Article

Nematodes Management In Coffee Production Systems

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Abstract

Coffee production in Mexico with particular reference to the diversity of cropping systems and nematode parasites are reviewed. Different cropping systems, including natural or mountain systems, traditional polyculture, specialized or commercial polyculture and sunlight systems are described. Nematodes affecting coffee include root-knot and lesion species, and their interactions with other pathogens, including fungal diseases, are then reviewed. Control strategies and tactics coffee nematodes are revised. The development of programs in the management of nematodes is then proposed, based on different tactics including prevention through quarantine, cultural management, development of clean planting systems, solarisation, use of antagonistic plants, soil amendments, weed host control, inter and intracropping (shade coffee), resistance, applications of chemical nematicides and organic amendments, biological control or use of natural products.

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... In 2020, Mexico was the thirteenth largest producer of coffee worldwide with a production of 953,683 t (SIAP 2021). Nematodes represent one of the main limiting factors of coffee (Marbán-Mendoza 2009). In Mexico, Meloidogyne incognita (Téliz-Ortíz et al. 1993) and M. paranaensis (Lopez-Lima et al. 2015) have been previously reported parasitizing this crop. ...
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The coffee corky-root disease associated with root-knot nematode infection is a major concern for coffee production in Mexico, particularly in the Veracruz State where substantial losses from Coffea arabica plantations are reported annually due to this disease. Previous studies based on perineal patterns of Meloidogyne females identified M. incognita as the species responsible for coffee corky root disease in this state. Populations of Meloidogyne were collected from coffee plants with corky root symptoms and from intercropped banana plants, when present, in eight sites distributed through the major coffee growing region of Veracruz State. These populations were characterized by multiplex PCR using sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers for the three major coffee Meloidogyne species in Latin America: M. exigua, M. incognita and M. paranaensis. M. paranaensis was the only species present on all eight coffee samples and is reported here for the first time in Mexico. Consequently, the coffee industry in Mexico should focus more attention to this very destructive root-knot nematode, particularly at the prophylactic level to avoid its dissemination via nursery seedlings. Additionally, M. paranaensis was found in the five samples of intercropped Musa AAA and AA plants suggesting that this crop is a good host and a potentially important way of dispersal of this very pathogenic root-knot nematode since banana suckers are frequently used by growers for plantation renovations. Additionally, M. incognita was detected on Musa AAA and AA plants in three of the five studied sites with intercropped banana but never on the coffee plants even those sampled nearby banana plants.
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