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Compétitivité territoriale : la recherche d'avantages absolus

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The article discusses the concept of territorial competitiveness by examining two subordinate questions: the solidity of the concept of territorial competitiveness itself, in terms of economic theory, and the new bases on which this competitiveness is relying, according to a cognitive-evolutionary type approach. The concept of territorial competitiveness appears theoretically strong not only because of the role played by the territory, supplying the individual firms with competitive instruments connected to the milieu, but especially because of its role in the building processes of knowledge, interpretative codes, models of co-operation and decision on which are founded the innovating courses of the companies. Moreover, economic laws about international trade, which refer to the Ricardian principle of comparative advantage, do not act on the intra-national level, adding to the importance of territorial competitiveness. Thus, for a more disaggregated territorial level, and thus for a more opened economy, not only with regard to trade but also factor mobility, if a certain level or a certain growth rate of competitiveness is not ensured, this economy can be subject to crisis, depopulation, and desertification.

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... Territory; Territorial project; Strategic management; Stakeholders; Resources and skills INTRODUCTION À l'ère de la mondialisation, la mobilité des facteurs de production et des marchandises s'accroît et, à mesure que les frontières s'ouvrent et que les moyens de transport se développent, une logique de plus en plus compétitive (Camagni, 2006) s'inscrit entre les territoires (nations, régions, départements, communes, villes, etc.). Dans ce contexte, les territoires sont amenés à devenir plus attractifs et plus compétitifs, et à développer des stratégies de différenciation afin de capter les éléments nécessaires à leurs développements tels que les facteurs de production, le capital et le savoir-faire. ...
... Le territoire est alors « un simple lieu géographique présentant des caractéristiques physiques ou économiques directement exploitables » (Torre, 2002, p. 16). La notion d'actif se différencie alors de la notion de ressource du fait qu'il constitue un facteur « activé », alors que la ressource est un facteur latent, à exploiter (Colletis et Pecqueur, 2004 (Camagni, 2006), appréhender le territoire comme un ensemble de ressources spécifiques peut permettre de comprendre comment un territoire peut se différencier durablement des autres et ainsi attirer les facteurs (capital, travail, …) nécessaires à son développement. ...
... These resources can constitute either assets or constraints on the territory. Territorial development policies must above all help the territories to develop their territorial capital (Camagni, 2006). The coordination capacity of actors, to mobilize the resources of the territory, generates development and marks this territory. ...
... The success of a territorial system does not depend only on material resources, but also on the wealth of cognitive elements (Camagni, 2006). The active participation of local communities is considered today as one of the main factors at the origin of economic development, while contributing to the creation of links and trust between members of social groups. ...
... A valorização do recurso é uma construção social, que nasce da percepção comum, da visão partilhada dos atores sobre o território. Se há um ambiente institucional que favoreça a interação entre atores, onde compartilhar códigos comuns e atitudes recíprocas de confiança e cooperação (Camagni, 2006), os processos de ativação poderão ser mais freqüentes, pois a ação coletiva é facilitada. ...
... Em um contexto de crescente competitividade entre regiões, induzido pela globalização dos mercados mundiais, a ativação de recursos específicos torna-se um fator de desenvolvimento. Transformar um recurso em um ativo específico pode significar a substituição do princípio ricardiano da vantagem comparativa pela "vantagem diferenciadora" (Pecqueur, 2006) ou "vantagem absoluta" (Camagni, 2006). Significa, em última análise, escapar de uma lógica de guerra de custos e preços e entrar numa situação de monopólio. ...
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RESUMO O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar e discutir as bases teóricas que sustentam uma pesquisa sobre desenvolvimento territorial e ação coletiva para a valorização de recursos territoriais na região da Serra Catarinense. A pesquisa busca compreender as implicações do processo de construção social do território sobre seu desenvolvimento, guiando-se pela seguinte questão central: por que os espaços de interação social no território ainda não possibilitam aos atores da Serra Catarinense se mobilizar coletivamente para resolver os conflitos e transformar seus recursos territoriais em ativos territoriais? O artigo apresenta e discute as principais referências bibliográficas que dão sustentação teórica à pesquisa, em especial as contribuições da Nova Sociologia Econômica e nas pesquisas sobre recursos territoriais. À luz dessas teorias e do acompanhamento dos processos de criação e funcionamento do colegiado territorial, apresentam-se os resultados preliminares.
... A valorização do recurso é uma construção social, que nasce da percepção comum, da visão partilhada dos atores sobre o território. Se há um ambiente institucional que favoreça a interação entre atores, onde compartilhar códigos comuns e atitudes recíprocas de confiança e cooperação (Camagni, 2006), os processos de ativação poderão ser mais freqüentes, pois a ação coletiva é facilitada. ...
... Em um contexto de crescente competitividade entre regiões, induzido pela globalização dos mercados mundiais, a ativação de recursos específicos torna-se um fator de desenvolvimento. Transformar um recurso em um ativo específico pode significar a substituição do princípio ricardiano da vantagem comparativa pela "vantagem diferenciadora" (Pecqueur, 2006) ou "vantagem absoluta" (Camagni, 2006). Significa, em última análise, escapar de uma lógica de guerra de custos e preços e entrar numa situação de monopólio. ...
... Les ménages et investisseurs sont sensibles à différents facteurs d'attractivité du territoire pour s'y installer, que ce soit temporairement ou durablement. Relevant de plusieurs dimensions disciplinaires et apportant un avantage comparatif au territoire vis-à-vis des autres (Camagni, 2005(Camagni, , 2006, ces facteurs peuvent relever du domaine fonctionnel (s'y loger, y travailler, le visiter, y développer une activité), mais aussi d'autres registres ou dimensions (cadre de vie, bien-être, etc.). Pour les individus et les ménages, c'est la potentialité d'un territoire à offrir de plus fortes « capacités » 3 qui le rendra attractif, surtout s'il existe plusieurs alternatives permettant d'exercer sa liberté de choix (Sen, 2003). ...
... Strategic spatial plans have also been developed at the European scale (Healey, 2004). The need for better coordination of public policies, the search for a way to reinforce "territorial competitiveness" (Camagni, 2006), the sustainable development objective or the importance of ensuring better accessibility all appear as priorities at different scales. ...
Article
The European territory cannot remain isolated from what happens beyond its borders. Many interactions currently exist with neighbouring countries. However, European institutions have not yet successfully understood the consequences of this reality. It is clear from the official documents relating to cohesion policy reveal a closed vision and inward looking concept of the European territory. Into the 2000s, such a vision, combined with a lack of coordination between the various DGs of the European Commission, has hampered the development of many regions located on the external borders of the European Union. Recently, the Commission has tried to come up with a new modus operandi in terms of better coordination between the cohesion and neighbourhood policies, with new regulations in respect of the structural funds and the financial instruments pertaining to external cooperation. These new regulations introduce real improvements to the previous instruments. However the new instruments still suffer from significant shortcomings. This paper addresses the important issue of territorial cooperation with third countries by raising three main questions. What is the content of the new regulations released by the Commission in December 2006? What kind of improvements did they bring to the former regulations? And, what kind of obstacles to these reforms have emerged?.
... Regional values refer to the concept of regional capital (this concept refers to the French concept of 'territorial capital'), i.e., a system of regional goods and items that characterize a certain region (economic, cultural, social and natural) and enable its development [82,83]. This multidimensional capital determines the regional competitiveness of a region in comparison with others, at a global scale [84,85]. Values are created through regional externalities (e.g., ability to attract innovative actors, healthy environment, infrastructures, etc.) that generally cannot be made private [86]. ...
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For the last 20 years, the field of industrial symbiosis (IS) has raised interest among academics and industries. IS consists of dissimilar entities sharing and valorising underutilised resources such as materials, energy, information, services, or technologies in the view of increasing the industrial system's circularity. Despite the benefits brought by IS, though, barriers hindering the full dissemination of IS remain. This paper presents a methodology developed in the framework of the H2020 European project EPOS that aims at removing some of the obstacles to the implementation of IS. The method follows a multidisciplinary approach that intents to trigger the interest of industry decision-makers and initiate efforts to optimise the use of energy and material resources through symbiosis. It is applied to an industrial cluster located in the Humber region of UK. The case study shows how the approach helped to identify several IS opportunities, how one particular high-potential symbiosis was further assessed, and how it led to the creation of a business case. It was estimated that the identified symbiosis could bring substantial economic (+2000 k pa), environmental (−4000 t of CO 2 eq. pa) and social (+7 years of healthy life) gains to the region.
... Ardinat (2012) l'envisage comme l'« avatar territorial d'un contexte néolibéral ». Le spectre des définitions est large et dépend des positionnements idéologiques de chacun, mais d'un point de vue opérationnel, la recherche de compétitivité est au coeur de la production d'innovations et de la concentration des acteurs sur des espaces la favorisant (Fache, 2002 ;Daviet, 2005 ;Camagni, 2006). L'aménagement des territoires de l'innovation et la recherche de compétitivité territoriale sont intimement liés et ce d'autant plus qu'ils ont été renforcés par la multiplication des crises économiques et financières, la volatilité accrue des capitaux et des grandes entreprises, l'initiation du processus de démondialisation annoncé par certains pays. ...
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