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Raid or Trade? An Economic Model of Indian-White Relations

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... We define land tenure security as recognition and respect-on the part of the government-for the rights of affected populations over their claimed territories. Land tenure security requires an implicit or explicit agreement between the presiding government and the affected population regarding land ownership and the former's commitment to honor such an agreement (Harstad andMideksa 2017, Anderson andMcChesney 1994). ...
... While the lack of faith in government and its ability to uphold environmental justice may lead some affected populations to engage in protests, it may also not. Much depends on their assessment of the status quo and their beliefs about the prospects of achieving objectives unilaterally (Anderson and McChesney 1994). Our hypothesis is therefore a probabilistic one: ...
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... 9 Developed in the west, such technologies have become cheaply available to governments desirous to use them. Offering a similar explanation, Anderson and McChesney (1994) contend that the reason why the federal government chose war over treaties with American Indians was that the former's costs declined after the Civil War once the US government had a permanent standing army. When technological changes arise exogenously, the net benefits may shift in ways that favor repression, even without government investment in such technology. ...
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... Various 6 In this word game, kiszczak in Polish means 'from the guts,' but it also denotes the name of the communist Minister of Interior General Czesław Kiszczak. 7 For instance, models of 'raid or trade' consider explicitly different costs of conflict and cooperation for different players; see Anderson and McChesney (1994), Rider (1993), and Skaperdas (1992). ...
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