Article

A study on building sustainable communities in high-rise and high-density apartments – Focused on living program

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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to suggest a conceptual model for sustainable communities, considering sustainable development and placemaking perspectives of community building in Korean apartment complexes. This study then verifies the validity of the model as an action plan. Based on a review of literature at home and abroad, the model was conceptualized on the structure of living programs and physical and social settings for sustainable communities in Korean apartment complexes. The living program, which connects physical and social settings, consists of four action subjects: Activation of community spaces, activation of community programs, activation of participation, and activation of ecological living and design. This model demonstrates that a living program will increase resident satisfaction and result in a sustainable community. Three subjects out of the four suggested in the living program of the model were empirically tested based on previous research data. According to the correlation analysis between living programs and residential satisfaction, when residents are satisfied with community spaces, programs, and participation in the community, overall residential satisfaction rises. Accordingly, the living program of the conceptual model plays a meaningful role in developing sustainable communities in Korean apartment complexes.

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... The challenge presented by high-rise living might also focus on the motivations of residents for a high quality of life. Cho and Lee (2011) note that when communal spaces are activated with programs of participation, high-rise "residents can meet their lifestyle needs and enrich their lives together with their neighbors." (Cho andLee, 2011, 1435). ...
... Cho and Lee (2011) note that when communal spaces are activated with programs of participation, high-rise "residents can meet their lifestyle needs and enrich their lives together with their neighbors." (Cho andLee, 2011, 1435). Making the effort to build the sense of belonging in a 'high-rise village' may aid residents and authorities to share critical DRR information such as evacuation procedures (cf. ...
Article
This study discusses the role of the socio-cognitive setting of the village in the development of effective DRR on the Island of Simeulue, Aceh, Indonesia. Simeulue was the first place struck by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but suffered less than 10 casualties. A wider program of qualitative research focusing on narrative interviews examined the cultural drivers of the island's DRR found that a traditional story related in and about local villages provided local people with intimate spatial knowledge and self-efficacy to take appropriate action at the sign of onset of a tsunami. A diverse literature relating to the influence of local places on individual and community identity indicates that the integration of social and place orientation can contribute to effective DRR. A review of the alignment of investment in integrating place, community empowerment and resilience is discussed. It is proposed that investment in ‘villaging’ is not only warranted, it has the potential to generate transformative change in resilience and DRR.
... In the 1980s, the concept of sustainable development which includes a combination of global nature, society, ecology, economy, and resource utilisation, as well as providing the basic guidance and direction for a longterm strategic plan towards worldwide was primarily recognised [1]. Even though the concept proposed by WCED in 1987 was only intended to explain a framework model for economic growth, many researchers still extended the concept of sustainable development to urban space construction especially for communities [2,3]. ...
... Subdivide and simplify the research problems that need to be solved by semi-structured interview method are also conducted, so as to avoid guidance and aversion: (1) Do you think there are obstacles in the design, construction and maintenance life cycle of Baicheng New Area? (2) What are the impacts of these factors on the development of new areas? In addition to the question design, the interview duration will be controlled between 40-60 minutes, and the overall outline design content is extensive to ensure that the interviewees can express their true opinion. ...
... We adapt some studies about spatial pattern of human settlement by their social norms and cultural setting (Nunta and Sahachaisaeree (2012); Tutuko and Shen (2014), transformed in accordance with the modern society (Saleh (2000); Saleh (2001)), and from the view of behaviour and satisfaction of living (Marmot (1983), Lewis (1997), Chuo andLee (2011), andWang andChien (1999)). Nowadays people have built their environment with a variety of changes in accordance with the needs and limitations of the land. ...
... We adapt some studies about spatial pattern of human settlement by their social norms and cultural setting (Nunta and Sahachaisaeree (2012); Tutuko and Shen (2014), transformed in accordance with the modern society (Saleh (2000); Saleh (2001)), and from the view of behaviour and satisfaction of living (Marmot (1983), Lewis (1997), Chuo andLee (2011), andWang andChien (1999)). Nowadays people have built their environment with a variety of changes in accordance with the needs and limitations of the land. ...
Conference Paper
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Most dwellers that live in the developing country build onto their own houses gradually, that is reflecting the behavioural occupancy of the people. Start of concern about a healthy city in the which people live in a setting resilient, so they can easily walk, meet, and live with other residents; Also a settlement that is adaptive to the nature. This research attempts to present the adaptability of community to arrange their neighbourhood. This community want to adjust their spatial setting in order to accommodate social activities; however housing development needs to abide by the city regulation. We conducted study on a residential area, which has kampong characteristics in an area of riverside. There are several variations and differentiations in the area, especially on the function of spaces and the implications on spatial arrangement. The community can accept the changes and developments that come from each part of kampong. This paper discusses a study about the spatial arrangement of human settlements in the term of community planning and design for community facilities. The place is located on Muharto Residential area along riverside, Malang, Indonesia. Spatial arrangement analysis will be helpful to support their decision for facilities developments and decisions on community planning and design in particular urban areas.
... The limited long-term appeal of apartments may be due to a mismatch between available housing stock and people's expectations of liveable attributes of dwellings [8] rather than apartment living itself. Several studies of multi-storey residential environments have identified privacy and building quality as important influences on residents' perceptions of liveability [9][10][11][12][13]. Privacy is measured by the extent to which residents can control the intensity of their interaction with neighbours, and is indicated by the amount of ambient noise, noise from neighbours and the amount of outside space for personal use [14]. ...
... Ventilation may be perceived to be adequate for thermal comfort when velocity of air movement is appropriate for level of activity, and [44,45] and acceptable when air quality is not marred by unpleasant odours or stale air [46]. Various studies have identified noise in the urban residential environment as the greatest source of annoyance to residents [10]. Aural comfort is experienced when sound levels are acceptable for the prevailing spatial-temporal conditions, including perceptions of acoustic privacy, and stressful or annoying or loud noises are absent [47]. ...
Article
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Dwellings in multi-storey apartment buildings (MSAB) are predicted to increase dramatically as a proportion of housing stock in subtropical cities over coming decades. The problem of designing comfortable and healthy high-density residential environments and minimising energy consumption must be addressed urgently in subtropical cities globally. This paper explores private residents' experiences of privacy and comfort and their perceptions of how well their apartment dwelling modulated the external environment in subtropical conditions through analysis of 636 survey responses and 24 interviews with residents of MSAB in inner urban neighbourhoods of Brisbane, Australia. The findings show that the availability of natural ventilation and outdoor private living spaces play important roles in resident perceptions of liveability in the subtropics where the climate is conducive to year round "outdoor living". Residents valued choice with regard to climate control methods in their apartments. They overwhelmingly preferred natural ventilation to manage thermal comfort, and turned to the air-conditioner for limited periods, particularly when external conditions were too noisy. These findings provide a unique evidence base for reducing the environmental impact of MSAB and increasing the acceptability of apartment living, through incorporating residential attributes positioned around climate-responsive architecture.
... However, due to the stigma attached to high-rise public housing and its association with concentrated poverty, it has been addressed as a pathogenic factor in Western urban scholarship [3,4]. The reported downsides of high-rise public housing in relation to health relate to the physical deprivation of contact with nature and the effects of social isolation from neighbours, such as loneliness, a reduced sense of belonging and even suspicion [4][5][6][7][8]. These effects may constitute partial explanations for the fact that public housing residents are more likely to report much poorer health conditions than the general population [1,9]. ...
Article
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Communal space is regarded as essential for human well-being in high-rise developments in Asia and increasing attention has been given to the underlying mechanism of its effects in light of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. From the perspective of person–place processes, this paper explores ‘sense of place’ and its possible mediating effects on the relationship between communal space and the mental health of residents in high-rise public housing. An analysis of data from a questionnaire survey conducted in Hong Kong and Guangzhou revealed differentiated mechanisms according to local context and age group. Sense of place and its subcomponents mediated the connection between communal space and mental health in Hong Kong but not in Guangzhou. More specifically, place identity, place attachment and place dependence had stronger effects among older residents in HK than younger ones. The findings from this study can inform evidence-based planning and decision-making for public housing policy for health-oriented environments in high-density cities.
... (1) Housing renovation is a comprehensive issue [36] that includes physical form, economic cost, living needs, etc., and design can only help solve a small number of these problems and is not a main factor. Moreover, housing flexibility is not only a matter of design; a number of other aspects are also significant, such as selection of materials, facility assistance, and household participation. ...
Article
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Housing renovations have become an important part of the construction of living environments in China, and improving residential flexibility is an important way to facilitate renovations. This study focused on the adjustments of interior space and living function from the perspective of the application of flexible design strategies through two-stage surveys. The renovation contents and needs of 439 residents were statistically analyzed, an evaluation of design strategies was performed by 226 architects, and a correlation analysis was carried out based on the data. The results showed that the distribution of renovations was positively related to the renovation difficulty and could be summarized into four parts, viz., functional arrangement, device and pipeline, furniture and storage, and decorative details, while the willingness to renovate was related to living requirements. Twenty design strategies for improving housing flexibility were evaluated, and a statistical analysis was carried out on the flexibility assessment and adoption willingness provided by architects. In 14 of these strategies, the flexibility assessment affected the architects’ willingness to adopt the design (p < 0.05); however, the adoption willingness was affected by external factors in the other six strategies, such as cost control. In addition, the architects’ adoption willingness score was generally lower than their assessment score for the same strategy; thus, top-level guidance to promote the application of flexible strategies should be strengthened.
... According to (Fantozzi & Rocca, 2020), occupants' health is related to indoor environmental quality. For instance, different apartments in Korea can evaluate the indoor environment to consider the noise and air condition to maintain a healthy home environment and lighting condition in old apartments (Cho & Lee, 2011). ...
Article
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Georgetown, the capital of Penang Island, records the second highest density in Malaysia. On the other hand, those with lower economic status mostly live in low-cost, high-density vertical housing with indoor and outdoor environmental quality. Such housing conditions have severe implications on the residents’ comfort. Hence, this study adopted the mixed-method approach to assess indoor and outdoor air and lighting quality in high-rise low-cost housing. The qualitative approach was deployed to observe three low-cost high-rise housing in Penang while the second approach was quantitative data collected using a survey questionnaire distributed to households in the case study area. This study aims to identify the current environment indoor and outdoor lighting quality in low-cost high-rise housing. The three low-cost housing areas investigated in this study, namely, Taman Ampang Jaya (TAJ) (Seberang Jaya Utara (SPU) district), Halaman Kenanga (HK) (Daerah Timur Laut (DLT) district), and Idaman Seroja (IS) (Daerah Barat Daya (DBD) district), had more than 200 units. Resultantly, the three-housing had an average air and lighting quality, whereas the corridor indicated poor lighting, as well as foul and unhealthy air. Indoor and outdoor air quality and lighting in high-rise housing are related to the environment surrounding the site.
... Their findings are consistent with an earlier study by Berkoz et al. (2009) who state that security environment, appearance of housing environment, wellmaintained facilities and good social contact with the community are the criteria of resident satisfaction. In a further study conducted by Cho & Lee (2011), social and physical contact with the community such as activation of community spaces, programs and ecological living may lead to higher satisfaction. They found that a correlation analysis interpreted that when residents are satisfied with community space, programs and participation in the community, overall residents satisfaction rises. ...
Article
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Disputes between residents and the management managing an apartment is an unresolved problem. Disputes may affect the quality and sustainability of the apartment’s physical structure. Improvement of the apartment facilities management (FM) is needed for quality and sustainable urban living. The purpose of this paper is to examine the critical success factors (CSFs) for quality facilities management (FM) in managing apartments in Malaysia by initially identifying what the critical considerations are. The data for this preliminary study was obtained from random samples of 52 respondents involving owners’ frontline representatives from various apartments’ official managing bodies in Selangor, Malaysia. The reliability and validity of the instruments were assessed by experts from academia and the industry. The results provided evidence that the survey instrument was reliable with an overall Cronbach’s alpha of more than 0.900. It was found that respondents felt that the expectation of residents was perceived as the highest crucial factor compared to other factors. In conclusion, the results revealed that the potential constructs would be developed as key performance indicators (KPIs) for quality facilities management (FM) in apartments, specifically in the local region
... Their findings are consistent with an earlier study by Berkoz et al. (2009) who state that security environment, appearance of housing environment, wellmaintained facilities and good social contact with the community are the criteria of resident satisfaction. In a further study conducted by Cho & Lee (2011), social and physical contact with the community such as activation of community spaces, programs and ecological living may lead to higher satisfaction. They found that a correlation analysis interpreted that when residents are satisfied with community space, programs and participation in the community, overall residents satisfaction rises. ...
... At present, community development efforts tend to realize sustainable development. Some scholars have proposed a sustainable community through a complementary combination of material and social environments [7][8][9]. Previous studies have examined the connotations, realization mechanisms, and the relationship between sustainable community and transportation from different research perspectives, mainly focusing on two aspects. First, regarding the construction path, many scholars have studied the framework of sustainable community development [7], spatial construction approaches [8], and multi-level models to establish the relationship between economic and cultural conditions [10]. ...
Article
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With the increasingly serious aging problem, getting around in communities has become an important means of socializing for older adults. This study proposes a new community aging-friendly transportation service system from the perspective of service design, so as to help realize the sustainable development of community services. To achieve this objective, the pain points and demands of older adults while traveling in communities were collected through a questionnaire survey, focus group interview, and user journey map. In addition, the grounded theory was applied to encode the qualitative data obtained in the focus group interview, so as to explore the path composition and dimension connotation of designing community transportation services. Based on the research results, we found that service strategy, service foundation, service support, and service effect are the key factors influencing customized transportation services. The established model covers the design framework of the service system, customized traffic service process, design strategy of community stakeholders, and traffic service system diagram. These research results provide references for community managers, community service providers, and designers.
... In other countries, there have been intermittent reports that high-rise living has a negative effect on the health of residents (Lee, 2014;Xue et al., 2016b). These reports indicate that the higher floor you live, the more negative impact on the health of the residents (Cho & Lee, 2011). This presupposes that the primary architectural factor affecting the health of residents is the number of residential floors (Barros et al., 2019;Foster et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The global record of 1,700 % urban footprint growth in only 38 years made Dubai one of the fastest growing cities in the world. The density of the metropolis population is approximately 762.6 individuals/ km ² , and high-rise residential buildings in Dubai have reached 581,166 units (79%) in 2020 and become a common residential type. The objective of this study is to provide basic data for the design of high-rise residential buildings in the future by evaluating the health of the residents of high-rise residential buildings in Dubai. As a methodology, the Todai Health Index, a structured health assessment tool, was used for high-rise residents’ survey. For the analysis, the health evaluation data from residents were used as the dependent variable, and the number of living floors as the architectural characteristic and the indoor temperature and humidity condition as the residential environments were analyzed as the independent variable. The result had shown that residence floor is irrelevant to overall health, changes in the health status compared to those in the previous year, and the occurrence of daily disease health evaluation by the Todai Health Index. It was statistically proven that the thermal environment has a significant correlation with the residence floor, but the effect of the thermal environment on health was not strong. However, the humidity environment has a very strong relationship with the health of residents. The humidity environment has a very close relationship not only with the occurrence of daily diseases of residents but also with the health evaluation analyzed by the Todai Health Index. There is a significant relationship between the humidity environment and both physical and mental health. It was analyzed that a slightly humid condition had a positive effect on health.
... The urban population growth has led to a denser urban pattern, and high-rise and high-density building groups have become the urban development theme [1][2][3]. Many urban surfaces made of concrete and asphalt have absorbed solar energy easily [4][5][6]. ...
Article
High-rise and high-density buildings are increasing with the rapid urban development, which leads to many urban thermal environment problems represented by the urban heat island. The traditional highly-reflective materials can reduce the solar radiation gain of buildings to alleviate urban heat island by the diffuse reflection, but the reflected solar radiation will be absorbed by the surrounding urban surfaces and thereby, the urban heat gain will not be reduced or even increased due the multiple absorption of thermal radiation in building groups. To overcome the inherent defect of highly-reflective materials, retro-reflective materials were proposed to reflect solar radiation along the incident radiation and had gradually attracted much attention due to their unique reflection characteristics. However, the review on retro-reflective materials has not been published to summarize the development status and potential deficiencies of retro-reflective materials. This review focused on the development, performance measurement and significant outcomes of retro-reflective materials, while the application efficiency of retro-reflective materials was described on urban thermal environment and building energy consumption comprehensively. Finally, future directions were proposed on possible studies and applications.
... Their findings are consistent with an earlier study by Berkoz et al. (2009) who state that security environment, appearance of housing environment, wellmaintained facilities and good social contact with the community are the criteria of resident satisfaction. In a further study conducted by Cho & Lee (2011), social and physical contact with the community such as activation of community spaces, programs and ecological living may lead to higher satisfaction. They found that a correlation analysis interpreted that when residents are satisfied with community space, programs and participation in the community, overall residents satisfaction rises. ...
Article
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Abstract The construction industry is one of the most significant contributors to the economic development of the country, yet it is also one of the highest risk industries. Construction workers are exposed to various health hazards in term of environmental, physical and technical factors throughout the construction process. Therefore, providing a healthy workplace for the construction industry is very crucial to ensure that absenteeism decrease, increase engagement, improve productivity, and it will affect the bottom line of the organisation. The objective of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework of healthy construction workplace. In light of this, a comprehensive desktop analysis was conducted through a total of 34 academic papers to identify robust construction workplace criterion. Findings show that most researchers and practitioners agree the three main principles, which are healthy practices, physical work environment and organisation culture able to influence the employee's health in the construction workplace. This framework helps the employer to be more committed and responsible for combating health issues and provide a healthy work environment for the employee. Keywords: Framework; healthy construction workplace; healthy practice, physical work environment; organisational culture; safety and healthy; workplace.
... Their findings are consistent with an earlier study by Berkoz et al. (2009) who state that security environment, appearance of housing environment, wellmaintained facilities and good social contact with the community are the criteria of resident satisfaction. In a further study conducted by Cho & Lee (2011), social and physical contact with the community such as activation of community spaces, programs and ecological living may lead to higher satisfaction. They found that a correlation analysis interpreted that when residents are satisfied with community space, programs and participation in the community, overall residents satisfaction rises. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Managing the physical facilities of higher education is complex and challenging due to the users' different requirements among programs, departments, and faculties. Thus, the role of the facilities management team is essential to ensure it meets the institution's business objectives. A competent facilities manager and team are vital, which can support the facilities management practice for higher education institution in line with its vision and mission. This paper aims to identify the relevant facilities management competencies based on professional practice with the objective to suggest the most suitable competencies criteria for managing the physical facilities of the higher education institution. A content analysis was engaged to six (6) professional bodies established competencies and literature review. The research revealed that a total of 22 competencies are designed to manage physical facilities for the organisation. Moreover, the highest ranked criteria were the business support services management and adopted by all professional institutions, followed by sustainability, finance and IT criteria. As for managing the uniqueness of physical assets in a higher education institution, the additional competencies required are the current government policies and strategic management, technology technology-related tools, business strategy and asset strategy, and multitasking skills. Indeed, these competencies may help the higher education institution in managing their physical facilities more effectively. Keywords: Conceptual competencies framework; physical facilities; higher educational institution.
... Les résultats proposés mettent en avant des représentations de la qualité de vie corrélées à un mode d'habiter tourné vers l'extérieur, communautaire et lié à la nature. Dans les échanges il apparaît une représentation à connotation négative d'une trop forte urbanisation et densi cation, que l'on retrouve dans la littérature [Cho 2011, Ng 2003]. Pourtant aujourd'hui présentée comme solutions pour la ville durable, les modèles de densi cation suscitent de réelles inquiétudes qui résideraient dans la perception d'un écart entre ces modèles, l'habiter créole et la qualité de vie, comme le suggère l'opposition entre les classe 1, 4 et la classe 2 sur le plan factoriel. ...
Thesis
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The research work presented in this HDR focused on understanding the mechanisms related to the ecological transition of territories. The systemic reading at the scale of territories questions the transdisciplinary approaches necessary for the analysis and modeling of the dynamics of change. The objective of my work has been to develop within the laboratory another scale of analysis allowing a holistic approach to the energy and environmental transition at the scale of territories. A �rst part presents my teaching and research activities which naturally led me to develop my research around the theme of energy. The second part presents the various research carried out for ten years within the PIMENT laboratory. We �rst approach the question of the transition through the prism of the diagnosis and the potentialities of territories in order to understand the dynamics in progress and to evaluate their capacities to engage in this transition. This understanding of territories using data analysis tools that allow us to formulate modeling hypotheses for a prospective approach of the transition. This step allowed us to de�ne plausible scenarios for di erent islands in the Indian Ocean and to evaluate the planning tools that would be necessary to implement in order to achieve this change. Finally, in a last theme we address the question of the sustainability of development projects, but more generally of built spaces. This comprehensive approach to sustainability is based on a cross-analysis combining regulatory tools, user perceptions and environmental assessment tools. We are thus interested in all phases of the life of built-up spaces, from the project to the end of life : questioning the identity of the way of living, the environmental quality of the buildings, the impact of anthropic activity and the notion of sustainability of the buildings.
... This means that the sustainability of life in certain environmental characters is due to physical and social interactions. Cho's [12]explained that created the concept of vertical housing, treating the need for community space for togetherness.An interaction in order to formulate sustainable living in order to obtain a formal vertical housing row model. The row model will be use for any vertical housing developer as a recomendation for design the vertical housing, especialy which will be built on residential housing environment. ...
... In the context of urban stock development, as the basic unit of urban society, sustainable community building is crucial to solving this problem [1]. However, the premise is to understand the extremely complicated relationships between community components in detail [2]. ...
Article
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Complex adaptive systems (CAS) theory is acquiring mainstream recognition in sustainable community building. In this paper, we bring the applicability of CAS theory into sharper focus, highlighting its potential for integrating complexity and adaptivity of community into a structured body of knowledge while also providing a thought pattern for generating, implementing and validating new design ideas. Therefore, this paper aims to propose a framework of design thinking that uses a CAS perspective to aid designers in conceiving new community building design ideas efficiently. Next, this paper presents the results of a cognitive design experiment where functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and extended protocol analysis methods were combined to examine the validities of the proposed design thinking framework in community building. The results show that the Agent-Interaction-Adaptation (AIA) design thinking framework has the ability to promote designers’ extension of idea space, brain activation and idea quality in contrast to a traditional design thinking framework, but it did not significantly increase the designers’ idea quantity.
... With the urbanization development, the compact urban model is widely adopted, and high-rise high-density building groups have become the urban development theme [1,2]. In high-rise or super high-rise buildings, light-weight materials are widely used to reduce the overall building weight [3,4], but they will reduce thermal inertia obviously and thereby increase the cooling and heating load fluctuation, which leads to increasing the urban power consumption crest and then enlarging the mismatch between energy supply and consumption. ...
... However, a sustainable community is a multi-faceted concept that covers not only resource management but also a myriad of service delivery and cooperative interactions between community members. A sustainable development of urban communities depends on the coordination between natural and social capital in the restraint urban space, covering various economic and social activities in the community (see the bottom part in Figure 1) [34][35][36]. ...
Article
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(1) Background: There is a global trend to stimulate sustainable urbanization by updating the hardware of the built environment with green technologies. However, simply greening the city hardware does not ensure a sustainable urban system. In reality, urban communities, as cells of the city, play a crucial role in the sustainable development of the entire city. (2) Methods: This paper conducts a case study by investigating a community in Taipei with semi-structured interviews and other first-hand data. It examines how self-organization, voluntary groups, and the public participation of community members has successfully institutionalized a governing system for the sustainable development of communities; (3) Results: This paper identifies the major actors and mechanisms underpinning the sustainable development of urban communities with a case study in Taipei. The establishment of this more cost-effective form of community governance will possibly provide more benefits to community members; (4) Conclusions: This case study will shed light on the sustainable development of urban community in many other cities, offering possible pathways and epitome for self-organization of urban community in the coming era. Its cost-effective institutional design contributes greatly to sustainable community development, partly solving the current failure to promote urban sustainability.
... Several studies have demonstrated that social interaction within the neighbourhood not only improves the overall housing satisfaction but is also influenced the satisfaction of neighbourhood social life [12,50,51]. For instance, social homogeneity [46], improved community spaces [52], community support [53], existence of relatives in the neighborhood [54], good social network [45] such as baby-sitting, social support and sharing food, materials and experience [55], membership to a social class and local social attachments [56] increase residential satisfaction levels. ...
Article
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In recent times, despite the importance of historic urban quarters in the sustenance of ancient cultural heritage, planned modernization of urban areas usually neglects these culturally sensitive areas. Resulting in relocations and perceived dissatisfaction of its residents, this reported negligence is partly the result of a dearth of research exploring the multi-dimensional evaluation framework for assessing the long-term environmental, economic, social, and cultural aspects of residential satisfaction in historic urban quarters. Hence, the aspirations, needs, demands, and desires of the residents of historic urban quarters are not readily known to policy makers; neither is these needs, desires and expectations are well established in the residential satisfaction literature. The essence of residential satisfaction research is not merely to report the current living situation in a given residential environment, but also to pinpoint which facets the municipal governments must enhance to improve homeownership and rental rates, amongst others. Most of the studies on residential satisfaction merely focused on the social sustainability dimension, therefore, not acknowledging the salient roles, environmental, and economic concerns play in boosting the satisfaction levels of residents of historic urban quarters. Thus, this study aims to fill this gap between theory and application of the sustainability concept in addressing practical problems of relocations and perceived dissatisfaction amid residents of urban culturally sensitive areas. It fills this gap by assessing the perceptions of residents and non-residents on the importance of the determinants of residential satisfaction in a historic urban quarter. Regarding this, a comprehensive list of 32 potential sustainability performance factors (SPF) was determined through an extensive review of related literature, based on which a questionnaire administered to 245 households residing in the historic urban quarters of the Walled City, Famagusta, North Cyprus. Also, 167 households residing outside of the quarters, to assess their perception of the criticality of the identified factors, as well as examine the agreement levels in the opinions of the two participant groups. Using principal component analysis (PCA), the 32 different factors were narrowed down to eight. The study findings show that “Cost of housing” and “Suitable Management rules” are the most critical factors with relatively high overall scoring. Findings reveal that residents’ perceptions differ significantly based on participants’ ethnicity, while there is no significant difference based on the profile of residents/social class. This study argues that clearly understanding the criticality of the factors impacting satisfaction in housing and the residential environment is crucial for planning sustainable regeneration and revitalization programs in any HUQ. The findings of this study would be useful to housing policy decision-makers, urban planners, and municipalities to understand better the residents’ needs that could aid the sustenance of historic urban quarters. The authors suggest the adoption of the framework developed by this study as an analytical, research, and assessment tool in future housing satisfaction studies in different contexts.
... As a result, green building design has been adopted by many developing and developed countries for the sake of solving their urban environmental issues. The research finding shows that regional environmental conditions and architectural design are important factors that attract consumers (Altaş & Ozsoy, 1998;Cho & Lee, 2011;Ozsoy et al., 1996). which is in line with the findings of this study. ...
Article
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Inappropriate land development decisions lead to wasted land resources; such bad decisions can negatively impact urban landscapes and the environment, which makes the decision of an appropriate residential environment difficult. Therefore, a suitable assessment model is required to resolve this complexity. The present study applied the fuzzy Delphi method, analytical hierarchy process, utility theory, and other research methods to construct an evaluation model for residential environment location. the study findings reveal that consumers are attracted by regional environmental conditions and architectural design. However, the study found that community welfare is neglected. This model can help decision makers to evaluate utility values and profitability, in order to select the most suitable environment. Therefore, related authorities should strengthen community welfare and neighborhood development. Furthermore, social resources should be integrated in order to deliver social welfare and services to the community, thus enabling people in the community to obtain the necessary resources and assistance
... The review of the high-rise public housing in Melbourne has told a successful story of turning it from a 'bad' representation for urban environment to a 'good' one (Costello, 2005). A study in South Korea has shown that investment on community building and place making of high-rise and high-density apartments can increase residents' satisfaction (Cho & Lee, 2011). ...
Conference Paper
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China's rapid urbanisation is mainly through the transformation of rural land into urban built-up area. A considerable number of landless farmers have become urban citizens and have moved into urban neighbourhoods. This research will compare the living conditions of landless farmers in two different types of buildings: walk-ups and high-rise, mainly from the aspects of their individual well-being and social connections. This study has undertaken a comparative study of one multiple-floored and one high-rise neighbourhoods for landless farmers in South Jiangsu Province, mainly from the perspectives of individual health and sense of community. The preliminary findings are summerised and suggestions for further research are made. This study hopes to make contribution to the future neighbourhood design for landless farmers, whether high density vertical living is a better approach to be adopted.
... Res. 7(2), 170-178 171 satisfaction of verticalapartment, which is shared ownership, is related to the presence of a togetherness sense (Cho et al, 2011). The quality of occupancy is assessed through the character of the residents' behavior review. ...
... Therefore, it is apparent that sustainable management of housing stock and development of civil society in a city hinge on active participation of homeowners in collective actions [11,12]. In other words, homeowners' collective actions are essential for achievement of sustainable development of a city in many different ways [13,14]. ...
Article
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Homeowners’ collective actions are essential for effective governance of multi-owned housing (MOH) and a city’s sustainable development. Yet, not all homeowners keenly participate in MOH governance. Unpacking why homeowners decide to participate is thus insightful. So far, little work has been done on how perceived efficacies of property management agents (PMAs) shape collective actions in MOH governance. Founding upon the social cognitive theory and collective interest model, a theoretical model is built to empirically examine how proxy efficacy belief influences participation behaviors of homeowners. Drawing on the findings of a survey of 2035 homeowners in Hong Kong and Macau, this study reveals that participation level correlates positively with self and group efficacy beliefs but negatively with perceived proxy efficacy. Poor performance or incapacity of the PMAs triggers a higher degree of homeowner participation. The research findings have significant policy implications for promoting a better MOH upkeep culture.
... The second finding reflects a certain stability of associated sub-topics ( Figure 4). The analysis shows that place-making is often associated with recurring keywords such as "meaning of places" (Germen, 2015;Johnson et al., 2014;Lepofsky andFraser, 2003, Shaw et al., 2016), "sense of place" (Schuch et al., 2015;Lyons et al., 2016, Cilliers et al. 2015) "place creation" (Vernon et al., 2009), "place identity" (Hutman et al., 2011), "place images" (Franz et al., 2008;Pope and Young, 2015), "community" and "neighbourhood" (Buckman, 2016;Cho andLee, 2011, Hassen andKaufman, 2016;Lombard, 2014). Over the study period, these keywords largely remain dominant. ...
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free online access up to 50 colleagues at https://www.emeraldinsight.com/eprint/IPCGWDB4TAGHN8ADVEJ6/full Purpose – Many scholars have addressed the concept of place-making, yet there is still little formal knowledge about how major societal changes have influenced place-making. The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 is an earthshaking event that changed the world, with regard to geopolitics and the internationalisation of our cities and places, thus generating many urban and tourism developments. Therefore, this paper aims to analyse how the term “place-making” has been variously defined and developed as a concept since the time of the fall. Furthermore, it intends to assess whether such analysis can reveal potential competition and synergy for places between tourism and urban developments. Design/methodology/approach – To address these two questions, a systematic quantitative literature review of research published between 1991 and 2016 has been used, providing a 25 years overview that reveals the current trends in the research on this topic and highlights the gaps in the existing literature. Findings – Findings concerns the variety of definitions, demonstrating the complexity of place-making; four emerging topics (place-making and globalisation; participation; conflicts/challenges; and trendy strategies); and a lack of synergy between tourism and urban development regarding place-making. Research limitations/implications – The major limitation to this research is the language criterion, restricted to English, thus automatically eliminating articles written in any other languages. Practical implications – This paper can help key stakeholders to re-assess the place-making strategies in light of the findings. Social implications – This research demonstrates the emergence of new trends in place-making that need to be addressed to fulfil societal demands and own changes. It can be used as a basis to start reflection and further development for communities and a wide variety of stakeholders. Originality/value – The originality of this research resides in the 25-year overview that displays gaps and trends around place-making.
... As over time, the willingness to live higher progresses with the growing familiarity [62] that high-rise living experience can be made more welcoming with physical planning and technological enhancements. This idea is also supported by Cho and Lee (2011) who noticed that residents of Korean highrises are more satisfied when provided with community spaces for social program and interaction [13]. ...
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Due to population ageing, today’s high-rise apartments in Indian cities, which are currently mainly owned by young professionals, will turn into naturally occurring retirement communities (NORCs) in near future. Though many urban housing complexes of 1970s and 1980s are already serving as NORCs, the term is comparatively new to Indian housing research. This huge existing housing stock is inadequate for special gerontological needs of the elderly, who are fragile and socially vulnerable. Informal opinion of common people revealed that holistic requirement for elderly in housing is still grossly confused with vertical transport, i.e., elevators, and little attention is paid to other architectural features. As part of an ongoing doctoral study, a detailed literature review was undertaken on the vulnerability profile of Indian urban elderly in the context of special requirements of barrier-free housing. This article aims to establish the urgent need to assess the adaptive potential of existing housing communities serving as NORCs in Indian cities, such that new housing in the future can be planned with flexible approach.
... Some authors argue that in order to achieve sustainability goals, it is important to accomplish satisfaction of inhabitants in sustainable communities. So, the social component is dominant in this meaning of a sustainable city (Cho, Lee, 2011: 1428-1435. Reidsma, König and others claim that it is crucial to define land use policies taking into account sustainability criteria (Reidsma et al., 2011: 28, 604-617). ...
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The principal goal of the article is to identify the influence of the revitalization actions which were implemented according to the rules of sustainable development in cities located in Opole Voivodship (Province). The first part of the article is devoted to the theory of a sustainable city and the significance of city revitalization processes. The second part focuses on answering the following questions: Were the changes in the case of particular revitalization actions related to social, environmental and economic spheres? and Have they effectively led to shaping a sustainable city? Furthermore, it identifies the performance and actions which were taken in the durability context of the sustainable development concept. Moreover, the author mentions actions within the urban policy, pertaining to examples of revitalization, and offers recommendations in the case of occurrence of negative interactions with economic, social and environmental aspects. The research was conducted on the basis of analyses of: applications of revitalization projects co-financed within the Regional Operation Program for Opole Province in the years 2007–2013, local revitalization programs in cities of Opole Province, focus studies conducted in 12 cities of the region, as well as survey research carried out among representatives of all local government units in the Province.
... Socially, factors encompassing, diminishing communal spirit, creation of mental and psychological defects, which stem from isolation of occupants from ground space, are among the repellents of high-rise buildings (Wong 2004;Cho and Lee 2009). Also, high-rise living is seen by many households with children as less safe (Costello 2005). ...
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Over the years, many city managers, policy makers and academics alike have turned to high-rise buildings as pathway to sustainable urban development. However, the sustainability of such types of development in various geographical contexts, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, is a subject less explored. Amidst the promotion of high-rise development in a rapidly urbanizing metropolis in Ghana, Kumasi, the research empirically examined the social acceptability of high-rise residential facilities and the institutional capacity for their effective management. By conducting face-to-face interviews with sampled households, and critical public service providers in the metropolis, the study uncovered that, contrary to the evidence from many Asian cities, there is generally low social acceptability of high-rise developments, and a weak institutional capacity for effective service delivery. The research concludes that, whilst it is tempting to embrace high-rise buildings as sustainable development pathway, it is crucial they are pursued with much circumspection. In addition to their design being tailored to the local needs of the people for whom they are built, the promotion of high-rise development should recognize the importance of effective service delivery, and general social acceptability.
... Babka (2008) argued that "creating opportunities for shared experiences, helping residents grow roots by promoting social gatherings and other business networking opportunities, (and) promoting events held on site that draw on common interests you have identified" can help build a sense of community. Researchers have found that the use of community spaces and the offering of and participation in community programs were both correlated with resident satisfaction (Cho & Lee, 2011). To date, however, there has been a gap in systematic empirical examination of community building activities within apartment complexes, or the factors that might promote such activities. ...
... PO Human Freedom-action P 3-D [7] Avoiding detrimental effects of urban sprawl. PO City Adaptability P 4-D [31] Apartments result in disappearing sense of neighborhood or community. IS Human Psych. ...
Conference Paper
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Increase in urban population is resulting in increased population densities through high-rise residential buildings. High-rise residential buildings have some unique aspects. The purpose of the study reported in this paper is to assess the role high-rise related aspects can play in sustainable development. The research adopted a two-step approach. First, on the basis of a detailed review of the literature published on high-rise buildings, the aspects unique to high-rise buildings are identified and shortlisted through brainstorming sessions. The aspects are then allocated to some basic properties of sustainable systems obtained from published work. Second, through another explorative brainstorming on high-rise residential building aspects, a cause-effect relation among various building aspects and related issues is developed using a system dynamics modelling. This study used about 54 building aspects majorly found in high-rises. The findings show that the aspects affect sustainability in both the positive and negative ways. Linking the various building aspects together has also resulted in a cause-effect diagram visually explaining how constructing high-rise for a residential purpose can pose a fairly complex problem in terms of sustainable development. The findings show that most of the high-rise related aspects positively affect the effectiveness property of both the building and natural systems while also creating a detrimental effect on the psychological needs of humans. The qualitative assessment undertaken within this study for understanding the role of high-rise residential buildings in sustainability can lead to further research exploration in the subject area and can increase the understanding of high-rise complexity, consequently leading to well informed sustainable approaches.
... These megascale podiums plus towers with small internals characterize Hong Kong's high-rise, high-density environment (Shelton et al, 2013;Wei, 2009). One major issue of podium design is its effect on existing urban contexts, which in turn leads to discussions on land-use planning (e.g., Lau et al, 2005), walkability (e.g., Law, 2011;Hwang, 2009), connectivity (e.g., Dong, 2008;Wei, 2009), and neighborhood and social interaction (e.g., Huang, 2006;Yuen et al, 2006;Cho and Lee, 2011;Hui and Yu, 2013). In particular, this podium type of environment is sometimes illustrated to influence people's spatial accessibility in an efficient and compact way (Lee, 2011). ...
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This study examines the existing podium-tower form of mixed-use residential development in Hong Kong and reveals its effects on street lives and pedestrian movements within high-rise, high-density residential areas. The podiums accommodate shops, facilities, and modes of transportation for those living above and in the surrounding area. The Tuen Mun complex’s well-linked podium spaces illustrate that the podium form maximizes internal uses below residential areas, but segregates the closely located residential space from daily commercial activities. The existing podium spaces privatize streets and plazas for residents in towers and visitors to podium-space commercial shops, not for a layperson exploring there. Although ground-level streets and plazas are public spaces where diverse urban activities occur, podiums’ internal corridors and halls are semipublic areas where designated shopping activities occur. While podiums enhance the convenience and safety of common space, these internal space become less public for internal users and include more barriers such as vertical circulation from the public street. The findings are expected to contribute to public awareness of and consciousness in relation to the development of compact and composite residential environments.
... The focus of residential stability by the residents was due to the growing demand for the quality living environment as more and more people experienced their life in the apartment complex, and the residents began to take more interest in the community facilities and public space where they can undertake a variety of activities and come in contact with the others in the community. 16,17 Therefore, there is a growing necessity to explore ways to accommodate the residents' demand and to provide the space to satisfy their needs. ...
Article
This study evaluates the health performance of high-density, high-rise public housing in Korea to seek ways to improve their performance for the health and wellbeing of occupants. To do this, the existing ‘Health Performance Indicator for the Public Housing’ developed by a previous study in 2010 was utilized to compare and analyse the characteristic differences as evaluated by experts and the residents. The survey tool was developed to allow evaluation by the experts using pairwise comparison between components; while the residents were asked to evaluate the relative importance of the components in the survey tool. Furthermore, Analytic Hierarchy Process was applied to the evaluation given by experts and PASW statistical package was used to analyse the survey results given by the residents. The results showed that the residents do have a high awareness of the impacts of the various components in their apartments that could be seen visually, revealing a partial difference in their awareness in comparison to that given by the experts. It is therefore necessary to utilize this understanding of the experts and residents in order to meet the actual demands of the residents in accordance with their awareness. It is expected that the evaluation results of this study would be used in the construction plan of new apartments to promote healthy housing and to incorporate not just the experts’ view but also the demand of the residents.
... Various studies are available in literature in which housing and its immediate environment are evaluated by users and their preferences are determined [20,22,[26][27][28][29][30][31]. Objective and subjective attributes are evaluated separately or, generally, together in determining housing quality. ...
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Bursa is one of the cities with high disaster risk and a quality housing problem in Turkey. Urban transformation activities are carried out in order to improve quality of life and create safe living spaces for sustainable urban development. Quality housing production does not signify merely a need to be satisfied quantitatively. Housing and its environment, where physical and social needs of the users are satisfied, should be designed considering local conditions and in a way that they will be suitable for users’ life styles and cultural habits. In this study, the selected study area comprises neighborhoods which are under disaster risk, have been determined as urban transformation areas, and have residents with similar socioeconomic characteristics. With the purpose of improving user satisfaction, this study investigates users’ experience with physical, social, and cultural features of housing and its environment, which identify the quality of housing, and their preferences of new housing units to be produced. Nonprobability sampling method was selected for the field study, and a survey study was conducted. SPSS 17.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) was employed for data entry. In order to generate data for quality housing production, relationships between variables were analyzed with Pearson chi-square test.
... Previous studies have found that community spaces play a critical role in the improvement of residential housing satisfaction [1]- [3]. Providing public facilities and spaces within a community helps residents build bonds with their neighbors and affection for the neighborhood [4]- [6]. ...
... All three rating tools have performed well in engaging various stakeholders from industry, government and academia to draft, review and refine assessment criteria and measurement. As residents' satisfaction with community spaces, services and facilities significantly impact on overall community environment satisfaction and sustainability (Cho and Lee, 2011), their opinions concerning sustainable community development can also be taken into account in future updating of the rating tools. ...
... To achieve sustainable urban form we adapt some studies about spatial pattern of human settlement by their social norms and cultural setting (Nunta and Sahachaisaeree (2012)), transformed in accordance with the modern society (Saleh (2000); Saleh (2001)), and from the view of behavior and satisfaction of living (Marmot (1983), Lewis (1997), Chuo and Lee (2011), and Wang and Chien (1999)). Focusing on aspects of the spatial arrangement of the house, this study finds that there are similar characteristics between the ideal Javanese house and the current Javanese house. ...
Conference Paper
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Dwellers build onto their own houses gradually, reflecting the behavioural occupancy of the dwellers. This research attempts to present the adaptability of dwellers to arrange their house, while still maintaining their obedience of the palace regulations. Dwellers tend to adjust their spatial setting in order to accommodate domestic activities; however housing development needs to abide by the rules of the palace to maintain representation of Javanese Culture. We have studied a settlement which has kampong characteristics in an area of fort remains. There are several individual variations and differentiations in the area, especially on the function of rooms and the implications on spatial arrangement. The Javanese community can accept the changes and developments that come from inside and outside the Javanese culture. Javanese cultural characteristics are mostly unchanged, so this paper discusses a study about Javanese perceptions of rooms in the house and their perceptions of the flexibility of the rooms. Spatial arrangement analysis will be helpful to support other housing developments and decisions on spatial arrangement in the house in urban areas.
... The market for remodelling and re-construction is vitalized as an option for dilapidated multi-family attached houses. In addition, as the attention on the life quality and health of the people is increasing, the demand for a health dwelling condition is rising [1][2]. ...
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The purpose of this study is to understand the healthy housing quality of four different multi-family attached house complexes that the constructions were finished at different years. In order to evaluate their healthy housing quality, the evaluation indicators of healthy housing, that have already existed, were used and the four complexes with different dwelling unit ages, located in Busan of Korea, were evaluated. For this, this study carry out residents’ evaluations of healthy housing quality through surveys on their satisfaction, and the study mainly identified characteristic according to dwelling unit age. According to the study, the health housing quality of multi-family attached house, of which the dwelling unit age is 10, begins to decrease in terms of managerial aspect. The healthy housing quality of social and managerial aspects is important for dwellers. The evaluation results can then be utilized to develop guidelines to manage and maintain healthy housing environments for apartments.
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Purpose As an important indicator of the quality of life of individuals, residential environments are continuing to evolve, due to the rapidly changing production–consumption relations. However, in this evolving process, the effect of the differentiated residential environments on the individuals' residential satisfaction remains unclear. This paper aims to measure the effects of the varying residential environments on the overall quality of urban life (QoUL) in Kayseri, one of the most developed cities in Central Anatolia. Design/methodology/approach It is based on empirical data on the quality of life in the different residential environments of Kayseri. The research method used stratified purposeful sampling, and the household survey data were analyzed using factor analysis, multiple regression and ANOVA statistical methods. Findings The most influential factors on the overall QoUL of individuals living in different Kayseri residential neighborhoods were satisfaction with neighborhood and city-level urban services, neighborhood relations and belonging factor groups. The critical finding obtained in this study is that residential satisfaction in low-rise and compact form housing areas in Kayseri is higher compared to residential satisfaction in high-rise neighborhoods. This result reveals that the high-rise building typology that is dominant in Turkey's big cities should be seriously questioned, and urban development policies should be re-evaluated. Research limitations/implications The study was designed to produce baseline data so that future changes in residential conditions as perceived by the residents of Kayseri could be monitored to support decisions for residential areas. Originality/value Comparative case studies, particularly on low-rise versus high-rise environments, are scarce. As a result, this research contributes to the field of comparative studies on residential environments.
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This study investigated whether highly dense urban environments have a negative influence on residents' sense of community. It used an online survey to measure respondents' sense of community and compared it to the density of the areas in which they live. Findings of this study suggest that urban density has a negative but weak relationship with sense of community among survey respondents. They also suggest that providing some types of public space may encourage higher levels of sense of community among residents in high-density areas.
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Although an ever-increasing number of social interactions are taking place virtually, people’s relationships with their neighbors remain important. Apartment residents make up a growing proportion of the population in cities worldwide, but there is evidence that many find it challenging to form and maintain local social connections, especially those renting their home. This can negatively impact physical and mental health, and have implications for the management of apartment complexes and local area social sustainability. In this paper, we draw on interviews (n = 41) with renters of four large case study condominium complexes in Sydney, Australia, to investigate their local social interactions. The findings reveal that while many renters desire greater local connection, their opportunities and motivations are limited by factors relating to mobility, tenure security, prejudice, and exclusion from building-related governance. The paper concludes by considering the scope for interventions in design, management and governance to enhance opportunities for social connection.
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Complexity of design problems urge planners or architects to find the potency of the place to fulfill user needs. All of those potential aspects define the design of architectural function. To solve the complexity of design problems, architects and planners have to think creative. Creativity can be related to lateral thinking (this phrase firstly introduced by Edward de Bono). Lateral thinking is a process to reach the result; in this case, the result is creativity. Lateral thinking is a process to generate some new ideas out of the common logics and steps. Creativity can be produced by vertical thinking complimented by lateral thinking. The main idea of this paperis torelate the ways of thinking introduced by Edward de Bono to creative process in designing architectural function.Architects and planners as members of creative people can think laterally to bring out creativity. Creativity in designing architectural function solvescomplex design problems by vision of potential chances from some different aspects, such as economic, social, and cultural. The sensibility of the vision may generate unprecedented developments. The developments can deliver the results and advantages out of expectation.
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Shared space and environmental facilities the primary supporting space for low-income residents identical to high social activities. However, in reality, some areas tend not used. This phenomenon indicates exist of other factors that influence its use. This study aims to define the factors that affect the use of shared space and environmental facilities at Cibeureum Rental Social Housing. This research uses the qualitative method by evaluating the use of space and explanation of its phenomenon with the qualitative explanation based on field theory and fact. Factors that affect the use of shared space and environmental facilities of the Cibeureum Rental Social Housing according to research conducted is suitability of the pattern of use of space residents as apply tradition settled and ability of its physical elements in accommodating activities. Users are still doing the action to meet the primary needs of people (clothing, food, and housing) and social events with special needs although space is far from occupancy, because simple social activities at a very close distance to the dwelling. Users are often doing optional activities such as relaxing and sitting are often performed in the nearest space to the dwelling. This research can develop the design of shared space and environmental facilities to consider the distance and type of activities based on suitability of occupant-based traditions of living.
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This paper summarises the proposed physical planning and design in the poor area of Kampong Muharto, Malang City. As a community, the residents want to adjust their spatial setting to accommodate for social activities. This research lays out several options for their neighbourhood with consideration for the available space. The study area was analysed using the Strength-Weakness-Opportunity-Threat (SWOT) method and it was found that there were two sections of the area in need of planning and design. The primary objective of this work is to figure out the spatial arrangement for the project with a direct understanding of the various needs of the housing facilities within the limitations of the land boundaries.
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Proje Başlığı: Mülteci, Sığınmacı, Göçmen ve Vatansızlar İçin İstihdam ve Mekânsal Sorunların Çözümü Amacıyla İdari Yapılanma ve Fiziksel Altyapı Modeli Oluşturulması Özet Göç, bireyler ya da grupların yerleşmek amacıyla bulundukları yerden bir başka yere hareketi olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Göç, geçici yer değiştirme olabileceği gibi süreklilik de içerebilir. Ekonomik, sosyal, siyasi nedenlerle bireylerin yaşadıkları yerden kayda değer bir uzaklığa gitmeleri göç kapsamında ele alınmaktadır. Bazı yazarlar ve uluslararası kuruluşlar bireylerin iradelerine dayanmayan yer değiştirmeleri göç olarak kabul etmektedir. Tarihin her döneminde nüfus hareketleri görülebildiğinden göçün başlangıç noktası olarak herhangi bir olay ya da zaman dilimi belirtilmesi mümkün değildir. Göç; önemli sosyal, ekonomik ve kültürel boyutları olan bir konudur. Savaşlar, dinsel, kültürel, ekonomik, siyasi, ailevi faktörler göç sürecinde etkili olmaktadır. Göç konusu açıklanırken çoğunlukla ekonomik bakımdan itici ve çekici faktörler bağlamında ele alınmaktadır. Yüksek ücretler, ucuz işgücü talebi, mesleki çalışma için istikrar, demokratik hak ve hürriyetlerde ilerilik, yabancı eşle evlilik gibi faktörler çekici faktörler olarak sayılmaktadır. Düşük ücret, hızlı nüfus artışı, işsizlik, beklentiler, siyasal haklara yapılan baskılar, iş ve aile ortamındaki bozukluklar da itici faktörler olarak sıralanmaktadır. Bireyler itici ve çekici faktörler arasındaki nispi farka göre karar vermektedirler. Günümüzde oldukça ciddi ekonomik, sosyal ve kültürel sonuçları olan Suriyeli mülteciler sorunu, savaşın farklı boyutlara gelmesiyle yeni göç dalgalarını ortaya çıkarmaktadır. Yaşananların bir çeşit afet durumu olduğu söylenebilir. Bu noktada oldukça ciddi ekonomik, sosyal ve kültürel sonuçları olan Suriyeli mülteciler sorununun tüm taraflar için olumsuz yönleri en aza indirilmiş bir çerçevede çözülmesi gereklidir. Suriyeli mülteciler için (benzer şekilde toplumla bütünleşemeyen ve dezavantajlı olan diğer sosyo-demografik gruplar için de söz konusu olmak üzere) kalkınma, bölgesel kalkınma, kırsal kalkınma ve sürdürülebilirlik konularının kesişim noktasında yer aldığı bütünsel bir modelin ortaya konulması bir zorunluluktur. Bu çalışmada; sürdürülebilir kalkınmanın insan ve çevre ile doğrudan ilişkili olduğu bir dönüşüm ve kalkınma hareketi olarak, fiziksel öğelerin yanı sıra sosyal, ekonomik ve ekolojik öğeleri de barındıran ve mülteciler başta olmak üzere toplumda farklı dezavantajlı grupların da toplumsal ve ekonomik hayata katılımlarını sağlayacak bir model önerisi ortaya konulmaya çalışılacaktır. Gerek Kırsal Kalkınma Planı’nda gerekse Türkiye’nin 2023 hedefleri doğrultusunda hazırlanan Ulusal Bilim ve Teknoloji Politikaları, Enerji Verimliliği Kanunu, Enerji Verimliliği Strateji Belgesi ve Enerji ve Çevre Teknolojileri Stratejisi’nde yer alan hedefler; kalkınmanın sosyal, ekonomik ve ekolojik boyutlarına dikkat çekmektedir. Türkiye’nin 2023 vizyonu kapsamında belirlenen hedeflere ulaşılması, kentsel alanda olduğu kadar kırsal alanda da yenilikçi bir kalkınma, planlama, tasarım ve üretim modeli geliştirilmesiyle mümkün olacaktır. Bu proje kapsamında, öncelikli olarak temel ihtiyaçlar, sosyal ihtiyaçlar ve ekonomik gelişme programları ile ilgili yapılması gereken düzenlemeler ortaya konulacak, ardından ekolojik yapıların tasarım ve üretim olanakları ile bu yapılarda kullanılabilecek hızlı şekilde üretilebilen, konforlu, ekonomik ve ekolojik yapı tasarımları önerileri de geliştirilecektir. Bu düzenlemeleri içeren farklı bölge veya gruplara uygulanabilecek model tasarımları (yapılabilirlik analizleri ve prototip/model çizimi vb. ile) hazırlanacaktır. Önerilen modelin farklı politika hedefleri için kullanılması da söz konusu olacağından ekonomik ve ekolojik yapı yanında idari yapının da önemli olduğu göz önüne alındığında Türkiye’de geçmiş yıllarda uygulanmasına çalışılan köy-kent benzeri bir model öneri ortaya konulacaktır. Ticari model, kooperatif modeli, hangi bölgesel özelliklere göre hangi modellerin uygun olabileceği, bina yapısı, büyüklüğü, enerji gereksinimi gibi tüm ayrıntılar bu çalışmada modellenecektir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Köy-Kent Modeli, Kırsal Kalkınma, Eko-mimari, Sosyal Politika
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For all actors involved with planning, developing and managing buildings, the environmental impact relating to energy use and the quality of the indoor environment are both aspects of major concern. It is crucial that a reduction in the environmental impact of a building is not achieved through compromising the indoor environment. This paper presents a method to assess user satisfaction related to the indoor environment and the environmental impact related to the energy use of the building, i.e. the environmental efficiency of the building. This environmental efficiency comprises two indices that are calculated separately but displayed in the same diagram to facilitate communication of complex information. This approach forms part of the Swedish life cycle based environmental assessment tool for buildings, EcoEffect. The present paper presents and exemplifies the environmental efficiency of buildings using data from 26 Swedish multi-family residential buildings and proposes a number of reference values. The concept can be used as an overarching objective for environmental management of a property firm's building stock or for evaluating targets set in the planning process for a new building. It can also be used for environmental rating of buildings, which would probably increase the communication value further. The aggregated indices are rough but proportionately straightforward to calculate and easily communicated. In addition, they address the environmental impacts of buildings in a much more comprehensive way than the current practice.
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Place attachment has been researched quite broadly, and so has been defined in a variety of ways. The various definitions of the concept are reviewed and synthesized into a three-dimensional, person–process–place organizing framework. The person dimension of place attachment refers to its individually or collectively determined meanings. The psychological dimension includes the affective, cognitive, and behavioral components of attachment. The place dimension emphasizes the place characteristics of attachment, including spatial level, specificity, and the prominence of social or physical elements. In addition, potential functions of place attachment are reviewed. The framework organizes related place attachment concepts and thus clarifies the term. The framework may also be used to stimulate new research, investigate multidimensionality, create operational definitions for quantitative studies, guide semi-structured interviews for qualitative studies, and assist in conflict resolution for successful land-use management.
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The measurement of quality of life (QOL) can be used as an environmental quality diagnosis of previous policy strategies, and is a required foundation for drafting future spatial and urban planning policies. This study first reviews the literature on QOL. This study then adopts the widespread Detroit Area Study as the basic conceptual structure with modifications to fit the social, cultural and geographical context of Taipei. The modified DAS model is adopted to guide this study. A field survey of 331 Taipei residents is conducted to survey subjective resident assessments of QOL, and a LISREL analysis is also performed to explore the causal relationships among the QOL variables. Results of this study demonstrate that district, marriage, age, education, and income influence various satisfaction domains. The LISREL result has acceptable goodness of fit. The model results show that the main influences on satisfaction are community status and local attachments, followed by neighborhood satisfaction. However, the influences of neighborhood environmental assessment and neighborhood attachments are trivial, even insignificant. To summarize, respondents are more concerned with personal safety and public services, which are also the key influences on QOL for Taipei.
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