Article

Antidiabetic influence of dietary cumin seeds ( Cuminum cyminum ) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

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  • CSIR - Central Food Technological Research Institute
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Abstract

Cumin seed (Cuminum cyminum), a commonly consumed spice was examined for a possible anti-diabetic influence in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. An eight week dietary regimen containing cumin powder (1.25%) was found to be remarkably beneficial, as indicated by reduction in hyperglycaemia and glucosuria. This was also accompanied by improvement in body weights of diabetic animals on the cumin diet. Dietary cumin also countered other metabolic alterations as revealed by lowered blood urea level and reduced excretions of urea and creatinine by diabetic animals.

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... it's the pliability to assist digestion, improve immunity and treat skin disorders, insomnia, respiratory disorders, asthma, bronchitis and anemia. for hundreds of years , light gravy flavored with cumin or a glass of zeera water has been utilized in Indian household as a foolproof remedy for digestive issues (Villatgamuwa et al., 1998). ...
... As several metabolic diseases and age-related degenerative disorders are closely related to oxidative processes within the body, the utilization of herbs and spices as a source of antioxidants to combat oxidation warrants further attention. Immediate studies should specialise in validating the antioxidant capacity of herbs and spices also as testing their effects on markers of oxidation in parallel with clinical trials that are getting to establish antioxidants as mediators of disease prevention Villatgamuwa et al., 1998). ...
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Journal home page: www.plantarchives.org apply plant remedy for centuries, but only currently have scientist begun to the study powers of general herbs and spices. In the present setup , the anti-proliferative, anti-hypercholesterolemia, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory effects of spices are dominant importance, as the key health hesitation of mankind. Some disease as like diabetes, cardio-vascular diseases, arthritis and cancer are more prevalence diseases. Spices and their active substances which is used as possible preventive agents for health disorders. Spices are a good sources of antioxidants, and scientific studies suggest that they are also effective inhibitors of tissue damage and inflammation caused by high levels of blood sugar and circulating lipids. Because spices are mostly low calorie providing and are relatively inexpensive also, they are reliable sources of antioxidants and other potential bioactive compounds in diet. In this review, overall the role of few more important spices which are used in the Indian dishes for its flavor and taste their potential uses as a medicine to maintain a health.
... Fasting and post-prandial blood sugar at 6-week intervals was significantly reduced in all the patients. Dietary cumin seeds were observed to alleviate diabetes-related metabolic abnormalities in STZ-diabetic rats (Willatgamuwa et al., 1998). An 8-week dietary regimen containing cumin powder (1.25%) was found to be remarkably beneficial, as indicated by a reduction in hyperglycaemia and glucosuria. ...
... The inhibitory activity of C. cyminum seed-isolated component cuminaldehyde has been evaluated against lens aldose reductase and α-glucosidase isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats and compared with that of quercetin as an aldose reductase inhibitor and acarbose as an α-glucosidase inhibitor (Lee, 2005). Cuminaldehyde was about 1.8 and 1.6 times less in inhibitory activity than acarbose Antidiabetic action Human NIDDM subjects Fasting and post-prandial blood sugar was reduced when a formulation consisting cumin was orally administered for 24 weeks Karnick, 1991 STZ-diabetic rats Dietary cumin seeds for 8 weeks were observed to alleviate diabetes-related metabolic abnormalities Willatgamuwa et al., 1998 Alloxan-diabetic rats Hyperlipidemia associated with diabetes mellitus was also effectively countered by dietary cumin Dandapani et al., 2002 Alloxan-diabetic rabbits Cuminum nigrum seeds or their methanol/water extracts were found to be hypoglycemic Akhtar and Ali, 1985 Alloxan-diabetic rabbits The antihyperglycemic influence of Cuminum nigrum was produced by the fraction containing flavonoid compounds Ahmad et al., 2000 Normal rabbits Oral administration of C. cyminum decreased the area under the glucose tolerance curve and the hyperglycemic peak. -Ramos et al., 1995 STZ-diabetic rats Methanolic extract of C. cyminum treated for 4 weeks mitigated oxidative stress and formation of AGEs Jagtap and Patil, 2010 Sprague-Dawley rats Cuminaldehyde isolated from C. cuminum inhibited lens aldose reductase and α-glucosidase of rats Lee, 2005 and quercetin, respectively. ...
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Although the seeds of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) are widely used as a spice for their distinctive aroma, they are also commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases. The literature presents ample evidence for the biomedical activities of cumin, which have generally been ascribed to its bioactive constituents such as terpenes, phenols, and flavonoids. Those health effects of cumin seeds that are experimentally validated are discussed in this review. Black seeds (Nigella sativa), which are totally unrelated to C. cyminum, have nevertheless taken the name ‘Black cumin’ and used in traditional systems of medicine for many disorders. Numerous pre-clinical and clinical trials have investigated its efficacy using the seed oil, essential oil, and its main constituent thymoquinone (TQ). These investigations support its use either independently or as an adjunct along with conventional drugs in respiratory problems, allergic rhinitis, dyspepsia, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, inflammatory diseases, and different types of human cancer. Multiple studies made in the last decades validate its health beneficial effects particularly in diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, respiratory disorders, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Nigella sativa seeds also possess immune stimulatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective activities. TQ is the most abundant constituent of volatile oil of N. sativa seeds, and most of the medicinal properties of N. sativa are attributed mainly to TQ. All the available evidence suggests that TQ should be developed as a novel drug in clinical trials.
... The traditional medicinally important natural sources included the spices, which are commonly used folklore remedies for many ailments. Use of cumin seeds in whole or powdered form as well as its extracts has been reported and found effective in reducing blood glucose levels [15] . It was also found that oral administration of cumin for 6 w to diabetic rats was more effective than glibenclamide [15] . ...
... Use of cumin seeds in whole or powdered form as well as its extracts has been reported and found effective in reducing blood glucose levels [15] . It was also found that oral administration of cumin for 6 w to diabetic rats was more effective than glibenclamide [15] . Other studies conducted on rabbits showed that oral administration of cumin significantly increased glucose tolerance [14,42,43] . ...
... Spices that are extensively studied and whose antidiabetic property is well documented are fenugreek (Sharma 1986; Sharma and Raghuram 1990), onion and garlic (Augusti 1996), and turmeric (Tank et al. 1990). Prolonged dietary intake of cumin seeds has also been proved to be beneficial in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats according to our earlier study (Willatgamuwa et al. 1998). ...
... The influence of a Prolonged intake of this spice is documented by us earlier (Willatgamuwa et al. 1998). The results of that study have envisaged marked hypoglycaemic influence of dietary cumin in streptozotocin diabetic rats as evidenced by reduction in both blood and urinary glucose levels. ...
Article
Cumin seed (Cuminum cyminum), a commonly consumed spice was examined for a possible anti-diabetic influence in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. When consumed as a single oral dose (1g/kg body weight), cumin did not exert any beneficial hypoglycaemic effect. Additionally, bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) which is widely claimed to be antidiabetic was also examined for its hypoglycaemic potency. Consumption of fresh juice of bitter gourd as a single oral dose (equivalent to 6.5 g fresh fruit/kg body weight), did not exert any beneficial hypoglycaemic influence in experimental rats.
... It increases milk secretion and has shown anticancer effects against colon cancer cells [16]. Additionally, cumin exerts antihyperglycaemic effects in diabetic patients [17,18]. The essential oil of C. cyminum has powerful antioxidant property that is comparable to its synthetic counterparts [14,19]. ...
... Essential oil concentrations of 0.01%, 0.02% and 0.03% (v/v) and fermentation time of 6, 9 and 12 hours were considered as two factors, and LA7 cell count was determined as the response. The levels of cumin essential oil was selected based on previous studies in which such a concentration range showed to be active against diabetes and the fermentation time levels were chosen based on probiotic studies that ascertained the effect of incubation time on the final probiotic cell counts [2,8,17,18]. ...
Article
Background: A new product from soy milk, which is a combination of probiotics and essential oils, can be regarded as a functional food with new added health benefit. Objectives: This study aimed at evaluation of the results of response surface methodology (RSM) in prediction of the optimum growth condition of Lactobacillus plantarum A7 (KC 355240) (LA7) cultured in soy milk enriched with different concentrations of essential oil of Cuminum cyminum in comparison with the classical growth curve monitoring method. Materials and methods: Bacterial growth was investigated in the samples of probiotic soy milk containing three concentration levels (0.01%, 0.02% and 0.03% (v/v)) of the essential oil of C. cyminum. The experiments were repeated three times. Concentration of C. cyminum essential oil and the fermentation time were considered as factors and experiments were conducted base on a small composite design of response surface methodology. Results: According to the tests carried out, the optimum conditions were determined as the concentration of 0.02% (v/v) essential oil and 9 hours fermentation. Conclusions: These results were in accordance with the outcomes of the classical growth curve monitoring method. There are several patents that have recently shown a diverse mix of soy milk in functional foods. Results of this study can be used in the preparation of functional products, enriched with medicinal plants.
... Fasting and post-prandial blood sugar at 6-week intervals wassignificantly reduced in all the patients. Dietary cumin seeds wereobserved to alleviate diabetes-related metabolic abnormalities in STZ-diabetic rats (Willatgamuwa et al. 1998) [27] . ...
... Cumin essential oil was investigated for the antiinflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the underlying mechanisms (Wei et al. 2015) [26] . Volatile constituents were identified in essential oil using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), the most abundant constituent being cuminaldehyde (48.8%). ...
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Cumin (Cuminumcyminum) is an important and popular spice locally known as 'zeera' that is used for culinary purpose due to its special aromatic effect. Cumin is a traditional and much used spice from Middle Ages because it was an icon of love and fidelity. The proximate analysis of the cumin seeds reveals that they contain fixed oil, volatile oils, acids, essential oils, protein and other elements. Cumin contains some important components such as pinene, cymene, terpinene, cuminaldehyde, oleoresin, thymol and others that have shown their efficacy against various diseases. It is an important source of energy, strengthens immune system, gives protection against many diseases.The total phenolic content of methanolic extracts of different cumin varieties (cumin, black cumin and bitter cumin) range from 4.1 to 53.6 mg/g dry weight. In this comprehensive review, focus is on the nutritional, antioxidant and pharmacological properties of cumin.
... Further, there is scientific proof that cumin shows antistress, antioxidant, and memory-enhancing activities, that its traditional use as a culinary spice in foods is beneficial in combating stress and related disorders [209]. Cumin possesses hypolipidemic [210,211], as well as hypoglycaemic potential [212,213]. Investigations show that cumin possesses hepatoprotective properties against drugs and chemically induced hepatotoxicities, by increasing the level of antioxidant enzymes in the liver [214,215,216]. The finding also suggests that it possesses anticancer activity against several carncer cell lines. ...
... Hypoglycaemic effects of cumin seeds were also observed in normal rabbits [62]. Dietary cumin showed marked hypoglycaemic responses in streptozotocindiabetic rats by reducing blood and urinary glucose concentrations [63]. An aqueous extract of seeds lowered blood glucose and plasma and tissue lipid concentrations in alloxan-induced diabetic rats [60]. ...
... Also, it is regarded as a medicinal plant for the bioactive compounds it contains. Several biological activity studies have been conducted on this plant to clarify the traditional belief about its diuretic, antiepileptic, carminative, digestive, anthelmintic, and sedative effects in traditional healing [83]. The phytochemical profile of the plant has been identified. ...
Article
Background & objective: Depression, a risk factor for several serious diseases, is a highly prevalent and life-threatening psychiatric disorder. It can affect the individual's position in life and reduce the living standards. The research on the use of medicinal plants in treating this disease has increased enormously because of the possible low rehabilitation rate and side effects of available synthetic drugs, such as sexual dysfunction, nausea, fatigue, insomnia, hypersomnia, and weight gain. Conclusion: Therefore, this review aimed to draw attention to the antidepressant effects of culinary herbs and traditional medicinal plants and their active components, thereby promoting their use in the development of more potent antidepressants with improved side effect profile.
... Anti-hyperglycemic effect of cumin is previously reported in some studies, mostly on diabetic animal models. In these studies, whole cumin or cumin powder were used (Mnif & Aifa, 2015;Roman-Ramos, Flores-Saenz, & Alarcon-Aguilar, 1995;Srivsatava et al., 2011;Willatgamuwa, Platel, Saraswathi, & Srinivasan, 1998). In a human clinical trial (Jafari, Sattari, & Ghavamzadeh, 2017), supplementation of cumin essential oil improved FPG, HbA 1C , and HOMA-IR in type 2 diabetic patients, while HOMA-B and QUICKI did not considerably changed. ...
Article
Some medications and herbal drugs are suggested to ameliorate impaired plasma glucose and its complications in pre-diabetic patients. This study aimed to assess the effect of cumin essential oil supplementation on metabolic markers and serum leptin in pre-diabetic subjects. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, subjects of intervention group received one cumin soft gel (containing 75 mg of cumin essential oil) per day for 10 weeks, while subjects of control group received one placebo soft gel. Glycemic indices and serum leptin did not significantly improve in intervention group. Except serum total cholesterol, other markers of lipid profile as well as anthropometric indexes improved in intervention group. Subgroup analyses represented that lipid profile and anthropometric indexes were ameliorated in women after intervention, while did not show significant improvement in men. It can be concluded that cumin essential oil can be used as an adjuvant therapy to ameliorate metabolic status in pre-diabetics.
... In a glucose tolerance test in rabbits, cumin significantly increased the area under the glucose tolerance curve and hyperglycemic peak [60] . Diet containing cumin powder (1.25%) was found to be remarkably beneficial in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats as indicated by reduction in hyperglycemia and glucosuria, improved body weights, lowered blood urea level and reduced excretions of urea and creatinine by diabetic animals [61] . Cumin at (0.5% g) per kg body weight orally administered in rats with induced diabetes is reported reduce blood glucose levels [62] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Cumin is an annual herb and has been used since ancient times as medicine and spices in food. Supplementation of cumin could either influence the feeding pattern or growth of favorable microorganisms in the rumen or stimulate the secretion of various digestive enzymes, which in turn may improve the efficiency of nutrients utilization or stimulate the milk secretary tissues in mammary glands resulting in improved milk production and reproductive performance of dairy animals. It has various pharmacological effects; recently the use of cumin has gained popularity because of herbal movement initiated by naturopaths, yog gurus, alternative medicine promoters and feed additives. Animal nutritionist is trying to exploit the potential use of cumin as a growth promoter, efficiency of nutrient utilization and mitigation of greenhouse gas emission. This review highlights the potential use of cumin as feed additive to increase production efficiency for effective animal production and reproduction.
... [71] Dietary cumin seeds have showed marked hypoglycemic response in diabetic rats. [72] Parthasarathy et al., 2008, have reported that cumin has myriad physiological effects, such as hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, iron source, chemoprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase inhibitor activities. [24] Cumin's distinctive flavor is due to its essential oil content. ...
Article
Full-text available
The view that food can have an expanded role that goes well beyond providing a source of nutrients truly applies to traditional functional foods. The systematic consumption of such traditional functional food provides an excellent preventive measure to ward off many diseases. Rasam, a soup of spices, is a traditional South Indian food. It is traditionally prepared using tamarind juice as a base, with the addition of Indian sesame oil, turmeric, tomato, chili pepper, pepper, garlic, cumin, curry leaves, mustard, coriander, asafoetida, sea salt, and water. Rasam is a classic example of traditional functional food with all its ingredients medicinally claimed for various ailments. The preclinical and clinical studies on rasam and its ingredients support their traditional claim. This review is an attempt to compile the literatures on rasam, its ingredients, and to highlight its medicinal potential that has been underestimated. © 2017 Pharmacognosy Reviews | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.
... This was also accompanied by improvement in body weights of diabetic animals. Dietary cumin also countered other metabolic alterations as revealed by lowered blood urea level and reduced excretions of urea and creatinine by diabetic animals [143][144]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders. It caused significant mortality due to its complications. Insulin and oral antidiabetic drugs associated with a number of serious adverse effects. The search for more effective and safer hypoglycemic agents is one of the important areas of investigation. Medicinal plants possessed hypoglycemic effects by many mechanisms. The current review discussed the medicinal plants with antidiabetic effect with special focus on their mechanism of action.
... This was also accompanied by improvement in body weights of diabetic animals. Dietary cumin also countered other metabolic alterations as revealed by lowered blood urea level and reduced excretions of urea and creatinine by diabetic animals (134) . Cuminaldehyde and cuminol were identified as potent insulinotrophic components. ...
Article
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Phytochemical analysis showed that Cuminum cyminum contained: alkaloid , coumarin, anthraquinone, flavonoid, glycoside, protein, resin, saponin, tannin and steroid. The previous pharmacological studies revealed that Cuminum cyminum exerted antimicrobial, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiplatelet aggregation, hypotensive, bronchodilatory, immunological, contraceptive, anti-amyloidogenic, anti-osteoporotic, aldose reductase , alpha-glucosidase and tyrosinase inhibitory effects, protective and central nervous effects. This review highlights the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Cuminum cyminum.
... 16 The result of the animal trial on diabetic rats which was performed by Willatgamuwa was similar to the above-mentioned studies, but it did not change the above indices in healthy rats. 28 The studies of Ardakani et al. on rats demonstrated an effect similar to the other studies. Yet, in these studies some weaknesses such the as short time of the study and unclear rate of blood glucose and the lack of limitation in the level of the blood glucose in selected rats has resulted in inconclusive results in the studied rats. ...
Article
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Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 50 and 100 mg doses of green cumin essential oil on glycemic and inflammatory indices in patients with diabetes type II. Method: In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, subjects were divided into three groups after selecting them randomly according to the inclusion criteria: 1 – Cuminum cyminum capsule (100 mg/day,n = 33), 2 – C. cyminum capsule (50 mg/day, n = 33), and 3 – placebo (n = 33). Before and after 8 weeks of intervention, a blood sample was taken. Findings: The findings demonstrated that the mean of the FBS, glycosylated hemoglobin (HgA1c) and the serum levels of insulin were significantly decreased and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR) was significantly increased in the groups receiving the 100 mg supplement (P
... Cumin wholedried seeds, cumin powder, cumin essential oil, and oleoresin have many commercial applications in food, biopharmaceutical, cosmetic, beverages and nutraceutical industries (Sowbhagya 2013). Cumin possess numerous health benefits, including inhibition of blood platelet aggregation and as an anti-diabetic agent, as well as for its antimicrobial, antiseptic, antioxidant, anti-enzymatic, and antifungal properties (Allahghadri et al. 2010;Aruna and Sivaramakrishnan 1996;Dhandapani et al. 2002;Iacobellis et al. 2005;Liu 2013;Nalini et al. 1998;Sowbhagya 2013;Willatgamuwa et al. 1998). Additionally, cumin has been used to treat diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, indigestion, and jaundice (Sowbhagya 2013), and cumin extracts have been used for the treatment of a great variety of unrelated medical problems (Ani et al. 2006;Diaz and Sembrano 1985;Jalali et al. 2007;Sağdıç et al. 2002). ...
Article
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Staphylococcus aureus is a serious causative agent of infectious disease. Multidrug-resistant strains like methicillin-resistant S. aureus compromise treatment efficacy, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Active efflux represents a major antimicrobial resistance mechanism. The proton-driven multidrug efflux pump, LmrS, actively exports structurally distinct antimicrobials. To circumvent resistance and restore clinical efficacy of antibiotics, efflux pump inhibitors are necessary, and natural edible spices like cumin are potential candidates. The mode of cumin antibacterial action and underlying mechanisms behind drug resistance inhibition, however, are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that cumin inhibits LmrS drug transport. We found that cumin inhibited bacterial growth and LmrS ethidium transport in a dosage-dependent manner. We demonstrate that cumin is antibacterial toward a multidrug-resistant host and that resistance modulation involves multidrug efflux inhibition.
... This was also accompanied by improvement in body weights of diabetic animals. Dietary cumin also countered other metabolic alterations as revealed by lowered blood urea level and reduced excretions of urea and creatinine by diabetic animals [89][90]. ...
... Herbs and spices have been used for generations by humans as food and to treat ailments. Scientific evidences is accumulating that many of these herbs and spices have medicinal properties that prevent diseases [3,4]. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) of the family Fabaceae is a well known plant in Ayurvedic and Unani (Greek) medicine [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek or methi) is an aromatic annual herb used commonly in Indian cuisines as cure of numerous diseases such as dropsy, chronic cough, enlargement of liver and spleen. Seeds are diuretic and aphrodisiac. The present study deals with investigation of the antigenotoxic potential of methanol extract of fenugreek leaf (MTG) on Allium cepa root tip meristem cells which were treated with chromium trioxide (CrO3). Methods: For this purpose, we gave three modes of treatments. In pre-treatment, roots were first treated with different concentrations of MTG extracts (0.1%, 0.5% and 1%) for 2 h followed by CrO3 treatment (8 ppm, 2 h). In post-treatment, roots were first treated with CrO3 (8 ppm, 2 h) followed by different concentrations (0.1%, 0.5% and 1%) of MTG extract for 2 h. In simultaneous treatment, the root tips are treated with CrO3 (8 ppm) and MTG extract (0.1%, 0.5% and 1%) at the same time. The treatments of roots with 8 ppm CrO3 and distilled water served as positive and negative control, respectively. Results: MTG extract of T.foenum-graecum modulated physiological and clastogenic aberrations induced by CrO3 by 87.83% in pre-treatment group, 89.57% in post-treatment group and 93.91% in simultaneous-treatment group at the concentration of 1%. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that T. foenum-graecum possess phytochemicals which have potential to modulate chromium genotoxicity, but need further investigations. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000): 77-83]
... The researches showed that fruit of the plant has anticonvulsant (Sayyah et al., 2002) and analgesic activity (Srivastava, 1989;Tremont-Lukats et al., 2000). There are some reports regarding the antibacterial activity (Hosseini Jazini et al., 2008), antidiabetic and oestrogenic activities of this plant (Malini & Vanithakumari, 1987;Willatgamuwa et al., 1998). Some of the constituents of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum such as alpha-pinene and beta-pinene have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity (Lorente et al., 1989). ...
Article
Copper overload can cause sperm cell damage by inducing oxidative stress. On the other hand, cumin has a good antioxidant potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cumin on sperm quality and testicular tissue following experimentally induced copper poisoning in mice. Forty-eight mature male mice were divided into four equal groups as follows: group Cu which received 0.1 ml copper sulphate at dose of 100 mg kg(-1) , group Cc which received Cuminum cyminum at dose of 1 mg kg(-1) , treatment group which received copper sulphate (100 mg kg(-1) ) and treated with Cuminum cyminum (1 mg kg(-1) ), and control group which received the same volume of normal saline. Six mice in each group were sacrificed at week 4 and week 6. The results showed that sperm concentration, motility and viability in group Cu were significantly decreased at weeks 4 and 6, and severe degenerative changes were observed in testicular tissues in comparison with the control group. In treatment group, significant improvement in the sperm count, motility and viability, and normal architecture in most seminiferous tubules with organised epithelium was observed compared to the group Cu. The sperm quality parameters in the treatment group approached those of the control group. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
... 53 Dietary cumin seed (1.25% in the diet for 8 weeks) is reported to alleviate diabetes-related metabolic abnormalities-hyperglycaemia and glucosuria in STZ-diabetic rats. 54 Methanolic extract of C. cyminum has been observed to counter oxidative stress and formation of AGE in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. 55 The inhibitory activity of C. cyminum seed-isolated component cuminaldehyde has been documented against lens aldose reductase and α-glucosidase isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats suggesting that cuminaldehyde may be useful for antidiabetic therapeutics. ...
Chapter
Hyperglycemia is an important risk factor for the development and progression of the macrovascular and microvascular complications that occur in diabetes. Spices such as fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds, onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum) and black cumin (Nigella satuvum) are recognized to possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant influence in diabetic situation. This well-recognized antidiabetic action of spices seems to be mediated through: i) stimulation of the pancreas to produce and secrete insulin, ii) interference with dietary glucose absorption, iii) insulin-sparing action of the constituent bioactive compounds, and (iv) countering the diabetes-induced oxidative stress. The antidiabetic influence of dietary fenugreek seeds and onion were higher when these two interventions were combined. Diabetes and its complications can be beneficially ameliorated by using these two functional food ingredients in right combination to derive an additive or even a synergistic effect. This basic information could lead to an effective dietary strategy in the management of metabolic abnormalities and the secondary complications of diabetes.
... [71] Dietary cumin seeds have showed marked hypoglycemic response in diabetic rats. [72] Parthasarathy et al., 2008, have reported that cumin has myriad physiological effects, such as hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, iron source, chemoprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase inhibitor activities. [24] Cumin's distinctive flavor is due to its essential oil content. ...
Article
Full-text available
The view that food can have an expanded role that goes well beyond providing a source of nutrients truly applies to traditional functional foods. The systematic consumption of such traditional functional food provides an excellent preventive measure to ward off many diseases. Rasam, a soup of spices, is a traditional South Indian food. It is traditionally prepared using tamarind juice as a base, with the addition of Indian sesame oil, turmeric, tomato, chili pepper, pepper, garlic, cumin, curry leaves, mustard, coriander, asafoetida, sea salt, and water. Rasam is a classic example of traditional functional food with all its ingredients medicinally claimed for various ailments. The preclinical and clinical studies on rasam and its ingredients support their traditional claim. This review is an attempt to compile the literatures on rasam, its ingredients, and to highlight its medicinal potential that has been underestimated.
... Cumin seeds have been found to possess significant biological activities, such as, antibacterial (Morton, 1976), antifungal, anti-carcinogenic (Gagandeep et al., 2003), anti-diabetic, antithrombotic (Ferrie et al., 2011) and antioxidant properties (Ferrie et al., 2011 andThippeswamy andAkhilender, 2005). Cumin seeds contain 7% essential oil and have therapeutic properties such as, antiseptic, anti-spasmodic, antitoxic, bactericidal, carminative, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, nervine, stimulant and tonic (Willatgamuwa et al., 1998). ...
... Cumin is cultivated in India, China, Middle East, and Mediterranean countries [54]. C. cyminun is reported to have antimicrobial [55], antidiabetic [56], anticancer [57], antioxidant [58], analgesic, anti-inflammatory [59], anti-hypertensive [60], and immunostimulatory [61] effects. In traditional medicine, cumin seeds are used for the treatment of diarrhea, headache, and stomach ache [62]. ...
Article
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Medicinal plants are being used all over the world for the prevention, treatment, and management of diseases. Most consumers assume that medicinal plants have no toxic effect because they are plant natural products. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 which originated from Wuhan in China, is a current pandemic that is spreading globally. This disease has led to mortality of humans all over the world. There are reports from research that plants with antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, or immunostimulatory activity might help in the treatment and prevention of this disease; and these have led to the increase in intake of medicinal plants with these activities all over the world. However, preclinical and clinical studies have not been carried out on some of these plants to confirm their use in prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Furthermore, the actual dose of some of these plant products for the prevention of the disease is unknown. This review discusses the use of medicinal plants including turmeric, garlic, and ginger for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 and their possible toxic effects. In conclusion, medicinal plants should be taken in moderation in other to prevent adverse effects which include inflammation, nausea, vomiting, fever, and mortality.
... Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of these seeds have been proven and correlated to the active phytochemicals such as cuminaldehyde, eugenol and b-pinene (Johri 2011). Even when administrated orally and simply diluted in water, cumin extract was proved to reduce blood glucose, cholesterol, free fatty acid, triglyceride levels in plasma and liver tissues, and glycosylated haemoglobin levels for the control of the body-weight of diabetic rats (Willatgamuwa et al. 1998). Notably, such effects are enhanced after the third week of administration (Ahmed 2017). ...
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In this contribution, ethanolic extracts of Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum) seeds were evaluated in terms of phytochemical content, total phenol and flavonoid contents. As far as the analytical techniques are concerned, UV-Vis, FTIR, HPLC, NMR (1H and 13C) and ESI-MS were performed. The binding capacity of five different antidiabetic enzymes was tested by in silico molecular docking studies. The HPLC, UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR and ESI-MS data highlighted the presence of seven biologically active molecules e.g. α-pinene, β-pinene, Δ3-carene, ρ-cymene, α-terpineol, cuminaldehyde and linalool. The results coming from the in silico molecular docking studies showed that such phytochemicals present in the cumin seed extracts play an important role in the activity of key enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Therefore, C. cyminum is proven to be useful for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its major secondary complications.
... Cumin seeds have been found to possess significant biological activities, such as, antibacterial (Morton, 1976), antifungal, anti-carcinogenic (Gagandeep et al., 2003), anti-diabetic, antithrombotic (Ferrie et al., 2011) and antioxidant properties (Ferrie et al., 2011 andThippeswamy andAkhilender, 2005). Cumin seeds contain 7% essential oil and have therapeutic properties such as, antiseptic, anti-spasmodic, antitoxic, bactericidal, carminative, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, nervine, stimulant and tonic (Willatgamuwa et al., 1998). ...
... It is a slender, annual, glabrous herb, and its seeds have been traditionally used in colic pain, abdominal discomfort, and deficient lactation. It also possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antidiabetic activities [77][78][79]. Cumin seed is valued for its aroma, which is due to the presence of cuminaldehyde, cuminic alcohol, p-cymene, o-cymene, γ-terpinene, α-terpinene, p-menthadienol, and β-pinene as some of its chief components [80,81]. High levels of a rare, monounsaturated, omega-12 fatty acid, petroselinic fatty acid (C18:1), are also present in cumin [82]. ...
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases worldwide. In an effort to search for new strategies for treating AD, natural products have become candidates of choice. Plants are a rich source of bioactive and effective compounds used in treating numerous diseases. Various plant extracts are known to display neuroprotective activities by targeting different pathophysiological pathways in association with the diseases, such as inhibiting enzymes responsible for degrading neurotransmitters, reducing oxidative stress, neuroprotection, inhibiting amyloid plaque formation, and replenishing mitochondrial function. This review presented a comprehensive evaluation of the available scientific literature (in vivo, in vitro, and in silico) on the neuroprotective mechanisms displayed by the extracts/bioactive compounds from spices belonging to the Apiaceae family in ameliorating AD.
... Furthermore, the use of 6-gingerol increased glycogen storage in skeletal muscles by activating glycogen synthase 1 and improving glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) cell membrane presentation . [46] In individuals with type 2 diabetes, ginger eating has also been demonstrated to lower insulin, TG, and TC levels, as well as fasting plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin A (HbA1C). ...
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Diabetes is a long-term endocrine disease that affects people all over the world and is getting increasingly common. Because of its multisystem involvement and life-threatening effects, diabetes has become a major health concern for people of all ages in recent years. In 2019, diabetes was directly responsible for around 1.5 million fatalities. It's the primary cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attack, stroke, and lower-limb amputations. Despite advances in pharmacological research and therapy, effective diabetes management remains a problem. Many therapeutic plants have demonstrated promising outcomes in animals in studies, and these findings can be applied to humans. This review examines the antidiabetic activity of common medicinal herbs such as Gymnema sylvestre, Swertia chirata, Momordica charantia, and others in experimental animals
... Similarly, both cumin and tamarind have been used as traditional food ingredients across various Asian cuisines and are considered to have glycemic-improving properties. For example, it has been previously shown that the consumption of cumin seeds by streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats led to significant reductions in hyperglycemia and glucosuria as well as improvements in renal function [12]. Another study showed reductions in both fasted blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin when alloxan-induced diabetic rats were administered cumin over a 6-week period [13], whereas a separate study showed a reduction in postprandial glycemic responses in rabbits fed cumin [14]. ...
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Several plant-based traditional ingredients in Asia are anecdotally used for preventing and/or treating type 2 diabetes. We investigated three such widely consumed ingredients, namely corn silk (CS), cumin (CU), and tamarind (TA). The aim of the study was to determine the effects of aqueous extracts of these ingredients consumed either as a drink (D) with high-glycemic-index rice or added to the same amount of rice during cooking (R) on postprandial glycemia (PPG), insulinemia (PPI), and blood pressure (BP), over a 3 h measurement period. Eighteen healthy Chinese men (aged 37.5 ± 12.5 years, BMI 21.8 ± 1.67 kg/m2) took part in a randomized crossover trial, each completing up to nine sessions. Compared to the control meal (plain rice + plain water), the addition of test extracts in either form did not modulate PPG, PPI, or BP. However, the extracts when added within rice while cooking gave rise to significantly lower PPI than when consumed as a drink (p < 0.01). Therefore, the form of consumption of phytochemical-rich ingredients can differentially modulate glucose homeostasis. This study also highlights the need for undertaking randomized controlled clinical trials with traditional foods/components before claims are made on their specific health effects.
... Moreover, these days poultry rations are formulated with ingredients rich in energy and/ or protein, which are usually high in bulk density. In order to increase bulkiness and improve the balance between the energy and protein contents of such rations, WB is normally used at levels up to 40 -50 g/ kg diet (WILLATGAMUWA et al., 1998). WB is composed of about 53% dietary fiber (xylans, lignin, cellulose, and galactan, fructans) and bioactive compounds, such as alkylresorcinols, ferulic acid, flavonoids, carotenoids, lignans and sterols (APPRICH et al., 2013;AnDERSSOn et al., 2014;DE BRIER et al., 2014). ...
... [10] Weight loss in diabetes-induced rats was associated with dehydration, loss of body fat and protein catabolism caused by increased catabolic reactions. [38][39][40] ...
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Background: There is some separate evidence that probiotic soy milk and Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum) have positive effects on the prevention and reduction of diabetic complications. While the impact of probiotic soymilk mixed with herbal essential oils has not been investigated so far, the objective of this study is to examine the effects of probiotic soy milk using Lactobacillus plantarum A7 (KC 355240) added with essential oil of C. cyminum on diabetic rats. Methods: 50 streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) induced diabetic Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Control group (C group), soy milk group (SM group), probiotic soy milk group (PSM group), soy milk containing essential oil of C. cyminum group (SMC group) and probiotic soy milk containing essential oil of C. cyminum group (PSMC group). The animals consumed these products (1 ml/day) for 30 days. The fasting blood glucose (FBS), the serum lipid levels, and body weight variation were analyzed in 10-day intervals. Results: FBS, total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased significantly, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased in the PSMC group compared with that of other groups (P < 0.05). This product also led to weight gain (P < 0.05). Conclusions: A mixture of probiotic soy milk and herbal essential oil consumption could impose a positive effect on reducing FBS as well as serum lipid profile in STZ- NA diabetes-induced rat. Also, it results in an increase in their weight gain.
Chapter
The term “spices” has been derived from the word “species,” which was connected to the group of exotic foods in medieval times. Spices and herbs have a long history of culinary use, medicinal properties, and as additives and thus have a distinct place in Ayurveda. Exhibiting the merits of spices by scientific methods still remains a challenge. This review investigates the anti-diabetic properties in preventing and managing diabetics and associated complications with commonly used spices. The bioactive compounds in these spices are additionally discussed. The major aim and object of the present work is to investigate the customary therapeutic usage of basic Indian spices and to corelate their observed pharmacological activities with the presence of explicit bioactive compounds present for the treatment or counteractive action of diabetes. This includes the basic underlying mechanism of their blood glucose lowering property including exploratory experimental evidence from proposed animal and human trials.
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The current aim was to evaluate anti-diabetic potential of Syzygium aromaticum and Cuminum cyminum essential oils and their emulsions by alpha amylase inhibition assay. Antidiabetic activity of C. cyminum and S. aromaticum was examined in dose dependent mode (1 to 100 µg/mL). Maximum anti-diabetic activity for S. aromaticum and C. cyminum essential oils was noted at the highest dose (100 µg/mL). Five emulsions (essential oil + surfactant (tween 80) + co-surfactant (ethanol) + water) of different concentrations for S. aromaticum (A1 to A5) and C. cyminum (B1 to B5) essential oils were formulated. Among different emulsions, A5 of S. aromaticum and B5 of C. cyminum essential oil exhibited maximum anti-diabetic activity with 95.30 and 83.09 % inhibition of α-amylase, respectively. Moreover, analysis of essential oils showed that eugenol (18.7 %) and α-pinene (18.8 %) were the major components of S. aromaticum and C. cyminum essential oils, respectively.
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Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is a plant with great medicinal importance cultivated in many regions such as Iran, India, Indonesia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Lebanon, Syria and Turkey. In this research, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and nitrate reductase enzyme activity were studied in cumin under flooding stress. Cumin plants were cultivated in pots containing garden soil (in 1 cm depth, 15-20°C, 14 h light and 10 h darkness). Germination took place after 2 weeks. Flooding stress was applied 6 weeks after germination on a number of pots according to their field capacity (FC) (2, 3, and 4 fold) for 1 week; a number of pots were also considered as controls with field capacity. Plants were then harvested and chemical analysis of the factors under study was done using roots and shoots of the plants exposed to flooding conditions and the control plants. The experiment had a completely randomized design in which four levels of water in the soil (2FC, 3FC, 4FC) were compared. Analysis of variance was carried out using SPSS software and means were compared by Duncan's test at [≤0.05 significance level. The results showed that in comparison with control plants, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were significantly lower in both shoots and roots of flooded plants. This decrease was more pronounced in treated plants exposed to 4×field capacity conditions. Nitrogen concentration in roots and shoots of treated plants showed a significant decrease in comparison with control plants and this was more noticeable in treated plants exposed to 4×field capacity conditions. Moreover, concentration of nitrite produced from nitrate reduction catalyzed by nitrate reductase enzyme in roots and shoots of treated plants had a significant increase in comparison with control plants. Treated plants exposed to 4×field capacity conditions showed the most increase. Also the study showed that cumin seeds could survive in flooding environment for 14 days. Thus, flooding stress in cumin seeds decreased nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in roots and shoots. This stress increased the activity of nitrate reductase enzyme in both roots and shoots.
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Seeds are commonly used foods, and several seeds are rich in nutraceuticals. Examples include the seeds of the members of the Apiaceae family, that are used as spices. Seeds are also rich in omega-3-fatty acids, tocotrienols and phytosterols. In addition, there are several unutilized seed species that are rich in nutraceuticals. Consumption of these seeds regularly has been considered to be a health beneficial practice. This chapter provides a comprehensive account of several types of seeds, and their potential influences on health.
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A number of Indian spices are used as rejuvenators as well as for treating various disease conditions. They may be tonics, antipyretics, aphrodisiacs, expectorants, hepatoprotectives, antirheumatics, diuretics, etc. Cuminum cyminum and Carum carvi are the sources of cumin and caraway seeds respectively, which have been used since antiquity for the treatment of various indications in traditional healing systems in wide geographical areas. Cumin and caraway seeds are rich sources of essential oils and have been actively researched for their chemical composition and biological activities. However, proper methodologies for the research and development are the need of the day for tapping the full therapeutic potentials of Indian spices. This review highlights the significance of cumin and caraway as potential source of diverse natural products and their medicinal applications.
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Chapter
NUTRACEUTICALS-Dietary supplements are substances that are considered foods or their constituents, and in addition to their normal nutritional value, they have health benefits such as disease prevention and health promotion. Due to the side effects of the drug, consumers prefer dietary supplements to improve their health. This has revolutionized dietary supplements around the world. Dietary supplements provide additional health benefits in addition to the basic nutritional value found in foods. Depending on the jurisdiction, the product may claim to prevent illness, improve health, delay the aging process, prolong life expectancy, or support body structure or function. The term dietary supplement includes nutrition and pharmacies and was invented by the doctor in 1989. Stephen L. Defelice, Founder and Chairman of the Foundation for Medical Innovation in New Jersey, USA, offers additional health benefits along with the nutritional value found in foods. These products contain carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and other necessary nutrients
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A COMPREHENSIVE OVERVIEW ON DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS The diet is believed to be much richer than before. However, the abundance of the food industry and the ignorance of the basic principles of nutrition have led to a large population leading to an unbalanced diet that is high in calories, high in fat and low in protein, vitamins and minerals. This long-term situation leads to the development of various degenerative diseases. This is where dietary supplements come in to solve the problem. Dietary supplements are Termed as those products which contain one or more concentrated nutrients. Its purpose is to supplement an individual's daily diet when the individual's diet is unbalanced and does not belong to the general food category rather than medicine. A dietary supplement is a medicinal product or specialty food product and is not intended for a specific group of people. Dietary supplements provide the body with the ingredients it needs to keep it in good physical and mental condition. In this way, the human body is not exhausted and at the same time avoids injury and fatigue.Dietary supplements have grown in number over the last few decadeswhich are formulated as tablets or powders. Side effects of dietary supplements are listed which increases with their consumption or overdose
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Heavy metals are the most harmful contaminants because of their persistence and proclivity to accumulate in biota. The objective of this study was to compare the heavy metal concentrations of Senna auriculata (L.) Roxb. with soil samples collected from natural and polluted sources. Heavy metals such asPb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, and Fe were determined by using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results revealed that the majority of the heavy metal levels of the analyzed soil samples were below the limit values. However, The Cd level exceeded the standard in polluted areas such as site-3 soil sample (9.65mg/kg) and site-4 soil sample (6.74 mg/kg). The Zn level exceeded the permissible limit in the site-3 soil sample (115.84 mg/kg). Analytical results of S. Auriculata show that samples A and B (natural sources) had heavy metal contents below the permissible level except for cadmium. Cadmium is not detected in sample B. while the samples from polluted sources had heavy metal contents higher than the permissible level except cadmium and copper. The levels of lead, and zinc in sample C, as well as iron and chromium in sample D, of both leaves and floral extract, exceeded the standard limit.These results showed that the majority of heavy metals have been accumulated above the standard levels in the plant parts of S.auriculata collected from the polluted sources when compared to the natural sources. This could be the result of Heavy metal pollution from industrial sources navigating their way from soil to plants. These exceeded levels of these heavy metals become toxic to humans on consumption.Therefore, to utilize and gain the values of the pharmacological effects of this experimental plant, the source obtained from the unpolluted natural environment is preferable.
Chapter
The term “spices” has been derived from the word “species,” which was connected to the group of exotic foods in medieval times. Spices and herbs have a long history of culinary use, medicinal properties, and as additives and thus have a distinct place in Ayurveda. Exhibiting the merits of spices by scientific methods still remains a challenge. This review investigates the anti-diabetic properties in preventing and managing diabetics and associated complications with commonly used spices. The bioactive compounds in these spices are additionally discussed. The major aim and object of the present work is to investigate the customary therapeutic usage of basic Indian spices and to corelate their observed pharmacological activities with the presence of explicit bioactive compounds present for the treatment or counteractive action of diabetes. This includes the basic underlying mechanism of their blood glucose lowering property including exploratory experimental evidence from proposed animal and human trials.
Chapter
Indian Spices which are medicinal uses
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Cumin is an aromatic herb prepared from the dried seeds of the plant Cuminum cyminum L. (family Apiaceae). As a culinary ingredient, it is a major constituent of curry powder, and as a spice, its popularity is considered second only to pepper. Therapeutic uses of cumin in traditional medicines date back millenia and include treatment for gastrointestinal distress, diarrhea, and jaundice, as well as for hypertension, epilepsy, fever, childhood maladies, and gynecological and respiratory disorders. This narrative review summarizes recent human trials that assess its efficacy in relieving symptoms associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease and considers suggestions for future studies.
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease which has clinched the world. More than 300 million people of the world are suffering from this disease and the number is still increasing at a rapid rate as modern medical science has no permanent solution for the disease. Current scenario of the nutraceuticals has increased patient’s faith on the traditional medicinal system and world nutraceutical industry is estimated to reach $285.0 billion by 2021. The increasing trend of nutraceuticals in diabetes treatment makes it important to collect the traditional knowledge of medicines under one heading as it can help researchers to formulate new functional foods and nutraceuticals which can either lower down the risk or cure DM. In addition, the discussion of market available food products, their active components and possible health benefits can help the patients to understand the herbal medicines in a better way.
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More than 400 traditional plant treatments for diabetes mellitus have been recorded, but only a small number of these have received scientific and medical evaluation to assess their efficacy. Traditional treatments have mostly disappeared in occidental societies, but some are prescribed by practitioners of alternative medicine or taken by patients as supplements to conventional therapy. However, plant remedies are the mainstay of treatment in underdeveloped regions. A hypoglycemic action from some treatments has been confirmed in animal models and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients, and various hypoglycemic compounds have been identified. A botanical substitute for insulin seems unlikely, but traditional treatments may provide valuable clues for the development of new oral hypoglycemic agents and simple dietary adjuncts.
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Effect of feeding 0.5% curcumin diet or 1% cholesterol diet was examined in albino rats rendered diabetic with streptozotocin injection. Diabetic rats maintained on curcumin diet for 8 weeks excreted comparatively less amounts of albumin, urea, creatinine and inorganic phosphorus. Urinary excretion of the electrolytes sodium and potassium were also significantly lowered under curcumin treatment. Dietary curcumin also partially reversed the abnormalities in plasma albumin, urea, creatine and inorganic phosphorus in diabetic animals. On the other hand, glucose excretion or the fasting sugar level was unaffected by dietary curcumin and so also the body weights were not improved to any significant extent. Diabetic rats fed curcumin diet had a lowered relative liver weight at the end of the study compared to other diabetic groups. Diabetic rats fed a curcumin diet also showed lowered lipid peroxidation in plasma and urine when compared to other diabetic groups. The extent of lipid peroxidation on the other hand, was still higher in cholesterol fed diabetic groups compared to diabetic rats fed with control diet. Thus, the study reveals that curcumin feeding improves the metabolic status in diabetic conditions, despite no effect on hyperglycemic status or the body weights. The mechanism by which curcumin improves this situation is probably by virtue of its hypocholesterolemic influence, antioxidant nature and free radical scavenging property.
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A protein determination method which involves the binding of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 to protein is described. The binding of the dye to protein causes a shift in the absorption maximum of the dye from 465 to 595 nm, and it is the increase in absorption at 595 nm which is monitored. This assay is very reproducible and rapid with the dye binding process virtually complete in approximately 2 min with good color stability for 1 hr. There is little or no interference from cations such as sodium or potassium nor from carbohydrates such as sucrose. A small amount of color is developed in the presence of strongly alkaline buffering agents, but the assay may be run accurately by the use of proper buffer controls. The only components found to give excessive interfering color in the assay are relatively large amounts of detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and commercial glassware detergents. Interference by small amounts of detergent may be eliminated by the use of proper controls.
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The fresh flavors of onions, garlic, and other members of the Allium genus are produced by enzymic decomposition of S‐alkyl‐ and S‐alkenyl‐L‐cysteine S‐oxides from which the primary products are thiolsulfinates containing alkyl and alkenyl substituents (alkyl‐ and alkenyl‐disulfide S‐oxides). The amino acid flavor precursurs of garlic are (+)S‐methyl‐, (+)S‐propyl‐, and (+)S‐(2‐propenyl)‐L‐cysteine S‐oxides, with the last amino acid predominant. The initial flavor of freshly chopped garlic is due mainly to the enzymic product 2‐propene‐2‐propenylthiolsulfinate. Small quantities of the corresponding methyl and propyl derivatives are also present. On standing, these compounds are converted to disulfides, trisulfides, and more complex sulfur‐containing compounds. The flavor precursors of the onion are (+)S‐methyl‐, (+)S‐propyl‐, and (+)S‐(l‐propenyl)‐L‐cysteine S‐oxide, with the last amino acid predominant. Enzymic decomposition of the propenyl derivative yields the characteristic transitory lachrymatory substance. The lachrymator has the unusual structure propanethial S‐oxide. On standing, or more rapidly on heating, the thiolsulfinates decompose to yield a mixture of disulfides and trisulfides containing methyl, propyl, and 1‐propenyl groups, and smaller quantities of thiophene derivatives and other cyclic sulfur‐containing compounds. The minor members of the Allium genus, chives, leeks, and seal‐lion, generally contain the same amino acid flavor precursors as the onion and similar fresh flavors, but in much weaker intensities. Onions and garlic possess weak antibiotic properties. Onions have been shown in a number of cases to reduce blood sugar levels in humans. A number of investigators have reported that onions and garlic reduce blood cholesterol in experimental animals and in some cases in humans, and inhibit platelet aggregation. This may be of interest in the treatment of atherosclerosis and related cardiovascular problems.
Article
Fenugreek (Trifolium foenum graecum) a leguminous herb, is extensively cultivated in India, Mediterranean region and North Africa. It is used for culinary and medicinal purposes and also for fodder in various parts of the world. The hypoglycemic effect of fenugreek seeds and leaves was tested in normal and diabetic subjects. Six protocols A, B, C, D, E and F involved the acute administration (single dose of 25 g of seeds, 5 g of gum isolate and 150 g of leaves) of whole fenugreek seeds, defatted fenugreek seeds, gum isolate, degummed fenugreek seeds, cooked fenugreek seeds and cooked fenugreek leaves to healthy subjects. The rise in plasma glucose after a dose of glucose or meal was prevented by fenugreek seeds. The serum insulin levels were also modified (P<0.05). The reduction in area under glucose curve was greatest with whole seeds (42.4%), followed by gum isolate (37.5%), extracted seeds (36.9%), and cooked seeds (35.1%) in that order. The degummed seeds and fenugreek leaves showed little effect on glycemia. Fenugreek seeds were also administered for 21 days to diabetic subjects. A significant imporvement in plasma glucose and insulin responses was observed in these subjects. The 24 hr urinary glucose output and serum cholesterol levels were also reduced (P<0.05).
Article
Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum), a commonly used condiment in Indian homes, were evaluated for hypoglycaemic property. In a metabolic study, 15 non-insulin dependent diabetic patients were given randomly, in a cross over design, diets with or without 100 g of defatted fenugreek seed powder, each for 10 days. Incorporation of fenugreek produced a significant fall in fasting blood glucose levels and an improvement in glucose tolerance test. Insulin responses were significantly reduced. There was a 64% reduction in 24 hr urinary glucose excretion with significant alterations in serum lipid profile. Serum total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased without any alteration in HDL cholesterol fraction with fenugreek diet.Incorporation of fenugreek seeds for 20 days in the diets of 5 diabetic patients resulted in similar changes of higher magnitude in all the above parameters.
Book
Spices, Condiments, and Seasonings has been written for use as a text in food technology and as a general reference book for anyone associated with the food industry who has a desire to know more about these fabled, fragrant, pungent plant substances and how they are utilized in the formulation of condiments and seasonings. Dietitians concerned with low sodium diets will find the spice substitute information and the nutritional data on spices useful. Section I introduces the reader to the significance of spices through out history in a concise, chronological sequence of events. Section II defines spice and describes 58 of the more prominent spices and five popular spice blends. The description of each spice includes the following: common name, botanical name, family, histor icaVlegendary backgrounds, indigenous and cultivated sources of sup ply, physical and sensory characteristics, extractives obtained therefrom with their chemical and sensory attributes, specifications, proximate composition and nutritional data, and household and commercial uses. Photographs of each spice and sketches of each spice plant are included. Recipes for home cooking with spices and herbs have been omitted purposely as there are many good spice cookbooks available. Suggested spice substitutes for salt in sodium-restricted diets are listed together with the natural antioxidant activity of each spice. The microbiological aspects of spices are covered and the means for sterilizing them de scribed. The American Spice Trade Association's Standards for Spice Cleanliness are provided."
Article
The reaction of serum samples with bromcresol green proceeds in two steps. Albumin is responsible for the faster (less than 1 min) reaction; the slower (30-min) reaction is a measure of "acute phase reactant(s)" in serum. Serum is simply mixed with bromcresol green reagent and the absorbance is measured twice, immediately and at 60 min. Albumin concentrations, determined from the absorbance at 0 min, correlate well with those determined by Laurell "rocket" immunoelectrophoresis; r = 0.95 with no certain deviation from unity for the slope and with a negligible difference at zero concentration. The slow reaction was expressed as deltaA% = 100 (deltaAs/deltaAv) where deltaAs and delta Av are the changes in absorbance between 60 and 0 min for the sample and a commercial control serum, respectively. The value for deltaA% correlates well with the percentage of alpha2-fraction as determined by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate, as well as with orosomucoid and ceruloplasmin, all of which are acute phase reactant(s). Whether these proteins or other acute phase reactant(s) actually cause the slow reaction has not yet been established.
Article
Before the introduction of insulin in 1922 treatments for diabetes mellitus relied mainly on dietary measures including traditional medicines derived from plants. During this century the dietary recommendations for diabetes have turned full circle, with the renewed appreciation that carbohydrate-rich high-fibre diets can benefit the control of glycaemia and improve certain diabetic complications (Nutrition Sub-committee of the British Diabetic Association, 1980; Mann, 1984; Vinik & Jenkins, 1988). Traditional plant medicines for diabetes, which were abandoned in occidental societies as conventional drugs emerged, are now receiving renewed interest as adjuncts to conventional treatments and as potential sources of new hypoglycaemic compounds (Day & Bailey, 1988~; Day, 1990). Most of these traditional medicines are prepared from herbs, spices and plants which do not form part of the normal diet (Day & Bailey, 1988b; Bailey & Day, 1989). However, several common components of the diet are traditionally recommended for regular consumption, and some are additionally taken as infusions, decoctions or alcoholic extracts. The present review considers the dietary adjuncts which are used as traditional treatments for diabetes in the UK (Table 1). and describes studies to evaluate their
Article
Allicin (diallyl disulphide-oxide), an ether soluble and volatile substance isolated from Allium sativum Linn., was found, on oral administration, to produce a hypoglycemic action comparable to tolbutamide in rabbits with mild alloxan diabetes. It significantly improves the serum insulin effect and glucose tolerance, as observed with the standard drug tolbutamide. Its effect on liver glycogen synthesis was also found to be very significant. A mechanism of action of the hypoglycemic substance is proposed.
Article
A simple method is described for directly determining serum urea nitrogen, wtihout deproteinization. The urea in 20 µl of serum or plasma is reacted with diacetylmonoxime in the presence of thiosemicarbazide and cadmium ion under acid conditions. The absorbance of the resulting rose-purple solution is measured at 540 nm. Results agreed excellently with those obtained by a reference method that makes use of urease and the Berthelot phenate—hypochlorite reaction for ammonia. An automated adaptation utilizing the AutoAnalyzer is also described, which eliminates the need for a dialyzer. A further advantage is that the same reagents are used for both methods.
Article
Feeding of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) at 0.02, 0.1 and 0.5% (dry weight) levels in a semi-synthetic diet for a period of 8 weeks did not have any adverse influence on the food intake, growth and organ weights of normal adult rats. The haematological parameters of these experimental rats were also normal. Serum cholesterol levels of the rats receiving 0.5% bitter gourd were significantly lower than those of the control rats. There was no hypoglycaemic effect of bitter gourd in these normoglycaemic rats.
Article
The anti-hyperglycemic effect of 12 edible plants was studied on 27 healthy rabbits, submitted weekly to subcutaneous glucose tolerance tests after gastric administration of water, tolbutamide or a traditional preparation of the plant. Tolbutamide, Cucurbita ficifolia, Phaseolus vulgaris, Opuntia streptacantha, Spinacea oleracea, Cucumis sativus and Cuminum cyminum decrease significantly the area under the glucose tolerance curve and the hyperglycemic peak. Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, Allium cepa and Allium sativum only decrease the hyperglycemic peak. The glycemic decreases caused by Psidium guajava, Brassica oleracea and Lactuca sativa var. romana were not significant (P > .05). The integration of a menu that includes the edible plants with hypoglycemic activity for the control and prevention of diabetes mellitus may be possible and recommendable.
Article
Onion and garlic contain many sulfur containing active principles mainly in the form of cysteine derivatives, viz. S-alkyl cysteine sulfoxides which decompose into a variety of thiosulfinates and polysulfides by the action of an enzyme allinase on extraction. Decomposed products are volatile and present in the oils of onion and garlic. They possess antidiabetic, antibiotic, hypocholesterolaemic, fibrinolytic and various other biological actions. In addition to free sulfoxides in alliums, there are nonvolatile sulfur-containing peptides and proteins which possess various activities and thus make these vegetables as an important source of therapeutic agents. As allyl and related sulfoxides are inhibiting thiol group enzymes, alliums are to be used only in limited quantities.
Article
Blood glucose and total lipid levels of normal and alloxantreated diabetic rabbits were determined after oral administration of various doses of the CUMINUM NIGRUM L. seeds and their extracts in water and methanol. From the data obtained, it is concluded that the oral administration of 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg of C. NIGRUM seeds produces a significant hypoglycaemic effect in normal as well as in diabetic rabbits. The water and methanol extracts also decreased the blood glucose level in normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits. However, the total blood lipids were not influenced by this substance in either normal or diabetic rabbits. The acute toxicity studies carried out on rabbits could not reveal any adverse or side effects of this folk medicine at the dosages tested. It is suggested that the C. NIGRUM seeds contain one or more hypoglycaemic principles which can significantly reduce the blood glucose but not total lipids level in normal rabbits and in those with alloxan-induced diabetes.
Indigenous plants used in the control of diabetes
  • Nagarajan
Anti-diabetic activity of Curcuma longa (50% ethanol extract) in alloxan diabetic rats
  • Tank
More mileage of the spices you eat — Are you aware of beneficial health aspect ?
  • Srinivasan
A clinical trial of a composite herbal drug in the treatment of diabetes mellitus
  • Karnick