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Ability and personality correlates of general knowledge

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Abstract

The relationship of general knowledge (GK) with ability (IQ and abstract reasoning) and personality (Big Five traits and Typical Intellectual Engagement [TIE]) was investigated in a sample of 201 British university students. As predicted, GK was positively correlated with cognitive ability (more so with IQ [r=.46] than with abstract reasoning [r=.37]), TIE (r=.36) and Openness to Experience (r=.16), and negatively related to Neuroticism (r=−.18) and Extraversion (r=−.16). A total of 26% of GK variance was explained by measures of intelligence, though personality traits (particularly Neuroticism and Extraversion) showed incremental validity (5%) in the prediction of GK. Applied and theoretical implications are discussed.

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... Despite the interest in GK, including its relationship with intelligence in applied and educational settings (e.g., Vernon, 1950Vernon, , 1969, the importance of GK as a component of intelligence remains in dispute. Partly, this stems from the fact that researchers have not always used the same label to refer to the same concept (Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006). Thus, for example, some attempts to establish a hierarchy of mental ability refer to GK, but most refer to the concept of g c (Carroll, 1993;Cattell, 1967Cattell, , 1971Cattell, /1987, whereby g c is considered to be a broad mental ability resulting from the investment of fluid ability in particular educational or experiential experiences. ...
... Consequently, recent work on PPIK has suggested that individual differences in domain-specific knowledge and GK are more strongly predicted by g c than g f . Moreover, 'investment' personality traits, such as the 'big five' factor of openness to experience and typical intellectual engagement (TIE; a self-report trait that assesses an individual's approach to, interest in, and curiosity about aspects of knowledge), are associated with GK to the extent that these variables reflect the level of an individual's intellectual orientation Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2006;Rolfhus & Ackerman, 1996, 1999. ...
... This is in line with their view that intellectual competence is multi-determined by an array of ability and non-ability traits. Based on this model, and Chamorro-Premuzic et al. (2006) predicted, and found, a positive association between openness to experience and GK. The associations between other 'big five' factors and GK have been more variable, with reporting a positive association between conscientiousness and GK, and Chamorro-Premuzic et al. (2006) reporting a negative association between GK and neuroticism and extraversion. ...
Article
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The relationship between general knowledge (GK) and cognitive ability (IQ and abstract reasoning), learning approaches, and personality (‘big five’ traits and typical intellectual engagement) was investigated in a sample of 101 British undergraduates. As predicted, GK was positively correlated with cognitive ability (more so with IQ than with abstract reasoning), typical intellectual engagement, and openness to experience. A hierarchical regression showed that IQ was the strongest predictor of GK, explaining 26% of GK variance. However, openness (15%) added incremental validity to the variance explained. These results are discussed in relation to previous findings in the field of GK and the personality–intelligence interface.
... Typical Intellectual Engagement (TIE) describes a person's engagement in intellectual activity and his or her interest in and need for a profound understanding of complex issues. Individuals with high engagement receive better grades, score significantly higher on standardized ability tests (Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006). Javadi, Mohammadi, and Akbari (2017) argued that the differences in students' thinking process and intelligence influence their learning process. ...
... Based on Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, and Ackerman (2006), Typical Intellectual Engagement (TIE) is correlated with students' academic performance and their marks in different tests. Also, Schroeders, Schipolowski and Böhme (2015) issued that TIE has been proved to be correlated with students' scholastic and academic performance. ...
... As aforementioned by some researchers (Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006;Schroeders, Schipolowski & Böhme, 2015), Typical Intellectual Engagement (TIE) is correlated with students' academic assessment and their marks in different tests. This provides a rational to show that Typical Intellectual Engagement (TIE) and preference for assessment are correlated with each other. ...
Article
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One of the most significant issues in the process of teaching and learning is to consider students' individual differences. The aim of this study was to investigate the interrelationships among Iranian EFL Learners' Typical Intellectual Engagement, Learning Style and Preference for Assessment Methods. The sample included 200 English learners majoring in TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) from 3 different universities in Mashhad, Iran. To this end, three questionnaires; Typical Intellectual Engagement questionnaire, learning style inventory, and preference for assessment methods questionnaire were administered. The interrelationships among all variables were examined using path analysis. The model was fitted after some modifications. Findings revealed that Typical Intellectual Engagement was a positive and significant predictor of all four sub-factors of EFL learners' learning styles except Activist. Also, all four sub-factors of EFL learners' learning styles except pragmatist were significant predictors of preference for assessment methods. Finally, the fit model showed that Typical Intellectual Engagement was a positive significant predictor of preferred assessment methods (r = .24, .22, p < .05). This study has several implications for teachers, learners, and syllabus designers.
... Personality dimensions beyond conscientiousness that are salient to specific job roles have also been shown to substantially relate to performance (Vinchur et al., 1998). Further, a pervasive finding in selection research is that general mental ability (GMA) test scores have small correlations with measures of personality (e.g., Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997;Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006;Ones, Viswesvaran, & Schmidt, 1993;Schmidt & Hunter, 1998). Despite the lack of manifest correlation between personality and GMA, GMA could impact the measurement of personality and other noncognitive constructs by influencing test takers' ability to understand and interpret items. ...
... Like E. F. Stone et al., we believe that for persons of low ability, the cognitively laden response process of item interpretation, memory retrieval, and judgment may either fundamentally differ from that of high ability persons or may be sufficiently frustrating to discourage respondents. These results were interesting in light of pervasive findings that most personality measures do not correlate with GMA (Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2006;Schmidt & Hunter, 1998). Despite this lack of correlation, results point to a relationship between GMA and personality measurement. ...
... Though the constructs of GMA and personality may be relatively independent (Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2006;Schmidt & Hunter, 1998), it is clear that the measurement of these constructs is not. This study provides further support for E. F. Stone et al.'s (1990) theory that persons of different GMA may approach the response process differently. ...
Article
Despite pervasive evidence that general mental ability and personality are unrelated, we investigated whether general mental ability may affect the response process associated with personality measurement. Study 1 examined a large sample of job applicant responses to four personality scales for differential functioning across groups of differing general mental ability. While results indicated that personality items differentially function across highly disparate general mental ability groups, there was little evidence of differential functioning across groups with similar levels of general mental ability. Study 2 replicated these findings in a different sample, using a different measure of general mental ability. We posit that observed differences in the psychometric properties of these personality scales are likely due to the information processing capabilities of the respondents. Additionally, we describe how differential functioning analyses can be used during scale development as a method of identifying items that are not appropriate for all intended respondents. In so doing, we demonstrate procedures for examining other construct-measurement interactions in which respondents’ standings on a specific construct could influence their interpretation of and response to items assessing other constructs.
... Overall, it could be stated that the educational level achieved plays a role in the quality of life [5] and well-being [6] of an individual. Literature on psychological correlates of AP in post-secondary education indicates that there is a well-established relationship between intellectual abilities and AP [7,8,9], that individual differences in personality can explain additional variance in AP [10,11,8], and that general knowledge (GK) might be a valuable predictor of AP as well [12,13]. Besides psychological individual differences, high-school success has traditionally been used in research to predict AP [14][15][16], mostly operationalized as gradepoint average (GPA) or as a result in standardized tests (such as SAT in the USA). ...
... It is not a clear measure of an individual's cognitive abilities, and it is not explicitly related to a formal education. The theoretical background of this construct may be inconclusive, since some researchers consider GK a first-order factor of crystallized intelligence [12], while others consider it a first-order factor of semantic memory [62]. GK is positively correlated with general intelligence [63], and it could indicate how an individual uses mental abilities. ...
... Furthermore, Furnham, Monsen and Ahmetoglu [13] showed that a GK measure was in weak positive relation with English and Maths grades. Since it has been shown that GK relates to both intellectual abilities and personality traits [12], it can be assumed that it may serve as a predictor of AP as well. ...
Article
Full-text available
Psychological correlates of academic performance have always been of high relevance to psychological research. The relation between psychometric intelligence and academic performance is one of the most consistent and well-established findings in psychology. It is hypothesized that intelligence puts a limit on what an individual can learn or achieve. Moreover, a growing body of literature indicates a relationship between personality traits and academic performance. This relationship helps us to better understand how an individual will learn or achieve their goals. The aim of this study is to further investigate the relationship between psychological correlates of academic performance by exploring the potentially moderating role of prior education. The participants in this study differed in the type of high school they attended. They went either to gymnasium, a general education type of high school that prepares students specifically for university studies, or to vocational school, which prepares students both for the labour market and for further studies. In this study, we used archival data of psychological testing during career guidance in the final year of high school, and information about the university graduation of those who received guidance. The psychological measures included intelligence, personality and general knowledge. The results show that gymnasium students had greater chances of performing well at university, and that this relationship exceeds the contribution of intelligence and personality traits to university graduation. Moreover, psychological measures did not interact with type of high school, which indicates that students from different school types do not profit from certain individual characteristics.
... Typical Intellectual Engagement is conceptually located among personality and intelligence and is significantly related to knowledge acquisition and academic achievement as a proxy for knowledge (Goff & Ackerman, 1992;Rolfhus & Ackerman, 1999). As outlined above, Typical Intellectual Engagement is thought to influence the direction and the extent of knowledge acquisition and, hence, cognitive development in general (e.g., Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006a). It has also been outlined that, although postulated as a rather stable person characteristic (Goff & Ackerman, 1992), Typical Intellectual Engagement is prone to experiences and motivational influences (e.g., Ackerman et al., 1995;Kanfer, 1990 or less in (cognitive) activities to maintain a desired level of functioning depend on the ability self-evaluation. ...
... Intellectual Engagement itself has not been addressed so far. Additionally, most existing research has been done on samples of undergraduates (e.g., Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2006b;2006a), whereas Typical Intellectual Engagement in old has not been addressed yet (for an exception see . Hence, the aim of the present study was to study the structure of Typical Intellectual Engagement in young and old adults. ...
Article
The four studies summarized in the present thesis were conducted within the overarching framework of asking how and by which means individuals manage and influence their own cognitive development. Two aspects were addressed specifically: First, the development of individual differences in the extent to which individuals deliberately engage in cognitive activities and, hence, influence their own cognitive performance. Second, the development of individual differences in the metacognitive skill of subjectively estimating one's own cognitive performance and its potential influence on cognitive development. Following the elaboration of the theoretical background in chapter 1, in chapter 2, the following questions were addressed in detail: Are there age differences between young and old adults in Typical Intellectual Engagement? Are presumptive differences related to known age differences in related constructs? (Study 1). How does Typical Intellectual Engagement develop across five years in old age? Are there interindividual differences in the development of Typical Intellectual Engagement? (Study 2). Chapter 3 examines the accuracy of metacognitive subjective memory complaints in populations of individuals for whom the management of their lowered cognitive resources may be decisive for their everyday functioning (Study 3). In these populations of memory clinic outpatients the accuracy of complaints may be decisive to trigger extra-effort to ensure normal everyday functioning, because formerly highly automatized processes might then need deliberate effort and resource allocation. Due to that, the processes should be more salient in groups of outpatients and might, thus, be better assessable. In Study 4 the question whether the relation between subjective and objective cognitive performance is assessed more adequately by investigating commonalities in change was addressed. The empirical evidence of Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate substantial interindividual differences in Typical Intellectual Engagement that are not captured by ability measures or potentially related personality trait measures. Studies 3 and 4 reveal that cognitive complaints are more strongly related to specific cognitive domains than to global cognitive measures. Also, the relation between the constructs is higher when taking a change- oriented approach. However, overall, it remains moderate. In chapter 4, all findings are integrated in an overall discussion. Shortcomings of the present studies and theoretical implications are addressed. Suggestions for future research directions focusing on the functional relevance of cognitive abilities, metacognitve skills and intellectual engagement are made.
... Therefore, TIE characterizes the attraction/aversion that an intellectually demanding task exerts on an individual. Individuals with high engagement receive better grades, score significantly higher on standardized ability tests (Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006b;Wilhelm, Schulze, Schmiedek, & Süß, 2003), and possess better general knowledge (Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006a). ...
... The findings for the student sample at hand were in line with previous studies on university students (e.g., Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2006a, 2006bWilhelm et al., 2003). For example, Powell and Nettelbeck (2014) reported that TIE explained only 1.8% of the individual differences in academic achievement over and above fluid intelligence at the time of college admission. ...
... However, some findings have been suggested that personality traits influence the measurement of GCA (Moutafi et al., 2003;Furnham et al., 2005;Premuzic et al., 2006). In fact, the relationship between personality traits and GCA is controversial. ...
... In fact, the relationship between personality traits and GCA is controversial. While some researchers are suggesting that these constructs are different from each other (Eysenck, 1994;De Fruyt et.al., 2006), some researchers are asserting that there is a significant relationship between big five t al., 2003;Furnham et al., 2005;Wolf & Ackerman, 2005;Premuzic et al., 2006). Unlike these personality traits Type-A personality (TAP) trait, which may be related to CGA, has not been investigated yet. ...
Article
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Objectively and impartially application of cognitive ability measurements that used in personnel selection of organizations, is a vital issue for providing needed appropriate human resources. But, some findings have been suggested that personality traits influence the measurement of cognitive abilities. In the current study the relationship between general cognitive ability (GCA) and Type A personality (TAP) was investigated with the data collected from 271 university students. The assessment instruments used were: Type-A Behavior Scale and Raven Standard Progressive Matrices Test. The findings revealed that, while there was no relationship between GCA, testing time and TAP in the general sample and Type A group, testing time and age were predictors of the GCA test performance in the Type B group. Key Words: General cognitive ability, intelligence, Type A personality, testing time.
... TIE has also displayed a strong relationship with various aspects of academic performance, such as course evaluations (i.e., grades; Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006a ;Von Stumm, Hell, & Chamorro-Premuzi, 2011 ), math and English certifi cation tests , domain-specifi c knowledge and achievement (e.g., biology, humanities, civics, etc.; Ackerman et al., 2001 ;Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006b ), and general knowledge (Ackerman et al., 2001 ;Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2006a ;Furnham et al., 2009 ;Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997 ). TIE has also shown consistent incremental validit y above general measures of intelligence (i.e., IQ) and other personality measures in predicting academic outcomes (Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2006b ). ...
... TIE has also displayed a strong relationship with various aspects of academic performance, such as course evaluations (i.e., grades; Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006a ;Von Stumm, Hell, & Chamorro-Premuzi, 2011 ), math and English certifi cation tests , domain-specifi c knowledge and achievement (e.g., biology, humanities, civics, etc.; Ackerman et al., 2001 ;Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006b ), and general knowledge (Ackerman et al., 2001 ;Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2006a ;Furnham et al., 2009 ;Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997 ). TIE has also shown consistent incremental validit y above general measures of intelligence (i.e., IQ) and other personality measures in predicting academic outcomes (Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2006b ). ...
Chapter
Need for cognition is a psychological construct that refers to an individual’s desire for, and enjoyment of, intellectually engaging activities. As such, a substantial amount of research has shed light on how need for cognition is associated with numerous positive outcomes, such as learning and academic success, and also how it is associated to theoretically related constructs found in the literature (e.g., intellectual engagement, epistemic curiosity). The current chapter begins by providing an overview of the historical background and development of need for cognition. The subsequent section provides a review of the empirical work in psychology and education that has since illuminated the differences, similarities, and relationships between this construct and others that share a similar theoretical orientation. We then describe the different methods that need for cognition is assessed and briefly discuss their various psychometric properties. Finally, the chapter closes with a discussion of how need for cognition has been shown to be related to desirable learning and educational outcomes and how this trait may be cultivated in order to promote these beneficial and positive effects. In addition, some insights for future research are provided.
... Consistent with this reasoning, IE is typically more closely related to crystallized as compared to fluid cognitive ability. For example, Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, and Ackerman (2006a) found that IE correlated with a measure of general knowledge (r = .36) but not with a reasoning test (r = .00). ...
... Although IE predicted initial levels of crystallized intelligence, our findings revealed no evidence that IE was related to subsequent changes therein. Consistent with previous research (Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997;Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2006a), IE was unrelated to levels of and changes in fluid intelligence. Taken together, these findings call into question that IE is a major causal factor driving knowledge acquisition in adolescence. ...
Article
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Intellectual engagement (IE) refers to enjoyment of intellectual activities and is proposed as causal for knowledge acquisition. The role of IE for cognitive development was examined utilizing 2-year longitudinal data from 112 ninth graders (average baseline age: 14.7?years). Higher baseline IE predicted higher baseline crystallized ability but not changes therein, and was not associated with fluid ability. Furthermore, IE predicted change in school grades in language but not in mathematics grades or in standardized tests. These findings suggest that IE is not a major predictor of knowledge acquisition in adolescence, where degree of self-determination in intellectual behaviors may be relatively limited. Open questions for future research are addressed, including reciprocal longitudinal associations between IE and academic and cognitive development.
... Findings regarding the relationships between Extraversion and cognitive abilities are mixed: although Extraversion is beneficial to cognitive tasks that require speed of processing, it is harmful to tasks that require reasoning and verbal abilities (Graham & Lachman, 2014). It was argued that highly extraverted individuals are not particularly interested in intellectual activities and derive their stimulation from the social environment (Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006). ...
... In a similar manner, despite the lack of main effect of Extraversion on episodic memory, those who were high in Extraversion, also managed to benefit most from contact, whereas social contact had no effect for those who were low on Extraversion. Theory suggests that extraverts use their social environment to gain cognitive stimulation (Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2006;Eysenck, 1967). Social contact provides extraverts the needed cognitive stimulation, and the results of this study suggest that indeed they manage to use it to benefit their cognitive functioning. ...
Article
Objectives: Social contact has been shown to be positively associated with cognitive functioning. It is unclear, however, whether all individuals can equally benefit from social contact with regard to their cognitive functioning. The goal of this study was to examine whether the beneficial effects of social contact are affected by individual differences in personality. Method: We examined the Big Five personality traits as moderators of the associations between social contact and episodic memory and executive functioning using the second wave of the Midlife in the U.S. study (N = 3,524, M(age) = 55.8). Results: High levels of Extraversion and low levels of Openness to Experience strengthened the association between social contact and memory and executive functioning. High levels of Neuroticism and Agreeableness weakened the association of social contact with memory but not with executive functioning. The results are consistent across adulthood. Discussion: Personality modifies the social contact–cognition association. Whereas extraverts may need social contact for cognitive stimulation, those who are high on Openness gain their stimulations elsewhere. The highly neurotic might experience contact as stressful and hence as less beneficial. Emotional rather than cognitive motivation might be the reason that the highly agreeable benefit less from social contact with regard to their cognitive functioning.
... Openness to Experience (sometimes labeled Intellect; Saucier, 1994) is one of the Big Five personality traits and describes the domain-general disposition to be intellectually curious and willing to learn new things, to be creative, and to seek novelty (Costa & McCrae, 1992). SHOULD STUDENTS BE SMART, CURIOUS, OR BOTH? 8 Individuals high in Openness are more likely to self-select themselves into a variety of learning opportunities and use more in-depth learning strategies, both of which helps them to acquire new knowledge and skills more quickly (Ashton et al., 2000;Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006;Ziegler, et al., 2012;Zhang & Ziegler, 2018). Meta-analyses have estimated the average correlation between Openness and measures of g c at r  .30 ...
... In other words, it is not that Openness had no associations with the outcomes-it simply had no incremental associations over g f and interests. This dovetails with several other studies (Ziegler et al., 2012;Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2006). Third, and most important, we cast new light on the interplay between g f and intellectual investment traits by testing interactions effects between g f and both domain-general and domainspecific intellectual investment traits in predicting baseline levels and changes in reading and mathematical competence. ...
Article
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Developmental theories of intelligence in the tradition of Cattell's investment theory posit that gains in crystallized intelligence (g c) depend mainly on fluid intelligence (g f) but also on a range of so-called intellectual investment traits, such as Openness to Experience and interest in a subject area. However, the relative predictive power of, and the precise nature of the interplay between, g f and different intellectual investment traits remains incompletely understood. In this study, we use large-scale, multi-wave data on secondary school students from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS; N = 4,646) to investigate how g f , Openness, and subject-specific interest relate to baseline levels and change over two years in g c in two domains, reading and math. Results of latent-variable models indicate that g f and interest, and to a lesser extent, Openness, predict higher initial levels and stronger gains over two years in reading competence and mathematical competence. Moreover, results yield strong support for the notion that g f interacts synergistically with interest in reading and math in producing (gains in) reading competence and mathematical competence. In other words, g f and interest cross-fertilize each other, with students who have both high g f and high interest showing the highest rate of skill and knowledge acquisition. Our findings contribute to developmental theories of intelligence by providing further support for the claim that g f and intellectual investment traits are both essential for the development of g c-and by providing evidence that the interplay between g c and investment traits is interactive and synergistic in nature.
... However, the "appearance" of the relationship between intelligence and personality is still unclear. Numerous studies try to contribute to a deeper understanding of their assumed interdependence (Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997;Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004, 2006, 2008Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006;Moutafi, Furnham, & Paltiel, 2005;Reeve, Meyer, & Bonaccio, 2006). Von Stumm, Chamorro-Premuzic, and Ackerman (2011, p. 218) as well as Reeve et al. (2006) categorize the related and involved theoretical and empirical research approaches into three perspectives. ...
Article
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The aim of the present study is to investigate thinking styles at the interface between personality traits andintelligence. A total of 266 students in Germany and Austria completed the Thinking Styles Inventory forGerman-Speaking Samples (TSI-GER), the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and the Intelligence-StructureTest 2000 R (I-S-T 2000 R). Structural equation modelling was applied to investigate whether thinking stylesmediate the relationship between personality traits and intelligence. The results indicate that styles do not work as aninterface between personality and intelligence, which suggests that styles represent a “stand-alone” learningprerequisite.
... Agreeableness and conscientiousness were associated with knowledge sharing, and conscientiousness was associated with knowledge acquisition (Gupta, 2008). Neuroticism and extraversion were negatively, and openness was positively correlated with general knowledge (Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006;Rolfhus & Ackerman, 1999). However, McEachern and Warnaby (2008) showed that openness to experience was negatively associated with knowledge about value-based labeled meats. ...
Article
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Several studies have investigated the associations between personality traits and consumer behavior, but little attention has been paid to the role of personality traits in the acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food products or knowledge concerning the application of GM technologies. We used a large Norwegian survey to investigate the associations between personality traits, knowledge about GM use in agriculture, attitudes, and willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid GM foods. Using a random effect interval regression model, we found premiums between 19% and 23% to avoid GM soybean oil, GM-fed salmon, and GM salmon. Neuroticism was associated with increased acceptance of GM soybean oil. Conscientiousness was associated with increased acceptance of GM-fed and GM salmon, and agreeableness was associated with increased aversion against these products. Conscientiousness and agreeableness were also associated with knowledge. Agreeable respondents were less likely to think that genetic modification was applied in Norwegian agriculture, and conscientious respondents were more likely to wrongly think so. Attitudes towards naturalness of foods were strongly correlated with increased WTP to avoid GM foods. Current policy restrictions concerning the use of GM technologies are likely to affect the perceived safety of GM foods. Information and more liberal regulations may change attitudes towards GM foods and reduce the resistance against GM technologies over time.
... People systematically differi nt heir interestsa nd engagement in intellectual activities (Ackerman, 1997, Ackerman &Heggestad, 1997.The dimensions variously labelled as 'openness' or 'typical intellectual engagement' reflect the cognitive activitiesp eople prefer to do rather than what theycan do. In addition, although,general knowledgeisa useful marker of ability, there are also independent contributions of such non-cognitive traits as openness, extraversion, and neuroticism (Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006). ...
... Associations between personality and intelligence have been investigated for at least 100 years (Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997;Webb, 1915;Wechsler, 1950). Generally, socially desirable personality factors, such as Conscientiousness and Openness, are associated with higher cognitive performance, whereas traits such as Neuroticism and Psychoticism are negatively associated with intelligence (Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997;Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006;Schaie, Willis, & Caskie, 2004). However, these associations are generally quite weak and may change over time, becoming weaker in older age (Baker & Bichsel, 2006;Meier, Perrig-Chiello, & Perrig, 2002). ...
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More than 450 beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) logs, 10 to 20 cm in diameter and 30 to 40 cm long, were cut from freshly felled trees and placed upright 1 m apart with their bases buried up to 10 cm deep in the ground in a plot of about 600 m2 in a mixed deciduous woodland in the Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire, UK. Fungal colonization via the aerial and buried cut surfaces was studied – in some cases following inoculation of basidiospores – using a combination of direct and indirect techniques. A wide variety of ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and fungi imperfecti were identified, by direct observation or following direct incubation of wood samples, from the vicinity of the aerial cut surface within the first six months after cutting. Some such as Coriolus versicolor (L. ex Fr.) Quél. subsequently increased in occurrence, whereas others, including Chondrostereum purpureum (Fr.) Pouz. declined. Isolation onto malt agar from thin sections of wood revealed the presence of some fungi, notably a Fusarium sp., not detected by direct means. In addition, homokaryons of the basidiomycetes Bjerkandera adusta (Willd, ex Fr.) Karst. and C. versicolor were isolated from near the aerial cut surface up to two years after cutting, and, lower down, mostly up until six months after cutting (thereafter heterokaryons predominated). Moreover, evidence was obtained that small volumes of discoloured, but not strongly decayed wood, sometimes contained large numbers of mutually antagonistic individuals (up to 30 per cm3) of the decay species B. adusta, C. versicolor and Stereum hirsutum (Willd. ex Fr.) S. F. Gray. Vertical penetration from the aerial cut surface showed a marked lag phase, such that for the first six weeks after cutting, overt colonization was restricted to about 3 mm depth. Thereafter the depth occupied increased rapidly.
... Few relations have been reported between Conscientiousness and either episodic memory or speed (e.g., Booth et al., 2006;Hultsch, Hertzog, Small, & Dixon, 1999;Soubelet & Salthouse, 2011). Additionally, there have been several reports of a negative relation between Conscientiousness and fluid ability (e.g., Chamorro-Premuzic & Arteche, 2008;Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006;Moutafi, Furnham, & Crump, 2003Moutafi, Furnham, & Paltiel, 2004; see however Soubelet & Salthouse, 2011) and evidence for a negative relation between Conscientiousness and measures of short-term/working memory (Pearman, 2009). People who score higher on Conscientiousness questionnaires have been shown to score lower on measures of the g factor and abstract reasoning, and possibly on measures of short-term/working memory. ...
Article
Increasing age has been found to correlate with a decrease in many cognitive abilities and an increase in the personality trait of Conscientiousness. The first goal of this study was to examine whether an age-related decline in cognitive abilities, in particular Fluid ability, accounts for the age-related increase in Conscientiousness. The second goal was to investigate whether the role of cognitive abilities in the relation between age and Conscientiousness is similar among people of different levels of education.Our results support the conclusion that the relation between age and Conscientiousness is mediated by fluid ability and working memory abilities, and that these effects are stronger in people with lower levels of education.Altogether, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that age differences in characteristics such as persistence, self-motivation and dutifulness may help compensate for age differences in cognition.
... negatively correlated with general intelligence (Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006), extraverts tend to code information differently (Rusting, 1999;Szalma & Hancock, 2005), and they make different predictions about the future (Zelenski & Larsen, 2002). Therefore, because extraverts are responsible in large part for the Knobe effect, we have good reason to think that extraverts have a different concept of intentional action from non-extraverts. ...
Article
A large portion of philosophy done in the Western analytic tradition attempts to provide conceptual analyses which are tested by examples that elicit intuitions. These intuitions are, in turn, used as evidence either for or against a given analysis. In recent years, there has been much discussion of the uses of intuitions from empirically minded philosophers and psychologists. The basic strategy is to discover empirically how “normal” folks think about certain topics in philosophy. This application of folk intuitions to philosophy branches into roughly two basic approaches. The first is an attempt to show that in given domains, folk intuitions are not very reliable sources of evidence; hence, we have good reason to think that philosophers' intuitions are also not reliable sources of evidence in that domain. The second approach attempts to determine what folk concepts are. Once folk concepts are analyzed, they are then argued to be relevant to philosophical debates. My guiding question for this dissertation is the following one: Why should philosophers care about folk intuitions? One answer is that we should want some philosophical analyses to be grounded in everyday concepts. I argue that there are presently no adequate a priori arguments for the reliability of philosophical intuitions in some philosophically relevant areas. Whether intuitions are reliable enough to ground philosophical analyses is an empirical question. I review four domains where ordinary concepts have been argued to ground philosophical theorizing: (1) epistemology, (2) ethics, (3) free will, and (4) action theory. I argue that the available evidence suggests that we should be skeptical of intuitions in philosophy—but that skepticism does not entail radical skepticism. That is, the empirical studies reveal a wide variety of results which on the surface indicate that intuitions are not reliable (e.g., order effects or framing effects). However, I argue that these seeming instabilities are actually the results of stable differences in different groups of people. Hence, I argue that intuitions are stable in a surprising way—that different groups of people have stable intuitions. This intuition stability, while not the kind of monolithic stability many philosophers might desire, is argued to be sufficient to ground philosophical analyses in these domains.
... Another important aspect is that personality characteristics might influence diagnostic decision-making, as previous studies have shown some relationships between cognition and personality traits. For example, neuroticism was linked to lower performance across various domains including information processing, pattern analysis and memory; and extraversion was shown to be related with creativity, speed, long-term memory, but was negatively associated with reasoning [17][18][19]. Therefore, personality characteristics like neuroticism or extraversion might influence the way how GPs deal with uncertainty. ...
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Background: Diagnostic reasoning in primary care setting where presented problems and patients are mostly unselected appears as a complex process. The aim was to develop a questionnaire to describe how general practitioners (GPs) deal with uncertainty to gain more insight into the decisional process. The association of personality traits with medical decision making was investigated additionally. Methods: Raw items were identified by literature research and focus group. Items were improved by interviewing ten GPs with thinking-aloud-method. A personal case vignette related to a complex and uncertainty situation was introduced. The final questionnaire was administered to 228 GPs in Germany. Factorial validity was calculated with explorative and confirmatory factor analysis. The results of the Communicating and Dealing with Uncertainty (CoDU)-questionnaire were compared with the scales of the 'Physician Reaction to Uncertainty' (PRU) questionnaire and with the personality traits which were determined with the Big Five Inventory (BFI-K). Results: The items could be assigned to four scales with varying internal consistency, namely 'communicating uncertainty' (Cronbach alpha 0.79), 'diagnostic action' (0.60), 'intuition' (0.39) and 'extended social anamnesis' (0.69). Neuroticism was positively associated with all PRU scales 'anxiety due to uncertainty' (Pearson correlation 0.487), 'concerns about bad outcomes' (0.488), 'reluctance to disclose uncertainty to patients' (0.287), 'reluctance to disclose mistakes to physicians' (0.212) and negatively associated with the CoDU scale 'communicating uncertainty' (-0.242) (p<0.01 for all). 'Extraversion' (0.146; p<0.05), 'agreeableness' (0.145, p<0.05), 'conscientiousness' (0.168, p<0.05) and 'openness to experience' (0.186, p<0.01) were significantly positively associated with 'communicating uncertainty'. 'Extraversion' (0.162), 'consciousness' (0.158) and 'openness to experience' (0.155) were associated with 'extended social anamnesis' (p<0.05). Conclusion: The questionnaire allowed describing the diagnostic decision making process of general practitioners in complex situations. Personality traits are associated with diagnostic reasoning and communication with patients, which might be important for medical education and quality improvement purposes.
... Irwing et al. [9] provided evidence that the 19 domains conform to a hierarchical second-order factor model, wherein six first-order factors (Current Affairs, Fashion, Family, Physical Health, Arts, and Science) load on the second-order factor general knowledge and account for the interrelations between the lower-order domains. Short forms, translations, and variants of the GKT were used in a number of further studies [10,[12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. ...
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Research from various countries consistently reported an advantage of boys over girls in general knowledge and was also suggestive of some overall trends regarding specific domains of general knowledge that were speculated to stem from biologically differentiated interests. However, results were heterogeneous and, as of yet, had not been evaluated meta-analytically. Moreover, previous research drew on overly homogeneous high-school or undergraduate samples whose representativeness appears problematic; mostly, likely moderators, such as school type, student age or parental education, were also not directly investigated or controlled for. We provide a meta-analytical aggregation of available results regarding sex differences in general knowledge and present new data, investigating the psychometric properties of the General Knowledge Test (GKT), on which previous research primarily relied, and explored sex differences in a large and heterogeneous Austrian high-school student sample (N = 1088). The aggregated sex effect in general knowledge was of medium size in previous research, but differences in specific domains were heterogeneous across countries and only modest at best. Large sex differences in our data could be explained to a large part by school-related moderators (school type, school, student age, parental education) and selection processes. Boys had a remaining advantage over girls that was only small in size and that was consistent with the magnitude of sex differences in general intelligence. Analysis of the GKT yielded no evidence of biologically differentiated interests, but of a specific interest in the humanities among girls. In conclusion, previous research likely overestimated sex differences in general knowledge.
... Openness as a trait is also associated with high intelligence, wide knowledge, and a fluid style of consciousness that allows the making of novel associations between remotely connected ideas (e.g., Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, and Ackerman, 2006;Moutafi, Furnham, and Crump, 2006;Mussell, 2010). Thus, instead of a direct relation between synaesthesia and creativity, more appropriate is the kind of connection in which synaesthesia, absorption, and creativity are three types of latent and higher-order variablesthat is, openness to unusual experiences. ...
Book
Synaesthesia is a fascinating cognitive phenomenon where one type of stimulation evokes the sensation of another. For example, synaesthetes might perceive colours when listening to music, or tastes in the mouth when reading words. This book provides an insight into the idiosyncratic nature of synaesthesia by exploring its relationships with other dimensions of individual differences. Many characteristics of linguistic-colour synaesthetes are covered including personality, temperament, intelligence, creativity, emotionality, attention, memory, imagination, colour perception, body lateralization and gender. Aleksandra Rogowska proposes that linguistic-colour synaesthesia can be considered as an abstract form of a continuous variable in the broader context of cross- and intra-modal associations. There has been a resurgence of interest in synaesthesia and this book will appeal to students and scientists of psychology, cognitive science and social science, and to those who are fascinated by unusual states of mind.
... Building on Cattell's work, and on the work of earlier scholars who suggested that non-cognitive traits are involved in the development of intelligence (Thorndike et al., 1926;Wechsler, 1939;Vernon, 2014Vernon, /1969). Ackerman and his coauthors (Ackerman, 1996(Ackerman, , 2007Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2006;Von Stumm and Ackerman, 2013;von Stumm and Ackerman, 2014) suggested that investment traits, which they defined as "stable individual differences in the tendency to seek out, engage in, enjoy, and continuously pursue opportunities for effortful cognitive activity" (von Stumm et al., 2011, p. 225) underlie the potency by which fluid intelligence is invested in the formation of crystalized intelligence. Nevertheless, although this conceptualization of Cattell's investment theory has been the subject of many studies in the literature, most of them were based on a model in which the effects of fluid intelligence and investment characteristics on crystalized intelligence are additive (e.g., Von Stumm and Ackerman, 2013 for a review). ...
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Most of the studies of the effects of fluid intelligence and non-cognitive characteristics on crystalized intelligence examined additive effects. The results of the few studies that examined interactive effects are inconsistent. Some find a positive (facilitating) interaction and some find a negative (compensatory) interaction. We improve on these previous studies by examining non-cognitive characteristics that were not studied before and by using a very large representative sample ( n = 11,266). We find a positive/facilitating interaction. We discuss the implication of these results to theories about the joint effect of fluid intelligence and non-cognitive characteristics on crystalized intelligence.
... On the other hand, according to methodological criteria, the studies of individual differences in intelligence and personality have been historically developed separately as independent domains, without an integrative research line being formed for their study, despite the historical contributions of R.B. Cattell, J.P. Guilford and H.J. Eysenck (DeYoung, 2011). There have been recent attempts at the analysis of the joint forecast of intelligence and personality (Ackerman & Beier, 2003;Austin et al., 2002), verifying that the combination of cognitive and non-cognitive measures can increase the validity in explaining part of the variance in academic or job performance that is not adequately explained by the best measures of intelligence or personality considered separately (Barrick & Mount, 2000;Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006;Roberts, Kuncel, Shiner, Caspi, & Goldberg, 2007;Schmidt & Hunter, 2000). ...
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The underwater environment is an extreme environment that requires a process of human adaptation with specific psychophysiological demands to ensure survival and productive activity. From the standpoint of existing models of intelligence, personality and performance, in this explanatory study we have analyzed the contribution of individual differences in explaining the adaptation of military personnel in a stressful environment. Structural equation analysis was employed to verify a model representing the direct effects of psychological variables on individual adaptation to an adverse environment, and we have been able to confirm, during basic military diving courses, the structural relationships among these variables and their ability to predict a third of the variance of a criterion that has been studied very little to date. In this way, we have confirmed in a sample of professionals (N = 575) the direct relationship of emotional adjustment, conscientiousness and general mental ability with underwater adaptation, as well as the inverse relationship of emotional reactivity. These constructs are the psychological basis for working under water, contributing to an improved adaptation to this environment and promoting risk prevention and safety in diving activities.
... Personality traits are one of the main factors affecting the academic performance of the students (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2008;Furnham et al., 2009;Poropat, 2009;Vasileva-Stojanovska et al., 2015). In the previous studies, it was indicated that in teaching environments personality traits will affect many factors like student perceptions and their mood states (Calvo, 2009;Keller & Karau, 2013;Reis et al., 2018;Stewart et al., 2004), interaction level (Sun & Hsu, 2013) and academic success (Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2006;Marks et al., 2005;Thompson & Zamboanga, 2004). When the literature was examined, even there are studies on the relation of students' academic performance with personality traits, it was observed that the number of the studies (Lyons et al., 2017;Vasileva-Stojanovska et al., 2015) in which personality traits at FC were examined needs to be increased, and the nomological network on this subject needs to be expanded. ...
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The Flipped Classroom (FC) approach is an important model for individualizing teaching, improving motivation, interaction, and increasing academic performance in a student-centered learning environment. However, at FC, not all students benefit equally from teaching opportunities. There may be important individual differences that affect their academic performance. The relationship between personality traits and academic performance in the FC model in which collaborative group studies are carried out is important for the design of individualized learning environments. In this context, the aim of this study is to research the relationship between academic success and personality traits within a collaborative flipped classroom model. Additionally, in this study, the differentiation of the relationship between academic success and personality traits according to gender, motivation, engagement, and interaction variables were examined. In this research, relational screening model was utilized. The application was achieved through the participation of 167 students for a 14-week period in Turkey. In the research, self-description form and data collection instruments were utilized. At the end of this research, Extraversion from personality traits is the strongest predictor of academic performance in FC. According to descriptive statistics, it was found that female students scored higher in FC settings for extraversion, and male students had higher scores for openness than other structures. In addition, it was found that the motivation scores of women and engagement scores of men were prominent. It was observed that the openness personality of the students with low motivation and the agreeableness of the students with high motivation is more dominant than the other personality structures. Students with the low level of engagement had the highest openness, and those with high agreeableness scores were the highest. The students with the low level of interaction had the highest openness scores, while those with high levels of interaction had the highest conscientiousness. While personality traits and academic achievements of students differed significantly according to gender, motivation and interaction levels, no significant difference was found according to engagement levels. The results reached in this study will guide the applicators about how the students become more ready to learn based on the personality traits of the classroom in which the FC model was utilized.
... Interests are also associated with educational choice and educational attainment (Nye et al., 2012;von Stumm et al., 2011;Webb, Lubinski and Benbow, 2002). It has been found that general intellectual curiosity represents a "third pillar" of academic achievement, i.e. that it has incremental validity with academic performance while controlling for the intelligence and the Big Five personality traits (von Stumm et al., 2011;Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham and Ackerman, 2006;Furnham, Monsen and Ahmetoglu, 2009). Intellectual curiosity is also associated with creativity as a trait and the production of creative products, especially in the field of science (DeYoung, 2014). ...
... Among adult American sample, neuroticism was not related to fluid and crystallised intelligence (Baker & Bichsel, 2006), while among British university students there was significant relationship between neuroticism and crystallised intelligence. (Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham, & Ackerman, 2006). Using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), Holland, Dollinger, Holland and MacDonald (1995) investigated the relationship between neuroticism and intelligence among an American sample and reported that all the correlation coefficients were almost zero. ...
... Researchers have found connections among intellectual engagement, academic engagement and learning, but not all taken together. For instance, Chamorro-Premuzic et al. (2006) found intellectual engagement as an antecedent of academic performance. Likewise, academic advising, which is arguably a facilitator of academic engagement, enhances affective learning (Campbell and Nutt 2008). ...
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This study has two objectives. The first objective is to examine the mediating role of intellectual engagement in the relationship between online engagement and affective learning. The second objective is to investigate the mediating role of academic engagement in the relationship between intellectual engagement and affective learning as well as between online engagement and affective learning. The study sample comprises of undergraduate students studying in a large private Indian university. The results of structural analysis using 280 responses collected from the undergraduate students support the hypotheses that academic and intellectual engagement constructs mediate the relationship between online engagement and affective learning. Moreover, it was found that compared to intellectual engagement, the role of online engagement is statistically more central to enhancing academic engagement and in turn affective learning. The findings encourage educators to provide academic settings backed by online resources instead of depending only on online resources.
Article
Purpose Individual differences and perceived values of technology have received much attention in technology adoption literature. However, there is a lack of understanding of their relationships and effects on online learning adoption. The study aims to investigate the effects of two important personality traits (i.e. openness to experience and neuroticism) and five perceived values (i.e. functional value, emotional value, social value, epistemic value and conditional value) on students’ intentions to adopt online learning. Design/methodology/approach A survey research method was used to collect information from university students. A sample size of 285 was used for data analysis. Structural equation modeling analysis using analysis of moment structure software was used to examine the construct reliability and validity, the model-fit indices and the causal relationships between latent constructs in the proposed framework. Findings The results show that neuroticism and openness to experience affect students’ intentions to adopt online learning through five perceived values of online learning. Particularly, students who are open to experience pay more attention to the quality of online learning. Students who are more neurotic avoid stress from learning in a situation that they are not familiar with. In addition, students tend to adopt online learning when they perceive online learning fulfills their emotional and social needs. Further discussions of the findings and implications for theory and practice are provided. Originality/value The study extends knowledge and understanding of online learning adoption associated with individual personality and perception of online learning’s values. It proposed a new framework to examine the effects of neuroticism, openness to experience and perceived values on online learning adoption. Universities might use the study results to plan and implement their online learning programs that will be considered valuable for students who have different personality traits.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between intelligence, personality and the extent of general and current information of students in the state of Minas Gerais. Two sample groups participated. The first was composed of students from three socially vulnerable levels from the city of Belo Horizonte (n=600), and the second group came from public schools in the city of Perdões (n=215). The Raven's Progressive Matrices Test and a General Information Questionnaire were applied for both samples. In addition, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the WISC-III Information test were applied to the second sample. The results indicated a consistent relationship between intelligence and General Information Questionnaire, even after smoothing the effect of the social vulnerability of the schools (r=0.431). A path analysis showed an independent effect of intelligence (r=0.430) and of the Psychoticism dimension (-0.18) on the General Information Questionnaire, even after the smoothing of age and covariance between predictors. It may be concluded that intelligence explains General Information Questionnaire differences twice as much as does personality.
Article
Students (n = 328) from US and UK universities completed four self‐report measures related to intellectual competence: typical intellectual engagement (TIE), openness to experience, self‐assessed intelligence (SAI), and learning approaches. Confirmatory data reduction was used to examine the structure of TIE and supported five major factors: reading and information seeking, intellectual avoidance, directed complex problem solving, abstract thinking, and intellectual pursuits as a primary focus. These factors were significantly and positively associated with deep learning, openness, and SAI, and negatively related to surface learning. Other correlates of TIE were more factor‐dependent. In general, correlations suggested that TIE is related to, but different from, the other intellectual competence constructs examined. Results are discussed in relation to the typical performance approach to intelligence and the importance of TIE with regards to the intrinsic motivation to learn.
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هدفت الدراسة الحالية إلى التحقق من صحة افتراض أن توجهات تعلم الطلاب (العميقة، السطحية) يمكن اعتبارها متغيرات وسيطة في تأثير سمات الشخصية الخمس الكبرى وبعض المتغيرات الدافعية (توجهات أهداف الإنجاز في ضوء النموذج الرباعي، الفاعلية الذاتية الأكاديمية، الاتجاهات نحو الكلية ونوع الدراسة، الاتجاهات نحو المعلم) على الإنجاز الأكاديمي لدى طلاب كلية التربية بقنا، وذلك في محاولة للتوصل لنموذج بنائي يوضح العلاقات المتداخلة بين هذه المتغيرات، وكذلك هدفت الدراسة إلى التحقق من مدى تمايز توجهات أهداف الإنجاز عن سمات الشخصية في تأثيرها على توجهات تعلم الطلاب وإنجازهم الأكاديمي. وتكونت عينة الدراسة من 267 طالباً وطالبة من طلاب كلية التربية بقنا من التخصصات العلمية والأدبية بالفرقة الثالثة وبعد تطبق أدوات الدراسة وباستخدام تحليل التباين ANOVA (2×2) وتحليل الانحدار المتعدد الهرميHierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis ونمذجة المعادلات البنائية Structure Equation Modeling توصلت الدراسة إلى عدة نتائج منها:  عدم وجود تأثير لمتغير النوع (ذكور، إناث) على أي من متغيرات الدراسة، بينما كان هناك تأثير للتخصص الأكاديمي على متغيرات (أهداف الإتقان الإقدامية، الاتجاه نحو المعلم، يقظة الضمير، توجهات التعلم العميقة) وكانت الفروق في صالح طلاب التخصصات العلمية.  المتغيرات ذات الدلالة في التنبؤ بالإنجاز الأكاديمي لدى الطلاب عينة الدراسة هي (الانبساطية، يقظة الضمير، أهداف الإتقان الإقدامية، أهداف الأداء الإقدامية، توجهات التعلم العميقة).  تم التوصل إلى نموذج بنائي تمثل فيه توجهات تعلم الطلاب متغيرات وسيطة في تأثير سمات الشخصية وبعض المتغيرات الدافعية على الإنجاز الأكاديمي.
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Der Beitrag vergleicht die Ergebnisse der Studierenden im Studentenpisa-Test anhand mehrerer Kriterien: dem Bundesland, in dem sie das Abitur erworben haben, dem Studienfach, das sie gewählt haben, und der Hochschule, an der sie studieren. Welche Unterschiede gibt es zwischen Bundesländern, Fächern und Hochschulen? Auf der Grundlage eines komplexen regressionsstatistischen Verfahrens, der so genannten Mehrebenenanalyse, zeigen sich nur geringe Unterschiede zwischen Bundesländern, aber sehr deutliche Wissensunterschiede zwischen Studierenden verschiedener Fachrichtungen. Studierende der Politologie und der Geschichte erzielen die besten Gesamtwerte, Informatiker und Sportwissenschaftler die schlechtesten. Eine Betrachtung der Ergebnisse für die einzelnen Wissensgebiete ergibt jedoch ein differenzierteres Bild. Demnach reflektieren die Ergebnisse die Begabung und das Interesse der Teilnehmer, welche ihren Ausdruck sowohl im Resultat des Wissenstests als auch in der Wahl einer bestimmten Studienrichtung finden.
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The paper analyzes the results of an empirical research obtained with the help of a sample of students. The research of persistence was carried out within the framework of the dispositional concept of personality traits and individuality by A. I. Krupnov. The techniques developed by A. I. Krupnov as well as the author’s test of persistence were used in the study. After allocating the levels of persistence, the features of self-realization were analyzed in each group of the respondents. The specificity of self-realization was revealed in the context of the author’s polysystemic concept, the author’s multidimensional questionnaire on personality’s self-realization (MQPSR) was used as a diagnostic tool. The empirical study revealed statistically significant differences in the specifics of self-realization of the students with different levels of persistence manifestation. The respondents with a high level of persistence realize themselves more successfully in different spheres of life due to the obvious active behaviour, optimistic attitude, high motivation, creative methods and techniques of self-expression, internal self-regulation and constructive behavior. The students with low persistence lack successful self-realization because of passivity, pessimism, external locus of self-control, a high level of barriers and standard simple schemes of self-expression.
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The purpose of the study was to determine whether a relationship exists between personality traits and the ability to learn visual art. The research conducted on a convenience sample operationalized art learning by subtracting the score of the first artwork from that of the eighth and last artwork per student, over a one year period thus creating the construct “difference score”. All artworks were independently evaluated by external moderators. This difference score for art learning was statistically related to the personality traits of the participants as measured by the Basic Traits Inventory. One-tailed hypotheses were tested at a 0.05 level of significance. Control over confounding variables was obtained by building them into the design as independent variables. Results of regression analyses indicate an inverse relationship between the trait agreeableness and art learning and a positive relationship between conscientiousness and art learning. Unexpectedly the study indicated that more “learning” had taken place among females than among males. All results are discussed and informed by literature.
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Die doel van hierdie studie was om empiriese data rakende die verhouding tussen akademiese prestasie en Peterson en Seligman (2004) se deugde van wysheid en kennis te verskaf terwyl daar vir intelligensie gekontroleer word. Die karaktersterktes van kreatiwiteit, nuuskierigheid, onbevooroordeeldheid, liefde vir leer en wysheid of perspektiefneming word geassosieer met hierdie twee deugde (Peterson en Seligman 2004). Die deelnemers was almal geregistreerde voorgraadse universiteitstudente en die steekproef het bestaan uit 147 deelnemers, waarvan 36 manlik was en 111 vroulik. Pearson se produk-moment korrelasie koëffisiente het ‘n statisties beduidende positiewe verband tussen nuuskierigheid, onbevooroordeeldheid, liefde vir leer en akademiese prestasie aangedui. Oopgesindheid (r = 0,425) het die sterkste verband met akademiese prestasie gehad. Toe die vyf karaktersterktes by intelligensie in ‘n hiërargiese meervoudige regressie-ontleding gevoeg is, het al vyf voorspellers 28,6% van die variansie in akademiese prestasie verklaar. Peterson en Seligman (2004) se deugde van wysheid en kennis het 22,3% van die variansie in akademiese prestasie verklaar. Die meervoudige regressie-ontleding het dus bewyse verskaf dat die deugde van wysheid en kennis, wel voorspellers van akademiese prestasie kan wees. Alhoewel die invloed van geslag op akademiese prestasie onduidelik is, is dit ‘n faktor wat nie in hierdie studie in berekening gebring is nie. Die studie het verder ook beperkte veralgemeningswaarde aangesien dit slegs op voorgraadse studente gefokus het. Dit is ook belangrik om daarop te let dat die konstrukte wat gemeet is, moeilik is om te konseptualiseer. Hierdie studie kan egter ‘n eenvoudige raamwerk verskaf vir toekomstige studies in die veld van positiewe sielkunde en akademiese prestasie. ‘n Begrip van die rol van deugde en hul bypassende karaktersterktes kan bydra tot die evaluering van studente motivering en potensiaal en die ontwikkeling van sielkundige intervensies binne die Suid-Afrikaanse opvoedkundige konteks. Toekomstige studies kan oorweeg word om die effek van geslag te ondersoek en meetinstrumente van wysheid te gebruik wat meer toepaslik is vir ‘n jonger ouderdomsgroep.
Article
This study examined the personality correlates of incremental/entity attitudes towards the growth/increase of 14 “multiple intelligences”. A total of 277 participants completed a questionnaire about the degree to which each “type of intelligence” is impossible/easy to change. This was followed by a 15-item Big Five personality traits questionnaire (Costa & McCrae, 1992), a measure of core self-evaluation (Judge et al., 2003) and a growth mindset questionnaire (Dweck, 2012). Whilst verbal, naturalistic and intra-personal intelligences were seen to be relatively easy to change, creative and musical intelligences were seen as much less so. The 14 “intelligences” factored into three interpretable factors labelled as abstract, skilful and classical intelligences. Core self-evaluation and growth mindset were both highly significant correlates of each factor. Whilst neuroticism and openness were significant correlates for abstract and classical intelligences respectively, no other significant results were obtained from the Big Five personality traits. These findings highlight the importance of core self-evaluation and mindset beliefs in educational and occupational settings. Limitations were noted.
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Cognitive training interventions have become increasingly popular as a potential means to cost-efficiently stabilize or enhance cognitive functioning across the lifespan. Large training improvements have been consistently reported on the group level, with, however, large differences on the individual level. Identifying the factors contributing to these individual differences could allow for developing individually tailored interventions to boost training gains. In this study, we therefore examined a range of individual differences variables that had been discussed in the literature to potentially predict training performance. To estimate and predict individual differences in the training trajectories, we applied Latent Growth Curve models to existing data from three working memory training interventions with younger and older adults. However, we found that individual differences in demographic variables, real-world cognition, motivation, cognition-related beliefs, personality, leisure activities, and computer literacy and training experience were largely unrelated to change in training performance. Solely baseline cognitive performance was substantially related to change in training performance and particularly so in young adults, with individuals with higher baseline performance showing the largest gains. Thus, our results conform to magnification accounts of cognitive change.
Article
Research on the relationship between personality traits and cognitive abilities has primarily used cross-sectional designs and considered personality traits individually in relation to cognitive dimensions. This study (N = 2652) examined the relationship between Big Five personality change profiles and change in cognitive factors, episodic memory and executive functioning. Latent profile analysis was used to capture patterns of change across the Big Five traits. Three profiles of personality change were defined: Decreasers, Maintainers, and Increasers. The Decreasers declined more in episodic memory compared to the Increasers and Maintainers. Also, the Decreasers declined more in executive functioning compared to the Increasers, but not the Maintainers. The findings advance our understanding of the links between patterns of personality change and cognitive aging.
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As part of the project, “Study of the Latin-American Intelligence” (SLATINT), this study was conducted in six Latin American cities (Rosario-Argentina, Belo Horizonte-Brazil, Santiago-Chile, Bogota-Colombia, Mexico City-Mexico and Lima-Peru) and one European city (Madrid-Spain). The goal was to verify the effect of school performance on fluid intelligence and vice versa after controlling the socioeconomic variables. Students (N = 3724) between the ages of 14 and 15 years (51% females) that were enrolled in 66 schools from different socioeconomic levels, participated in this study. The Raven Standard Progressive Matrices test (SPM, fluid intelligence measure), the 2003 PISA test (school performance measure) and a short socioeconomic questionnaire were administered. Diverse multilevel analyses were conducted. The results were: 1) a positive relationship between PISA and SPM, although a stronger correlation was observed as aggregated (r = .89), rather than individual scores (r = .58) were used; 2) after controlling social variables, the PISA scores could vary up to 7.79 times due to variation in SPM scores; 3) after controlling social variables, the SPM scores could vary up to 1.4 due to variation in PISA scores; 4) the socioeconomic status of schools exerted a greater influence on PISA scores than on SPM scores; and 5) there was a variability among schools regarding school performance (35.2%) and intelligence (6.3%) which was not explained by the covariates and random effects. The impact of these results for education policies is discussed.
Chapter
The author focuses directly on the Big Five’s role in causing individuals’ failure to understand basic facts about important political issues. The chapter looks at individuals’ responses to factual survey questions in five policy areas—(1) food stamps, (2) same-sex marriage, (3) health insurance subsidies, (4) drug testing welfare recipients, and (5) U.S. oil production. As one would expect, partisanship plays an important role in driving incorrect understandings about what is happening in these policy areas. However, partisanship is not the only cause. While a substantial amount of personality research has spent time attempting to draw connections between one or the other Big Five personality traits and political ideology and partisanships, here the author shows that personality does not simply work through its effects on citizens’ partisanship. It has its own independent effect on how people understand political issues, even highly partisan ones.
Article
In this study, we investigated the longitudinal interplay between personality and achievement and the effect of family cohesion on relative change in personality and achievement in adolescence. Using longitudinal data from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS; N = 4355, Age T1 = 12.9 years, 49% female adolescents), we estimated latent cross-lagged panel models that included personality traits, different achievement indicators, and family cohesion. There were three main findings. First, we replicated previous cross-sectional personality-achievement associations. Second, after accounting for covariates and stability effects, all personality traits (except agreeableness) were related to change in at least one achievement indicator. Third, student-rated family cohesion was associated with better grades (in German) 2 years later but showed no effects on personality change. The findings demonstrate that, when explored longitudinally, personality shows only small effects on achievement change and vice versa in adolescence. We emphasize the need for further research to disentangle the specific processes behind these associations.
Article
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This research paper we present a Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM)-based approach to improving a previously proposed IQ test for Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems. Starting from linguistic terms analyses, fuzzy logic along with triangular membership function is adopted for the defuzzification process. Based on the defuzzification result, a calculated defuzzified value is assigned for the quantitative weights of each edge in the resulting FCM. Mean Square Error (MSE) is used for evaluation. Experiments have shown that the FCM-based approach outperforms other methods (including Delphi weights).
Conference Paper
Tacit knowledge is one element of knowledge that many organizations rely upon in the "knowledgebased economy" (Little, Quintas and Ray 2002; Gertler 2003). However, many organizations do not recognize the value of tacit knowledge untilan employee leaves (Lahaie 2005; Mládková 2007). This can result in lost expertise if an employee's knowledge is not "managed" (Davies and Merali 2001). Therefore, it may be surmised that the creation, retention and distribution of relevanttacit knowledge is a vital focus for the knowledge management field. It could be surmised that tacit knowledge management specifically is unique to general knowledge management methods because tacit knowledge "is owned" by the knowledge worker rather than the organization (Kreiner 2002; Wright and McMahan 2011). Kreiner (2002) states that "tacit knowledge needs to be managed in tacit ways". As people cannot be separated from their knowledge in the way they can be separated from financial and physical assets, individual behaviour is important to the concept of tacit knowledge. For example, employees could choose t withhold the knowledge and abilities that their firm requires (Wright and McMahan 2011). In light of this, individual behaviours, prompted by factors such as personality traits, could explain some of the variance in anindividual's behaviour (Matzler et al. 2008). Personality traits have been largely ignored by knowledge management literature as a whole (Matzler et al., 2009; Wang and Noe, 2010) and researchers have called for more examination into its effect on knowledge sharing (Cho, Li, and Su, 2007) and the other knowledge management processes (Cabrera, Collins, and Selgado, 2006). This paper seeks to explore current theory surrounding the management of tacit knowledge and discuss the empirical evidence which would suggest that individual behaviour may influence this topic.
Article
Objective: This study was designed to explore age differences in the relationship of neuroticism with reasoning performance in a representative adult sample. Method: A probability sample of 242 adults (range 25–75 years; M age = 47.57 years) from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) Boston Study of Management Processes were measured on personality and cognition. Using Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test as the dependent measure of reasoning, age and neuroticism were entered as independent variables into a hierarchical regression analysis with education and basic cognitive processes (processing speed and working memory) as control variables. Results: Age (younger) and neuroticism (lower) positively predicted reasoning performance. These main effects were further qualified by an age X neuroticism interaction. Younger adults low in neuroticism performed significantly better on reasoning than those high in neuroticism, whereas the relationship of neuroticism with reasoning was not significant for the middle-aged and older adults. Conclusions: Neuroticism affects reasoning performance in young adults but not older adults. Age-related improvements in emotional regulation are suggested as a mechanism for this relationship.
Article
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There is evidence for differential stability in personality trait differences, even over decades. The authors used data from a sample of the Scottish Mental Survey, 1947 to study personality stability from childhood to older age. The 6-Day Sample (N = 1,208) were rated on six personality characteristics by their teachers at around age 14. In 2012, the authors traced as many of these participants as possible and invited them to take part in a follow-up study. Those who agreed (N = 174) completed a questionnaire booklet at age 77 years, which included rating themselves and asking someone who knew them well to rate them on the same 6 characteristics on which they were rated in adolescence. Each set of 6 ratings was reduced to the same single underlying factor, denoted dependability, a trait comparable to conscientiousness. Participants’ and others’ older-age personality characteristic ratings were moderately correlated with each other, and with other measures of personality and wellbeing, but correlations suggested no significant stability of any of the 6 characteristics or their underlying factor, dependability, over the 63-year interval. However, a more complex model, controlling rater effects, indicated significant 63-year stability of 1 personality characteristic, Stability of Moods, and near-significant stability of another, Conscientiousness. Results suggest that lifelong differential stability of personality is generally quite low, but that some aspects of personality in older age may relate to personality in childhood.
Article
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In 3 prior meta-analyses, the relationship between the Big Five factors of personality and job criteria was investigated. However, these meta-analyses showed different findings. Furthermore, these reviews included studies carried out only in the United States and Canada. This study reports meta-analytic research on the same topic but with studies conducted in the European Community, which were not included in the prior reviews. The results indicate that Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability are valid predictors across job criteria and occupational groups. The remaining factors are valid only for some criteria and for some occupational soups. Extraversion was a predictor for 2 occupations, and Openness and Agreeableness were valid predictors of training proficiency. These findings are consistent with M. R. Barrick and M. K. Mount (1991) and L. M. Hough, N. K. Eaten, M. D. Dunnette, J. D. Kamp, and R. A, McCloy (1990). Implications of the results for future research and the practice of personnel selection are suggested.
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Learning & Individual Differences, The following values have no corresponding Zotero field: ID - 485
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The authors investigated the abilities, self-concept, personality, interest, motivational traits, and other determinants of knowledge across physical sciences/technology, biology/psychology, humanities, and civics domains. Tests and self-report measures were administered to 320 university freshmen. Crystallized intelligence was a better predictor than was fluid intelligence for most knowledge domains. Gender differences favoring men were found for most knowledge domains. Accounting for intelligence reduced the gender influence in predicting knowledge differences. Inclusion of notability predictors further reduced the variance accounted for by gender. Analysis of Advanced Placement test scores largely supported the results of the knowledge tests. Results are consistent with theoretical predictions that development of intellect as knowledge results from investment of cognitive resources, which, in turn, is affected by a small set of trait complexes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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The authors review the development of the modern paradigm for intelligence assessment and application and consider the differentiation between intelligence-as-maximal performance and intelligence-as-typical performance. They review theories of intelligence, personality, and interest as a means to establish potential overlap. Consideration of intelligence-as-typical performance provides a basis for evaluation of intelligence-personality and intelligence-interest relations. Evaluation of relations among personality constructs, vocational interests, and intellectual abilities provides evidence for communality across the domains of personality of J. L. Holland's (1959) model of vocational interests. The authors provide an extensive meta-analysis of personality-intellectual ability correlations, and a review of interest-intellectual ability associations. They identify 4 trait complexes: social, clerical/conventional, science/math, and intellectual/cultural.
Article
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In 3 prior meta-analyses, the relationship between the Big Five factors of personality and job criteria was investigated. However, these meta-analyses showed different findings. Furthermore, these reviews included studies carried out only in the United States and Canada. This study reports meta-analytic research on the same topic but with studies conducted in the European Community, which were not included in the prior reviews. The results indicate that Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability are valid predictors across job criteria and occupational groups. The remaining factors are valid only for some criteria and for some occupational groups. Extraversion was a predictor for 2 occupations, and Openness and Agreeableness were valid predictors of training proficiency. These findings are consistent with M.R. Barrick and M.K. Mount (1991) and L.M. Hough, N.K. Eaton, M.D. Dunnette, J.D. Kamp, and R.A. McCloy (1990). Implications of the results for future research and the practice of personnel selection are suggested.
Article
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This chapter reviews empirical findings on the importance of assessing individual differences in human behavior. Traditional dimensions of human abilities, personality, and vocational interests play critical roles in structuring a variety of important behaviors and outcomes (e.g. achieved socioeconomic status, educational choices, work performance, delinquency, health risk behaviors, and income). In the review of their importance, the construct of general intelligence is featured, but attributes that routinely add incremental validity to cognitive assessments are also discussed. Recent experimental and methodological advances for better understanding how these dimensions may contribute to other psychological frameworks are reviewed, as are ways for determining their scientific significance within domains where they are not routinely assessed. Finally, some noteworthy models are outlined that highlight the importance of assessing relatively distinct classes of individual-differences attributes simultaneously. For understanding fully complex human phenomena such as crime, eminence, and educational-vocational development, such a multifaceted approach is likely to be the most productive.
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The psychological construct of general mental ability (GMA), introduced by C. Spearman (1904) nearly 100 years ago, has enjoyed a resurgence of interest and attention in recent decades. This article presents the research evidence that GMA predicts both occupational level attained and performance within one's chosen occupation and does so better than any other ability, trait, or disposition and better than job experience. The sizes of these relationships with GMA are also larger than most found in psychological research. Evidence is presented that weighted combinations of specific aptitudes tailored to individual jobs do not predict job performance better than GMA alone, disconfirming specific aptitude theory. A theory of job performance is described that explicates the central role of GMA in the world of work. These findings support Spearman's proposition that GMA is of critical importance in human affairs.
Article
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The study of individual differences in cognitive abilities is one of the few branches of psychological science to amass a coherent body of empirical knowledge withstanding the test of time. There is wide consensus that cognitive abilities are organized hierarchically, and C. Spearman's (1904) general intelligence occupies the vertex of this hierarchy. In addition, specific abilities beyond general intelligence refine longitudinal forecasts of important social phenomena and paint a rich portrait of this important domain of psychological diversity. This opening article identifies and then reviews 5 major areas concerning the personological significance of cognitive abilities and the methods used to study them. In models of human behavior and important life outcomes, cognitive abilities are critical in more ways than social scientists realize.
Book
Preface List of illustrations A word about correlation 1. To see 'g' or not to see 'g': How many types of intelligence are there? 2. Ageing and intelligence - senility or sagacity? What happens to mental abilities as we grow older? 3. Brainy? Why are some people cleverer than others? 4. 'They **** you up your Mum and Dad': Are intelligence differences a result of genes or environments or both? 5. The (b)right man for the job: Does intelligence matter? 6. The lands of the rising IQ: Is intelligence changing generation by generation? 7. Twelve angry men: Getting experts to agree about human intelligence differences Further reading Index
Article
This book provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of personality and intelligence, as well as covering other variables underlying academic and occupational performance. Personality and Intellectual Competence is a unique attempt to develop a comprehensive model to understand individual difference by relating major personality dimensions to cognitive ability measures, academic and job performance, and self-assessed abilities, as well as other traditional constructs such as leadership and creativity. It will be essential reading for anyone interested in personality, intelligence, and the prediction of future achievement in general. Personality and Intellectual Competence is an outstanding account of the relationship between major individual differences constructs. With its informative summary of the last century of research in the field, this book provides a robust and systematic theoretical background for understanding the psychological determinants of future achievement. The authors have sought to combine technical expertise with applied interests, making this a groundbreaking theoretical tool for anyone concerned with the scientific prediction of human performance. © 2005 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
Twenty academic knowledge tests were developed to locate domain knowledge within a nomological network of traits. Spatial, numerical, and verbal aptitude measures and personality and interest measures were administered to 141 undergraduates. Domain knowledge factored along curricular lines; a general knowledge factor accounted for about half of knowledge variance. Domain knowledge exhibited positive relations with general intelligence (g), verbal abilities after g was removed, Openness, Typical Intellectual engagement, and specific vocational interests. Spatial and numerical abilities were unrelated to knowledge beyond g. Extraversion related negatively to all knowledge domains. Results provide broad support for R. B. Cattell's (1971/1987) crystallized intelligence as something more than verbal abilities and specific support for P. L. Ackerman's (1996) intelligence-as-process, personality, interests, and intelligence-as-knowledge theory of adult intelligence.
Book
Entwicklung von Gc nach der Schule (S. 143, siehe auch Ackerman, 1996, 234f): , One must not forget that nine-tenths of generalizations and theorizing about intelligence and intelligence tests are based on observations in school (p. 142)
The accurate prediction of individual trait differences in scholastic performance is one of the ultimate goals of a scientific educational psychology and personnel research program. Although this general problem is of major concern to educators at every school level, the present investigation is limited in scope to a study of trait differences among a sampling of the student body of Yale University. The desirability of developing forecasts of differential achievement prior to the selection of subjects of study in the Freshman Year has already been discussed in the first chapter. The basic consideration underlying the work of this thesis has been the determination and validation of certain objective indices of individual ability for different types of curricula. It must be clear that a scientific guidance program cannot be realized until the various important type aptitudes for each student can be forecast on some uniform scale with reasonable accuracy. The attainment of this objective will be dependent not only upon the development of accurate predictive instruments, but also upon the establishment of reliable criteria against which to validate these forecasts. Such an ideal may be incapable of realization, but this, of course, can only be ascertained by trial. That there are real differences between the verbal and quantitative abilities of students is a major assumption of this study. In the absence of more objective achievement testing at Yale, grades in separate courses of study provide the only means for testing the assumption of disparate ability for verbal and quantitative types of subject matter.
Article
Methods are explained, with empirical examples, for using sibling data on psychometric variables (1) as a covariate for statistically controlling family background in psychological and educational experiments, (2) as a means for testing the adequacy of age-standardized scores, (3) for testing the interval scale property of mental measurements, (4) for analyzing correlations into between- and within-family components and distinguishing intrinsic from extrinsic correlations between variables, and (5) for detecting cultural (i.e., between families) sources of variance in psychological tests.
Article
This paper describes an assessment of the validity and reliability of Baddeley's Three‐Minute Reasoning Test following its adaptation by the authors for use with school children. The results indicated that there was a significant correlation between scores on the Three Minute Test and the AH4 (+0.70) and that correlations between performance and scores on the AH4 and performance and scores on the reasoning test were of similar size. A test‐retest correlation, however, obtained over a seven‐day interval, suggested that the reliability of the test was low (0.66).
Article
This paper is concerned with the issues of the factorial structure of long-term semantic memory, with what are the major domains of long-term memories for different kinds of information and knowledge, and whether these are positively intercorrelated to form a general factor of long-term semantic memory. The methodology of the study consisted of the construction of a test of general knowledge, which endeavoured to cover all major areas or domains of general knowledge in western cultures. This was administered to 509 females and 209 males, mean age 20.9 years, most of whom (638) were undergraduate students. Nineteen measures conforming to primary domains of general knowledge were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses, using LISREL 8.30. A model with six first-order factors (Physical Health and Recreation, Current Affairs, Fashion, Family, Arts and Science) showed a good fit to the data (SRMR=0.047). In a subsequent higher-order factor analysis, the six first-order factors loaded substantially (range 0.54–0.90) on a single second-order factor (SRMR=0.050). Thus, all domains of general knowledge tested in the study were positively intercorrelated and explicable in terms of a strong general factor of long-term semantic memory ability. The six first-order factors are probably expressions of interests.
Article
A general information or knowledge test, which was shown to measure 19 domains of general knowledge, six first-order factors and one second-order general factor, was constructed. Data obtained from 469 female and 167 male undergraduates were tested for sex differences using Student's t and Hotelling's multivariate t. It was found that males obtained significantly higher means than females on the second-order general factor and on four of the six first-order factors identified as information about Current Affairs, Physical Health and Recreation, Arts and Science. Females obtained a significantly higher mean than males on the first-order factor identified as Family. There was no sex difference on the remaining first-order factor identified as Fashion. The results confirm the findings in a number of standardisation samples of the Wechsler tests that males obtain higher average scores than females on the Information subtests and that this is not attributable to a bias in favor of males on these tests.
Article
Two intakes of first year students (N = 54 and N = 60) were given the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985) soon after arriving at university. Three years later they wrote their final examinations consisting of seven three-hour papers. Results showed that students high on Neuroticism were more likely to write their examinations in the health center or to provide a doctor's note than were students low on Neuroticism. There was no difference in Extraversion, Psychoticism or Lie scale scores in their final grades.
Article
Specific domains of talent have been increasingly recognized by educators. Howard Gruber has done a great deal to direct attention to what may be the most critical domain, namely, moral creativity. The intent of this article is to honor Gruber's genius in our own humble fashion, by reviewing and integrating the recent work on moral creativity. Special attention is directed to points of agreement found in the literature to implications for studies of creativity and education. This is not merely a review, however; we make every effort to compare and contrast the various theories and highlight the controversies in this area. One of the more surprising controversies involves the concept of adaptation, which is often associated with creativity and would seem to have great potential for addressing creativity in the moral domain and the resolution of moral dilemmas. We also explore the arguable theories that writing is the more useful domain for the resolution of creative dilemmas, that art for art's sake is ethical, and that general knowledge should be targeted in moral education. We begin and end with the question, Why is creativity in the moral domain more important now than ever before?
Article
Describes a "proof-of-concept" study conducted by the author and E. L. Rolfhus (e.g., 1998) of adult knowledge structures, ability, and nonability traits. Ability and self-report batteries were completed by undergraduates and Ss at least 30 yrs of age and younger than 60 yrs of age. The older Ss performed better than the younger Ss on the verbal ability tests and the mechanical knowledge test, less well on the numerical ability tests. Results provide additional support for the theory, in that the older adults had higher mean performance in all of the knowledge categories that were assessed, although the largest differences between older–younger groups were found in the arts and literature domain, and the smallest differences in knowledge were on the natural and physical sciences. Discussion following the chapter started with inquiries about the relationship between typical intellectual engagement and need for cognition. Subsequent discussion concerned all the differences between the author's approach to knowledge as intelligence and other approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Twenty academic knowledge tests were developed to locate domain knowledge within a nomological network of traits. Spatial, numerical, and verbal aptitude measures and personality and interest measures were administered to 141 undergraduates. Domain knowledge factored along curricular lines; a general knowledge factor accounted for about half of knowledge variance. Domain knowledge exhibited positive relations with general intelligence ( g), verbal abilities after g was removed, Openness, Typical Intellectual engagement, and specific vocational interests. Spatial and numerical abilities were unrelated to knowledge beyond g. Extraversion related negatively to all knowledge domains. Results provide broad support for R. B. Cattell's (1971/1987) crystallized intelligence as something more than verbal abilities and specific support for P. L. Ackerman's (1996) intelligence-as-process, personality, interests, and intelligence-as-knowledge theory of adult intelligence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Relations between personality and intelligence were investigated in the context of the distinction between intelligence as typical engagement and intelligence as maximal engagement. The traditional approach to investigating the association between intelligence as maximal performance and personality was reviewed, and suggestions were made, including the suggestion that intelligence as typical engagement results in clearer understanding of personality–intelligence relations. 13 personality/interest constructs hypothesized to surround a core construct of typical intellectual engagement and related to typical intellectual performance were operationalized. Relations found were modest, yet several personality scales differentially related to fluid and crystallized classes of intelligence. Relations between the personality constructs surrounding typical intellectual engagement and the broad personality domain are investigated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This book of readings is designed to meet what we feel is a critical need in contemporary courses in tests and measurements and differential psychology. The two editors have taught one or another of these courses more than one hundred times. We hold that at least three requisite things--good psychological judgment, an elusive quality called perspective, and a grasp of the strategies of psychological measurement--are fostered most rapidly when students encounter original research papers in their historical sequence. In searching for a topic to serve as a model problem in measurement we quickly settled on intelligence. In selecting this one topic it is obvious that we have no intention of supplanting current textbooks, which, in fact, we believe are of very high quality. However, these textbooks by their very nature cannot give the student the kind of understanding of the work and the workers that we are striving for here. It is our conviction that this book will supplement the standard texts in a valuable way for students with inquiring minds and an intellectual curiosity about the origins of the evidence upon which our present knowledge of intelligence rests. Despite our efforts to include examples of most of the important methodologies, our sampling of modern statistical methods is weak, unavoidably so, we believe, in a book that preserves a reasonable size. We do claim, however, that the interplay between problems and methodologies is adequately and tellingly demonstrated. Most of the "hot" issues, such as racial and national differences, have been touched on at least once. In the preparation of this book we have considered hundreds of other studies, but in the end we have been forced to settle on this set, discarding many papers of equal value. Overall, we do not claim that these are the best, and certainly not the only, readings that might have been included. We do feel, however, that those we have selected are valuable, thought-provoking, and representative of the chief contributions to the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The authors describe an approach to adult intellect on the basis of content, unlike the traditional approach, which is mostly based on process. Thirty-two academic knowledge scales were rated by 202 college students, who also completed ability, vocational interest, and personality scales. Analyses of knowledge clusters and individual scales were used to evaluate commonality across ability constructs (verbal and spatial ability), vocational interests (realistic, investigative, and artistic), and personality (typical intellectual engagement and openness). The results support knowledge differentiation across fluid and crystallized abilities, show a pattern of positive correlations of arts and humanities knowledge with typical intellectual engagement and openness, and show correlations between math and physical sciences knowledge and realistic and investigative interests. Implications for the study of adult intelligence are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Among the outstanding contributions of the book are (1) the judgments of the relative excellence of assorted tests in some 70 fields of accomplishment, by Kelley, Franzen, Freeman, McCall, Otis, Trabue and Van Wagenen; (2) detailed and exact information on the statistical and other characteristics of the same tests, based on a questionnaire addressed to the text authors or (in the absence of reply) estimates by Kelley on the best data available; (3) a chapter of 47 pages condensing all the principal elementary statistical methods. In addition, there is constant emphasis upon the importance of the probable error, with some illustrative applications; for example, it is maintained that about 90% of the abilities measured by our best "intelligence" and "achievement" tests are (due chiefly to the size of the probable errors) the same ability. A chapter sets forth the analytical procedures which lead to this conclusion and to four others earlier enunciated. "Idiosyncrasy," or inequality among abilities, which the author regards as highly valuable, is considered in two chapters; the remainder of the volume is devoted to a historical sketch of the mental test movement and a statement of the purposes of tests, the latter being illustrated by appropriate chapters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
British university students (N = 247) completed the NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992) personality inventory at the beginning of their course and took several written examinations throughout their three-year degree. Personality super-traits (especially Conscientiousness positively, and Extraversion and Neuroticism negatively) were significantly correlated with examination grades and were found to account for around 15% of the variance. Primary traits were also examined and results showed significant correlations between a small number of these traits (notably dutifulness and achievement striving positively, and anxiety and activity negatively) and academic achievement. Furthermore, selected primary personality traits (i.e. achievement striving, self-discipline, and activity) were found to explain almost 30% of the variance in academic examination performance. It is argued that personality inventory results may represent an important contribution to the prediction of academic success and failure in university (particularly in highly selective and competitive settings). Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
To show why the importance of intelligence is often misperceived, an analogy between single test items and single nontest actions in everyday life is drawn. Three requirements of good test items are restated, and the analogy is employed to account for underrecognition of the importance of general intelligence in everyday actions, which often fail to meet the requirements and thus fail as intelligence measures for reasons that have little to do with their dependence on intelligence. A new perspective on the role of intelligence in nontest actions is introduced by considering its operation at three levels: that of the individual, that of the near context of the individual, and that of entire populations. Social scientists have misunderstood the operation and impact of IQ in populations by confining attention to the individual level. A population-IQ-outcome model is explained that tests for the pooled effects of intelligence at all three levels on differences between two populations in prevalences of certain outcomes. When the model fits, the difference between two populations in the outcome measured is found commensurate with the difference in their IQ or general intelligence distributions. The model is tested on and found to fit prevalences of juvenile delinquency, adult crime, single parenthood, HIV infection, poverty, belief in conspiracy rumors, and key opinions from polls about the O.J. Simpson trial and the earlier Tawana Brawley case. A deviance principle is extracted from empirical findings to indicate kinds of outcome the model will not fit. Implications for theories of practical and multiple intelligences are discussed. To understand the full policy implications of intelligence, such a fundamentally new perspective as that presented here will be needed.
Article
The development of adult intelligence assessment early in this century as an upward extension of the Binet-Simon approach to child intelligence assessment is briefly reviewed. Problems with the use of IQ measures for adults are described, along with a discussion of related conceptualizations of adult intellectual performance. Prior intelligence theories that considered adult intelligence (Cattell, 1943, 1971/1987; Hebb, 1941, 1942, 1949; Vernon, 1950) are reviewed. Based on extensions of prior theory and new analyses of personality-ability and interest-ability relations, a developmental theory of adult intelligence is proposed, called PPIK. The PPIK theory of adult intellectual development integrates intelligence-as-process, personality, interests, and intelligence-as-knowledge. Data from the study of knowledge structures are examined in the context of the theory, and in relation to measures of content abilities (spatial and verbal abilities). New directions for the future of research on adult intellect are discussed in light of an approach that integrates personality, interests, process, and knowledge.
Article
To what extent and which personality traits predict academic performance was investigated in two longitudinal studies of two British university samples. Academic performance was assessed throughout a three years period and via multiple criteria (e.g., exams and final-year project). In addition several indicators of academic behaviour, e.g., absenteeism, essay writing, tutors’ exam predictions, were also examined with regard to both academic performance and personality traits. In sample 1 (N=70), the Big Five personality factors (Costa & McCrae, 1992)—particularly Neuroticism and Conscientiousness—were found to predict overall final exam marks over and above several academic predictors, accounting for more than 10% of unique variance in overall exam marks. Results suggest that Neuroticism may impair academic performance, while Conscientiousness may lead to higher academic achievement. In sample 2 (N=75) the EPQ-R (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985) was used as the personality measure and results showed the three superfactors were the most powerful predictor of academic performance, accounting for nearly 17% of unique variance in overall exam results. It is demonstrated that (like Neuroctisim) Psychoticism could limit academic success. The present results provide evidence supporting the inclusion of well-established personality measures in academic selection procedures, and run counter to the traditional view of ability measures as the exclusive psychometric correlate of academic performance.
Article
The relationship between the Big Five personality traits, cognitive ability, and beliefs about intelligence (BAI) was explored in a longitudinal study using a sample (N=93) of British university students. These three sets of variables were used to predict academic performance (AP) (i.e., examination grades) as well as seminar performance (i.e., behaviour in class, essay marks, and attendance record) aggregated over a 2-year period. Correlational analyses showed that personality (but not intelligence) was related to BAI (specifically entity vs. incremental beliefs): More conscientious participants were more likely to think that intelligence can be increased throughout the life span, whilst low conscientious individuals were more likely to believe that intelligence is stable. However, these beliefs were not themselves significantly related to AP; only personality traits (Conscientiousness positively, Extraversion negatively) and gender were significantly correlated with AP. Further, following a series of hierarchical regression, it was shown that the Big Five personality traits are better predictors of AP than cognitive ability, BAI, and gender. When seminar performance indicators were regressed onto these variables, a similar pattern was obtained: Personality was the most powerful predictor of absenteeism, essay marks, and behaviour in seminar classes (as rated by different tutors), with Conscientiousness being the most significant predictor. Implications for the prediction of academic success in university and the selection of student settings are discussed.
Article
DESCRIBES A SIMPLE REASONING TEST INVOLVING THE UNDERSTANDING OF SENTENCES OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF SYNTACTIC COMPLEXITY. IT IS SHORT, EASILY ADMINISTERED, AND RELIABLE. PERFORMANCE CORRELATES WITH INTELLIGENCE (.59) AND HAS PROVED TO BE SENSITIVE TO A NUMBER OF STRESSES. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Minnesota, 1999. Includes bibliographic references (leaves 83-90)
Article
REPORTS DATA RELATING FRESHMEN PREDICTORS TO INDEPENDENTLY COMPUTED GRADE-POINT AVERAGES FOR EACH OF THE 8 SEMESTERS OF UNDERGRADUATE COLLEGE RESIDENCE. A SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNT OF INSTABILITY OF INTELLECTUAL PERFORMANCE OVER THIS 4-YR TIME SPAN IS REVEALED. IMPLICATIONS FOR COLLEGE ADMISSION RESEARCH AND FOR POLICIES GOVERNING FAILURE AND PROBATION ARE DISCUSSED.
Article
An entirely verbal enquiry of "General Knowledge of the World" made up by 168 questions exploring 14 domains of knowledge (12 questions each) has been standardised on 175 (97 women and 78 men) healthy Italian subjects with at least 8 years of formal education. Norms for each set of questions are provided. An unexpected finding is that age did not play an influential role on performance, whereas education did: the higher it was, the better the score. Women proved to fare significantly worse than men. A feasibility check on 30 Alzheimer patients with very mild overall cognitive impairment showed that the general knowledge enquiry was relatively easy to administer. The discrimination power between normal controls and Alzheimer patients for each subtest has been calculated.
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Despite the recent increase in the number of studies examining empirical links between personality and intelligence (see Hofstee, 2001; Zeidner & Matthews, 2000), a theoretical integration of ability and nonability traits remains largely unaddressed. This paper presents a possible conceptual framework for understanding the personality-intelligence interface. In doing so, it conceptualizes three different levels of intelligence, namely, intellectual ability (which comprises both Gf and Gc), IQ test performance and subjectively assessed intelligence (a mediator between personality, intellectual ability and IQ test performance). Although the model draws heavily upon correlation evidence, each of its paths may be tested independently. The presented model may, therefore, be used to explore causation and further develop theoretical approaches to understanding the relation between ability and nonability traits underlying human performance.