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Rethinking teachers’ goal orientations: Conceptual and methodological enhancements

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... Some teachers may define their achievement goal as demonstrating their competence (achievement goal: performance approach). In contrast, some teachers may determine their achievement orientations as avoiding performance to hide the lack of their competencies (achievement goal: performance-avoidance, Nitsche, Dickhäuser, Fasching, & Dresel, 2011). Some may prefer to do their work with minimum effort and time as achievement goal orientation (achievement goal: work avoidance, Cho & Shim, 2013;Nitsche et al., 2011). ...
... In contrast, some teachers may determine their achievement orientations as avoiding performance to hide the lack of their competencies (achievement goal: performance-avoidance, Nitsche, Dickhäuser, Fasching, & Dresel, 2011). Some may prefer to do their work with minimum effort and time as achievement goal orientation (achievement goal: work avoidance, Cho & Shim, 2013;Nitsche et al., 2011). ...
... Differences in teachers' achievement goal orientations are one of the important indicators related to their professional performance differences because previous studies have shown that teachers' achievement goal orientations are related to crucial professional constructs such as interest in teaching, burnout, instructional practices, help-seeking (Butler, 2007;Dresel, Fasching, Steuer, Nitsche, & Dickhäuser, 2013), motivation (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2013), job satisfaction (Papaioannou & Christodoulidis, 2007), self-efficacy (Nitsche et al., 2011), and teacher commitment (Han, Yin, & Wang, 2016). The current study focuses on the relationships between prospective teachers (PTs) achievement goal orientations and perfectionism, considering the mediating role of professional self-efficacy beliefs. ...
Article
The present study aims to investigate associations between prospective teachers’ professional achievement goal orientations, self-efficacy beliefs, and perfectionistic characteristics. The results revealed that different aspects of perfectionism, and professional self-efficacy belief predicted prospective teachers’ different professional goal orientations. Socially prescribed perfectionism positively and significantly predicted prospective teachers' professional self-efficacy beliefs. While doubt about actions positively predicted work-avoidance goal orientation, concern over mistakes positively predicted prospective teachers’ performance-avoidance goal orientation. Self-oriented perfectionism, self-worth contingencies, entitlement, and PTs' self-efficacy beliefs positively predicted their performance-approach goal orientation. Prospective teachers' professional self-efficacy beliefs fully mediated the relationship between doubt about actions and learning goal orientation, and the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and performance-approach goal orientation.
... Bei Zielorientierungen handelt es sich um vergleichsweise stabile motivationale Orientierungen, die Einfluss auf das Erleben und die Verhaltensregulation in Lernund Leistungssituationen nehmen (vgl. Nitsche et al. 2011). In der frühen Zielorientierungsforschung wurde zwischen einer Lern-(LZO) und einer Leistungszielorientierung unterschieden (vgl. ...
... Hinsichtlich der Einstellungen gegenüber und der Inanspruchnahme von Hilfe wurden in den zuvor zitierten Studien keine Zusammenhänge mit der ALZO gefunden (vgl. Butler 2007;Janke et al. 2019;Nitsche et al. 2011 ...
... Außerdem wurde erfragt, ob Lehrkräfte im Rahmen einer kollegialen Hospitation ein Feedback erhalten oder sich ein Schülerfeedback eingeholt haben. Hinsichtlich der Lehrkräftemerkmale wurde der Abschluss eines Lehramtsstudiums und die Berufserfahrung erhoben.Die Zielorientierungen wurden mit einem vonNitsche et al. (2011) entwickelten Instrument in der Prä-Befragung erfasst, das aus erhebungsökonomischen Gründen gekürzt wurde. Während die LZO mit der originalen Skala erfasst wurde, wurde auf eine nach Adressaten differenzierte Erfassung der ALZO und VLZO verzichtet.Die Kürzungen stehen im Einklang mit einer Kurzversion des Instruments von Nitsche et al. (2011), die von Janke et al. (2019) entwickelt und validiert wurde. ...
Article
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Zusammenfassung Unterrichtsfeedbacks von Schulleitungen sind häufig von geringer Qualität und daher nicht immer wirksam. Aus diesem Grund wurde eine Feedbackintervention entwickelt, die Schulleitungen dabei unterstützen soll, Lehrkräften ein qualitativ hochwertiges Feedback zu ihrem Unterricht zu geben, auf dessen Grundlage diese ihre Unterrichtskompetenz weiterentwickeln können. Die Wirksamkeit der Intervention wurde in einer Studie mit quasi-experimentellem Design überprüft. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird der Frage nachgegangen, ob Lehrkräfte, die ein Unterrichtsfeedback von ihrer Schulleitung erhielten, ihre Kompetenzentwicklung positiver einschätzen als Lehrkräfte, die kein Feedback erhielten. Weil Lehrkräfte der Interventionsgruppe ihre Kompetenzentwicklung nach dem Unterrichtsfeedback im Mittel nicht positiver einschätzten als Lehrkräfte der Kontrollgruppe, wurde zusätzlich geprüft, ob der Effekt des Unterrichtsfeedbacks mit den Zielorientierungen der Lehrkräfte interagiert. Für die Lern- und Annäherungsleistungszielorientierung zeigten sich differenzielle Effekte. Lehrkräfte mit hoch ausgeprägter Lern- und Annäherungsleistungszielorientierung, die ein Feedback erhielten, schätzten ihre Kompetenzentwicklung positiver ein als Lehrkräfte der Kontrollgruppe.
... A person-centered approach, unlike a variable-centered approach, identifies distinct configurations (e.g., motivational profiles) and their prevalence and thus allows for a better understanding of the interplay of multiple motivational characteristics (see e.g., Watt et al., 2021). For example, whereas performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals are closely related in variable-centered studies (Nitsche et al., 2011), the few person-centered analyses indicate that this is not the case for all teachers. Kunst et al. (2018), for example, identified a subgroup of teachers, characterized by low performance-approach but high performance-avoidance goals. ...
... At Time 1, teacher motivation was assessed by self-ratings of enthusiasm, self-efficacy, and goal orientations with scales that have consistently shown good psychometric properties and have been used in a number of studies (e.g., Kunter et al., 2011;Nitsche et al., 2011;Schmitz & Schwarzer, 2000). At Times 1 and 2, students filled out a questionnaire on their perception of their mathematics teacher's teaching quality, including items measuring classroom management, cognitive activation, and student support. ...
... Teachers' goal-orientations were assessed using a questionnaire by Nitsche et al. (2011), comprising four types of goals with statements starting with "In my vocation, I aspire …," rated on a 5-point scale (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree): nine learning goal items (e.g., "… to improve my pedagogical knowledge and competence"; Cronbach's α = .73), 12 performance-approach goal items (e.g., "… my students to realize that I teach better than other teachers"; Cronbach's α = .91), ...
Article
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This study used an integrated theoretical approach to investigate teacher motivation and its influence on teaching quality. Drawing on Expectancy-Value-Theory and Achievement-Goal-Theory, a person-centered approach was used to investigate how multiple characteristics (i.e., self-efficacy, enthusiasm, and goal orientation) combined to form teachers’ motivational profiles. The profiles were then analyzed to see if there was a link to teaching quality. Latent profile analysis for 156 secondary-level mathematics teachers identified three motivational profiles which differed only in their performance goals: low performance goal-oriented (49%), high performance goal-oriented (38%), and high performance-avoidance goal-oriented (13%). Multilevel path analysis showed that motivational profile membership was not significantly related to student-rated teaching quality when baseline teaching quality was controlled (N = 1497 available on both measurement points). The findings revealed that the link between teacher motivation and teaching quality was less clear than expected. Possible reasons for the results are discussed.
... Recently, much evidence has been provided showing that achievement goals are also important for the experiences and behaviors of school teachers at work (Butler, 2007;Nitsche et al., 2011;Retelsdorf and Günther, 2011). In agreement, it can be expected that addressing university instructors' achievement goals is useful for understanding the motivations underlying instructional practices (Daumiller et al., 2015). ...
... Apart from this, work avoidance goals were negatively related to student learning. This corresponds to findings showing that higher work avoidance goals are accompanied by less effort (Urdan, 1997) as well as less interest in teaching and contempt of help and support (Retelsdorf et al., 2010;Nitsche et al., 2011), factors which can ultimately result in lower student learning. The hypothesis on the association of relational goals with the overall assessment of teaching quality could not be confirmed. ...
... Although, literature on school teachers typically reports high correlations between performance approach and performance avoidance goals as well (e.g., γ = 0.88; Nitsche et al., 2011), their association was so high in the present study that it must be seen as questionable to justify their differentiation in these two factors. An additional indication against the distinction in solely approach-avoidance for university instructors' performance goals is the positive correlation between performance avoidance goals and teaching self-efficacy (which stays in sharp contrast to the negative correlations found for students; cf. ...
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The present study examines the achievement goals of university instructors, particularly the structure of such goals, and their relationship to biographic characteristics, other aspects of instructors’ motivation, and teaching quality. Two hundred and fifty-one university instructors (184 without Ph.D., 97 with Ph.D., thereof 51 full professors; 146 males, 92 females) answered a questionnaire measuring achievement goals, self-efficacy, and enthusiasm in altogether 392 courses. Teaching quality was assessed using reports from 9,241 students who were attending these courses. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed mastery, performance approach, performance avoidance, work avoidance, and relational goals as being distinguishable from each other. Distinct relationships were found between different instructors’ achievement goals, and gender, age, and career status as well as self-efficacy and enthusiasm. Hierarchical linear models suggested positive associations of instructors’ mastery goals with teaching quality, while negative associations were indicated for performance avoidance goals and work avoidance goals in relation to teaching quality. Exploratory analyses conducted due to a quite large correlation between performance approach and performance avoidance goals indicated that for university instructors, differentiating performance goals into appearance and normative components might also be adequate. All in all, the study highlights the auspiciousness of the theoretical concept of university instructors’ achievement goals and contributes to making it comprehensively accessible.
... With regard to GO, based on different researches results (Retelsdorf et al., 2010;Runhaar et al., 2010;Nitsche et al., 2011;Dresel et al., 2013;Throndsen and Turmo, 2013;Van Daal et al., 2014;Schiefele and Schaffner, 2015), it could be estimated that teachers use teaching methods that match their own motivational orientation and beliefs (Dresel et al., 2013). For tertiary education, it is confirmed that teachers who have reported higher levels for MGO have a more student-centred approach in instructional practice, teachers' PGO is positively related to teacher-oriented practices (measured by the use of ATI) (Han et al., 2015). ...
... For pre-tertiary education, existing research on goal orientation has identified multiple links between teachers' GO, SE and their various teaching practices, without searching for any direct associations with teaching methods. Teachers' MGO is often confirmed to be positively related to SE, while SE is negatively predicted by PAGO (Runhaar et al., 2010;Nitsche et al., 2011). Considering these results, we hypothesise: ...
... This study shows the existence of important associations between the three GO profiles, teaching SO, and known or used teaching methods. In line with teachers goal orientation research (Butler, 2007;Butler and Shibaz, 2008;Eren, 2009;Retelsdorf et al., 2010;Nitsche et al., 2011;Van Daal et al., 2014;Han et al., 2015), MGO has emerged as the most adaptive; high MGO teachers have been associated with higher levels of knowledge and use for eight out of ten teaching methods as predicted in hypothesis 3. Unlike Eren (2009), we found no evidence that MGO is only related to student-centred teaching practices of teachers, but it is related to both types of teaching methods, thus confirming that teachers with higher MGO are willing to master multiple teaching methods. Teacheroriented teaching methods are found at teachers with higher PGO ratings, whereas higher PAGO ratings are associated with teachers avoiding using some teaching methods and never generating higher use for any teaching methods. ...
Article
Traditionally, teaching practices of university teachers have been investigated in the context of academic disciplines and teaching approaches. Alternatively, our research analyses teachers' motivational beliefs and self-confidence in their teaching practices measured by using ten teaching methods. This study investigates the role of goal orientation and self-efficacy as predictors of knowledge and use of teaching methods of 447 university teachers. The findings demonstrate that mastery goal orientation has a positive effect on both student and teacher-centred methods. Additionally, performance goal orientation is a negative predictor of role-playing knowledge and use, being positively associated with lecturing and demonstration. Self-efficacy has a positive effect on the use and knowledge of almost all ten teaching methods. These results can be employed to improve efforts in increasing teaching quality by developing varied mechanisms which can positively impact teachers' motivational beliefs and self-confidence.
... Since there is behavioural diversity among teachers in reaching those aims, there can be diversity in their orientations. Therefore, goal orientations are considered to be important in teachers' actions to organize and initiate skills development activities (Nitsche et al, 2011). For example, when the learning approach orientation is taken into consideration from the perspective of a teacher; it can be seen that this orientation is associated with high professional reflection, high interest in teaching, high self-efficacy and preference for seeking help to solve problems related to the profession (Butler, 2007;Runhaar, Sanders and Yang, 2010). ...
... This result was, in fact, an expected outcome of the present study. Similar results were achieved in Retelsdorf and Günther's (2011) as well as Nitsche et al's (2011) studies. Teachers' self-efficacy beliefs about teaching activities have been found to be predictors of their emotional, cognitive and behaviouristic dimensions. ...
... Since mastery-goal orientation is perceived as an opportunity to develop skills and knowledge, this orientation is closely related to trying hard and resisting against difficulties and self-efficacy (Montecinos et al, 2014). Individuals with mastery-goal orientations evaluate themselves when faced with a new and difficult situation and are aware of what actions they should or should not take (Retelsdorf and Günther, 2011;Nitsche et al 2011). This awareness is very important for professional development. ...
Article
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Teachers' goal orientations for teaching are one of the most important motivational beliefs affecting instructional processes. This study investigated the structural relationship between teachers' goal orientations for teaching and their attitudes towards their job through measures of self-efficacy and burnout. 495 teachers (working in primary, secondary, or high schools) participated in the study. Hypothetical models were created and tested using the variables mentioned above. The results suggest: 1) mastery goal orientation, through self-efficacy and burnout measures, is a positive predictor of attitudes towards teaching, 2) work-avoidance orientation, through self-efficacy and burnout measures, is a negative predictor of attitudes towards teaching and 3) ability-approach orientation has no effect on attitudes towards teaching. In addition, it has been found that the above goal orientations do not have a direct effect on teachers' attitudes towards teaching. The results are further discussed through comparisons to related literature. Highlights • Teachers' mastery goal orientation through self-efficacy and burnout measures is a positive predictor of attitudes towards teaching. • Teachers' work-avoidance orientation through self-efficacy and burnout measures is a negative predictor of attitudes towards teaching. • Teachers' ability-approach orientation has no effect on attitudes towards teaching. • Above goal orientations do not have a direct effect on teachers' attitudes towards teaching.
... We acknowledge that teachers can differ in the direction of their learning goal striving, meaning that some teachers may be content with their content-specific expertise but not so much with their knowledge about pedagogical skills. However, we also think that teachers' general learning goal orientation can transcend these specific areas and influence their behavior in a broad set of situations (see Nitsche et al., 2011, who found that higher-order factors integrating the subscales were actually more strongly predictive for teachers' attitudes towards help-seeking and self-efficacy than the specific facets of learning goal orientation). Nevertheless, we still see merit in the inclusion of certain learning areas within items assessing teachers' learning goal orientation. ...
... Even though it is an interesting research direction, little empirical evidence exists for the relevance of the distinction between different targets for competence demonstration in performance goal orientations (for notable exceptions see Nitsche et al., 2011;Ziegler et al, 2008). This is especially true for the distinction between self-and other-addressing performance goal orientations as it opposes contemporary directions in achievement goal research highlighting that performance goals are predominantly characterized by an extrinsic focus on others rather than by an intrinsic focus on the self (Elliot et al., 2011). ...
... With regard to concurrent validity of the brief questionnaire, we assumed that teachers' learning goal orientation would positively predict self-efficacy given that the pursuit of learning likely increases self-ascribed capabilities to succeed in a certain task such as teaching (Nitsche et al., 2011;Yeung, Craven, & Kaur, 2012). In contrast, performance avoidance goal orientations were meant to negatively predict self-efficacy because they indicate a general negative outlook on the task at hand (Elliot & McGregor, 1999). ...
Article
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We developed a brief questionnaire for teachers' achievement goal orientations that allows for an accurate assessment, while also being feasible for complex research designs. In a first online study with 502 German teachers, we investigated the scale's factorial structure, its measurement invariance over different career stages and its construct validity. In a second study with 650 Austrian teachers, we tested its concurrent validity for teachers' self-efficacy, attitudes toward vocational help-seeking and achievement emotions. The results of both studies show that this short scale is characterized by high reliability, validity and feasibility for a wide array of studies on teachers' motivation.
... When the literature was searched for instances of relations between teachers' goal orientations and the other variables, the studies will be demonstrated the importance of their goal orientations. It was found in the relevant literature that teachers' goal orientations were associated with instructional practices (Dresel et al., 2013;Retelsdorf et al., 2010); job satisfaction (Papaioannou & Christodoulidis, 2007;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2013); help-related perceptions, preferences, and behaviour (Butler, 2007); teachers' classroom behaviour (Butler & Shibaz, 2008); and self-efficacy (Nitsche et al., 2011); teachers' turnover intention (Li et al., 2021). Briefly, it can be said that teachers' goal orientations affect all components in the learning process, that teachers have determining roles in the goal structures forming in the classroom environment, and that teachers are influential in determining students' goal orientations (Wolters & Daugherty, 2007). ...
... The same study also found that ability approach goals had indirect effects on surface learning. Nitsche et al. (2011) found that teachers having mastery goal orientation had a high self-efficacy while teachers having performance goal orientation had a low self-efficacy. Pamuk (2014) found that teachers' ability-approach goals were positively correlated with students' perceptions of learning science. ...
Article
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Differences, backgrounds, and characteristics of teachers are essential factors in the teaching and learning environments. Teachers are a vital factor in quality education and an influential component in improving the success of any educational system. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the self-efficacy, goal orientations, and epistemological beliefs of teachers. A sample of 375 teachers participated in this study. Path analysis results indicate that their epistemological beliefs correlate with the ability to approach goals, mastery goals, and self-efficacy. The maximum effect of teachers' mastery goal is on the efficacy of instructional strategies and then on classroom management efficacy.
... Different orientations towards these goals shape perceptions and interpretations of achievement situations and possibilities for action-affecting teachers' learning, experiences, and behaviors. Teachers' learning goals have been found to be positively associated with favorable attitudes, help seeking, self-efficacy, job satisfaction, and professional development; conversely, teachers' performance avoidance and work avoidance goals have been found to be positively associated with maladaptive attitudes, low self-efficacy, professional stress experiences, and the number of sick days (e.g., Authors, 2021;Daumiller et al., 2020;Daniels et al., 2013;Gorozidis & Papaioannou, 2014;Janke et al., 2019;Nitsche et al., 2011Nitsche et al., , 2013aRunhaar et al., 2010;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2017). These studies indicated a less clear pattern of effects regarding teachers' performance approach goals, which have been found to be associated with both positive and negative processes (similar to findings with students, Elliot & Hulleman, 2017). ...
... We used the Nitsche et al. (2011) questionnaire to measure teachers' achievement goals. Following the item stem "In my vocation, …", learning goals were assessed with 9 items (e.g., "I aspire to improve my pedagogical knowledge and my competences"; Cronbach α = .80), ...
Preprint
Teachers’ achievement goals are important motivational factors underlying differences in their work-related behaviors and cognitions. Within this, it is posited that teachers’ achievement goals also matter for their teaching practices. This important premise for the relevance of teacher goals is still little understood, particularly as most studies on this topic use global self-reports of overarching teaching practices. With the present work, we differentiate between ten theoretically grounded teaching practices central to motivating lessons and introduce a lesson diary approach for assessing them. One-hundred-and-thirty-four German high school teachers filled out a questionnaire about their achievement goals and, over the course of their following five lessons, a total of 670 lesson diaries concerning their teaching practices. Multilevel analyses documented teachers’ learning goals to be consistently linked to use of mastery-based teaching practices. Performance avoidance goals were linked to fewer mastery-based and more performance-based practices. Performance approach and work avoidance goals went along with different, primarily performance-based teaching practices. Gender and teaching experience explained little variation in teachers’ achievement goals and did not substantially change the main results when controlled for. Overall, the findings illuminate robust linkages with teachers’ goals and speak to the merits of a diary approach for assessing teaching practices.
... Für die Erhebung der selbstbezogenen Zielorientierungen sollten die Studierenden auf einer fünfstufigen Likert-Skala von "sehr zutreffend" (= 1) bis "sehr unzutreffend" (= 5) einschätzen, inwiefern Aussagen wie "In meinem Studium strebe ich danach, meine fachdidaktischen Kompetenzen zu verbessern" auf sie persönlich zutreffen. Die verwendete Skala zu den Zielorientierungen der Studierenden bestand aus insgesamt 16 Items und stammte ursprünglich aus dem Instrument von Nitsche et al. (2011). In ihrem Modell unterscheiden die Autor*innen zwischen den Zieldimensionen "learning goal orientation", "performance approach goal orientation", "work avoidance goal orientation" sowie "performance avoidance goal orientation". ...
... Die Items 10 und 13 stammten inhaltlich aus der Dimension "performance approach goal orientation", während die Items 1 bis 6 sowie 8 und 9 der Dimension "learning goal orientation" zuzuordnen waren. Im Sinne der vorliegenden Seminarkonzeption und der Analysen von Nitsche et al. (2011) wurden die Items 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 und 16 für die vorliegenden Auswertungen umkodiert. ...
... This means that performance approach goals could motivate instructors to engage in SETs to receive praise, whereas performance avoidance goals could motivate them to abstain from using SETs, given the danger of receiving self-diminishing feedback. Empirical studies support this assumption in samples of school teachers, as performance approach goals have been associated with positive perceptions of help-seeking (Nitsche et al., 2011), and performance avoidance goals have been related to negative perceptions of help-seeking and avoidance of help (Butler, 2007;Dickhäuser et al., 2007;Nitsche et al., 2011). In sum, we consider both performance approach and avoidance goals as predictors for the initiation of the learning 1 Since SETs contain students' reports regarding their perception of instructors' competencies, we assume that especially the appearance component of performance goals is relevant for predicting the use of SETs. ...
... This means that performance approach goals could motivate instructors to engage in SETs to receive praise, whereas performance avoidance goals could motivate them to abstain from using SETs, given the danger of receiving self-diminishing feedback. Empirical studies support this assumption in samples of school teachers, as performance approach goals have been associated with positive perceptions of help-seeking (Nitsche et al., 2011), and performance avoidance goals have been related to negative perceptions of help-seeking and avoidance of help (Butler, 2007;Dickhäuser et al., 2007;Nitsche et al., 2011). In sum, we consider both performance approach and avoidance goals as predictors for the initiation of the learning 1 Since SETs contain students' reports regarding their perception of instructors' competencies, we assume that especially the appearance component of performance goals is relevant for predicting the use of SETs. ...
Article
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Identifying what motivates and hinders higher education instructors in their self-regulated learning from student evaluations of teaching (SETs) is important for improving future teaching and facilitating student learning. According to models of self-regulated learning, we propose a model for the usage of SETs as a learning situation. In a longitudinal study, we investigate the associations between achievement goals and the usage of and learning from SETs in the context of higher education. In total, 407 higher education instructors (46.4% female; 38.60 years on average) with teaching commitments in Germany or Austria reported their achievement goals in an online survey. Out of these participants, 152 instructors voluntarily conducted SET(s) and subsequently reported their intentions to act on the feedback and improve future teaching in a short survey. Using structural equation modeling, we found, in line with our hypotheses, that learning avoidance, appearance approach, and appearance avoidance goals predicted whether instructors voluntarily conducted SET(s). As expected, learning approach and (avoidance) goals were positively associated with intentions to act on received SET-results and improve future teaching. These findings support our hypotheses, are in line with assumptions of self-regulated learning models, and highlight the importance of achievement goals for instructors’ voluntary usage of and intended learning from SET(s). To facilitate instructors’ learning from SET-results, our study constitutes a first step for future intervention studies to build on. Future researchers and practitioners might support instructors’ professional learning by encouraging them to reflect on their SET-results.
... Educational research suggests that teacher mastery/learning goal orientation in contrast to performance goal orientations (approach and avoidance) has the most positive impact on various aspects of the educational procedure. More specifically, with regard to teacher-related variables, empirical findings suggest that mastery oriented teachers present higher levels of job satisfaction (Papaioanou & Christodoulidis, 2007;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2013), positive perceptions and behaviors of help seeking (Butler, 2007;Nitsche, Dickhäuser, Fasching, & Dresel, 2011), engagement (Parker, Martin, Colmar, & Liem, 2012;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2013), didactic, educational and subjectspecific interest (Paulick, Retelsdorf, & Möller, 2013;Retelsdorf, Butler, Streblow, & Schiefele, 2010), adaptive coping strategies towards work threats-challenges and reduced burnout (Parker et al., 2012;Retelsdorf et al., 2010), reduced occupational strain, positive attitude towards further training and attended training workshops (Nitsche et al., 2013), and higher levels of self-efficacy (Cho & Shim, 2013;Hoffmann, Huff, Patterson, & Nietfeld, 2009;Nitsche et al., 2011). Additionally, with regard to instruction-related variables, mastery oriented teachers provide higher levels of support for students' question asking, help seeking and reduced inhibition (Butler & Shibaz, 2008), use more mastery-oriented practices and cognitive stimulating instruction (Butler & Shibaz, 2014;Retelsdorf et al., 2010), provide higher school mastery goal structure (Cho & Shim, 2013) and lower performance goal structures (approachavoidance) (Dresel, Fasching, Steuer, Nitsche, & Dickhäuser, 2013), utilize more individual and less social reference norms (Retelsdorf & Günther 2011), have students with higher levels of interest and lower levels of cheating (Butler & Shibaz, 2008;. ...
... Educational research suggests that teacher mastery/learning goal orientation in contrast to performance goal orientations (approach and avoidance) has the most positive impact on various aspects of the educational procedure. More specifically, with regard to teacher-related variables, empirical findings suggest that mastery oriented teachers present higher levels of job satisfaction (Papaioanou & Christodoulidis, 2007;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2013), positive perceptions and behaviors of help seeking (Butler, 2007;Nitsche, Dickhäuser, Fasching, & Dresel, 2011), engagement (Parker, Martin, Colmar, & Liem, 2012;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2013), didactic, educational and subjectspecific interest (Paulick, Retelsdorf, & Möller, 2013;Retelsdorf, Butler, Streblow, & Schiefele, 2010), adaptive coping strategies towards work threats-challenges and reduced burnout (Parker et al., 2012;Retelsdorf et al., 2010), reduced occupational strain, positive attitude towards further training and attended training workshops (Nitsche et al., 2013), and higher levels of self-efficacy (Cho & Shim, 2013;Hoffmann, Huff, Patterson, & Nietfeld, 2009;Nitsche et al., 2011). Additionally, with regard to instruction-related variables, mastery oriented teachers provide higher levels of support for students' question asking, help seeking and reduced inhibition (Butler & Shibaz, 2008), use more mastery-oriented practices and cognitive stimulating instruction (Butler & Shibaz, 2014;Retelsdorf et al., 2010), provide higher school mastery goal structure (Cho & Shim, 2013) and lower performance goal structures (approachavoidance) (Dresel, Fasching, Steuer, Nitsche, & Dickhäuser, 2013), utilize more individual and less social reference norms (Retelsdorf & Günther 2011), have students with higher levels of interest and lower levels of cheating (Butler & Shibaz, 2008;. ...
Conference Paper
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In order to raise achievement for all students in a Greek elementary school struggling to be inclusive, attempts are being made towards empowering teachers through short term in-service training programs. In the in-service training program described, a school advisor collaborates actively, as a designer and facilitator, with teachers who are responsible for data collecting and being reflective practitioners. The program involves teaching and learning writing skills and promoting student understanding in mathematics. The three-school-year program’s main goal is the promotion of teacher professional standards within a Universal Design for Learning (UDL) -like a framework with an emphasis on data and reflection.
... Bu öngörüden hareketle, konuyla ilgili literatürde öğretmenlerin başarı amaçları 'öğretmenlerin öğretmenlik yeterliklerini geliştirme veya gösterme gibi işle ilgili amaçlara ulaşma çabaları' olarak tanımlanmış (Butler, 2007) ve başarı amaçlarının incelenmesi amacıyla birçok model geliştirilmiştir (Butler, 2007;Kucsera, Roberts, Walls, Walker & Svinicki, 2011;Mascret, Elliot & Cury, 2017;Nitsche, Dickhäuser, Fasching & Dresel, 2011;Papaioannou & Christodoulidis, 2007). Örneğin, Papaioannou ve Christodoulidis (2007), öğretmenlerin başarı amaçlarını; öğrenme amaçları (mesleki yeterliği kazanma ve geliştirme), performansa yaklaşma amaçları (diğerlerinden daha üstün bir öğretim yeterliği sergileme) ve performanstan kaçınma amaçları (diğerlerinden daha düşük bir öğretim yeterliği sergilemekten kaçınma) şeklinde tanımladıkları üç faktörlü bir yapı aracılığıyla incelemişlerdir. ...
... This was not surprising because these results are consistent with previous research indicating that mastery goals were consistently found to relate to a wide variety of teaching-related cognitions and instructional behaviors (e.g., perceived self-efficacy, job satisfaction, burnout) (e.g. Butler, 2007;Nitsche et al., 2011). The results of path analyses showed that the relationship between PTs' task-avoidance goals and responsibility for student motivation was significantly and partially mediated by their early teacher identities. ...
... Hohe Vermeidungs-Leistungszielorientierungen dagegen hängen negativ mit den Selbstwirksamkeitserwartungen von Lehrkräften bei Berufseintritt zusammen (β = -0,32, Affolter 2016). Denselben Befund konnten Nitsche et al. (2011) für Referendar*innen nachweisen. Ihre Ergebnisse belegen außerdem positive Effekte der Lernzielorientierung und Annäherungs-Leistungszielorientierung auf die Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung. ...
... Interessant wäre eine weitere Spezifizierung der hier allgemein erfassten Zielorientierungen und Leistungsmotive, so beispielsweise eine differenziertere Unterteilung der Lern-und Leistungssituationen in Studium und Praxisphasen oder in fachdidaktische, fachspezifische und pädagogische Inhalte (vgl. Nitsche et al. 2011). ...
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Zusammenfassung Im Vergleich zu den vielfach untersuchten Leistungsmotiven und Zielorientierungen von Schülerinnen und Schülern sind diese bei Lehramtsstudierenden bisher eher selten zum Gegenstand empirischer Forschung gemacht worden, obwohl sie für die Kompetenzentwicklung und das Leistungsstreben angehender Lehrpersonen im Studium eine wichtige Rolle spielen. Vor diesem Hintergrund untersucht der vorliegende Beitrag Zielorientierungen und die Leistungsmotive Hoffnung auf Erfolg und Angst vor Misserfolg von 1365 Studierenden der Lehrämter für die Sekundarstufen I und II in ihrem ersten Fachsemester mittels einer latenten Profilanalyse. Die Profile werden anhand weiterer motivationaler Merkmale und dem pädagogischen Wissen der Studierenden validiert sowie auf ihre Zusammensetzung hinsichtlich verschiedener Fächerkombinationen analysiert. Die Ergebnisse legen eine Dreiklassenlösung nahe, wobei sich die Profile nicht nach Fächerdomänen unterscheiden. Die Hälfte der Studierenden lässt sich einem sowohl lern- als auch leistungszielorientierten Profil zuordnen. Am zweithäufigsten ist ein stark lernzielorientiertes Profil vertreten. Die kleinste Profilgruppe umfasst Studierende mit einer ausgeprägt arbeitsvermeidenden Haltung.
... She states that since classroom is an achievement context for both students and teachers, who presumably put effort to develop in their profession but may differ in the ways they define success, in the goals they try to accomplish, and, thus, in their achievement goals for teaching (Butler and Shibaz 2008). There is a variety of instructors to approach, interpret, and respond to their professional challenges and these differences could be examined within teachers' goal-orientation (Nitsche et al. 2011). ...
... One possible justification for this finding is when teachers feel dominant in their teaching outcomes such as student achievement and job satisfaction, they increase their sense of efficacy and confidence in their teaching skills and as a consequence, they put attempt in professional functioning. Research has indicated that teachers' goal orientations are supposed as a significant factor for teachers' individual development of competence (Nitsche et al. 2011). Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
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The present study explored the contribution of English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' perceptions of their learners' achievement to their goal-orientations. It also examined the relationship between their goal-orientations and organizational commitment via correlational analysis. The third aim of this study was to investigate the determinants of EFL learners' success/failures based on EFL teachers' viewpoint via semi-structured interviews. To achieve these objectives, 90 English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers from different foreign language institutes of Mashhad, Iran took part in this study. They were asked to complete three questionnaires: ‘Perceptions of teacher, student, and family factors influencing student performance’, 'Organizational Commitment Questionnaire' (OCQ), Achievement goals for teaching. Findings via correlation analysis indicated that mastery goal orientations had a positive relationship with teachers' organizational commitment. In addition, among teachers' perceptions of their learners' achievement, findings indicated that student-related factors had a high correlation with mastery goal-orientations. Moreover, results from interview proved that EFL teachers perceived teacher-related factors as the main cause of learners' success or failures. Findings are discussed with respect to their implications for both theory and teacher education.
... Studies focusing on teachers' goal orientations found that the extent to which teachers endorse relational goals in their teaching practice has consequences for teachers' roles in the classroom, and thus for their motivation to build TSRs (Butler, 2012;Butler & Shibaz, 2014). Although relational goals seem like the most straightforward reason for teachers to engage in relationship-building behaviors, it is also plausible that a teacher with a mastery orientation would want to master building TSRs in their practice or one with an ability-approach orientation would be motivated to have more positive TSRs than other teachers (e.g., Nitsche et al., 2011). Although many motivational theories do not explicitly include the notion of "role," I argue that constructs like teachers' need for relatedness, identity, and goal orientations likely contribute to teachers' role construction, particularly when it comes to prioritizing the role of building positive TSRs with students. ...
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Few question the value of teacher-student relationships (TSRs) for educational outcomes. TSRs are positively associated with students’ achievement and engagement, as well as teachers’ well-being. Building and maintaining these crucial classroom relationships, however, is not easy. Drawing on prominent motivation theories in educational psychology, I present the Motivating Teacher-Student Relationships framework for understanding what motivates teachers to build positive TSRs. In particular, I focus on how teachers’ motivational beliefs about TSRs energize, direct, and sustain their efforts to engage in relationship-building behaviors and, thus, lead to positive relationships with their students. To build positive TSRs, teachers must believe it is their role to build TSRs, value TSRs, and believe they can successfully build TSRs (i.e., have relational self-efficacy). These beliefs are shaped by teachers’ sociocultural contexts and can facilitate or undermine the development of these learning relationships. With a greater understanding of how motivational beliefs influence social relationships, the field of education can more effectively develop theoretically grounded interventions to improve TSRs and mitigate inequality.
... Research findings from this approach suggest that teachers' motivational goals influence their own learning experiences and practices as well as their students' motivation and learning. Teachers' mastery goals are associated with professional skill development, learning and help-seeking practices, while performance goals are more associated with experiences of stress and maladaptive professional behaviors (Butler 2007;Nitsche et al. 2011). More recently, Mascret et al. (2015) tested Elliot et al.'s (2011) previously described 3 × 2 model with high school teachers. ...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the interactions between social‐emotional competencies (SECs) and learning in preschool and school‐aged children. It details some programs that enable students to learn SECs at school, through examples of international programs, and details the benefits associated with this type of learning. SECs can be divided into five categories: self‐awareness, self‐management, social awareness, relationship skills and responsible decision‐making. Young children with behavioral problems also tend to have deficits in SECs. In the long‐term, SECs have a positive influence on health and life expectancy, occupational status and salary, and social and personal well‐being. Numerous programs aimed at developing SECs in students from kindergarten through high school have been implemented and evaluated, particularly in the United States. The meta‐analysis by Durlak et al . is based on 213 evaluation studies of this type of program.
... Thus, whereas teachers' relational goals and self-efficacy beliefs may be evaluated in parallel to explain student learning outcomes (see Daumiller et al., 2021), it is also possible to explore a mediational relationship whereby teaching self-efficacy mediates the effects of teachers' social goals on student learning and engagement. With respect to relevant empirical findings with K-12 teachers, cross-sectional results from Nitsche et al. (2011) show teachers' mastery goals to predict greater teaching self-efficacy, with higher levels of performance-avoidance goals instead corresponding with lower teaching self-efficacy levels. However, as these existing findings are based on cross-sectional data and do not assess mediation over time, further research utilizing a longitudinal design is needed to provide stronger causal evidence of the potential impact of teachers' social goals on classroom outcomes as mediated by their self-efficacy beliefs. ...
Article
In response to limited research exploring teachers’ motivational orientations underlying their efforts to develop meaningful relationships with students, the present longitudinal study with Canadian practicing teachers (N = 497) investigated the effects of teachers’ social goals on perceived classroom engagement as mediated by their selfefficacy beliefs across six months. Cross-lagged analyses showed teachers’ social goals at Time 1 to predict their self-efficacy (for student engagement) and their students’ classroom engagement (emotional) at Time 2. The longitudinal structural equation model showed teachers’ self-efficacy for engaging students to most strongly mediate the effects of their social goals on students’ classroom engagement. Implications for teacher training and professional development are discussed.
... Les résultats des recherches menées dans cette approche suggèrent que les buts motivationnels des enseignants influencent leur propre vécu et manière d'apprendre, leurs pratiques professionnelles mais aussi la motivation et la manière d'apprendre de leurs élèves. Les buts de maîtrise des enseignants sont associés à des pratiques de développement des compétences professionnelles, d'apprentissage et de recherche d'aide, les buts de performance étant plutôt associés à des expériences de stress et de conduites professionnelles mal adaptées aux situations (Butler 2007 ;Nitsche et al. 2011 des enseignants et le climat motivationnel instauré dans la classe (par exemple, « Je m'efforce de repérer les progrès de chaque élève, même s'ils ont un niveau en dessous du niveau attendu » ou bien « J'encourage mes élèves à faire mieux que les autres »), les représentations des enseignants sur la compétence (par exemple, « Il est difficile de changer votre niveau d'intelligence » ou bien « Il faut beaucoup travailler pour être intelligent »), ainsi que la motivation intrinsèque (par exemple, « J'essaie de trouver des sujets intéressants et de nouvelles façons d'enseigner, parce que c'est amusant de créer de nouvelles choses »). Les résultats montrent que les différents buts motivationnels sont liés aux variables retenues. ...
Chapter
Les processus émotionnels sont de plus en plus étudiés en psychologie, que ce soit à travers leurs modalités d’expression ou à travers leur effet sur les processus cognitifs.Si la théorisation du lien entre processus émotionnels et processus cognitifs a varié au cours des siècles, l’impact des émotions sur les fonctions cognitives est aujourd’hui indéniable et étayé par des arguments expérimentaux. Les processus psychologiques sont actuellement considérés comme étant nécessaires à l’émergence des émotions, ou influencés par celles-ci. Les apprentissages étant au coeur du développement de l’individu et faisant intervenir différents processus cognitifs, l’étude des processus émotionnels en situation d’apprentissage n’est bien sûr pas en reste.Processus émotionnels en situation d’apprentissage présente les apports de différentes disciplines de la psychologie dans la compréhension du rôle des processus émotionnels en situation d’apprentissage, dans une perspective développementale et vie-entière.
... Performanceavoidance goals (also termed ability-avoidance goals) are characterized by attempts to avoid the demonstration of worse teaching performance than others. Teachers endorsing work avoidance goals aim to minimize work effort (Butler, 2007; see also Butler & Shibaz, 2008;Nitsche et al., 2011;Papaioannou & Christodoloudis, 2007). In light of the social nature of teaching processes, Butler (2012) later expanded achievement goal theory by adding a further type of achievement goal, relational achievement goals, focusing on teachers' strivings to create close and caring relationships with students. ...
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Recent years have witnessed a burgeoning interest in the study of teacher motivation. Although links between teacher motivation and teacher well-being, commitment to the profession, and other teacher-related outcomes are well-documented, prior research on associations between teacher motivation and student outcomes has been less consistent. This article focuses on teacher motivation as situated within two prominent frameworks: self-determination theory and achievement goal theory. First, two systematic reviews of research on self-determination theory and achievement goal theory are conducted to examine whether, when, how, and why teachers’ motivation may influence—or at least relate to—which student outcomes. The processes by which teacher motivation is associated with student outcomes, such as via specific instructional strategies, are also taken into account. Second, the question of why research on teacher motivation often fails to find consistent effects on student outcomes is considered, including where in the complex chain of events from teacher motivation to student outcomes the signal gets lost. Third, the need to study the reverse ordering of effects, reciprocal effects, and the dynamic interplay between teacher motivation and student outcome variables is discussed.
... Una delle maggiori sfide che oggi la scuola si trova ad affrontare è sicuramente un ripensamento del processo di insegnamento-apprendimento (D'Amore, 2001;Guasti, 2002;Baldacci, 2002;Brophy, 2010). Trasformare il modello trasmissivo della scuola per supportare lo sviluppo dell'apprendimento attivo, creare nuovi spazi per l'apprendimento che sfruttino l'opportunità delle tecnologie e riorganizzare il tempo del fare scuola sono alcuni dei temi che, oltre ad essere al centro del dibattito nazionale e internazionale sulla scuola (Benadusi, 2003;Colapietro, 2003;Nitsche et al., 2011;Papa, 2007;Castoldi, 2017;Becky et al., 2018;Collins & Halverson, 2018;Oliva & Petrolino, 2019;Indellicato, 2019), sono anche tra gli orizzonti descritti nel Manifesto del Movimento Avanguardie Educative (AE). ...
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Rethinking teaching-learning model is one of the central topics in the debate on school systems. The Avanguardie Educative Movement gathers schools from all over the national territory that share practices based on a model with students actively participating in their educational path, aiming at promoting meaningful learning. The research aims to investigate how these schools have interpreted the concept of educational innovation and, in particular, the paper focuses on the results of the student questionnaire and of the psychometric tests administered to 1880 students from 52 schools who have been participating in the Movement experimentation for at least two years. The results show a positive association between the perceived level of innovation and the satisfaction with the functioning of the school. Students with high score on these dimensions also have high results in tests that investigate student satisfaction with school experience and daily organization of the study.
... Usually teachers do not have a strictly instrumentalist orientation (e.g., money, no other options, gain experience, etc.) for selecting the teaching career (Abednia, 2012;Fokkens-Bruinsma & Canrinus, 2014;Watt et al., 2014), yet it is reported that promising prospective teachers are not attracted by the teaching profession due to a decline in prestige, deterioration in the working conditions, and the relatively low salaries of the profession (European Commission, 2013). Undoubtedly, underlying motivation has an impact on teachers' relationships with the school principal, colleagues, and students (Nitsche et al., 2011). ...
Thesis
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The expansion of globalized capitalism accompanied by rapid technological advancements have had profound impact on the educational landscape and vastly increased the challenges that teachers address nowadays. While there is no simple antidote to the complex problems that our world faces, teachers who engage with inquiry can alleviate the practical problems of daily teaching and reach their goals, improve students’ learning, and establish possibilities for professional development within their working context. However, despite the inherent potentiality of inquiry for teacher professional growth, the literature on the identity of the teacher-inquirer and related concepts is scarce. This thesis aims to contribute to the literature regarding the teacher-inquirer identity on several fronts. On a theoretical level, the thesis aims to define the concept of the teacher-inquirer, elaborate a theoretical model of the inquiry skills practiced by teachers when they are conducting an inquiry, and identify other components related to the teacher-inquirer identity. On a practical level, the thesis aims to construct two self-report quantitative questionnaires to measure teachers’ inquiry skills and other related components when teachers are engaged in an inquiry in two different settings, examine relationships between the inquiry skills and other components, and categorise clusters of teachers in terms of their inquiry skills. The thesis recognizes the problems regarding the definition of the teacher identity and begins by reviewing the concept of identity and its characteristics before providing a definition of the teacher identity. Next, it analyses six teacher identity types, explicates how the characteristics of teacher identities are manifested, and examines how the three Modes of Existence can be utilized as a lens to analyse teacher professional identities. Then, based on these foundational concepts as well as on literature on action research and research on social sciences, it constructs a definition of the teacher-inquirer identity, identifies five different phases or skills of inquiry (searching and focusing, understanding and exploring, designing and implementing, evaluating and reflecting, writing and presenting), and discusses how agency, sense-making, ownership, and emotions affect teacher identities. The research study is situated within the critical realism paradigm. Two online questionnaires were constructed for collecting data from two different populations: in-service teachers who conduct inquiry in light of an educational innovation and student-teachers who conduct a thesis as part of their studies in an online postgraduate course. The two questionnaires gathered 111 and 154 responses respectively. The statistical analysis revealed that there was considerable overlap between the theoretically identified skills and how participants perceived them in practice. Furthermore, in both studies, teachers reported that they practiced their inquiry skills at least to some extent and several connections among the investigated components emerged. Three different inquirer identity profiles have been identified based on the extent to which teachers and student-teachers practiced their inquiry skills. In general, the three profiles can be ordered from high to low. Lastly, it was found that several components, including sense-making, ownership, agency, and emotions, have an impact on the development of the teacher-inquirer identity in both studies. The results are considered within the limitations of survey research and several suggestions for future research are made. Finally, a series of implications for practice are set forth that can be beneficial for a wide audience; from teachers and school leaders to educational policy designers and scholars.
... Generation theory has been widely used in many studies [1][2][3][4][5]. Recent works raise questions about the reality of generational groups, cultural identity, their boundaries, and the formative years [3,6]. ...
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Today, the problem of formation and life of generations is becoming very relevant. Many researchers in different countries note that representatives of the information younger generations have an increased risk of depression, anxiety and fears. In the study, we note the manifestations of modernity: transitivity of society, fluidity, “uncertainty” and etc. In this regard, young people face fluid socialization, a delay in the period of growing up and excessive parental care. There is a tendency of replacement of real contacts of young people with virtual ones, which can increase the level of anxiety. The trends of changing values in Russia in the direction of survival established earlier by Inglehart and Baker (2000) may have different prospects today. Some researchers show a high level of anxiety among young Russians. The situation with COVID-19 may aggravate these manifestations. Illusory correlations, false representations in the beliefs of young people also increase social anxiety. These realities determined the purpose of the study: to determine the value bases of young generations fears of the modern South of Russia. The sample included: schoolchildren (born in 2004-2005) - 150 people, schoolchildren of the 9th grade and 10th grade, information generation (born in 1995-1999) - 210 people, students, young workers, transition generation (born in 1965-1982) - 245 people, working adults of Rostov-on-Don. We used the following techniques: values were measured by S. Schwartz method, to determine fears we used the V. Pishchik method of determining values through actualized fears. The results of the study showed that the values of preservation and self-affirmation are more pronounced in the “Transition” and “Information” generations. The values of transcendence are expressed in all the studied generations with a greater extent in the “New” generation. The loss of culture scares the “Transitional” generation, the loss of oneself scares the “Information” generation, the information overload scares the “New” generation. We defined the value bases of the fears of the young generations of the modern South of Russia.
... Demiröz and Yeşilyurt (2012) found that there was a positive relationship between skills orientation and working avoidance orientation. Nitsche et al. (2011) stated that teachers with mastery goal orientation have high perception of self-efficacy towards teaching, whereas teachers with performance goal orientation have low self-efficacy perception towards teaching. On the other hand, Butler (2007) claims that while teachers with skill approach goal orientation have a positive perception of seeking help, teachers with skill avoidance have a negative perception. ...
Article
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This study was conducted in line with the opinions of physical education and sports teachers working in educational institutions to reveal the relationship between goal orientation towards teaching and teaching approaches. A total of 279 physical education and sports teachers from different schools in Elazig were enrolled in the study. To determine the target orientation of the research group towards teaching ‘Goal Orientation Scale for Teaching’ and to determine the teaching approaches ‘Instructional Approaches Inventory’ were used. The data obtained are saved by using the licensed SPSS 22.0 package program. ‘One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)’ and ‘Pearson Correlation Analysis’ has been made. As a result of the correlation analysis, a positive and high-level relationship between ‘Goal Orientation Scale for Teaching’ and ‘Skill Approach’ has been found (r = 0.789; p = 0.000). It has been concluded that there was a very high positive correlation between the ‘Teaching Approaches Inventory Scale’ and ‘Developmental’ subscale (r = 0.932; p = 0.000). The relationship between goal orientations towards teaching and teaching approaches was found to be positive and moderate (r = 0.616; p = 0.000). The fact that physical education and sports teachers enrich their teaching by establishing a relationship between their goal orientations and teaching approaches towards teaching in the lesson process will further contribute to students’ learning physical education and sports lessons in a meaningful way.
... be positively associated with maladaptive attitudes, reduced self-efficacy, professional stress experiences, and number of sick days (e.g., Daniels et al., 2013;Gorozidis & Papaioannou, 2014;Janke et al., 2019;Nitsche et al., 2011Nitsche et al., , 2013aRunhaar et al., 2010;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2017). For performance approach goals, these studies found ambivalent or no substantial effects on teachers' cognitions and behaviors (similarly to students, e.g., Midgley et al., 2001). ...
Preprint
While research has documented associations between teachers’ achievement goals and students’ perceptions of classroom goals, little is known about the mechanisms behind these effects. To enlighten the mode of operation of teacher goals on students’ perceptions of instructional practices and classroom goal structures, a study with 84 secondary school teachers and their 1,447 students (ranging from 7th to 9th grade) in the subject of mathematics was conducted. Classroom goal structures and a wide range of specific mastery and performance-oriented instructional practices derived from Ames’ (1992) TARGET model were assessed via student reports. Teachers reported two types of goals, namely personal achievement goals and student-oriented goals. Two-level path modeling indicated that both types of teacher goals were of relevance. Student reports of teachers’ specific mastery-oriented instructional practices were predicted by teachers’ student-oriented goals and, indirectly, by their personal mastery goals (positively) and performance approach goals (negatively), while performance-oriented instructional practices were negatively predicted by teachers’ personal mastery goals. Perceived classroom goal structures were closely related to these specific instructional practices and also indirectly predicted by teachers’ personal and student-oriented goals.
... As past studies found, positive correlation was also found between learning and proving dimensions of goal orientation levels (Gafoor and Kurukkan, 2015;Nitsche et al., 2011;Yerdelen et al., 2014;Buldur, 2014;Roebken, 2007;Eppler and Harju, 1997;Vu, 2016). Likewise, as per the results of this study, negative correlation was found between learning and avoidance dimensions of goal orientation levels (Gafoor and Kurukkan, 2015;Eryenen, 2008;Payne et al., 2007); and negative correlation was found between proving and avoiding dimensions of goal orientation levels (Pulkka and Niemivirta, 2013;Jones et al., 2017). ...
... Theoretical background Achievement Goal Theory postulates that individuals' orientation towards specific achievement goals (i.e., their preferred reasons for engaging in achievement-related behaviours) guide their striving for competence in achievement situations (Murayama, Elliot, & Friedman, 2012). Recently, AGT has been expanded to the domain of teaching (see especially Butler, 2007;Nitsche, Dickhäuser, Fasching, & Dresel, 2011). The core idea of this expansion is that schools provide an achievement context not only for students but also for teachers (Butler, 2007). ...
Article
Background Teachers' achievement goal orientations are known to affect teachers' beliefs and behaviour. In contrast, we know relatively little on how school climate is associated with teachers' achievement goals, even though theoretical ideas can be derived from self‐determination theory and empirical research on the impact of goal structures. The few studies that exist on the issue are limited as analyses were only conducted at the individual level and subsequent findings can, thus, not be interpreted as climate effects. Aim We aimed to overcome this shortcoming by analysing associations between teachers' perception of school motivational climate and their achievement goal orientations at individual and at school level. We postulated that at school level a school's learning goal structure, autonomy‐supportive leadership, positive feedback culture, and a collaborative climate would be associated with teachers' learning goal orientation, whereas a school's performance goal structure was supposed to align with teachers' performance (approach and avoidance) goal orientation. Sample A total of 532 teachers from 40 different schools filled out questionnaires on their achievement goal orientations and aspects of their work context. Methods We used hierarchical linear modelling to analyse effects at individual and at school level. Results Teachers' learning goal orientations and their performance avoidance goal orientations varied significantly across schools. Positive perceptions of schools' feedback culture at school level corresponded positively with learning goal orientations, and collaborative climate was negatively associated with performance (approach and avoidance) goal orientations. Conclusions The results underline the importance of schools' motivational climate for teacher motivation and provide a starting point for developing strategies of workplace development.
... Two of the interviewees also stated that having such goals really mattered to them because they considered these goals to drive them to use many professional learning opportunities. Appearance approach and appearance avoidance goals were primarily directed at public appearance or specific, important others (such as supervisors; see also Nitsche, Dickhäuser, Fasching, & Dresel, 2011;Ziegler, Dresel, & Stoeger, 2008). In regard to these groups of people, the researchers articulated that they were aiming for a good (or not a bad) impression. ...
Article
Researchers’ motivations are important for high-quality research and the productivity of the scientific system, but remain largely uninvestigated. Using three studies, we tested the usefulness of Achievement Goal Theory (AGT) for describing research motivations, investigated which goals researchers pursue, and examined their associations with job burnout/engagement and professional learning. Interviewing 20 researchers (Study 1), we found that most of their goals in the research context were classifiable as achievement goals. Apart from mastery and performance goals that are well-established in the AGT literature, they also mentioned relational and work-avoidance goals. Mastery goals comprised task and learning standards, performance goals comprised appearance and normative strivings. In Study 2, we used a standardized questionnaire to assess these goals in 824 researchers, along with burnout/engagement, professional learning time, and professional learning gains. Results confirmed the separability of all conceptualized goals, measurement invariance across academic status, and differential patterns of associations with burnout/engagement and professional learning. In Study 3, we analyzed these constructs in 471 researchers at two time points, six months apart. Results attested measurement invariance over time. Cross-lagged analyses documented similar associations as in Study 2. Learning approach and relational goals had positive effects on professional learning; appearance avoidance and work-avoidance goals were negative predictors. In contrast, burnout was negatively predicted by normative avoidance goals. However, high initial burnout levels were associated with reduced task approach and learning approach, and stronger work-avoidance goals six months later. Taken together, the results highlight the usefulness of AGT for understanding researchers’ motivations, and their relatedness with professional learning and well-being at work.
... Fifth, research on goal orientation during job performance is needed to obtain insights into the conceptualisation of SRpL. Indeed, in the workplace, learning occurs during authentic experiences, responding to challenges of the profession and solving job-related problems with no structures in terms of learning goals (Eraut 2000;Nitsche et al. 2011;van de Wiel et al. 2004). Deliberately setting long-and short-term goals for learning can steer SRpL, but research is needed to investigate how goal orientation in the middle of action, dealing with routine and non-routine situations, influences SRL and its previous conceptualisation. ...
Thesis
In medicine, competences need to be updated continuously and at warp speed to keep up with the evolutions in science and technology, and at the same time provide high standard evidence-based patient-care. Although continuous development programs offer a broad variety of learning activities for recognised medical specialists to keep developing knowledge and skills, the workplace itself offers many learning opportunities. Active engagement in learning processes is needed: learning goals need to be set and strategies planned. Subsequent actions and results need to be monitored and adjustments made to reach the goals set. Also, reflection on and evaluation of the learning process and its outcomes is a necessity to consecutively learn. In sum, blending all these actions represents self-regulation of learning (SRL) which has been acknowledged as an essential requirement for lifelong learning in medical practice. Notwithstanding the importance of SRL, research on SRL of recognised medical specialists in the clinical environment is lacking. This dissertation deepens the understanding of the concept of SRL as it actually evolves in the authentic clinical environment while engaging in performance. This dissertation also contributes methodologically to the research field by exploring the measurement of SRL as an ongoing process, unfolding moment-by-moment. Our work unravels that besides a broad variety of SRL-strategies that initiate, advance, and evaluate the process, SRL-strategies conditional for SRL to take place can be found. Also, feedback loops between strategies are found. However, SRL in the clinical environment is not found to take place in delimited phases as existing research in educational settings demonstrated. Further, a longitudinal multiple case study design offers a methodological approach for in-depth, valide and reliable measurements of the process of SRL in the clinical environment.
... Fifth, research on goal orientation during job performance is needed to obtain insights into the conceptualisation of SRpL. Indeed, in the workplace, learning occurs during authentic experiences, responding to challenges of the profession and solving job-related problems with no structures in terms of learning goals (Eraut 2000;Nitsche et al. 2011;van de Wiel et al. 2004). Deliberately setting long-and short-term goals for learning can steer SRpL, but research is needed to investigate how goal orientation in the middle of action, dealing with routine and non-routine situations, influences SRL and its previous conceptualisation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Much of individual’s learning takes place during job performance, implying that professionals engage in self-regulated learning (SRL). This study systematically reviews the current state of the field concerning conceptualisation and operationalisation within research on self-regulation of professional learning - for which we use the acronym “SRpL”. Although there is a growing interest for research on SRpL, this study concludes that the field is still in its infancy; not only is empirical research scarce, the field also lacks a common theoretical ground in terms of concept. Different theoretical frameworks are used, which leads to various operationalisations of what is meant by SRpL. An important concern is related to the transferability of frameworks developed for educational settings to the workplace. Analyses beyond mainstream areas, which focus on professionals’ SRL during job performance, are becoming increasingly important. This study suggests conceptual handles and proposes methodologies for future research.
... goal orientations and their different instructional practices (Butler & Shibaz, 2008;Retelsdorf et al., 2010) and behaviours such as, help-seeking and student support (Butler, 2007;Dresel et al., 2013;Nitsche, Dickhäuser, Fasching, & Dresel, 2011;Retelsdorf & Günther, 2011). Later, after careful consideration of the interpersonal nature of teaching, the limitations of simply extrapolating research on student motivations to teachers became clear and, teachers' relational goal orientations were developed. ...
Article
Achievement Goal Theory has been adapted as a useful framework for studying teacher motivation in terms of their different goal orientations. This paper reports findings from an Australian study with 257 teachers, that explored their mastery, work-avoidance, and relational goal orientations and four dimensions of self-reported classroom behaviours: expectation, structure, autonomy support, and relatedness. Structural equation modelling underscored the importance of mastery and relational goal orientations as adaptive goal orientations that positively predicted teachers’ perceptions about their expectation, structure, and relatedness with students. Interestingly neither of these adaptive goal orientations predicted teachers’ self-reported behaviour of autonomy support. The only significant predictor was work-avoidance goal orientations, which negatively predicted teachers’ discernment of supporting student autonomy.
... Two of the interviewees also stated that having such goals really mattered to them because they considered these goals to drive them to use many professional learning opportunities. Appearance approach and appearance avoidance goals were primarily directed at public appearance or specific, important others (such as supervisors; see also Nitsche, Dickhäuser, Fasching, & Dresel, 2011;Ziegler, Dresel, & Stoeger, 2008). In regard to these groups of people, the researchers articulated P R E P R I N T that they were aiming for a good (or not a bad) impression. ...
Preprint
Researchers’ motivations are important for high-quality research and the productivity of the scientific system, but have been little investigated. Using three studies, we tested the usefulness of Achievement Goal Theory for describing research motivations, investigated which goals researchers pursue, and examined their associations with job burnout/engagement and professional learning. Interviewing 20 researchers (Study 1), we found that most of their goals in the research context were classifiable as achievement goals. Apart from (well-established in the literature) mastery and performance goals, they also mentioned relational and work-avoidance goals. Mastery goals comprised task and learning standards, performance goals appearance and normative strivings. In Study 2, we used a standardized questionnaire to assess these goals in 824 researchers, along with burnout/engagement levels, professional learning time, and professional learning gains. Results confirmed the separability of all conceptualized goals, measurement invariance across academic status, and differential patterns of associations with burnout/engagement and professional learning. In Study 3, we evaluated these constructs in 471 researchers at two time points, six months apart. Results attested measurement invariance over time. Cross-lagged analyses documented similar associations as in Study 2. Learning approach and relational goals had positive effects on professional learning; appearance avoidance and work-avoidance goals were negative predictors. In contrast, burnout was negatively predicted by normative avoidance goals. However, high initial burnout levels were associated with reduced task approach and learning approach, and stronger work-avoidance goals six months later. Taken together, this highlights the usefulness of Achievement Goal Theory for understanding researchers’ motivations, and their relatedness with professional learning and well-being at work.
... Not denying the importance of this activity area of higher education institutions it's necessary to note that modern system of higher education must solve the greater number of tasks including conditions creation for lecture's professional development and self-development in professional and creative activity (Katz & Shahar, 2015;Nitsche, Dickhäuser, Fasching, & Dresel, 2011;Klusmann, Kunter, Trautwein, Lüdtke, & Baumert, 2008). Such scientists as Getman, Kotenko, & Kotenko (2016) and Milovanova (2019) point at the necessity of these targets inclusion in tasks of modern higher education institution. ...
... In research on school teachers, five goal classes are distinguished: Teachers pursue a learning (approach) goal, if they are focused on learning something new and expanding professional competence-for example by trying new approaches in teaching. Performance approach goals describe an effort to be better than others and to make a good impression, for example in social interaction with colleagues, in teaching, or in front of superiors (see Nitsche, Dickhäuser, Fasching, and Dresel [2011]). A teacher pursues performance avoidance goals if they are aiming to not be worse than others and to hide a (putative) lack of competence, e.g. in difficult teaching situations or those with demanding content. ...
Preprint
Teachers’ content-related humor matters for the quality of higher education, however, little is known about the circumstances under which teachers use it. From a socio-cognitive perspective, teachers’ achievement goals and self-efficacy appear to be relevant personal precursors. We investigated their effects on content-related humor in two studies. In Study 1, 229 teachers (79 female; 159 PhDs; 33 full professors) participated with 387 courses while 10,296 students assessed the humor in these courses. Study 2 used a similar design for 45 teachers (20 female; 27 PhDs, 9 full professors), 116 course sessions, and 2,333 student assessments. Three-level-analyses pointed to substantial variance in students’ assessments of content-related humor which could be attributed to differences between courses/sessions within teachers (ICC=.12–.13) and between teachers themselves (ICC=.21). In both studies, performance (appearance component) avoidance goals emerged as negative predictors, and relational goals and self-efficacy as positive predictors of content-related humor, highlighting the relevance of instructors’ motivations for the use of instructional humor.
... In research on school teachers, five goal classes are distinguished: Teachers pursue a learning (approach) goal, if they are focused on learning something new and expanding professional competence-for example by trying new approaches in teaching. Performance approach goals describe an effort to be better than others and to make a good impression, for example in social interaction with colleagues, in teaching, or in front of superiors (see Nitsche, Dickhäuser, Fasching, and Dresel [2011]). A teacher pursues performance avoidance goals if they are aiming to not be worse than others and to hide a (putative) lack of competence, e.g. in difficult teaching situations or those with demanding content. ...
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Teachers’ content-related humor matters for the quality of higher education. However, little is known about the circumstances under which teachers use it. From a socio-cognitive perspective, teachers’ achievement goals and self-efficacy appear to be relevant personal precursors. We investigated their effects on content-related humor in two studies. In Study 1, 229 teachers (79 female; 159 PhDs; 33 full professors) participated with 387 courses while 10,296 students assessed the humor in these courses. Study 2 used a similar design for 45 teachers (20 female; 27 PhDs, 9 full professors), 116 course sessions, and 2,333 student assessments. Three-level-analyses pointed to substantial variance in students’ assessments of content-related humor which could be attributed to differences between courses/sessions within teachers (ICC = .12–.13) and between teachers themselves (ICC = .21). In both studies, performance (appearance component) avoidance goals emerged as negative predictors, and relational goals and self-efficacy as positive predictors of content-related humor, highlighting the relevance of instructors’ motivations for the use of instructional humor.
... The research on teacher burnout, for instance, reports that teachers' ability to deal with their own errors in a constructive way is an important precondition for their success in teaching (Schaarschmidt, Kieschke, & Fischer, 1999). According to the concept of goal orientation, which has been shown to play a role in teachers' instructional activities (Nitsche, Dickhäuser, Fasching, & Dresel, 2011), different goal orientations are characterized by different styles of behavior in response to errors and failures. ...
Article
For preservice teachers, learning-oriented error-handling practices can play a central role in professional development. Errors reveal areas preservice teachers have not yet mastered and can act as catalysts for informal learning processes. Yet for most people, errors are also linked to the experience of negative emotions. Research has found an array of associations between various error-related emotions and learning-oriented error-handling practices. Yet almost nothing is known about individual patterns of error-related emotions. In part 1 of our study, using a latent profile analysis of 208 preservice teachers, we identify four error-related emotional patterns (generally low emotions, anxiety-guilt profile, generally high emotions, anger-sadness profile). In part 2, using a latent moderated mediation model, we find that teachers’ error-related emotional profiles predict their level of knowledge about dysfunctional instructional strategies, and that this association is mediated by the teacher's individual handling of his or her own instructional errors.
Chapter
Motivation, defined as the internal and/or external forces that initiate the triggering, direction, intensity and persistence of behavior, is often cited as one of the determinants of success in various areas of personal, professional or academic life. It is linked to emotional processes and contributes greatly to learning. This chapter presents three main theoretical approaches to motivation that are currently most influential in the field of learning and education. These are, self‐determination theory, achievement goal theory, and sense of self‐efficacy. The chapter then develops the consequences of the different ways of being motivated in academic work, in particular the consequences on academic performance, subjective evaluation of one's own competence, perseverance in the face of difficulty or even on well‐being. It identifies a number of suggested levers that can promote optimal academic motivation and that are the subject of consensus in the literature.
Chapter
Die Förderung der Motivation von Schülerinnen und Schülern zählt zu den zentralen Zielsetzungen von Unterricht. Lehrermotivation und Unterrichtsmerkmale gelten dabei als wichtige Einflussgrößen auf die Motivation der Lernenden. Allerdings besteht ein Mangel an theoretischen Modellen und empirischen Befunden zur Beschreibung jener Prozesse, die den Zusammenhängen von Lehrermotivation, Unterrichtsgestaltung und der motivationalen Entwicklung Lernender zugrunde liegen. Der Beitrag greift dieses Desiderat auf und stellt ein integratives Theoriemodell der unterrichtsbezogenen Sozialisation motivationaler Entwicklung vor. Dabei werden Modelle aus Erziehungswissenschaft (Angebots-Nutzungs Modell) und Pädagogischer Psychologie (erweiterte Erwartungs-Wert-Theorie von Eccles), die eine Beschreibung motivationsförderlicher Unterrichtsprozesse beinhalten, zusammengeführt. Anhand des vorgeschlagenen Modells werden zukünftige Forschungsthemen und handlungspraktische Implikationen im Bereich der Lehrer- und Schülermotivation diskutiert.
Article
Whereas developing meaningful connections with students has long been documented as critical for promoting classroom engagement, teachers’ differing motives for building relationships with students remain underexplored. This study examined teachers’ social achievement goals from a multidimensional perspective in relation to teachers’ self-efficacy, teacher–student relationships, and perceived classroom engagement. Results from practicing K–12 teachers (N = 154) from across Canada showed three distinct goal orientations including social mastery-approach, social mastery-avoidance, and social ability goals (combining social ability-approach and social ability-avoidance goals). Teachers who aimed to develop better social skills with students (social mastery-approach goals) reported higher self-efficacy, better relationships with students, and greater classroom engagement. In contrast, social goal orientations focused on not losing connections with students (social mastery-avoidance goals) or being well-liked (social ability goals) did not correspond with self-efficacy or classroom outcomes. Implications concerning integrative pedagogies and growth mind-sets pertaining to relationship building were discussed.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a study that investigated workplace learning activities and drivers that enhanced learning as experienced by employees in Sri Lanka. Design/methodology/approach This study was conducted in the knowledge process outsourcing sector, where employees perform knowledge work in flatter team-based structures with information technology-enabled work environments. From the 17 firms that volunteered to participate in the study, 239 technical/professional employees volunteered for the survey. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the association between drivers of workplace learning and learning activities experienced by employees and whether individual demographic characteristics and the number of employees in the firm are associated with workplace learning activities experienced by employees. Findings This study found that organisation-related, individual-related and team-related drivers significantly influence workplace learning activities experienced by employees. In addition, employees’ age, firm-specific experience and the number of employees in the firm significantly influence the same. Originality/value This paper presents learning activities experienced by employees in the completion of work-related job tasks at hand and drivers experienced by employees in the new normal that has existed since the Covid-19 pandemic.
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Goal orientations of teachers for teaching are significant in shaping educational settings such that they are linked to some school concepts. The curriculum and teaching autonomy of teachers is related to the teachers' goal orientation. Further, school climate that is shaped by behaviors of teachers, students, and administrators affects the goal orientations for teaching. The aim of this study is to reveal the role of teachers' autonomy behavior and perceptions of school climate on their goal orientations for teaching. The study was designed as correlational study. The participants consisted of 284 teachers in public and private schools. Instruments were "goal orientation scale for teaching", "school climate scale", and "teacher autonomy scale". Multiple Hierarchical Regression Analysis method was used to analyze data. The results indicated that school climate was more powerful of and significant predictor of goal orientation than teacher autonomy. Further, teacher autonomy and school climate predicted dimensions of goal orientation for teaching, which were mastery, performance-approach, work-avoidance, and student relations. The study made a contribution to teacher education and school effectiveness literature by revealing factors related to teachers' goal orientations for teaching.
Article
Studies drawing on Butler’s (2012) Goal Orientations for Teaching framework show mastery and relational goals are beneficial, ability-avoidance maladaptive and inconsistent effects for ability-approach. We adopt a person-centered approach to discern the extent to which teachers pursue different goal combinations. In two studies of mid-career primary and secondary teachers (Ns = 476 Australian, 507 Israeli) we assessed via self-report surveys: teachers' achievement goals, initial motivations to teach, school contexts, professional engagement and instructional practices. Latent profile analyses distinguished four goal combinations per sample. In both, mastery and relational goals covaried as ‘task’ goals. Profiles with stronger ability than task goals were maladaptive for teachers and teaching, and in the Australian sample linked with poor initial ‘fallback’ career motivation. Profiles with stronger task than ability goals were most adaptive, and linked to more positive school climate. Implications are outlined for theory and practice.
Article
This study aimed to develop and validate a 2 × 2 Standpoints and Standards measure of EFL (English as a foreign language) teachers’ achievement goals. To this end, 441 teachers were first involved in scale development and validation phase. In the second phase, responses by 194 teachers were used to examine the predictive utility of achievement goals with respect to some correlates such as type of feedback information and emotional exhaustion. Phase 1 results supported validity and reliability of the scale for measuring EFL teachers’ achievement goals. In phase 2, structural equation modeling showed positive patterns for original mastery approach goals, though these goals positively predicted self-validation information. Original mastery avoidance goals also positively associated with emotional exhaustion. Moreover, the results showed negative patterns for original performance goals. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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The research aimed to examine the teachers' goal orientations for teaching in terms of different variables. The relational survey method was used in the research. The participants of this research consists of 496 teachers. The “Goal Orientations for Teaching Scale” developed by Butler and Shibaz (2014) and adapted into Turkish by Yıldız Saban and Baştuğ (2016) was used as a data collecting tool. The scale consists of four sub-dimensions which are the ability approach, mastery, student relations, and work avoidance. The teachers who volunteered to participate in the research filled out the prepared data collection tool over the internet. While analyzing the data; mean, standard deviation, mode, median, skewness, and kurtosis values of each sub-dimension were calculated. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between sub-dimensions. Independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to determine the effect of gender, educational level, years of work experience, branch, and weekly course load on the goal orientations for the teaching of teachers. According to the findings; there was a low linear correlation between student relations, mastery and ability approach goal orientations. A low level of a linear relationship between the ability approach and work avoidance goal orientations has been found. As a result of the difference tests, it was determined that the dimensions of mastery and work avoidance differed according to gender, while the mastery and ability approach differed according to the education level, and ability approach and work avoidance differed according to weekly course load.
Chapter
Lehrkräfte sind zentrale Akteure im Bildungssystem. Dass sie einen substanziellen Einfluss auf das Lernen und die Entwicklung ihrer Schülerinnen und Schüler haben können, ist auch aus empirischer Sicht unstrittig. Warum jedoch manche Lehrkräfte erfolgreicher als andere sind und welche persönlichen Voraussetzungen dies bestimmen, soll in diesem Kapitel näher betrachtet werden. Ziel ist, zu zeigen, wie die Pädagogische Psychologie dazu beigetragen hat, Lehrerinnen und Lehrer als wichtige Agenten im Bildungssystem besser zu verstehen. Die Erkenntnisse pädagogisch-psychologischer Forschung liefern Ansatzpunkte für die Verbesserung von Unterricht und sind auch hilfreich, um die beruflichen Erfahrungen von Lehrkräften positiv zu gestalten. Um auf das Thema Lehrkräfte einzustimmen, liefern wir zunächst eine Anforderungsanalyse, die die typischen Herausforderungen des Lehrerberufs beschreibt. Anschließend fassen wir Ansätze der pädagogisch-psychologischen Forschung zu Lehrkräften zusammen und erläutern dann, welche Merkmale von Lehrkräften bisher in der Forschung Aufmerksamkeit fanden. Das Kapitel schließt mit einer Beschreibung der Lerngelegenheiten für (angehende) Lehrkräfte.
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Becoming a teacher is a complex practice, full of challenges and excitement. It begins with the many early encounters one has with his significant others, and continues as he observes teachers through the structured instruction in the classroom. It completes with specialized training and teaching experiences for those who choose teaching as a vocation to last a lifetime. Training immersion offers resources for pre-service teachers where they can conduct their coaching and teaching skills. This research thus identified the impact of pedagogical competence on the teaching effectiveness of a State University's pre-service teachers in the Cagayan Valley Region, Philippines. This work was conducted for three consecutive years at a Teacher Education Institution (TEI) and Department of Education (DepEd), as a descriptive-inferential sample. Descriptive statistics were used to define the descriptive targets, while inferential statistics such as t-test, F-test, and correlation procedures were used to determine the relationship between the variables and between them. The study found that teachers on pre-service regularly demonstrated a very high degree of pedagogical ability. Their teaching performance has varied significantly from each other in the past three academic years. They appeared to manifest poor teaching efficiency when the pre-service teachers displayed a low awareness order. Consequently, they continue to show outstanding teaching efficiency when the pre-service teachers demonstrated a high knowledge order. The outstanding teaching performance of pre-service teachers is distinguished by their possession of a high degree of pedagogical competence.
Article
Full-text available
Becoming a teacher is a complex practice, full of challenges and excitement. It begins with the many early encounters one has with his significant others, and continues as he observes teachers through the structured instruction in the classroom. It completes with specialized training and teaching experiences for those who choose teaching as a vocation to last a lifetime. Training immersion offers resources for pre-service teachers where they can conduct their coaching and teaching skills. This research thus identified the impact of pedagogical competence on the teaching effectiveness of a State University's pre-service teachers in the Cagayan Valley Region, Philippines. This work was conducted for three consecutive years at a Teacher Education Institution (TEI) and Department of Education (DepEd), as a descriptive-inferential sample. Descriptive statistics were used to define the descriptive targets, while inferential statistics such as t-test, F-test, and correlation procedures were used to determine the relationship between the variables and between them. The study found that teachers on pre-service regularly demonstrated a very high degree of pedagogical ability. Their teaching performance has varied significantly from each other in the past three academic years. They appeared to manifest poor teaching efficiency when the pre-service teachers displayed a low awareness order. Consequently, they continue to show outstanding teaching efficiency when the pre-service teachers demonstrated a high knowledge order. The outstanding teaching performance of pre-service teachers is distinguished by their possession of a high degree of pedagogical competence.
Article
ملخص البحث: استهدف البحث الكشف عن مستوى النزعات نحو التدريس وتوجهات الهدف لدى معلمي التربية الإسلامية بالمرحلة الابتدائية في المملكة العربية السعودية، وتقصي العلاقة بينهما، والتنبؤ بتوجهات هدف الإتقان وهدف الإنجاز من خلال النزعات نحو التدريس، ولتحقيق الأهداف السابقة استخدم الباحث المنهج الوصفي الارتباطي، وأعد مقياسين لقياس النزعات نحو التدريس، وتوجهات الهدف، وتكونت عينة البحث من (60) معلمًا، وكشف البحث عن مجموعة من النتائج أهمها: وجود علاقة ارتباطية موجبة دالة إحصائيًا عند مستوى (0.01) بين النزعات نحو التدريس وتوجهات هدف الإتقان لدى المعلمين، وكذلك وجود فرق دال إحصائيًا بين المعلمين مرتفعي ومنخفضي النزعة نحو مهنة التدريس في بعد توجهات هدف الإتقان لصالح المعلمين مرتفعي النزعة نحو مهنة التدريس، بينما لا يوجد فرق دال إحصائيًا بينهما في بعد توجهات هدف الإنجاز، وقد أوصى البحث بالعديد من التوصيات منها: توعية معلمي التربية الإسلامية بأبعاد النزعات نحو التدريس وتوجهات الهدف "الإتقان/الإنجاز". الكلمات الدالة: النزعات نحو التدريس، توجهات الهدف، معلمو التربية الإسلامية.
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Most contemporary achievement goal conceptualizations consist of a performance goal versus mastery goal dichotomy. The present research offers an alternative framework by partitioning the performance goal orientation into independent approach and avoidance motivational orientations. Two experiments investigated the predictive utility of the proposed approach-avoidance achievement goal conceptualization in the intrinsic motivation domain. Results from both experiments supported the proposed framework; only performance goals grounded in the avoidance of failure undermined intrinsic motivation. Task involvement was validated as a mediator of the observed effects on intrinsic motivation. Ramifications for the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation and future research avenues are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The central focus of this paper is to address the magnitudes of and changes in four central components of teacher goal orientation (learning, performance approach, performance avoidance and work avoidance goal orientation) among prospective teachers. The findings reported here were gathered with a sample of 130 teacher trainees who responded to questionnaires at five measuring points over the course of the two years pre-service training which comprise the second phase of teacher education (“Referendariat”). Differential magnitudes and changes in teacher trainees’ goal orientations were analyzed using a hierarchical linear modeling approach. Cluster analyses were able to identify three typical growth trajectory patterns in goal orientation which were differentially associated with achievement levels at the end of the second phase of teacher education, stress experiences, attitudes concerning help seeking, as well as dropout tendencies.
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This document outlines the framework and a comprehensive plan for a cross-national study of primary and secondary mathematics teacher education (TEDS-M)sponsored by the IEA. TEDS-M is a study of the variation in the nature and impact of teacher education programs within and across 17 countries.
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Teacher professional development is essential to efforts to improve our schools. This article maps the terrain of research on this important topic. It first provides an overview of what we have learned as a field, about effective professional development programs and their impact on teacher learning. It then suggests some important directions and strategies for extending our knowledge into new territory of questions not yet explored.
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As performance goals aim to both procure acknowledgment of one's abilities and to avoid revealing a lack of one's abilities, the authors hypothesized that students hold specific performance goals for different addressees and that there are specific correlational patterns with other motivational constructs. They analyzed a data set of 2,675 pupils (1,248 boys and 1,426 girls) attending Grades 8 and 9 (mean age=15.0, SD=0.97). The students completed a questionnaire consisting of 12 items measuring performance approach goals and 12 items measuring performance avoidance goals. In each subset, 4 groups of addressees were differentiated: parents, teachers, peers, and the acting individual him/herself. Additionally, several external criteria were measured. The authors concurrently tested theory-driven, structural equation models. Incorporating all 24 items, the best-fitting model was a multitrait-multimethod model, which posited 2 factors for approach and avoidance goals and 4 addressee factors. While performance goals addressing parents showed relationships to maladaptive motivational and learning patterns, performance goals addressing classmates and self showed relationships to adaptive motivational and learning patterns. The relationships between performance goals addressing teachers and external criteria were rather weak and unsystematic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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315 9th graders and 272 12th graders from 2 schools were administered a questionnaire to investigate associations between views about the purposes of education and personal goals, between personal goals and perceived causes of success, and between purposes of education and perceived causes of success. Results show that Ss found a logically consistent relationship among these elements of inquiry. For example, the view that school should enable Ss to enhance their wealth and status was less likely than any other view to be associated with a commitment to learning for its own sake and more likely to be associated with academic alienation. Ss also tended to expect success to result from the types of activity they preferred and from the personal qualities they thought school should encourage. Findings raise doubts about the wisdom of the current propensity to emphasize the role of schools in the advancement of one's wealth and social status. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Meta-analyses indicated that cooperation is more effective than interpersonal and individual efforts in promoting achievement and productivity, that cooperation in intergroup competition is superior to interpersonal and individual efforts in promoting achievement and productivity, and that interpersonal competition and individual efforts do not differ in effects on achievement and productivity.
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The authors identified several specific problems with the measurement of achievement goals in the current literature and illustrated these problems, focusing primarily on A. J. Elliot and H. A. McGregor's (2001) Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ). They attended to these problems by creating the AGQ-Revised and conducting a study that examined the measure's structural validity and predictive utility with 229 (76 male, 150 female, 3 unspecified) undergraduates. The hypothesized factor and dimensional structures of the measure were confirmed and shown to be superior to a host of alternatives. The predictions were nearly uniformly supported with regard to both the antecedents (need for achievement and fear of failure) and consequences (intrinsic motivation and exam performance) of the 4 achievement goals. In discussing their work, the authors highlight the importance and value of additional precision in the area of achievement goal measurement.
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This article describes the development and validation process for an instrument to assess goal orientation (an individual disposition toward developing or validating one's ability in achievement settings). In contrast to previous goal orientation instruments, three goal orientation dimensions are identified (learning, avoid, and prove), and the instrument is domain specific to work settings. The results of exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis (internal consistency and test-retest), confirmatory factor analysis, and nomological network analysis all support the conclusion that the instrument operationalizes the theorized three-dimensional construct.
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Teacher self-efficacy is studied as a personal resource factor that may protect from the experience of job strain and, thus, make the escalation of burnout less likely. The article examines the relationships between self-efficacy, job stress, and burnout, focusing on mediation (self-efficacy job stress burnout). Moreover, it questions whether such a mediation, if found, would be dependent on the levels of other variables (moderated mediation). Study I, with two samples of teachers (N= 1,203), examined this putative mechanism cross-sectionally and found such an effect, in particular for younger teachers and those with low general self-efficacy. Study II, with 458 teachers, replicated the results longitudinally over a period of one year by employing structural equation models. In a cross-lagged panel design, low self-efficacy preceded burnout. Further research should study these mechanisms by interventions that aim at strengthening teacher self-efficacy as a protective resource factor.
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Research interest in the professional knowledge of mathematics teachers has grown considerably in recent years. In the COACTIV project, tests of secondary mathematics teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and content knowledge (CK) were developed and implemented in a sample of teachers whose classes participated in the PISA 2003/04 longitudinal assessment in Germany. The present article investigates the validity of the COACTIV constructs of PCK and CK. To this end, the COACTIV tests of PCK and CK were administered to various “contrast populations,” namely, candidate mathematics teachers, mathematics students, teachers of biology and chemistry, and advanced school students. The hypotheses for each population’s performance in the PCK and CK tests were formulated and empirically tested. In addition, the article compares the COACTIV approach with related conceptualizations and findings of two other research groups.
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Assessing the applicability of frameworks developed in one country to other countries is an important step in establishing the generalizability of consumer behavior theories. In order for such comparisons to be meaningful, however, the instruments used to measure the theoretical constructs of interest have to exhibit adequate cross-national equivalence. We review the various forms of measurement invariance that have been proposed in the literature, organize them into a coherent conceptual framework that ties different requirements of measure equivalence to the goals of the research, and propose a practical, sequential testing procedure for assessing measurement invariance in cross-national consumer research. The approach is based on multisample confirmatory factor analysis and clarifies under what conditions meaningful comparisons of construct conceptualizations. construct means, and relationships between constructs are possible. An empirical application dealing with the single-factor construct of consumer ethnocentrism in Belgium, Great Britain, and Greece is provided to illustrate the procedure. Copyright 1998 by the University of Chicago.
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The author assessed academic self-efficacy, task value, ability and effort attributions and mastery, performanceapproach, and performance-avoidance achievement-goal orientations in reference to English, Korean, mathematics, and general school learning among 389 Korean high school girls. Results corroborated M. Bong's (2001) previous report that students form motivational beliefs that are subject-matter specific and that some beliefs generalize more than others across multiple academic domains. On average, attributional beliefs appeared least "generalizable," followed by task value and mastery achievement-goal orientations. Academic self-efficacy beliefs were correlated moderately, whereas performance-approach and performance-avoidance achievement-goal orientations demonstrated strong correlation across different contexts. Motivational beliefs in each of the specific school subjects were more strongly correlated with motivational beliefs in general school learning than with beliefs in other areas of subject matter.
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This study examined a new achievement-goal approach to teacher motivation by testing the predictions that mastery and ability-avoidance goals for teaching would predict students' reports of teacher support for and inhibition of question asking and help seeking, as well as students' help seeking and cheating. Surveys were completed by 53 teachers and 1287 students in Grades 7–9. Effect sizes from a set of HLM analyses were small, but confirmed that teacher mastery goals were associated with higher levels of perceived teacher support and lower levels of perceived teacher inhibition; the reverse was the case for teacher ability-avoidance goals. Thus, teacher mastery and ability-avoidance goals were associated with students' reports of positive versus negative instructional practices. Teacher ability-avoidance goals were associated with student cheating, but teacher achievement goals did not predict students' help seeking.
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This study aimed to investigate whether student teachers' achievement goal orientations changed during teacher studies, and how motivational trajectories were related to academically- and teaching-relevant antecedents and outcomes. A total of 170 participants were followed up between two and five time points. Using individual growth models, achievement goal orientations were found to increase over time and to peak during the third year of studies. Secondary school grades predicted a higher level of performance-approach goal orientation and graded performance. Reflective thinking, teacher intrinsic motivation and teacher control-expectancy beliefs were related to increase of mastery goal orientation. Task-irrelevant behavior was related to low graded performance as well as to increase in performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals.
Article
A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework comprising mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance approach, and performance-avoidance goals was proposed and tested in 3 studies. Factor analytic results supported the independence of the 4 achievement goal constructs. The goals were examined with respect to several important antecedents (e.g., motive dispositions, implicit theories, socialization histories) and consequences (e.g., anticipatory test anxiety, exam performance, health center visits), with particular attention allocated to the new mastery-avoidance goal construct. The results revealed distinct empirical profiles for each of the achievement goals; the pattern for mastery-avoidance goals was, as anticipated, more negative than that for mastery-approach goals and more positive than that for performance avoidance goals. Implications of the present work for future theoretical development in the achievement goal literature are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Zusammenfassung. Zielorientierungen gelten als wichtige Determinanten schulischen Lernens. Wie auch bei anderen motivationalen Konstrukten stellt sich die Frage, inwieweit Zielorientierungen eher schulfachübergreifend oder schulfachspezifisch sind. Schülerinnen und Schüler der 7.-10. Klassenstufe (N = 1210) bearbeiteten einen Fragebogen zur Erfassung von vier Zielorientierungen, jeweils auf sechs Schulfächer bezogen (Mathematik, Physik, Chemie, Deutsch, Englisch, Geschichte). Konfirmatorische Faktorenanalysen konnten die vier postulierten Zielorientierungen Lernziele, Annäherungs-Leistungsziele, Vermeidungs-Leistungsziele und Arbeitsvermeidung in jedem der sechs Schulfächer bestätigen. Zudem ließen sich die sechs Fächer innerhalb jeder der vier Zielorientierungen trennen. Anschließende Modellvergleiche dokumentierten die Bedeutung einer simultanen Beachtung beider Gliederungsaspekte. Differentielle Beziehungen der schulfachspezifischen Zielorientierungen zu Fachzensuren und fachspezifischen Selbstkonzepten wiesen auf deren konvergente/divergente Validität hin.
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Achievement goal researchers and theorists have relied primarily on the distinction between performance goals and mastery goals in differentiating competence-based strivings. In this article, an argument is made for incorporating the distinction between approach and avoidance motivation into the performance-mastery dichotomy. Historical, theoretical, and empirical reasons for attending to the approach-avoidance distinction are offered, and a revised, trichotomous framework of achievement goals comprising mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals is described and reviewed. This trichotomous framework is discussed in the broader context of a hierarchical model of achievement motivation that attends to the motivational foundation underlying achievement goals per se. Avenues for further theoretical development are also overviewed, including consideration of a mastery-avoidance goal construct.
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Two studies (one longitudinal) were designed to extend Butler's model of teachers' goal orientations for teaching. In Study 1, results from 281 teachers in Germany confirmed the predicted four-factor model comprising mastery, ability-approach, ability-avoidance, and work-avoidance goal orientations. As expected, mastery orientation and work avoidance emerged as positive and negative predictors, respectively, of adaptive patterns of instruction (mastery-oriented practices and cognitive stimulation) and high interest in teaching and low burnout; associations for both ability orientations were less consistent. In Study 2, 69 Israeli teachers completed the measures of instructional practices, interest in teaching and burnout several months after reporting their goal orientations. Results were very similar to those of Study 1. The two studies confirm that research on teachers' goal orientation is promising and has implications for understanding how teacher motivation might influence both teachers and their students.
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Drawing upon motivational goal theories, the present study analyses the relation between goal orientation for teaching and the attitudes concerning help-seeking using a sample of N = 224 pre service teachers. Perceptions of help-seeking as threatening to the self could be predicted from avoidance performance goals (i. e., the goal not to be considered as a bad teacher). The perception of help as beneficial for learning could be predicted from learning goals (i. e., the goal to gain expertise in teaching). Work avoidance predict- ed the perception of help as often causing additional work. We discuss how motivational factors impact on teachers' beliefs, attitudes, and behavior.
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Measurement invariance is usually tested using Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis, which examines the change in the goodness-of-fit index (GFI) when cross-group constraints are imposed on a measurement model. Although many studies have examined the properties of GFI as indicators of overall model fit for single-group data, there have been none to date that examine how GFIs change when between-group constraints are added to a measurement model. The lack of a consensus about what constitutes significant GFI differences places limits on measurement invariance testing. We examine 20 GFIs based on the minimum fit function. A simulation under the two-group situation was used to examine changes in the GFIs (ΔGFIs) when invariance constraints were added. Based on the results, we recommend using Δcomparative fit index, ΔGamma hat, and ΔMcDonald's Noncentrality Index to evaluate measurement invariance. These three ΔGFIs are independent of both model complexity and sample size, and are not correlated with the overall fit measures. We propose critical values of these ΔGFIs that indicate measurement invariance.
Article
Examined the relations among 260 8th grade students' achievement goals and the orientation of students' friends toward academic effort and achievement. Four types of students' achievement goals, 2 friendship orientation scales, students' gender, and their GPA from 4 core academic areas were examined. Regression analysis revealed that associating with positively oriented friends was the strongest predictor of task goals, whereas associating with negatively oriented friends was strongly related to pursuing extrinsic and effort avoidance goals. Relative ability goals were related to the positive orientation of friends scale for boys but not for girls. Significant interactions between positive friend orientation and achievement level on relative ability goals were also found. Discriminant analysis demonstrated that the goal orientations students hold discriminates between their tendencies to associate with negatively and positively oriented friends. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
It was proposed that achievement goal theory can be applied to conceptualizing motivation not only for learning but also for teaching. As predicted, responses of 320 teachers to a new self-report measure of goal orientations for teaching yielded 4 factors reflecting distinct mastery, ability-approach, ability-avoidance, and work-avoidance goals. Data from 212 teachers who also completed measures of help seeking confirmed that mastery goals predicted positive perceptions of help seeking, preferences for receiving autonomous help, and frequency of help seeking; ability avoidance predicted negative perceptions and help avoidance; and work avoidance predicted expedient help seeking. Results validate the proposed structure and measure of teacher goal orientations and open new directions for research on teacher cognitions and behaviors, teachers' influences on students, and school influences on teachers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The author used confirmatory factor analysis to examine between-domain relations of self-efficacy, task-value, and achievement goal orientations among 424 Korean middle and high school students. All motivational constructs demonstrated strong subject specificity in both age groups. Strengths of between-domains differed substantially by individual constructs. Performance-approach and performance goals were highly correlated across domains, whereas task-value and mastery goals were more distinct across domains. Self-efficacy perceptions were moderately correlated across subjects. High school students' academic motivation was more differentiated than that of middle school students. Within-domain interrelations among these motivation constructs were generally consistent with previous research. More important, consistent patterns of relations were observed in four different academic domains within each age group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes how motivational processes influence a child's acquisition, transfer, and use of knowledge and skills. Recent research within the social-cognitive framework illustrates adaptive and maladaptive motivational patterns, and a research-based model of motivational processes is presented that shows how the particular performance or learning goals children pursue on cognitive tasks shape their reactions to success and failure and influence the quality of their cognitive performance. Implications for practice and the design of interventions to change maladaptive motivational processes are outlined. It is suggested that motivational patterns may contribute to gender differences in mathematics achievement and that empirically based interventions may prevent current achievement discrepancies and provide a basis for more effective socialization. (79 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Traditionally, theorists have described motivation in terms of approach and avoidance tendencies. In contrast, goal orientation research has focused primarily on 2 approach goals: demonstrating ability (performance-approach) and developing ability (task). A scale to assess the goal of avoiding the demonstration of lack of ability (performance-avoid) was included with scales assessing approach goals in a survey given to 703 6th graders. Factor analysis supported the differentiation among the 3 scales. The performance scales were moderately positively correlated and exhibited low correlations with the task scale. With all 3 goals in regression equations, task goals predicted academic efficacy, self-regulated learning, and lower levels of avoiding seeking academic help in the classroom. Performance-avoid goals negatively predicted academic efficacy and positively predicted avoiding seeking help and test anxiety. Performance-approach goals did not emerge as the most significant predictor of any of these educationally relevant outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this chapter, the theoretical emphasis is on contemporary achievement goal frameworks, which have dominated research on achievement motivation in sport since the early 1990s. With the breadth of this field of inquiry in mind, one aim of this contribution, then, is to provide a synopsis of some of the major questions that sport achievement goal researchers have posed and the manner in which they have attempted to answer such questions. Another purpose of this chapter is to encapsulate the prevailing pattern of findings related to these queries. An additional aspiration is to draw attention to the theoretical advancements, and the conceptual and practical issues raised in the existent work on achievement goals in sport. I begin with a short description of the major constructs embedded in the sport achievement goal literature, namely, the concepts of goal orientations, motivational climate, and goal involvement. In each case, I highlight prevailing measurement efforts. The major theoretical tenets, emanating from what are now referred to as dual goal, or dichotomous achievement goal, frameworks, are summarized, and major research trends are described. Recent incorporations of trichotomous and 2x2 goal models in sport research and emergent findings are subsequently reviewed in brief. Such work considers that achievement goals can be both approach- and avoidance-oriented. Throughout the chapter, in the spirit of fostering further work on competence and achievement goals in the sport domain, I propose unresolved issues and potential areas for future inquiry for the reader's consideration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
address . . . how knowledge & beliefs change over time as novice teachers learn to teach and experienced teachers attempt to make changes in their teaching practices / selected studies to be representative of research approaches and of various aspects of our conceptual framework / that framework incorporates key assumptions underlying a cognitive psychological perspective on learning to teach, and a model of domains of teachers' knowledge and beliefs / review research on how pre-service and in-service teachers learn to teach / conclude with a set of recommendations for helping novice and experienced teachers expand and elaborate their professional knowledge base (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Achievement behavior is defined as behavior directed at developing or demonstrating high rather than low ability. Ability can be conceived either with reference to the individual's own past performance or knowledge, a context in which gains in mastery indicate competence, or as capacity relative to that of others, a context in which a gain in mastery alone does not indicate high ability. To demonstrate high capacity, one must achieve more with equal effort or use less effort than do others for an equal performance. The conditions under which these different conceptions of ability function as individuals' goals and the nature of subjective experience in each case are specified. Different predictions of task choice and performance are derived and tested for each case using data from previously published studies. The effects of task and ego involvement, task choice, and self-perceptions are discussed. (125 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Recent research in motivation has identified 2 main goal orientations: task orientation and ego orientation. Two studies of 6th- and 8th-grade Norwegian students tested the prediction that there are different dimensions of ego orientation (self-defeating and self-enhancing), that they may be separated from other goal orientations, and that they relate differently to academic achievement, self-concept, self-efficacy, self-esteem, anxiety, and intrinsic motivation. Results from both studies supported the predictions. The correlation between self-defeating and self-enhancing ego orientation was small, and these constructs had different relations to other variables in the study. Self-defeating ego orientation was associated with high anxiety and was negatively related to achievement and self-perceptions. Self-enhancing ego orientation was positively related to achievement, self-perceptions, and intrinsic motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine how achievement goals and attitudes toward help seeking were related to students' self-reported help-seeking behavior. Eighth- and ninth-grade Japanese students participated in this study. A trichotomous framework was used to classify achievement goals. Mastery goals were related to perceived benefits, which were related to the adaptive help seeking positively and the avoidance of help seeking negatively. The study also found a negative direct relation between mastery goals and the avoidance of help seeking. Performance-approach goals had a direct positive relation with the adaptive help seeking and a negative relation with the avoidance of help seeking. Performance-avoidance goals were related to perceived threats, which were related to the avoidance of help seeking positively and the adaptive help seeking negatively. Different functions of three achievement goals and implications for adaptive help seeking were discussed.