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Can negative affect eliminate the power of first impressions? Affective influences on primacy and recency effects in impression formation

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Abstract

Can good or bad mood influence the common tendency for people to form judgments based on first impressions? Based on research on impression formation and recent work on affect and social cognition, this experiment predicted and found that positive mood increased, and negative mood eliminated the primacy effect. After an autobiographical mood induction (recalling happy or sad past events), participants (N=284) formed impressions about a character, Jim described either in an introvert–extrovert, or an extrovert–introvert sequence (Luchins, 1958). Impression formation judgments revealed clear mood and primacy main effects, as well as a mood by primacy interaction. Primacy effects were increased by positive mood, consistent with the more assimilative, holistic processing style associated with positive affect. Negative mood in turn eliminated primacy effects, consistent with a more accommodative, externally focused processing style. The relevance of these findings for first impressions in everyday judgments is considered, and their implications for recent affect-cognition theories are discussed.

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... Research on marketing has shown that the recency effect influences consumer behavioral patterns; specifically, consumers are most likely to remember their most recent purchase (Johar et al. 1997;Posselt & Gerstner, 2005). Some studies have suggested that a ratee's performance evaluation may be affected by their first impression of the rater (i.e., the primacy effect) because of the mental shortcut of processing information (Crano, 1977;Forgas, 2011). However, the ratee's performance evaluation can also be strongly affected by a recent event rather than their average performance (i.e., the recency effect). ...
... Studies in psychology have also revealed that the first event in a sequence (such as the first session that utilizes an IRS) tends to influence the assessment of subsequent events. Compared with subsequent events, individuals are more likely to remember events that occurred earlier (primacy effect) than those that occurred later (recency effect; Forgas, 2011;Schmitt et al. 2015). If a user's first impression is negative, then they may discontinue use of the application (Lukaitis & Davey, 2009). ...
... This finding indicates that the objective fit, material fit, engagement fit, assessment fit, ease of use, and usefulness of the IRS when it was first introduced into the learning process positively affected learning performance in the second and third sessions. Individuals are more likely to remember events that occurred earlier (primacy effect) than those that occurred later (recency effect; Forgas, 2011;Schmitt et al. 2015). Therefore, ensuring the comprehensiveness of the IRS (i.e., TTF, system operation, teaching device, and network stability) before application is of paramount importance. ...
Article
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This study first examined the factors that enhance learning effectiveness and student satisfaction when an interactive response system (IRS) is introduced to a financial planning course. Second, we examined the influence of the initial experience of using an IRS on subsequent learning results. A total of 217 financial practitioners participated in a three-session financial course. During the course, the instructor interacted with the participants using the IRS. Participants were asked to use the smartphone-based IRS to interact with their instructor, and they were requested to complete two tests (a pretest and a posttest) and a satisfaction survey after each session. Participation data were directly imported into the UMU system for statistical analysis. The results indicated that task–technology fit (TTF) and instructor ability were predictors of learning effectiveness and student satisfaction. The perception of TTF in the first session had a positive effect on the cognitive results in the subsequent stages, which was the primacy effect. Moreover, a recency effect was observed in the affective results, meaning that the influence of the perception of TTF and instructor ability in the concurrent session on student satisfaction was stronger than the influence of previous experiences. Research and practical implications are presented to conclude the paper.
... Wird das free-recall-Paradigma als experimentelle Anordnung gewählt, so kann etwa die Geschwindigkeit der Wortdarbietung in der Merkphase variiert werden (Glanzer & Cunitz, 1966;Tan & Ward, 2000). Außerdem kann die Länge der Wortliste, also die Anzahl der Wörter, die sich die Versuchsperson merken soll, variiert werden (Ward, 2002) sowie die Häufigkeit der Wörter, sodass Wörter während der Merkphase auch öfter als ein einziges Mal dargeboten werden (Glanzer & Cunitz, 1966 (Dalezman, 1976 (Forgas, 2011). Poltrock & MacLeod, 1977), wobei die Schwierigkeit variiert werden kann (Glenberg et al., 1980). ...
... In Experimenten, in denen die Stimmung der Versuchspersonen manipuliert wurde (Forgas, 2011) ...
... Viele aktuelle Befunde legen zudem nahe, dass man zur Erklärung des long-term Recency-Effekts von einem einzigen Speicherort der Items, anstatt von separat gedachten Gedächtnissystemen, ausgehen sollte (Davelaar et al., 2005). Forgas (2011) (Forgas, 2011;Hendrick & Constantini, 1973 Studie von Forgas (2011), dass "negative affect may also reduce the distorting power of first impressions" (S. 428). Dies steht im Einklang mit anderen Ergebnissen; so tritt der fundamentale Attributionsfehler seltener auf, wenn die Personen sich in negativer Stimmung befinden (Forgas, 1998) Roediger & Blaxton, 1987;. ...
Book
Stimmungen beeinflussen unsere kognitiven Prozesse. In diesem zweiten Band zum Thema Stimmung werden wie schon in Stimmung I ausgewählte Paradigmen der kognitiven Psychologie übersichtlich, aktuell und systematisch vorgestellt. Ein besonderer Fokus liegt wiederum auf Experimenten, in denen vor der Durchführung des jeweiligen kognitiven Paradigmas eine Manipulation der Stimmung vorgenommen wurde. Die Experimentaldetails sowie die Ergebnisse dieser Experimente werden ausführlich und möglichst umfassend zusammengefasst. Im vorliegenden Band werden Aufmerksamkeits-, Lern-/Gedächtnis-, Wahrnehmungs-, Denk-/Prolemlöseparadigmen und weitere klassische Experimente behandelt.
... In one of his classic demonstrations, Asch (1946) showed that participants developed more favorable impressions of someone when they learned about his more positive traits (e.g., intelligent, industrious) followed by his more negative ones (e.g., stubborn, envious) than when they learned the very same traits in the reverse order. This basic primacy effect has now been replicated in dozens of experiments (e.g., Anderson & Jacobson, 1965;Crano, 1977;Eyal, Hoover, Fujita, & Nussbaum, 2011;Forgas, 2011). ...
... d ¼ .83, 95% CI [0.63, 1.31]-a result that is consistent with prior work exploring information order effects on impression formation (e.g., Asch, 1946;Eyal et al., 2011;Forgas, 2011). More important to the current investigation, a 2 (Order: Positive First, Negative First) Â 2 (Target: Bob, Neutral) mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) on participants' proportionpleasant judgments on the AMP revealed only the predicted two-way interaction, F(1, 183) ¼ 6.708, p ¼ .01, ...
... However, these contextualization effects are categorically different from the effects we demonstrate in the current studies. Context effects capture shifts in the expression of already-established implicit evaluations and have been proposed to result from activation of different aspects of an already-formed mental representation (Gawronski & Bodenhausen, 2006, 2011. Our findings, however, occur in situations in which participants do not have any prior exposure to the target individual and thus cannot draw upon prior learning. ...
Article
A classic finding in the person perception literature is that information order is an important factor in the impressions we form of others. But how does order influence the formation of implicit evaluations? In three preregistered experiments including nearly 900 participants, we find evidence for a strong primacy effect even at the implicit level. This occurred on an affect misattribution procedure (Study 1), an evaluative priming task (Study 2), and an implicit association test (Study 3). These findings suggest that, just as explicit impressions are susceptible to primacy effects, so too are implicit ones. Implications for theories of evaluative conditioning and attitudes are discussed.
... Primacy effects in impression formation have emerged across a number of experiments (Anderson, 1965;Anderson & Barrios, 1961;Anderson & Hubert, 1963;Asch, 1946;Briscoe, Woodyard, & Shaw, 1967;Forgas, 2011;Hendrick & Constantini, 1970;Hendrick, Constantini, McGarry, & McBride, 1973;Jones, Rock, Shaver, Goethias, & Ward, 1968;Kelley, 1950;Luchins & Luchins, 1962, 1986Mayo & Crockett, 1964;Petronko & Perin, 1970). However, the primacy effect is delicate and can be impacted by contextual factors (like mood or experimental context, and even reversed (to become a recency effects; Byrne, Lamberth, Palmer, & London, 1969;Crano, 1977;Dreben, Fiske, & Hastie, 1979;Forgas, 2011;Hendrick & Constantini, 1970;Luchins, 1958;Luchins & Luchins, 1986;Mayo & Crockett, 1964;Petronko & Perin, 1970;Rosenkrantz & Crockett, 1965;Stewart, 1965). ...
... Primacy effects in impression formation have emerged across a number of experiments (Anderson, 1965;Anderson & Barrios, 1961;Anderson & Hubert, 1963;Asch, 1946;Briscoe, Woodyard, & Shaw, 1967;Forgas, 2011;Hendrick & Constantini, 1970;Hendrick, Constantini, McGarry, & McBride, 1973;Jones, Rock, Shaver, Goethias, & Ward, 1968;Kelley, 1950;Luchins & Luchins, 1962, 1986Mayo & Crockett, 1964;Petronko & Perin, 1970). However, the primacy effect is delicate and can be impacted by contextual factors (like mood or experimental context, and even reversed (to become a recency effects; Byrne, Lamberth, Palmer, & London, 1969;Crano, 1977;Dreben, Fiske, & Hastie, 1979;Forgas, 2011;Hendrick & Constantini, 1970;Luchins, 1958;Luchins & Luchins, 1986;Mayo & Crockett, 1964;Petronko & Perin, 1970;Rosenkrantz & Crockett, 1965;Stewart, 1965). The variability in findings raises some initial questions about the robustness of the primacy effect. ...
... Previous research has suggested that the first trait in a list exerts the most influence on judgments (Anderson, 1965;Anderson & Barrios, 1961;Anderson & Hubert, 1963;Asch, 1946;Briscoe et al., 1967;Forgas, 2011;Hendrick & Constantini, 1970;Hendrick et al., 1973;Jones et al., 1968;Kelley, 1950;Luchins & Luchins, 1962, 1986Mayo & Crockett, 1964;Petronko & Perin, 1970). At the outset, our goal was to test a pragmatic account of this phenomenon. ...
Article
Individuals described as “fun, witty, and vicious” are typically rated more favorably than those described as “vicious, witty, and fun” despite the semantic equivalence of these statements. This is known as the primacy effect in impression formation. We tested whether these effects emerge from pragmatic inferences about communicative intentions (e.g., that communicators should relay the most important information first). Participants heard a list of descriptors, with the most positive adjective listed either first or last; they also learned either that (a) the list was compiled by a human (licensing the inference that the most important information should be conveyed first) or (b) randomly ordered by a computer (thus blocking such an inference). Across five experiments (total N = 2,882), we found support for a small primacy effect in impression formation, but found no evidence of a pragmatic explanation for primacy effects.
... "affect-as-spotlight" by . Concerning the "arithmetic", assumptions have been such that sources of affect might be averaged or added (Anderson, 1981) with some propositions favoring a different type of arithmetic (Olsen & Pracejus, 2004;Forgas, 2011;Leon & Anderson, 1974), but this arithmetic rule also remains to be elucidated. Finally, no previous attempts have been made to look at multiple affective reactions' impact in an actual decision context, meaning that the topic is treading on before uncharted ground. ...
... The higher the score, the more positive the mood. It was decided to measure mood since it can significantly interact with a person's evaluations (Forgas, 2011;Schwarz & Clore, 1983) and as an incidental type of emotion, it could have an impact on the decision (e.g. ...
... Several possible arithmetic rules were proposed such as averaging , addition (Shanteau, 1970), and multiplication (Oden, 1977;Shanteau & James, 1974). In addition to these "arithmetic" rules, other examples of arithmetic's, where there could be multiple affective reactions, included the "peak end rule" and various contrast effects which are more akin to classic primacy and recency phenomena (Chowdhury et al., 2008;Forgas, 2011). ...
Thesis
While there is plenty of research showing how a single affective reaction impacts a decision, there is practically no research which looked at the impact of multiple affective reactions. Moreover, the mediating mechanisms of this impact are still debated, with several mediation models proposed, but never tested and compared at the same time. In this thesis, eight studies were conducted that took a closer look at these two issues. The results show that multiple affective reactions combine in order to impact the decision and that in this combination, feelings are averaged. However, the combination only happens when the affective reactions are related to the same decision source (e.g. two reactions associated with a potential reward). When, on the other hand, the affective reactions are associated with two independent decision sources (e.g. one reaction associated with a task and the other with the potential reward), there is no combination and people only rely on the affectivity associated with the consequential source (i.e. the rewards). Finally, the most consistently obtained mediation model was where only immediate affective reactions mediated between the affective source and the decision. The results extend the literature by demonstrating the phenomenon of affective combination along with the boundary conditions that govern its impact on the decision, they offer new insights into what mediates this impact, and they provide solid ground for future work aimed at looking at multiple affective reactions’ impact on decisions.
... Strategies that promote adaptive stress regulation are important because stress degrades top-down regulatory processes, promotes negative affect, and biases behaviors [11]. For example, stress and negative affect bias first impressions [12] and lead to lower likability ratings of emotionally ambiguous faces [13]. Individual experiences of stress, as opposed to stress experienced collectively as part of a group, attenuate generous behaviors [14]. ...
... Cold pressor test. The Cold pressor test (CPT) is a widely used standardized physical stressor shown to reliably elicit autonomic stress reactivity [11,12,31]. Participants are asked to keep their non-dominant hand up to the elbow in an ice bath (~34 degree water) for three minutes while being observed at a close distance by an unexpressive experimenter wearing a white laboratory coat recording time. ...
Article
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Mindfulness practices are increasingly being utilized as a method for cultivating well-being. The term mindfulness is often used as an umbrella for a variety of different practices and many mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) contain multiple styles of practice. Despite the diversity of practices within MBIs, few studies have investigated whether constituent practices produce specific effects. We randomized 156 undergraduates to one of four brief practices: breath awareness, loving-kindness, gratitude, or to an attention control condition. We assessed practice effects on affect following brief training, and effects on affect and behavior after provocation with a stressor (i.e., Cold pressor test). Results indicate that gratitude training significantly improved positive affect compared to breath awareness (d = 0.58) and loving-kindness led to significantly greater reductions in implicit negative affect compared to the control condition (d = 0.59) immediately after brief practice. In spite of gains in positive affect, the gratitude group demonstrated increased reactivity to the stressor, reporting the CPT as significantly more aversive than the control condition (d = 0.46) and showing significantly greater increases in negative affect compared to the breath awareness, loving-kindness, and control groups (ds = 0.55, 0.60, 0.65, respectively). Greater gains in implicit positive affect following gratitude training predicted decreased post-stressor likability ratings of novel neutral faces compared to breath awareness, loving-kindness, and control groups (ds = - 0.39, -0.40, -0.33, respectively) as well. Moreover, the gratitude group was significantly less likely to donate time than the loving-kindness group in an ecologically valid opportunity to provide unrewarded support. These data suggest that different styles of contemplative practice may produce different effects in the context of brief, introductory practice and these differences may be heightened by stress. Implications for the study of contemplative practices are discussed.
... While intervention group subjects completed the power posing exercise, the order of the poses was not randomised because of the recency effect. Last impressions of a task are remembered particularly strongly, especially if they are associated with negative emotions (Forgas, 2011). An ethically acceptable procedure was clearly prioritised. ...
... This could have led to sequence and learning effects in the subjects as well as in the horses. Due to the recency effect, in which the last impressions of a task are remembered particularly strongly, especially if they were associated with negative emotions (Forgas, 2011), the poses were not randomised. An ethically justifiable procedure was clearly prioritised here. ...
... How do we assess our social partners? Psychology literatures on impression formation (Albright, Kenny, & Malloy, 1988;Eyal, Hoover, Fujita, & Nussbaum, 2011;Forgas, 2011;Neuberg & Fiske, 1987), personality judgment (Funder, 2012;Oh, Wang, & Mount, 2011), and thin slicing (Ambady, Conner, & Hallahan, 1999;Ambady & Gray, 2002;Ambady & Rosenthal, 1992;Borkenau, Mauer, Riemann, Spinath, & Angleitner, 2004;Willis & Todorov, 2006) have established that humans form impressions of others, that we do so quickly and with limited information, that our impressions match the impressions of others, and that these impressions can have predictive value. ...
... For the most part, psychological research has focused on elucidating the mechanisms that produce judgments (Funder, 2012), giving less consideration to the adaptive significance of such judgments (e.g. Eyal et al., 2011;Forgas, 2011). Even when function is considered, as when evaluating the relationship between judge and target (discussed below), the discussion is often at the level of internal proximate mechanisms (e.g. ...
Article
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Humans form impressions and make social judgments about others based on information that is quickly and easily available, such as facial and vocal traits. The evolutionary function of impression formation and social judgment mechanisms have received limited attention in psychology research; we argue their function is to accurately forecast the behavior of others. There is some evidence for the predictive accuracy of social judgments, but much of it comes from situations where there is little incentive to deceive, which limits applicability to questions of the function of such mechanisms. A classic experiment that avoids this problem was conducted by Frank, Gilovich & Regan [1993]; their participants predicted each other’s Prisoner’s Dilemma Game decisions with above-chance accuracy after a short interaction period, knowing the game would follow. We report three original studies that replicate these aspects of the methods of Frank et al. [1993] and reanalyze data from all known replications. Our meta-analysis of these studies confirms the original report: Humans can predict each other’s Prisoner’s Dilemma decisions after a brief interaction with people who have incentive to deceive.
... The CPT is a standardized physiological acute stressor which has been shown to induce stress, reflected in autonomic stress reactivity Forgas 2011;Brown et al. 2017). In the CPT, the participants are asked to submerge their nondominant hand in ice-cold water (2°C), until they find it unpleasant, or until the experimenter asks them to remove their hand (after 2 min), while the experimenter observes and records the time (Hirshberg et al. 2018). ...
... Since this study did not employ any endocrine measures to assess the stress response, it is not absolutely certain that the CPT elicited a stress response in the participants, even though previous studies have validated the CPT in terms of elevating physiological stress levels Forgas 2011;Brown et al. 2017). The current study did not measure the participants' performance on SART independently of a stressor, which means that we can only verify that mindfulness stabilizes the executive performance during stress, not whether the performance on SART is actually diminished as a result of the CPT, or to what degree this is the case. ...
Article
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Objective Recent studies illustrate that lapses of attention and mind wandering severely hinder performance on tasks which require cognitive function during acute stress. Recent studies provide support that mindfulness training enables stress-reduction and enhancement of cognitive control. However, it is not yet clear if mindfulness can mediate the impact of acute stress on cognitive performance. Because of this, the main aim of this study was to clarify if mindfulness can successfully mediate the relationship between cognitive performance and stress.Method The sample consisted of staff and students from a local university (N = 48), where 26 practiced mindfulness for 4 weeks, while the remaining 22 participants practiced NeuroNation as an active control training. We measured mind wandering at baseline across the two groups and after completion of the interventions (30 days) using the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) and administered questionnaires regarding mindfulness and stress. The acute stressful state was achieved using the cold pressor test (CPT).ResultsThe mindfulness intervention significantly uncoupled the relationship between cognitive performance and acute stress, as well as enhanced self-reported dispositional mindfulness. These changes were not present in the active control group.Conclusion The implications of these findings suggest that mindfulness may be employed as way to dampen the impact of acute stressors on cognitive performance.
... A primacy effect occurs when the first information that is processed in a sequence of information units has a particularly pronounced influence on a person's subsequent judgments (e.g. Asch, 1946;Anderson, 1965;Anderson & Barrios, 1961;Forgas, 2011). In the context of person perception, if traits are presented in serial order, the traits that were presented first would thus have a greater influence on the overall impression of the target person than traits that were presented later. ...
Article
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Dynamic changes in emotional expressions are a valuable source of information in social interactions. As the expressive behaviour of a person changes, the inferences drawn from the behaviour may also change. Here, we test the possibility that dynamic changes in emotional expressions affect person perception in terms of stable trait attributions. Across three experiments, we examined perceivers’ inferences about others’ personality traits from changing emotional expressions. Expressions changed from one emotion (“start emotion”) to another emotion (“end emotion”), allowing us to disentangle potential primacy, recency, and averaging effects. Drawing on three influential models of person perception, we examined perceptions of dominance and affiliation (Experiment 1a), competence and warmth (Experiment 1b), and dominance and trustworthiness (Experiment 2). A strong recency effect was consistently found across all trait judgments, that is, the end emotion of dynamic expressions had a strong impact on trait ratings. Evidence for a primacy effect was also observed (i.e. the information of start emotions was integrated), but less pronounced, and only for trait ratings relating to affiliation, warmth, and trustworthiness. Taken together, these findings suggest that, when making trait judgements about others, observers weigh the most recently displayed emotion in dynamic expressions more heavily than the preceding emotion.
... Positive affect promotes and negative affect inhibits responses that are naturally dominant also when forming impressions of others. Examples include the fundamental attribution error [36] and biases from first impressions [37] or a person's visual prominence [38]. People also tend to see out-group members as more homogeneous than they are, and this too is more pronounced in happy than sad moods. ...
... For example, the "peak-end rule" states that the intensities of the peak and the end of an experience determine its imprint in memory, while the notion of "primacy" holds that earlier events in a sequence are remembered more clearly [16,17]. Moreover, emotion can modulate these effects of primacy and recency [18]. Accordingly, the correlation between mystical experience and clinical e cacy is likely to be conditioned by the precise temporal dynamics and emotional content of the acute experience. ...
Preprint
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With novel hallucinogens poised to enter psychiatry, we lack a unified framework for quantifying which changes in consciousness are optimal for treatment. Using transformers (i.e. BERT) and 11,816 publicly-available drug testimonials, we first predicted 28-dimensions of sentiment across each narrative, validated with psychiatrist annotations. Secondly, BERT was trained to predict biochemical and demographic information from testimonials. Thirdly, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) linked 52 drugs' receptor affinities with testimonial word usage, revealing 11 latent receptor-experience factors, mapped to a 3D cortical atlas. Together, these 3 machine learning methods elucidate a neurobiologically-informed, temporally-sensitive portrait of drug-induced subjective experiences. Different models’ results converged, revealing a pervasive distinction between lucid and mundane phenomena. MDMA was linked to "Love", DMT and 5-MeO-DMT to "Mystical Experiences", and other tryptamines to "Surprise", "Curiosity" and "Realization". Applying these models to real-time biofeedback, practitioners could harness them to guide the course of therapeutic sessions.
... Order effects of the presentation of information on judgement have been studied for a long time (see only Hogarth and Einhorn 1992, Gershberg and Shimamura 1994, Howard and Kahana 1999, Tan and Ward 2000, Lind, Kray et al. 2001, Piero, Mannetti et al. 2005, Duffy and Crawford 2008, Forgas 2011. In most settings, primacy is more important than recency, but recency effects have also been found (see the classification of results provided by Hogarth and Einhorn 1992), and there is intense work on identifying moderating factors. ...
... Both positive and negative emotions have adaptive functions. For example, positive emotions can broaden cognitive and behavioural repertoires (Fredrick- son 2004) and are associated with successes in various life domains ( Lyubomirsky et al. 2005), while negative emotions and moods have been shown to improve memory accuracy (Bäuml and Kuhbandner 2007;Forgas et al. 2005; Storbeck and Clore 2011) and reduce judgment bias ( Fiedler et al. 1991;Forgas 2011). In addition, higher positive emotions and lower negative emotions have been shown to be associated with lower levels of anxiety and depression symptoms (Crawford and Henry 2004;Lonigan et al. 1999). ...
Article
Heart rate variability (HRV) has been separately shown to be associated with ASD symptomatology, psycholo- gical wellbeing and emotion regulation (ER) in specific samples consisting of either individuals with ASD, those without ASD, or combined. However, no study has examined these constructs together or incorporated habitual ER strategy use. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the relationships between resting HRV, ASD symptomatology, ER strategy use (reappraisal and suppression), and psychological wellbeing (anxiety, depres- sion and positive wellbeing) in a combined sample of adults with and without ASD. Twenty-four adults with ASD (Mage=31.36; SDage=14.84) and twenty without ASD (Mage=35.45; SDage=12.19) completed the ER Questionnaire (ERQ), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 Cross-cutting Dimensional Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, and Autism-Spectrum Quotient- Short. Participants' resting HRV data were also collected via short-term electrocardiogram. Self-reported use of reappraisal was associated with higher resting HRV. Additionally, reappraisal predicted variance in all three HRV indices above and beyond ASD symptomatology and medication use. These preliminary findings can inform the design of future studies to determine the extent to which reappraisal impacts autonomic flexibility.
... When presented with a list of items, an individual is more likely to remember the item at the beginning (primacy effect) or at the end of the list (recency effect). Such effects have namely been observed on persuasion (Haugtvedt and Wegener, 1994;Li, 2010), and impression formation of other people (Forgas, 2011;Webstera et al., 1996). This bias is also well known by survey professionals as response orders within web surveys are known to affect respondents' answers (Krosnick and Alwin, 1987;Malhotra, 2008). ...
Article
This paper studies the prevalence of ballot order effects in two different types of Canadian elections which differ greatly by the strength of party cues they provide to voters. Provincial elections are best described as a typical competition between well established and institutionalized parties, hence providing voters with strong party cues. Alternatively, municipal politics provide voters with much weaker party cues. We use electoral results from recent provincial and municipal elections in Québec and find ballot order effects in municipal elections but not in provincial ones. Although ballot order effects may also be the product of alphabetic preference bias, we argue that in any case these are cognitive biases that are ultimately the product of insufficient cues that voters need in order to cast well-informed votes. The paper, therefore, sheds some light on an understudied type of election in political science.
... Hence, emotions can be contagious and be transmitted from the initiator to the recipient subconsciously (Levy and Nail, 1993). And being able to transfer the positive affect to the other party can influence the judgment that relates to first impressions (Forgas, 2011). To this end, individuals who can prime or regulate their affect and match the situation can control the information sent to counterparts and increase the likelihood of eliciting the desired response. ...
Article
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We undertook two vignette studies to examine the role of affect (trait and state) and bargaining power on initiating negotiations, an often overlooked stage of the negotiation process. Using a job negotiation opportunity, we examine three distinct phases of the initiation process – engaging a counterpart, making a request, and optimizing a request. Study 1 examines the effects of two affect dispositions (happiness and sadness), under power asymmetry (low vs. high bargaining power), on the three initiation behaviors. We found that power is pivotal to the decision to engage, request and optimize. Also, sadness reduces the likelihood of initiation when power is high but is immaterial when power is low. In contrast, individuals who tend to be happy can reverse the adverse effect of powerlessness on requesting, but not on engaging and optimizing. However, happiness does not carry over a positive effect on negotiation initiation, over and above that of power. Study 2 investigated the role of trait affect when individuals are in power asymmetry and when they are induced with sadness or happiness. We found that those with a happy disposition initiate more (engage, request, and optimize) when power is high and experience incidental sadness. Overall, these findings qualify previous research on negotiation initiation and highlight the importance of trait affect and its interaction with state affect as additional driving forces and of power as a boundary condition.
... The order that people experience events shapes their judgments [29]. Research on primacy effects maintains that information presented first has a stronger effect on judgments and is more likely to change an individual's judgment than information that is presented last [30,31]. On the other hand, other researchers have found a recency effect, which suggests that information presented last has a stronger effect than the information that is presented first [32,33]. ...
Article
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Justice research has evolved by elucidating the factors that affect justice evaluations, as well as their consequences. Unfortunately, few researchers have paid attention to the pattern of rewards over time as a predictor of justice evaluations. There are two main objectives of this research. First, it aims to test the effect of reward stability on justice evaluations. Based on justice theory and prospect theory, we assume that an under-reward at one time cannot be fully offset by an equivalent over-reward at another time. Therefore, in unstable reward systems the asymmetry of the effect of unjust rewards with opposite directions will produce a lower level of justice evaluations over time. The second objective of this research is to show the moderating effect of the presentation order (primacy vs. recency) of unstable rewards on justice evaluations. The results from a controlled experiment with five conditions, which presents the instability of rewards in different orders, confirm both the negative effect of unstable rewards and the stronger effect of primacy on justice evaluations.
... (Med Decis Making XXXX;XX:xx-xx) I t is a characteristic of human judgment to formulate hypotheses quickly. 1 Research in social and cognitive psychology has found a disproportionate influence of early hypotheses on final judgments. [2][3][4][5][6] This has been attributed to the working memory being less loaded at the start of a judgment task; therefore, initial information receives more attention and is better encoded. 3 Early impressions can be maintained and carried through to the final judgment via biased information search 7 and/or biased information processing. ...
Article
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Background: First impressions are thought to exert a disproportionate influence on subsequent judgments; however, their role in medical diagnosis has not been systematically studied. We aimed to elicit and measure the association between first impressions and subsequent diagnoses in common presentations with subtle indications of cancer. Methods: Ninety UK family physicians conducted interactive simulated consultations online, while on the phone with a researcher. They saw 6 patient cases, 3 of which could be cancers. Each cancer case included 2 consultations, whereby each patient consulted again with nonimproving and some new symptoms. After reading an introduction (patient description and presenting problem), physicians could request more information, which the researcher displayed online. In 2 of the possible cancers, physicians thought aloud. Two raters coded independently the physicians' first utterances (after reading the introduction but before requesting more information) as either acknowledging the possibility of cancer or not. We measured the association of these first impressions with the final diagnoses and management decisions. Results: The raters coded 297 verbalizations with high interrater agreement (Kappa = 0.89). When the possibility of cancer was initially verbalized, the odds of subsequently diagnosing it were on average 5 times higher (odds ratio 4.90 [95% CI 2.72 to 8.84], P < 0.001), while the odds of appropriate referral doubled (OR 1.98 [1.10 to 3.57], P = 0.002). The number of cancer-related questions physicians asked mediated the relationship between first impressions and subsequent diagnosis, explaining 29% of the total effect. Conclusion: We measured a strong association between family physicians' first diagnostic impressions and subsequent diagnoses and decisions. We suggest that interventions to influence and support the diagnostic process should target its early stage of hypothesis generation.
... The paradox of affect-infusion implies that while incidental affects have little influence on quasiautomatic emotional reactions, they have a stronger influence on more elaborated cognitive processing (Forgas, 1992(Forgas, , 2000(Forgas, , 2011. Each step of the latter may reveal ramifications (possibly revisable ones), which divert us from only focalizing the final goal and make us accessible to peripheral information (see also Banich et al., 2009, on the relation between emotions and cognitive control). ...
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Emotions imply a revision of our beliefs inasmuch as they are triggered by a discrepancy between our expectancies and new situations. I will study the converse relation: how emotions, particularly recurrent emotions that reappear in similar situations in the long term, are incentives to revise not only our beliefs but also the order of priorities between their related desires. Understanding how affects can revise both beliefs—under their committing aspect—and the order of desires, implies seeing the dynamics of affects as interacting with external dynamics and the order of priorities as a weak one (“pseudo-distance”; Schlechta, 2004). These philosophical considerations shed new light on the diversity of emotions, on their different temporalities, and on the paradox of emotional sharing.
... Order effects of the presentation of information on judgement have been studied for a long time (see only Hogarth and Einhorn 1992, Gershberg and Shimamura 1994, Howard and Kahana 1999, Tan and Ward 2000, Lind, Kray et al. 2001, Piero, Mannetti et al. 2005, Duffy and Crawford 2008, Forgas 2011. In most settings, primacy is more important than recency, but recency effects have also been found (see the classification of results provided by Hogarth and Einhorn 1992), and there is intense work on identifying moderating factors. ...
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From a normative perspective the order in which evidence is presented should not bias legal judgment. Yet psychological research on how individuals process conflicting evidence sug-gests that order could matter. The evidence shows that decision-makers dissolve ambiguity by forging coherence. This process could lead to a primacy effect: initial tentative interpretations bias the view on later conflicting evidence. Or the process could result in a recency effect: the evidence presented last casts decisive light on the case. In two studies (N1 = 221, N2 = 332) we test these competing hypotheses in a mock legal case. Legal orders sometimes even expect judges to provisionally assess the evidence. At least they have a hard time preventing this from happening. To test whether this creates or exacerbates bias, in the second dimensions, we explicitly demand experimental participants to express their leaning, after having seen half of the evidence. We consistently observe recency effects and no interactions with leanings. If the legal order wants to preempt false convictions, defendant should have the last word.
... Prior studies in psychology have demonstrated the importance of primacy and recency effects. More specifically, Forgas (2011) posited that the primacy effect is increased by positive moods. Garnefeld and Steinhoff (2013) analyzed various critical incidents and concluded that recency effect was prevalent for negative critical incidents. ...
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For years, the importance of customer emotions has been recognized in the service literature. Despite existing research, the discrete emotions generated by each service encounter within the theme park setting deserves more attention. The present research uses a quantitative research method to ascertain the various customer emotions experienced throughout the theme park experience using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Data was analyzed using multinomial logistic regression as well as correlation analysis. Results indicate that the emotions most likely to produce a satisfying theme park experience take place when enjoying rides, dining, and interacting with others. In contrast, the emotions generated while buying tickets were negatively associated with a satisfying theme park experience. Based on the results of this study, the authors provide a series of recommendations to generate positive emotions at key service encounters within the theme park experience.
... De exemplu, subiecţii trişti au fost mai puţin predispuşi la eroarea fundamentală de atribuire, în comparaţie cu colegii lor mai bine dispuşi (Forgas, 1998). Tot pe cale experimentală, s-a demonstrat că o stare afectivă negativă diminuează efectul primei informaţii (Forgas, 2011). Alte cercetări au descoperit că starea afectivă negativă îmbunătăţeşte atenţia şi memorarea (Forgas, Goldenberg şi Unkelbach, 2009), creşte scepticismul şi îmbunătăţeşte capacitatea de a detecta minciuna (Forgas şi East, 2008 ...
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Recenzie-Thomas Piketty, Le capital au XXIe siècle, Éditions du Seuil, Paris, 2013
... Positive emotions can help us to broaden our cognitive and behavioral repertoires (Fredrickson, 2004), assist in the recovery from daily stresses (Ong, Bergeman, Bisconti, & Wallace, 2006), and enhance our self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, mental health, and work satisfaction (Schutte, 2014). Negative emotions and moods have been shown to reduce judgment bias (Fiedler, Asbeck, & Nickel, 1991;Forgas, 2011) and improve memory accuracy (Bäuml & Kuhbandner, 2007;Forgas, Laham, & Vargas, 2005;Storbeck & Clore, 2011). Although the majority of emotion regulation research focus on negative emotions, there is an increasing interest in understanding the mechanisms and impact of positive emotions (Carl, Soskin, Kerns, & Barlow, 2013). ...
Chapter
Many individuals on the autism spectrum have difficulties with emotion regulation, leading to the suggestion that poor emotion regulation may be inherent in autistic individuals. Emotion dysregulation is shown to be associated with a range of mental health conditions such as anxiety and depression as well as various life outcomes in both autistic and nonautistic samples. Fortunately, emerging evidence suggests that emotion regulation capabilities can be improved through intervention. This chapter will firstly provide an overview of emotion regulation in the general and autistic populations. This will be followed by a summary of emotion regulation interventions for autistic individuals. Finally, best practices in the area of emotion regulation supports will be identified.
... Thus, the results are consistent with the literature on first impressions. Impression formation is often influenced by a primacy effect; that is, the information obtained at the beginning has a strong influence on impression formation (e.g., Asch, 1946;Forgas, 2011). For example, Asch (1946) found that just reversing the order of presentation of positive and negative personality traits had a strong impact on impressions, with the traits that were presented early having a stronger impact. ...
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Existing research on competence and morality focuses on their role in impression formation, overlooking their impact on each other. In five studies, we explored whether a target person's competence influences perceived morality of the target through interpersonal attraction. The results showed that perceived competence of a target individual was positively correlated with interpersonal attraction, which in turn positively correlated with morality (Study 1). Using an experimental design, we further found that competent individuals were considered more attractive, making them being perceived more moral than incompetent ones (Studies 2–4). In addition, an initially immoral individual was perceived as being moral when he was described as highly competent (Study 3) whereas an initially moral individual was perceived as being immoral when he was described as having low competence (Study 4). These findings were not completely accounted for by the halo effect (Study 5). The results supported that competence information promotes perceptions of morality in person perception.
... While negative mood may improve systematic processing, research on positive mood has found different effects. Specifically, positive mood has been found to increase reliance on early information (i.e., primacy effect) in evaluative judgments (Forgas, 2011b). Also, positive mood increases the utilization of erroneous memories in eyewitness recollection (i.e., false alarms; Forgas, Vargas, & Laham, 2005). ...
... The extant literature suggests that pandemic-induced affect can have a range of effects on impression formation and judgments. First impression effects can be eliminated when people are in a negative mood (Forgas, 2011). However, a mood congruency effect has also been reported: in certain contexts, more negative impressions are formed by people who are in a negative mood (e.g. ...
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Around the world, almost every aspect of people’s lives has been affected by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). We focused on one context that has received relatively little attention to date: the courtroom. Guided by established psychological findings and theories, we explored how the emergence of COVID-19 and proposed protective measures against the virus (i.e. face masks, physical distancing) could affect legal decision-making at trial. For the majority of the phenomena that we considered, the extant literature predicted negative or mixed effects. Because it appears likely that extralegal factors related to the pandemic will affect outcomes, the fairness of proceedings must be called into question. Overall, this work suggests that the reopening of the courts might be premature. It also highlights the importance of leveraging established psychological findings to address questions arising from unpredictable events when direct research is not yet available.
... Both positive and negative emotions have adaptive functions. For example, positive emotions can broaden cognitive and behavioural repertoires (Fredrickson 2004) and are associated with successes in various life domains (Lyubomirsky et al. 2005), while negative emotions and moods have been shown to improve memory accuracy (Bäuml and Kuhbandner 2007;Forgas et al. 2005;Storbeck and Clore 2011) and reduce judgment bias (Fiedler et al. 1991;Forgas 2011). In addition, higher positive emotions and lower negative emotions have been shown to be associated with lower levels of anxiety and depression symptoms (Crawford and Henry 2004;Lonigan et al. 1999). ...
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The aim of this study was to identify emotion regulation (ER) strategies that most strongly impact momentary mood in a sample of 23 adults with and 19 without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants completed cognitive and behavioural assessments, online questionnaires, and experience sampling methodology questions. In the ASD group, the use of dampening and other-blame reduced mood while savouring and emotional acceptance improved mood. The use of self-blame and avoidance negatively impacted mood only in the non-ASD group, suggesting the use of these two strategies do not reduce mood in individuals with ASD. ER and mental health interventions should capture ER strategy use and aim to decrease maladaptive strategy use and increase adaptive strategy use.
... Positive emotions can help us to broaden our cognitive and behavioral repertoires (Fredrickson, 2004), assist in the recovery from daily stresses (Ong, Bergeman, Bisconti, & Wallace, 2006), and enhance our self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, mental health, and work satisfaction (Schutte, 2014). Negative emotions and moods have been shown to reduce judgment bias (Fiedler, Asbeck, & Nickel, 1991;Forgas, 2011) and improve memory accuracy (Bäuml & Kuhbandner, 2007;Forgas, Laham, & Vargas, 2005;Storbeck & Clore, 2011). Although the majority of emotion regulation research focus on negative emotions, there is an increasing interest in understanding the mechanisms and impact of positive emotions (Carl, Soskin, Kerns, & Barlow, 2013). ...
Chapter
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Social skills represent a complex area within human behavior. Children and adolescents who have difficulties in social skills and who are poorly accepted by peers are at risk of developing some negative consequences. For people that have Asperger’s syndrome (AS), social skills are the biggest life challenge. It is, therefore, important to detect AS early in order to help them to fit in society more effectively and achieve their full potential. In this paper, we present a clinical case of a teenage girl diagnosed with AS, that also presented some depressive and anxiety symptoms. We will learn more about the traits of AS, the differences expected between boys and girls with AS, the impact of AS in adolescence, but also the relation between these traits and epilepsy, since she was diagnosed with absence seizures. In the therapeutic process the principles of cognitive behavioral, narrative, and family therapy were applied. Therapy was aimed at psych educating about the AS diagnosis; developing social competencies; developing strategies to cope with stress, anxiety, and aggression; improving self-esteem and enhancing autonomy.
... While the two groups receiving a combination of gain-framed and loss-framed information did not significantly differ in the resulting experience of positive valence ( Although both messages had the same potential to induce positive affect and arousal, the nature of the concluding frame seems to have a stronger impact on arousal levels than the previous frame. One explanation for this might be the existence of a recency effect for arousal (Demaree et al., 2004;Forgas, 2011), which would have a stronger influence on post-exposure evaluations than preceding content. To clarify the role of arousal during message exposure and processing, future studies should apply psychophysiological measurement to capture the evolution of physiological indicators of arousal (e.g., heart rate, skin conductance; Potter & Bolls, 2012) as a result of gain-framed and loss-framed information. ...
Article
Although the importance of emotions for the effects of gain-loss framed messages has been supported, the emotional effects of mixed frames have not been sufficiently investigated. To fill this gap, this experimental study exposed participants (N = 154) to single gain- or loss-framed vs. mixed frame messages about sun-protection outcomes. Integrating the idea of mixed frames with the concept of emotional flow, data were analyzed using a serial mediation model with emotional experience (as indexed by valence and arousal) and intention as factors mediating the effect of shifts on actual behavior, measured two weeks after message exposure. Results demonstrate that mixed messages and their impact on emotional experiences are not generally more effective than pure gain or pure loss messages. However, the application of mixed frame or purely loss-framed messages offers a higher potential to increase behavioral health intentions (resulting in respective behaviors) than messages simply focusing on gain frames.
... The stereotype that chemistry is difficult has become a burden for students to begin this subject. Making a good impression is critical in organizational and affective influences on many social judgments (Forgas, 2011;McNulty et al., 2010). A good first impression is when students can influence their interpretation of the chemistry subject in the future and consistently remember that chemistry is a fun and useful topic. ...
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Most junior high school students considered chemistry as a complicated science subject with an abstract concept, symbols, and terms that must be memorized. The difficulty of learning chemistry made students had low positive perceptions of chemistry. It was needed the right ways to introduce chemistry to them. The purpose of the multiple case study was to explore chemistry multimedia could help students understood chemistry and created a good impression. The study was conducted in three 7th grade classes in different schools. Classroom observations were done in four meetings to collect students' responses toward this multimedia by ending students filling out a questionnaire of impression. Test of classification of matter and its change was given in the last meeting to investigate the level of students' understanding. In the way to gain more depth information, two students from each class were an interview about the application of multimedia. The chemistry multimedia made it easier for the teacher to introduce chemistry through a podcast, molymod-like, and digital simulation. This study documented that the appearance of this multimedia could make the students attracted and curious about chemistry. Keywords: chemistry, multimedia, junior high school student, good impression, case study
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In this research, we look at the similarity between frontline service employees’ nonverbal or expressive behavior and customers’ receptivity of nonverbally expressed emotions (i.e., expressive similarity). Supported by evidence from four studies, we demonstrate that expressive similarity between customers and frontline service employees yields positive outcomes for both the employee and the organization under successful service delivery, but it can paradoxically backfire on the organization in service failures. In successful service encounters, higher expressive similarity between customers and employees enhances consumer satisfaction and promotes more direct compliments and positive word of mouth. In contrast, higher expressive similarity increases customer dissatisfaction and intent to engage in negative word of mouth, but it reduces customers’ inclination to lodge direct complaints following a service failure (Study 1). Studies 2 and 3, both field experiments, provide external validation of the key findings on customer satisfaction and voice intentions (Study 2) as well as actual voice behavior (Study 3). Building on these findings, Study 4 reveals that while customer-perceived rapport and trait impressions of the service employee mediate the observed effects of expressive similarity on satisfaction, only rapport significantly explains the effects of expressive similarity on voice intentions. Theoretical and managerial implications, along with suggestions for future research, conclude the paper.
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The influence of positive and negative moods on cognition is of major interest in psychological research. One vital domain of study concerns the impact of moods on processing effort. In this regard, a number of approaches have been put forward to explain when, how, and why moods affect processing effort. Against the background of these approaches and respective findings, the mood-congruent expectancies approach (MCA) suggests a basic cognitive mechanism that symmetrically affects processing effort in positive and negative moods. The MCA predicts effortful processing in both moods when mood-based expectancies are disconfirmed, and reduced processing in both moods when mood-based expectancies are confirmed. As with other, mood-unrelated factors, these processing effects of moods should emerge when background processing likelihood is moderate. In this chapter, I review the major approaches and empirical findings, present the MCA, and describe our research regarding mood effects on processing effort in the domains of persuasion and person perception. I also discuss the implications of our research for existing approaches and findings, suggest how the MCA can be reconciled with previous studies putatively revealing MCA-inconsistent processing in negative mood, and offer directions for future research.
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Many social decisions involve a basic conflict between selfishness versus fairness. In the ultimatum game, proposers divide resources between themselves and others, and responders can accept or veto such allocations. Two experiments predicted and found that mood influenced the decision-making strategies of both proposers and responders. In Experiment 1, negative mood produced fairer allocations to a partner compared to positive mood, and such decisions also took longer to perform consistent with more accommodative processing. Experiment 2 explored the behavior of responders; negative mood now increased the rejection of unfair offers, consistent with increased concern with fairness. The results are discussed in terms recent affect-cognition theories, suggesting that positive mood recruits more assimilative, and internally oriented processing that promotes selfishness, while negative affect induces more externally oriented, accommodative thinking and greater concern with social norms. The implications of the findings for everyday social decisions and interpersonal strategies are considered.
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Attracting and retaining public transport ridership is challenging. People's actual experiences and attitudes about public transport are not well understood. First impressions have repeatedly been shown to be integral to attitude development in psychology studies due to a phenomenon called the 'primacy effect'. However this concept has never been applied to the transport context. This paper examines first impressions through a university access survey. The research seeks to better understand unfamiliar trips on public transport services in terms of when they occur, how important they are to patrons, and what experiences they are characterised by. The results suggest that unfamiliar trips on public transport are important to the development of attitudes related to public transport and that the trips themselves are more negative than familiar trips. Furthermore first trips and attitudes about public transport are shown to be significant to mode choice as measured by subsequent public transport usage for those with access to a car but not for captive public transport users. Though the latter disaggregate analysis had relatively small sample sizes. Suggestions are then offered regarding future research, and how the findings could be applied to the transport planning context.
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Positive Psychology is being called into question. It has received substantial criticism, to which its advocates, naturally, have reacted. The present article sets out, above all, to establish the reasoning behind the criticisms of Positive Psychology's very foundations: positivity and scientificity. In contrast to the marked emphasis on the benefits of positive affect, research has shown that negative affect can be positive, just as positive affect can be negative. Positivity is not on the positive side (since no such side actually exists). Regarding what Positive Psychology purports to know scientifically about happiness, such knowledge does not appear to add anything to what we already knew. Even the best theories, such as the positive-activity model and the broaden-and-build theory, seem strikingly trivial, replete with tautology. Also noteworthy is the clear fallacy of the positivity ratio. Finally, it is asserted here that happiness cannot be sustained as either a life-guiding principle (its pursuit is neither universal nor the best thing to do in life) or a scientific objective, unless it be at the cost of reifying subjective experience.
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Our study explores how communicating with audiences who hold opposite opinions about a target person can lead to a biased recall of the target's behaviors depending on whom a shared reality is created with. By extending the standard “saying-is-believing” paradigm to the case of two audiences with opposite attitudes toward a target person, we found that communicators evaluatively tune their message to the attitude of each audience. Still, their later recall of the target's behavior is biased toward the audience's attitude only for the audience with whom they created a shared reality. Shared reality creation was manipulated by receiving feedback that, based on the communicator's message, an audience was either able (success) or unable (failure) to successfully identify the target person, with the former creating a shared reality. These results highlight the importance of shared reality creation for subsequent recall when communicating with multiple audiences on a topic.
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Despite enormous variation in the order, positivity, and content of information that real‐world electoral campaigns present to voters, we know little about their interactive role in candidate evaluation. This study presents results from two multiwave experiments that varied the positivity of information, its order, and its personal or policy content and assessed its memorability and impact on evaluations over several days. Consistent with observational evidence, recent information is not only more memorable, but also more impactful, in candidate evaluation. However, these effects on evaluations are asymmetric by the positivity of the information, with negative information more impactful than positive information when it is recent, even though negative information fades more quickly in memory. Furthermore, positive and personal information is more memorable, and positive personal information can serve as a powerful anchor when presented first, diminishing recency effects.
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The subtle relationship between feeling and thinking, affect and cognition has fascinated philosophers and writers since time immemorial, yet, empirical research on this topic was relatively neglected by psychologists until recently. There have been many claims emphasising the beneficial cognitive and behavioural consequences of positive affect. Many recent works suggest that negative affect may also facilitate optimal performance in many situations, consistent with evolutionary theories suggesting the adaptive signalling function of various affective states. This paper reviews traditional and current psychological theories linking affect to social thinking and behaviour. A variety of empirical studies from our laboratory will also be presented, demonstrating that in many situations, negative affect promotes optimal performance in cognitive and social tasks, including tasks such as memory, social judgements, motivation, and strategic interpersonal behaviours. These results will be interpreted in terms of a dual-process theory that predicts that negative affect promotes a more accommodative, vigilant, and externally focused thinking strategy. The relevance of these findings for recent affect–cognition theories will be discussed, and the practical implications of negative affect promoting improved social thinking and performance in a number of applied fields will be considered.
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First impressions are commonly assumed to be particularly important: Information about a person that we obtain early on may shape our overall impression of that person more strongly than information obtained later. In contrast to previous research, the present series of preregistered analyses uses actual person judgment data to investigate this so-called primacy effect: Perceivers (N = 1,395) judged the videotaped behavior of target persons (N = 200) in 10 different situations. Separate subsamples of about 200 perceivers each were used in moving from exploratory to increasingly confirmatory analyses. Contrary to our expectations, no primacy effect was found. Instead, judgments of the targets in later situations were more strongly associated with overall impressions, indicating an acquaintance effect. Relying on early information seems unreasonable when more comprehensive information is readily available. Early information may, however, affect perceivers’ behavioral reactions to the targets and thus their future interactions, if such interactions are possible.
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Banner ads, video ads, and advergames comprise a large portion of online gaming spending, yet no prior research has incorporated them simultaneously to determine if any separate or joint effects exist, and to what extent. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to test the effects of ad types on brand recall and attitude within two different, but very common, game settings (advergame or non-branded game). Study 1 found that pre-roll video ads outperformed banner ads quite robustly in the non-branded game, but these effects dissipated in the advergame. Building on these findings, Study 2 manipulated the location of video ads. The mid-roll ad position was more influential than the pre-roll and no-ad conditions, followed by the post-roll position, thereby indicating a modest pattern of recency effects, especially in the non-branded game. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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Evolutionary theories suggest that all affective states have a function. The fascinating review "Can Sadness Be Good for You? On the Cognitive, Motivational and Interpersonal Benefits of Mild Negative Affect" by Joseph Forgas is a welcome reminder that happiness is not the be all and end all-sadness can also be beneficial. In this commentary, I summarise the studies conducted by Forgas et al. that demonstrate the benefit of mild negative affect for memory, judgement, motivation, and interpersonal behaviour (and those that do not), link them to current theories and models, and discuss avenues for future research.
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Despite considerable difference between brand and attribute information, the question of whether sequential presentation of brand and attribute information can impact product evaluation has yet to be addressed. We answer this question by identifying a novel affect‐based mechanism for sequential presentation of brand and attribute information that is distinct from existing mechanisms that are predominantly cognitive. Based on the affective mental associations for a brand (vs. an attribute), we show that willingness to pay for a product is higher under brand‐first (vs. attribute‐first) presentation, a difference that we term the “affect premium” for brands. We present an affect‐based explanation for this phenomenon by showing that it is observed only for strong brands, mediated by affect elicited by the brand, and observed only under promotion (vs. prevention) focus due to contingent reliance on affect. Further research could determine the information processing pathway involved and boundary conditions for the observed effect.
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The effect of induced mood on language processing has been examined in behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) studies. A previous study examined the effects of induced mood on word imagery processing by the N400 and N700 components of the ERP and behavioral performance in an imageability judgment task in which participants decided whether a word easily evoked visual imagery or not (Ogawa and Nittono, 2019). The N400 amplitude was larger (more negative-going) under positive mood than under negative mood, while reaction time and the N700 amplitude were not affected by induced moods. These results were interpreted as evidence that, compared to negative mood, positive mood facilitates semantic memory activation during word imagery processing. However, it remains unclear whether positive mood facilitates the phenomenological experience of imagery. To replicate and extend the previous findings, this study examined the effects of mood on subjective ratings of word imageability and ERP components. Single words with moderate imageability were used to avoid floor or ceiling effects. If a positive mood facilitates word imageability processing, subjective imageability ratings would be higher under positive mood than under negative mood. The N400 amplitude, but not the N700 amplitude, would be larger under positive mood than under negative mood. Contrary to predictions, an experiment with a sufficient sample size (N = 41) did not replicate the previous findings regarding N400 amplitude. Induced moods also did not affect the subjective imageability ratings and the N700 amplitude. These results suggest that the effects of induced mood on language processing may not occur at the level of single-word processing. Rather, moods may change the strength of association between word concepts in semantic memory.
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Can good or bad mood influence how people process verbal information about others? Based on affect-cognition theories, this experiment predicted and found that the way a question is phrased has a greater influence on impressions than actual answers when judges are experiencing a negative rather than a neutral or positive mood. After an audiovisual mood induction, participants witnessed interview questions and responses by two target characters. The same level of extroversion was communicated, either by affirmative responses to questions about extraversion, or by negative responses to questions about introversion. Question format had a significant influence on impressions in negative mood but not in neutral or positive mood. The implications of these results for interpreting linguistic information in everyday social life are considered, and their relevance to contemporary affect-cognition theorizing is discussed.
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The exploration-exploitation trade-off shows conceptual, functional, and neural analogies with the persistence-flexibility trade-off. We investigated whether mood, which is known to modulate the persistence-flexibility balance, would similarly affect the exploration-exploitation trade-off in a foraging task. More specifically, we tested whether interindividual differences in foraging behavior can be predicted by mood-related arousal and valence. In 119 participants, we assessed mood-related interindividual differences in exploration-exploitation using a foraging task that included minimal task constraints to reduce paradigm-induced biases of individual control tendencies. We adopted the marginal value theorem as a model-based analysis approach, which approximates optimal foraging behavior by tackling the patch-leaving problem. To assess influences of mood on foraging, participants underwent either a positive or negative mood induction. Throughout the experiment, we assessed arousal and valence levels as predictors for explorative/exploitative behavior. Our mood manipulation affected participants' arousal and valence ratings as expected. Moreover, mood-related arousal was found to predict exploration while valence predicted exploitation, which only partly matched our expectations and thereby the proposed conceptual overlap with flexibility and persistence, respectively. The current study provides a first insight into how processes related to arousal and valence differentially modulate foraging behavior. Our results imply that the relationship between exploration-exploitation and flexibility-persistence is more complicated than the semantic overlap between these terms might suggest, thereby calling for further research on the functional, neural, and neurochemical underpinnings of both trade-offs.
Conference Paper
A supply line underweighting is a robust decision error that can lead to the bullwhip effect. Finding the antecedents to the underweighting is valuable for lowering the operating cost of a supply chain. This research studies whether the recency effect, a cognitive bias under which recent information is emphasized more than historical information, can generate the supply line underweighting. A multiperiod ordering model is established, which characterizes the influence of the recency effect on the ordering behavior by a demand-chasing fashion. A series of simulation experiments are conducted and the results show that the recency effect is a behavioral antecedent to the supply line underweighting; under the influence of the recency effect, the increasing ordering lead-time and demand volatility will intensify the supply line underweighting.
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Individuals have many life experiences (e.g., work and vacations) that consist of a series of interconnected episodes (i.e., temporal sequences). Assessments of such experiences are integral to daily life in that they facilitate future planning and behaviors for individuals. Therefore, these experiences often culminate in evaluations of their global affect. Past work has shown that retrospective, affective evaluations of these sequences generally exhibit an “end effect,” whereby a sequence's end intensity—but not its start intensity—is disproportionately weighted. Yet, researchers have largely investigated experiences that occur alone. In contrast, many real-world experiences vary in their extent of social connection to others (e.g., working in an office with others versus alone in a cubicle). The present work fills this gap by showing the moderating role of social connection on how episodes are weighted in global affective ratings. Five studies involving two autobiographical experiences spanning several days each (workweek and spring break) and two brief simulated experiences show that high social connection leads to greater (lesser) weighting of the first (last) episode. To our knowledge, we are the first to demonstrate that these effects persist across different forms of social connection (i.e., interpersonal interaction versus semantic priming tasks) and are supported regardless of whether social connection occurs at encoding or retrieval of an experience. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The predictive validity of three hypotheses concerned with the relative influence of the presentation order of opposed persuasive communications was investigated. Absorbed from the parallel and complementary research tradition of the serial position effect, an area of considerably greater theoretical closure than that exhibited in the realm of the primacy recency phenomenon, these propositions allowed for the postulation of unambiguous and opposed predictions of order effects. Consistent with a good deal of previous research, this study, which employed 88 undergraduate men and women students of a large Midwestern university as Ss, provided considerable empirical support for the attention decrement hypothesis, with a recency effect in attitude change demonstrated by Ss in conditions fostering the continued attention to the research materials. Differential patterns of attitude change and retention suggest a hierarchical connotative-denotative memory structure hypothesis.
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Frontiers of Social Psychology is a new series of domain-specific handbooks. The purpose of each volume is to provide readers with a cutting-edge overview of the most recent theoretical, methodological, and practical developments in a substantive area of social psychology, in greater depth than is possible in general social psychology handbooks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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It was hypothesized that moods have few, if any, motivational or processing implications, but are input to other processes that determine their motivational implications. In Exp 1, Ss read a series of behaviors in forming an impression. When told to read the behaviors until they felt they had enough information, those in positive moods (PMs) stopped sooner than did those in negative moods (NMs). When told to stop when they no longer enjoyed reading the behaviors, NMs stopped sooner than PMs. In Exp 2, Ss generated a list of birds from memory. When told to stop when either they thought it was a good time to stop or they simply felt like stopping, PMs stopped sooner than NMs. When told to stop when they no longer enjoyed the task, NMs stopped sooner than PMs. The findings extend work by others (e.g., D. M. Mackie and L. T. Worth, 1991; N. Murray et al, 1990; N. Schwarz and H. Bless, 1991; R. C. Sinclair and M. M. Mark, 1992). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated the effects of varying distributions of success and failure on attributions of intellectual ability. In Exp. I-IV undergraduate Ss confronted a stimulus person who solved 15 out of 30 problems in a random, descending, or ascending success pattern. In Exp. V only the descending and ascending patterns were compared. Contrary to prediction, the performer who showed improvement (ascending success) was not consistently judged to be more able than the performer with randomly spaced successes. The performer with a descending success rate, however, was consistently judged to be more intelligent and was expected to outperform those with either ascending or random patterns. Memory for past performance was uniformly distorted in favor of recalling more success for the descending performer and less success for the ascending and random performers. Neither this measure nor ratings of intelligence required, for their discriminating effects, that S himself solve the problems in parallel with the person being judged. In the final experiment S himself performed in an improving, deteriorating, or random but stable fashion, and estimated his future performance. Under these circumstances, the ascending performer was more confident about his ability than the descending or random performer, reversing the picture of the 1st 5 experiments. Results are discussed in terms of the salience of early information in attributing ability and the role of social comparison processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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What is the role of mood in intergroup discrimination? In 3 experiments, people in happy, sad, or neutral moods made reward allocation decisions and formed impressions about in-group and out-group members. When the personal relevance of the group was low, positive mood resulted in faster, more heuristic processing and greater intergroup discrimination. In contrast, when group relevance was high, it was negative mood that enhanced intergroup discrimination following slower, motivated processing, as predicted by the recent Affect Infusion Model (J. P. Forgas, 1995). Reaction time data and mediational analyses confirmed these processing differences. Results are interpreted as evidence for mood-induced selectivity in the way people process information about groups. The implications of the findings for real-life intergroup behavior and for contemporary affect-cognition theories are considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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How does mood affect the way we learn about, judge, and remember characteristics of other people? This study looked at the effects of mood on impression formation and person memory. Realistic person descriptions containing positive and negative details were presented to subjects experiencing a manipulated happy or sad mood. Next, impression-formation judgments were obtained, and subjects' recall and recognition of details of the characters were assessed. Results showed that subjects spent longer learning about mood-consistent details but were faster in making mood-consistent judgments. Overall, happy subjects formed more favorable impressions and made more positive judgments than did sad subjects. Both cued recall and recognition memory were superior for mood-consistent characteristics. Positive mood had a more pronounced effect on judgments and memory than did negative mood. These findings are discussed in terms of recent theories of mood effects on cognition, and the likely implications of the results for everyday person-perception judgments are considered.
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Evidence for the role of affective states in social judgments is reviewed, and a new integrative theory, the affect infusion model (AIM), is proposed as a comprehensive explanation of these effects. The AIM, based on a multiprocess approach to social judgments, identifies 4 alternative judgmental strategies: (a) direct access, (b) motivated, (c) heuristic, and (d) substantive processing. The model predicts that the degree of affect infusion into judgments varies along a processing continuum, such that judgments requiring heuristic or substantive processing are more likely to be infused by affect than are direct access or motivated judgments. The role of target, judge, and situational variables in recruiting high- or low-infusion judgmental strategies is considered, and empirical support for the model is reviewed. The relationship between the AIM and other affect-cognition theories is discussed, and implications for future research are outlined.
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Does temporary mood influence the occurrence of the fundamental attribution error (FAE)? Based on recent affect-cognition theorizing and research on attributions, 3 experiments predicted and found that negative moods decrease and positive moods increase the FAE, because of the information-processing consequences of these affective states. In Experiment 1, happy mood enhanced and sad mood reduced dispositional attributions based on coerced essays advocating unpopular opinions. Experiment 2 replicated this effect using an unobtrusive mood induction in a field study. Experiment 3 further confirmed these results and also showed that changes in the FAE were linked to mood-induced differences in processing style, as indicated by memory data and confirmed by mediational analyses. The results are discussed in terms of the cognitive processing strategies that mediate mood effects on attributions. The implications of the findings for everyday inferences and for contemporary theories of affect and cognition are considered.
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Does temporary mood influence the occurrence of the fundamental attribution error (FAE)? Based on recent affect-cognition theorizing and research on attributions, 3 experiments predicted and found that negative moods decrease and positive moods increase the FAE, because of the information-processing consequences of these affective states. In Experiment 1, happy mood enhanced and sad mood reduced dispositional attributions based on coerced essays advocating unpopular opinions. Experiment 2 replicated this effect using an unobtrusive mood induction in a field study. Experiment 3 further confirmed these results and also showed that changes in the FAE were linked to mood-induced differences in processing style, as indicated by memory data and confirmed by mediational analyses. The results are discussed in terms of the cognitive processing strategies that mediate mood effects on attributions. The implications of the findings for everyday inferences and for contemporary theories of affect and cognition are considered.
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What is the role of mood in the way people explain interpersonal conflicts in their close relationships? On the basis of the multiprocess Affect Infusion Model (AIM) of judgments (J. P. Forgas, 1992a, in press), 3 experiments found a nonobvious pattern of greater mood effects on attributions for serious rather than simple conflicts. In Experiment 1, sad Ss blamed themselves more for conflicts than did happy Ss. Experiment 2 found that in a field setting, sad persons attributed real-life conflicts more to internal, stable, and global causes and did so more for serious than for simple conflicts. Experiment 3 replicated these findings in the laboratory and also produced reaction time data showing that it was the longer processing recruited by more serious conflicts that accentuated these affect-priming effects, as predicted by the AIM. The cognitive mechanisms linking affect and judgments are discussed, and the role of moods in everyday explanations of conflict is considered.
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Describes experiments in which happy or sad moods were induced in Ss by hypnotic suggestion to investigate the influence of emotions on memory and thinking. Results show that (a) Ss exhibited mood-state-dependent memory in recall of word lists, personal experiences recorded in a daily diary, and childhood experiences; (b) Ss recalled a greater percentage of those experiences that were affectively congruent with the mood they were in during recall; (c) emotion powerfully influenced such cognitive processes as free associations, imaginative fantasies, social perceptions, and snap judgments about others' personalities; (d) when the feeling-tone of a narrative agreed with the reader's emotion, the salience and memorability of events in that narrative were increased. An associative network theory is proposed to account for these results. In this theory, an emotion serves as a memory unit that can enter into associations with coincident events. Activation of this emotion unit aids retrieval of events associated with it; it also primes emotional themata for use in free association, fantasies, and perceptual categorization. (54 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The experimental setting I will be discussing experiments in which normal volunteers, people like you or me, are induced to feel a mild emotion like happiness, sadness or anger for a brief time. We then look at how those feelings affect their memory or thinking. We make people happy, sad or angry by doing things like showing them happy or sad movies, playing happy or sad music, getting them to read or imagine happy or sad scenes, or arranging for them to succeed or fail at some task. The mood inductions are often subtle or mild, and their purpose is usually disguised. The memory or judgment tasks are then introduced as though they were a completely separate and unrelated study. We do it this way to prevent subjects from consciously biasing their responses according to their ideas about how emotion might relate to judgment. When I refer to happy or sad people in the following experiments, I will usually be referring to normal individuals (typically college students) who have been randomly assigned to experimental conditions in which they have experienced a happy or sad mood induction.
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How do we decide what another person is "really like"? How do we influence the impressions others form of us, and how do their reactions affect us in turn? In "Interpersonal Perception" one of the world's leading social psychologists explores these and other intriguing questions about the nature of social interaction. Drawing on nearly 40 years of person perception research, much of it his own, Edward E. Jones provides a unified framework for understanding the thought processes underlying interpersonal relations and illuminates the complex interplay of motive, cognitive inference, and behavior in our encounters with others. Illustrated throughout with examples drawn from daily life and from psychological experiments, and spiced with personal reflections, the book provides a remarkable synthesis of work in the field. Personal, provocative, illuminating, "Interpersonal Perception" should be of great interest to students, professionals, and serious general readers alike. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)(cover)
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Can good or bad mood induced by the weather influence people’s ability to correctly remember everyday scenes? In this unobtrusive field study, we predicted and found that weather-induced negative mood improved memory accuracy. Randomly selected shoppers on bright, sunny days (good mood) or on cloudy, rainy days (bad mood) saw 10 unusual objects in the check-out area of a suburban shop, and their recall and recognition memory for these objects was later tested. Shoppers in a negative mood showed better memory and higher discrimination ability. The cognitive mechanisms responsible for everyday mood effects on memory performance are discussed, and the implications of these findings for current affect/cognition theories and applied areas are considered.
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• As the title suggests, this book examines the psychology of interpersonal relations. In the context of this book, the term "interpersonal relations" denotes relations between a few, usually between two, people. How one person thinks and feels about another person, how he perceives him and what he does to him, what he expects him to do or think, how he reacts to the actions of the other--these are some of the phenomena that will be treated. Our concern will be with "surface" matters, the events that occur in everyday life on a conscious level, rather than with the unconscious processes studied by psychoanalysis in "depth" psychology. These intuitively understood and "obvious" human relations can, as we shall see, be just as challenging and psychologically significant as the deeper and stranger phenomena. The discussion will center on the person as the basic unit to be investigated. That is to say, the two-person group and its properties as a superindividual unit will not be the focus of attention. Of course, in dealing with the person as a member of a dyad, he cannot be described as a lone subject in an impersonal environment, but must be represented as standing in relation to and interacting with another person. The chapter topics included in this book include: Perceiving the Other Person; The Other Person as Perceiver; The Naive Analysis of Action; Desire and Pleasure; Environmental Effects; Sentiment; Ought and Value; Request and Command; Benefit and Harm; and Reaction to the Lot of the Other Person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) • As the title suggests, this book examines the psychology of interpersonal relations. In the context of this book, the term "interpersonal relations" denotes relations between a few, usually between two, people. How one person thinks and feels about another person, how he perceives him and what he does to him, what he expects him to do or think, how he reacts to the actions of the other--these are some of the phenomena that will be treated. Our concern will be with "surface" matters, the events that occur in everyday life on a conscious level, rather than with the unconscious processes studied by psychoanalysis in "depth" psychology. These intuitively understood and "obvious" human relations can, as we shall see, be just as challenging and psychologically significant as the deeper and stranger phenomena. The discussion will center on the person as the basic unit to be investigated. That is to say, the two-person group and its properties as a superindividual unit will not be the focus of attention. Of course, in dealing with the person as a member of a dyad, he cannot be described as a lone subject in an impersonal environment, but must be represented as standing in relation to and interacting with another person. The chapter topics included in this book include: Perceiving the Other Person; The Other Person as Perceiver; The Naive Analysis of Action; Desire and Pleasure; Environmental Effects; Sentiment; Ought and Value; Request and Command; Benefit and Harm; and Reaction to the Lot of the Other Person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Reports 2 experiments in which 25 and 44 undergraduates rated persons described by serially presented trait adjectives. In Exp. I affective inconsistency between traits was varied. The discounting hypothesis was not supported because a primacy effect was obtained that was independent of variation in intertrait consistency. This result conflicted with results reported by N. H. Anderson (see 43:5) who found recency with traits low in inconsistency. However, Anderson had Ss pronounce each trait, a novel response requirement. Exp. II tested the interpretation that the recency effect was due to the novel requirement. Ss rated persons described by sets of consistent or inconsistent adjectives, and Ss either pronounced or did not pronounce each adjective. Primacy was obtained without pronunciation, and recency was obtained with pronunciation. Variation in inconsistency had no effect. Results did not support discounting, but were consistent with the attention decrement hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Is there a difference between believing and merely understanding an idea? R. Descartes (e.g., 1641 [1984]) thought so. He considered the acceptance and rejection of an idea to be alternative outcomes of an effortful assessment process that occurs subsequent to the automatic comprehension of that idea. This article examined B. Spinoza's (1982) alternative suggestion that (1) the acceptance of an idea is part of the automatic comprehension of that idea and (2) the rejection of an idea occurs subsequent to, and more effortfully than, its acceptance. In this view, the mental representation of abstract ideas is quite similar to the mental representation of physical objects: People believe in the ideas they comprehend, as quickly and automatically as they believe in the objects they see. Research in social and cognitive psychology suggests that Spinoza's model may be a more accurate account of human belief than is that of Descartes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
What is the role of mood in the way people explain interpersonal conflicts in their close relationships? On the basis of the multiprocess Affect Infusion Model (AIM) of judgments (J. P. Forgas, 1992a, in press), 3 experiments found a nonobvious pattern of greater mood effects on attributions for serious rather than simple conflicts. In Experiment 1, sad Ss blamed themselves more for conflicts than did happy Ss. Experiment 2 found that in a field setting, sad persons attributed real-life conflicts more to internal, stable, and global causes and did so more for serious than for simple conflicts. Experiment 3 replicated these findings in the laboratory and also produced reaction time data showing that it was the longer processing recruited by more serious conflicts that accentuated these affect-priming effects, as predicted by the AIM. The cognitive mechanisms linking affect and judgments are discussed, and the role of moods in everyday explanations of conflict is considered.
Article
Does mood influence people’s tendency to accept observed facial expressions as genuine? Based on recent theories of affect and cognition, two experiments predicted and found that negative mood increased and positive mood decreased people’s skepticism about the genuineness of facial expressions. After a mood induction, participants viewed images of faces displaying (a) positive, neutral, and negative expressions (Exp. 1), or (b) displays of six specific emotions (Exp. 2). Judgments of genuineness, valence, and confidence ratings were collected. As predicted, positive affect increased, and negative affect decreased the perceived genuineness of facial expressions, and there was some evidence for affect-congruence in judgments. The relevance of these findings for everyday nonverbal communication and strategic interpersonal behavior are considered, and their implications for recent affect-cognition theories are discussed.
Article
Based on recent affect-cognition theories and research on social influence strategies, four experiments predicted and found that people in negative mood produced higher quality and more effective interpersonal persuasive messages than did people in positive mood. This effect was obtained for messages advocating both popular and unpopular positions (Experiments 1 and 2), and arguments produced in negative mood actually induced greater attitude change in naïve recipients (Experiment 3). Experiment 4 replicated these effects in an interactive situation, and mediational analyses showed that mood influenced processing style, resulting in the production of more concrete and thus more effective messages when in a negative mood. The role of negative affect in information processing and the production of interpersonal influence strategies in particular is discussed, and the implications of these findings for everyday interaction strategies, and for contemporary affect—cognition theorizing are considered.
Article
Are we more likely to believe or disbelieve another person depending on our mood state? Based on past research on interpersonal communication and recent work on affect and social cognition, we predicted and found that negative mood increased and positive mood decreased people’s skepticism and their ability to detect deception, consistent with the more externally focused, accommodative processing style promoted by negative affect. After a mood induction using positive, neutral or negative films, participants viewed deceptive or truthful interviews with individuals who denied committing a theft. Judgments of the targets’ guilt and their truthfulness were collected. As predicted, negative mood increased judges’ skepticism towards the targets, and improved their accuracy in detecting deceptive communications, while judges in a positive mood were more trusting and gullible. The relevance of these findings for everyday judgments of trust and the detection of deception are considered, and their implications for recent affect-cognition theories are discussed.
Article
Does mood influence the accuracy of eyewitness recollections, and people’s susceptibility to misleading information in particular? Based on recent affect-cognition theories and research on eyewitness memory, three experiments predicted and found that positive affect promoted, and negative affect inhibited the incorporation of misleading information into eyewitness memories. This effect was obtained for both positive and negative events (Experiment 1), and for recorded as well as real-life incidents (Experiment 2). Participants had no meta-cognitive awareness of these mood effects, and affect-control instructions were ineffective in preventing them (Experiment 3). The cognitive mechanisms responsible for mood effects on eyewitness memories are discussed, and the implications of these findings for everyday memories, forensic practice and for current affect/cognition theorizing are considered.
Article
Does mood influence our information search and decision strategies when choosing a partner? In Experiment 1 (N = 60), sad Ss preferred rewarding to competent partners and remembered information supporting that choice better. In Experiment 2 (N = 96), mood effects on information selectivity, decision speed, and processing strategy in partner choices were found. In Experiment 3 (N = 42), a computerized stimulus presentation revealed mood-induced differences in the latency, self-exposure, and eventual recall of interpersonal information. These results are interpreted as evidence for mood-induced selectivity in information search and decision strategies when making realistic partner choices. The implications of the findings for research on interpersonal relations and for contemporary affect-cognition theories are considered.
Article
This article proposes a differential sensitivity hypothesis, according to which central (i.e., relatively high in personal descriptiveness and importance) and peripheral (i.e., relatively low in personal descriptiveness and importance) self-conceptions are differentially influenced by mood: Peripheral self-conceptions are subject to a mood-congruency bias, whereas central self-conceptions are unaffected by mood. In 4 experiments, participants were first placed into a sad, neutral, or happy mood state through a guided imagery task and later completed behavior self-descriptiveness ratings, trait self-descriptiveness ratings, and trait self-descriptiveness judgmental latencies. Strong support for the differential sensitivity hypothesis was obtained. Peripheral self-conceptions were influenced by mood because they were less elaborated and consolidated and were held with lower certainty, thus increasing the likelihood for the occurrence of constructive, affect-infusing processes (J.P. Forgas, 1995a).
Mood as input: People have to interpret the motivational implications of their moods Happy and mindless, but sad and smart? The impact of affective states on analytic reasoning
  • L L Martin
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Towards understanding the relationship between feeling states and social behavior Cognitive social psychology (pp. 76−108) Affective causes and consequences of social information processing
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How mental systems believe The psychology of interpersonal relations
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Gilbert, D. T. (1991). How mental systems believe. American Psychologist, 46, 107−119. Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley.
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Mood effects on partner choice: Role of affect in social decisions
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