and (5) that of relationships among persons related biologically to different degrees, called heritability or behavioral-genetic evidence (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present study assessed the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II) in relation to the synthesized Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence with a preschool sample. Participants were 200 preschool children between four and five years of age. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted, and different variations of the CHC model were examined to determine which provided the best representation of the proposed underlying CHC constructs tested by the KABC-II. The models included one similar to Spearman's g, a contemporary two-stratum model consisting of fluid and crystallized intelligence (Gf-Gc model), and a synthesized CHC broad factor +g model. The last was the empirically validated theory of interest in this study. Results of the CFA revealed that the broad factor +g CHC model was the best overall design to explain KABC-II results. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
This article demonstrates how the broad and narrow abilities and processes that comprise Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) theory and their relations to specific academic outcomes have begun to transform our current understanding of the definition of and methods for indentifying specific learning disability (SLD), particularly in the school setting. The manner in which CHC theory has been used to guide evaluation of the academic and cognitive capabilities of students who are suspected of having SLD is described. Current psychometric methods for identifying SLD that have a foundation in CHC theory are highlighted. These newer methods are based on what is known as the “third method,” a provision for SLD identification included in the federal regulations (34 CFR 300.540-543) accompanying the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act that permits the use of alternative, research-based approaches. A method based on an integration of existing third-method approaches, called the Hypothesis-Testing CHC Approach (HT-CHC), was proposed. The HT-CHC method is expected to be carried out within the context of a Response to Intervention (RTI) service delivery model. Benefits of this approach over ability–achievement discrepancy and RTI-only methods and future directions in SLD identification research are discussed. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
The broad cognitive abilities defined by the Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) theory have been shown to predict school achievement. However, the ecological validity of these constructs has not been studied in classroom settings. This study compares ratings by a sample of teachers (n = 53) and school psychologists (n = 86) of the importance of the CHC cognitive abilities in the classroom. The scale demonstrated adequate reliability (total scale α = .93, median α = .74), although evidence of construct validity varied between teachers and school psychologists. Both teachers and school psychologists rated quantitative ability, crystallized knowledge, and fluid reasoning as most important to school success. However, school psychologists rated short-term memory and quantitative ability as more important than did the teachers. Importance of these differences for consultation is discussed. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
The recently published second edition of the Differential Abilities Scale (DAS-II) is designed to measure multiple broad and general abilities from Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) theory. Although the technical manual presents information supporting the test's structure, additional research is needed to determine the constructs measured by the test and the consistency of measurement across ages. The purposes of this research were to determine whether the DAS-II measures the CHC abilities it is designed to measure and whether it does so consistently across the 4 to 17 year age span. We analyzed competing higher-order CFA models using 800 participants, ages 5 through 8, from the DAS-II standardization. The final validation model from this series of analyses tested for factor invariance across the 4 to 17 year age span by using a reference variable approach. Our findings supported the DAS-II's intended structure, with minor exceptions. Findings also supported the invariance of the DAS-II CHC model across the 4 to 17 year age span, again with minor exceptions. Despite the use of different tests at different ages, the DAS-II measures a consistent set of CHC abilities across the ages: g, Gc, Gf, Gv, Gsm, Gs, and a narrow Glr ability; psychologists should interpret the DAS-II as measuring these abilities. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
In this article we explore the application of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC)-based cognitive assessment to school psychology practice. We review the theoretical literature to address both identification practices, with a focus on learning disabilities and mental retardation eligibility, and program development, with a focus on linking assessment to intervention design. We present case studies that illustrate the application of CHC-based cognitive assessment to identification and intervention development. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 42: 525–536, 2005.
Article
This study examined the underlying constructs measured by the Differential Ability Scales (DAS; C.D. Elliott, 1990a) as they relate to the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Theory (K.S. McGrew, 1997) of cognitive abilities. The DAS and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III COG; R.W. Woodcock, K.S. McGrew, & N. Mather, 2001) were administered to 131 children in grades 3 through 5 who took part in a concurrent validity study included in the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Third Edition, technical manual (K.S. McGrew & R.W. Woodcock, 2001). Confirmatory factor analyses using maximum likelihood estimation were conducted with the AMOS 5.0 (J.L. Arbuckle, 2001) statistical program to evaluate three models of increasing complexity, to compare how well each fit the data set, and to identify the one that best described the underlying constructs measured by the DAS. Results suggested that the synthesized Three-Stratum CHC Model provided the most parsimonious representation among the three models tested. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 44: 119–138, 2007.
Article
According to the most widely accepted Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence measurement, each subtest score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults (3rd ed.; WAIS-III) should reflect both 1st- and 2nd-order factors (i.e., 4 or 5 broad abilities and 1 general factor). To disentangle the contribution of each factor, we applied a Schmid-Leiman orthogonalization transformation (SLT) to the standardization data published in the French technical manual for the WAIS-III. Results showed that the general factor accounted for 63% of the common variance and that the specific contributions of the 1st-order factors were weak (4.7%-15.9%). We also addressed this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis. Results indicated that the bifactor model (with 1st-order group and general factors) better fit the data than did the traditional higher order structure. Models based on the CHC framework were also tested. Results indicated that a higher order CHC model showed a better fit than did the classical 4-factor model; however, the WAIS bifactor structure was the most adequate. We recommend that users do not discount the Full Scale IQ when interpreting the index scores of the WAIS-III because the general factor accounts for the bulk of the common variance in the French WAIS-III. The 4 index scores cannot be considered to reflect only broad ability because they include a strong contribution of the general factor.
Article
The 23 factors previously identified as representing primary mental abilities and 8 factors previously defined as general personality dimensions were factored, using a sample of 297 adults, to provide evidence for hypotheses stipulating that general visualization, fluency, and speediness functions, as well as fluid and crystallized intelligence functions, are involved in the performances commonly said to indicate intelligence. 9 principal axes factors were sufficient to account for the observed, generally positive, intercorrelations among the 31 primary factors. These were rotated blindly to oblique simple structure. The resulting structure was consistent with predictions based upon refinements of the general theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence. Positive manifold for the intercorrelations among the 2nd-order factors was interpreted as indicating a social fact of interdependence between intraperson and environmental influences determining behavioral attributes. (30 ref.)
Article
A REACTION TO THE EXTENSIVE LITERATURE ON NEW WECHSLER SUBTEST COMBINATIONS (E.G., SHORT FORMS AND FACTOR SCALES). ANY NEW WECHSLER COMPOSITE RAISES ELEMENTARY ISSUES OF RELIABILITY, VALIDITY, AND SCORE STANDARDIZATION. IT IS ARGUED THAT IN THE PAST, THESE ISSUES HAVE NOT BEEN DEALT WITH IN A SATISFACTORY MANNER. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY FORMULAS, APPROPRIATE FOR WECHSLER COMPOSITES, ARE PRESENTED. A MODIFIED PART-WHOLE CORRELATION FORMULA IS OFFERED FOR USE IN CASES OF NONINDEPENDENT TEST ADMINISTRATION OF PART AND WHOLE. IN ORDER TO FACILITATE APPROPRIATE CLINICAL USE, CONVERSION TABLES ARE PRESENTED FOR THE TRANSFORMATION OF COMPOSITE SCORES, INCLUDING FACTOR SCORES, INTO, WECHSLER DEVIATION QUOTIENTS. (31 REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)