Article

Work and/or Fun: Measuring Hedonic and Utilitarian Shopping Value

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Abstract

Consumer researchers' growing interest in consumer experiences has revealed that many consumption activities produce both hedonic and utilitarian outcomes. Thus, there is an increasing need for scales to assess consumer perceptions of both hedonic and utilitarian values. This article describes the development of a scale measuring both values obtained from the pervasive consumption experience of shopping. The authors develop and validate the scale using a multistep process. The results demonstrate that distinct hedonic and utilitarian shopping value dimensions exist and are related to a number of important consumption variables. Implications for further applications of the scale are discussed. Copyright 1994 by the University of Chicago.

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... Shopping goals might affect the relationship between background music and online consumer behavior. Previous research identified different reasons for consumers to visit (online) stores (Hirschman and Holbrook, 1982;Babin et al., 1994;Hoffman and Novak, 1996;Moe, 2003;Rydell and Kucera, 2021;Watson and Popescu, 2021). 1 Moe (2003) developed and tested a typology of shopping strategies based on two dimensions: search behavior [i.e., goal-directed versus exploratory/experiential behavior; Hoffman and Novak (1996); Janiszewski (1998), and Shih and Jin (2011)] and purchasing horizon (i.e., immediate vs. future). With respect to search behavior, goal-directed behavior (searching) means that the consumer has a specific or planned goal (e.g., purchase) in mind and is motivated to undertake action to achieve his/her goal efficiently. ...
... Goal-directed searching is more driven by utilitarian motives related to necessity, rationality, and task completion. Utilitarian shopping value is gained when a consumer buys a product deliberately and efficiently (Hirschman and Holbrook, 1982;Babin et al., 1994). On the other hand, experiential browsing is more driven by the hedonic utility derived from the in-store experience, which is related to fun, playfulness, fantasy, and enjoyment (Hirschman and Holbrook, 1982;Babin et al., 1994;Hoffman and Novak, 1996;Moe, 2003;Shih and Jin, 2011). ...
... Utilitarian shopping value is gained when a consumer buys a product deliberately and efficiently (Hirschman and Holbrook, 1982;Babin et al., 1994). On the other hand, experiential browsing is more driven by the hedonic utility derived from the in-store experience, which is related to fun, playfulness, fantasy, and enjoyment (Hirschman and Holbrook, 1982;Babin et al., 1994;Hoffman and Novak, 1996;Moe, 2003;Shih and Jin, 2011). Hedonic shopping value lies in the shopping experience rather than in the acquisition of goods. ...
Article
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Despite the robust evidence that congruent background music in the physical store environment positively affects consumer reactions, less is known about its effects in an online context. The present study aims (1) to examine whether congruency via multiple elicited crossmodal correspondences between background music and the online store environment (e.g., perceived lightness, loudness, and coldness of the cue/environment) leads to more positive affective, evaluative, and behavioral consumer reactions and (2) to investigate the moderating role of shopping goals on this crossmodal congruency effect. Previous research showed that low task-relevant atmospheric cues like music can have a negative effect on consumers when they visit a website with a purchase goal in mind. An online experiment was conducted with 239 respondents randomly assigned to a shopping goal (experiential browsing vs. goal-directed searching) and a music condition (no music, crossmodally congruent music, or crossmodally incongruent music). Our results show that crossmodally incongruent background music (vs. no music) leads to more positive consumer reactions for experiential browsers and more negative consumer reactions for goal-directed searchers. Conversely, crossmodally congruent background music (vs. no music) has a positive effect on experiential browsers and no adverse effect on goal-directed searchers. Additionally, the presence of crossmodally congruent background music leads to more positive consumer reactions than the presence of crossmodally incongruent background music, independent of the shopping goal. We extend previous research on multisensory congruency effects by showing the added value of establishing congruency between music and the store environment via multiple elicited crossmodal correspondences in the online environment, countering previously found negative effects of low-task relevant atmospheric cues for goal-directed searchers.
... There are different views on the structure of consumer motivation (e.g., Babin et al., 1994;Arnold and Reynolds, 2003;Lindenberg and Steg, 2007). The research of Babin et al. (1994) developed and tested a hedonic-utilitarian shopping value model. ...
... There are different views on the structure of consumer motivation (e.g., Babin et al., 1994;Arnold and Reynolds, 2003;Lindenberg and Steg, 2007). The research of Babin et al. (1994) developed and tested a hedonic-utilitarian shopping value model. Arnold and Reynolds (2003) created a measurement of hedonic motivation, comprised of six dimensions: adventure, social, gratification, idea, role, and value shopping. ...
... Kim et al. (2014) integrated motivations for hedonic benefits, utilitarian benefits, and shopping costs to Kabadayi and Paksoy (2016) identified four consumer types: serious consumers; recreational consumers; enthusiastic consumers; and rational consumers. Singh (2018) integrated materialism into hedonic (Arnold and Reynolds, 2003) and utilitarian (Babin et al., 1994) motivations and segmented Indian mall shoppers into four segments: balanced shoppers, materialists, hedonists, and value seekers. This research has provided useful insights into the typology of consumer motivation. ...
Article
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Consumer motivation plays an important role in their purchase decisions and well-being. Previous studies have investigated the relationship between certain consumer motivations and well-being separately. We aim to employ latent profile analysis (LPA) to explore subgroups of participants who display similar patterns of consumer multiple motivations and to examine differences in subjective well-being across these subtypes. The final group of (N = 1,023, ages 18–58) completed the Consumer Motivation scale online, assessing seven dimensions of consumer motivation. Results of LPA identified four subpopulations of participants: the enthusiastic group has high expectations in all aspects; the balanced group values each aspect of the product but has lower expectations; the rational group emphasizes aspects such as value for money, comfort, and quality; the apathetic group has no strong motivation for consumption, and they are relatively concerned with the dimensions of security, social acceptance, and stimulation. Consumers’ subjective well-being (life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) differed significantly across the four profiles. Specifically, scores for positive affect and life satisfaction were highest in the enthusiastic group, medium in the balanced group, and lowest in the rational and apathetic groups. Scores for negative affect were significantly higher in the enthusiastic and apathetic groups than in the rational group. These findings enable marketers to develop customized marketing strategies for different motivation profiles and contribute to helping consumers with varying motivation profiles to consciously pay attention to their well-being.
... Numerous studies have proven the crucial role of utilitarian and hedonic values in influencing consumer attitudes and behaviors (Lim, 2017(Lim, , 2014Overby & Lee, 2006), including promoting sustainable consumption and sustainable growth (Cheng et al., 2021;Tsai et al., 2014). In consumer research, value has been described in utilitarian (i.e., a deliberate search for an intentional outcome) or hedonic (i.e., a natural manifestation of the underlying character of reward for an individual's conduct) terms (Babin et al., 1994). Both hedonic and utilitarian values can have beneficial and adverse effects on ecological involvement in eco-friendly consumption (Cheng et al., 2021). ...
... Utilitarian values are a cognitive dimension that involves comprehensive assessments of functional advantages, including monetary (e.g., value for money ;Zeithaml, 1988) and nonmonetary (e.g., convenience, time savings) benefits (Crisp et al., 1997;Teo, 2001). In contrast, hedonic values are an affective dimension that involves comprehensive assessments of subjective experiences such as entertainment and pleasure (Babin et al., 1994;Lim, 2017). The literature indicates that utilitarian and hedonic values can significantly impact consumer intentions and behaviors toward offerings in the hospitality industry and that utilitarian value had a more significant influence than hedonic value in influencing consumer intention and behavior in technology-mediated hospitality services (Kim, 2015;Ozturk et al., 2016Ozturk et al., , 2016. ...
... This study demonstrates that consumers' adoption of green hotels is driven by three value drivers: utilitarian, hedonic, and biospheric values. To satisfy consumer expectations of utilitarian value, green hotels must be able to offer good value for money, deals that are better than conventional hotels, and practical amenities (Babin et al., 1994;Ryu et al., 2012), as indicated by the dimensions of this value that were flagged as significant and thus retained in the measurement model in this study. To meet consumer expectations for biospheric value, green hotels must safeguard the environment, prevent pollution, conserve natural resources (e.g., installing facilities to save water), reduce waste, and operate in harmony with the environment and species in the ecosystem (Kiatkawsin & Han, 2017;Verma et al., 2019), as noted through the measurement model in this study. ...
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Escalating environmental concerns have increased consumer interest in green consumption, and many hotels have embarked on a green transformation to accommodate this growing public sentiment. However, many consumers remain skeptical about green hotels. This research aims to shed light on consumer adoption of green hotels using value theory and diffusion of innovation theory. A structural equation modeling analysis is conducted on data collected from 332 hotel guests in India. In doing so, this research reveals four significant findings, namely (1) utilitarian value is the most substantial value predictor, followed by biospheric and hedonic values; (2) consumer innovativeness is a stronger innovation predictor than innovation characteristics; (3) consumers with high green involvement are more likely to adopt green hotels than their low green involvement counterparts; and (4) consumer adoption intention is a significant predictor of consumer actual adoption of green hotels. Taken collectively, this research provides valuable insights on consumer responses toward the value and innovation ascribed to green hotels, especially in emerging economies, where sustainability practices remain voluntary rather than mandatory. It also establishes a new theory - i.e., the value and innovation theory of green hotel adoption - that can be adopted (used), adapted (modified), or advanced (extended) in the future.
... This perception of hedonic value enhances the experience of consuming a product or service as well as the satisfaction associated with its online purchase (Miller, 2000). The UTB increases during the recreational state as an individual exhibits more hedonic orientation (Babin et al., 1994). Studies have also explained the positive relationship between hedonic values and UTB online products and services. ...
... Utilitarian consumers are concerned with detailed information regarding characteristics such as design, size, colour, weight, etc., before purchasing online products. Utilitarian value explains why achieving desired consumption should be promoted during an online shopping trip (Babin et al., 1994;Iyer et al., 2019). Therefore, the perception of utilitarian value is based on cognitive and rational experience (Choi et al., 2020;Garrido-Morgado et al., 2020). ...
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This paper presents a meta-analytical evaluation of the literature on the Urge to Buy (UTB). It seeks to establish the common antecedents of UTB as a construct by a thorough examination of the prior literature. Accordingly, the most significant antecedents of UTB are perceived enjoyment, perceived usefulness, hedonic and utilitarian values, positive and negative affects, scarcity, and impulsive buying tendency. The location of the studies has a moderating influence on the antecedents of UTB. Almost all the factors were more decisive in Eastern countries than Western. The limitations of the current study and the future research agenda have also been mentioned. The study results have both theoretical and practical implications contributing to the marketing research field. The implications of all the studies in the past on the UTB construct have been discussed, and the effect of these studies has been summarized with the meta-analysis technique.
... According to Babin et al. (1994) [53], customers could be induced to make purchases while they continue to look for more information about the product and receive more information from LSS. In addition, the followership and consumers' purchase intention in LSS are highly positively correlated [54]. ...
... According to Babin et al. (1994) [53], customers could be induced to make purchases while they continue to look for more information about the product and receive more information from LSS. In addition, the followership and consumers' purchase intention in LSS are highly positively correlated [54]. ...
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Previous studies have investigated how customer purchase intention is influenced by live streaming. However, no study has investigated the effect of service marketing mix (7Ps) on consumer shopping behavior from sellers’ perspectives. The present study is designed to shed light on the relationships among the 7Ps and the customers’ purchase intention through watching the broadcasters’ show. An integrative marketing-oriented model is proposed and tested using data collected from 330 customers (including 237 shoppers for apparel and 93 customers for seafood) through Facebook live shopping platforms. The research results reveal that promotion, placement, and physical evidence have positive effects on customers’ purchase intention. In addition, the watching intention had a positive effect on purchase intention. It is also found that watching intention has a full mediation effect on the relationship between the 7Ps marketing mix and the purchase intention. The implications of the findings and issues for future research are also discussed.
... De precizat este faptul că preţul şi calitatea au fost considerate două dimensiuni diferite ce formează valoarea funcţională a procesului de cumpărare. De asemenea, valoarea condiţională şi valoarea epistemică au fost excluse din conceptualizare deoarece niciun item (din cei 107) nu a fost atribuit acestei dimensiuni; explicaţia fiind dublă: (1) pe de o parte valoarea epistemică se referă la capacitatea produsului de a trezi curiozitatea, de a oferi noutate sau de a satisface dorinţa de cunoaştere (Babin, Darden, Griffin, 1994), iar valoarea condiţională are influenţă în cazul apariţiei unor factori situaţionali (precum o boală sau o situaţie socială), ori (2) obiectul discuţiei focalizate în grup a fost reprezentat de produse/mărci de lungă durată care au fost cunoscute (neexistând elemente de noutate) şi previzibile/controlabile (lipsa factorilor situaţionali) pentru subiecţii implicaţi. În urma testării celor 107 itemi în situaţii de precumpărare şi postcumpărare, cele patru dimensiuni finale au avut la bază un total de 19 itemi. ...
... It is worth mentioning that price and quality were considered two different dimensions which form the functional value of the buying process. Moreover, conditional and epistemic value were excluded because of two reasons: (1) epistemic value refers to the product's potential to trigger curiosity, to create novelty or to satisfy the need for knowledge (Babin, Darden, Griffin, 1994), while conditional value has an influence whenever situational factors occur (e.g. a disease or a social situation) and (2) the focus groups' object was represented by well-known products/brands (without any novelty elements) which were predictable/controllable in usage by the involved subjects (lack of situational factors). After testing the 107 items both in pre-purchase and post-purchase situations, four dimensions (with a total of 19 items) have resulted for perceived value, as following: emotional value (5 items) is the utility derived from the feelings and affective states generated by a product, social value (4 items) results from the product's capacity of developing the social-me, functional value -price (4 items) is the product's utility related to consumer's perception about the product's short and long term costs, functional value -performance (6 items) represents the utility derived from the perceived quality and the expected performance of the product. ...
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Community Markeitng Practices have been explained in detail
... Researchers most frequently explained and researched the personification of these thoughts through the emotional/rational framework of appeals (e.g., Petty, Cacioppo, and Schumann 1983;Ruiz and Sicilia 2004), hedonic and utilitarian motivation theory (Babin, Darden, and Griffin 1994;Hirschman and Holbrook 1982), and cultural dimensions theory (Hofstede 1980). This ties directly to the second level in the HOE model: the affective dimension. ...
... The affective dimension level refers to feeling responses and sentiments (emotional states) that influence movement through the hierarchy and shape attitudes toward people and objects (Lavidge and Steiner 1961). Attitude theory (Ajzen and Fishbein 1980;Shimp 1981) and hedonic and utilitarian motivation theory (Babin, Darden, and Griffin 1994;Hirschman and Holbrook 1982) provided the theoretical foundation for the role of emotion in response to service ads. The type of emotion used also plays a significant role and influences the type of response. ...
... What customers seek from the website can be divided into two categories, namely, first, hedonic shopping orientation, which is obtained when the website is used to enjoy the online experience itself, such as taking a virtual tour of a hotel room and seeing pictures of the facilities's pictures that the hotel offered. Second, utilitarian spending orientation results from the achievement of specific goals, that includes purchasing goods, such as; comparing prices and seeing the property's location (Babin et al., 1994;Chiu et al., 2005). ...
... The result implies that although utilitarian features help the guest easily find out information about hotels, it does not directly give influence loyalty. Babin et al. (1994) in their research, found that the influence of consumer emotions on utilitarian is less clear. Consumers who emphasize detailed product information, accessible and user-friendly buying, website interfaces, and monetary savings are prone to forming a rational attitude towards online shopping on websites. ...
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Digital marketing has become a mainstay for consumers to make purchases; one factor supporting it is that consumers can easily find information about the products. This research aimed to find out the influence of hedonic and utilitarianism on e-Loyalty through Trust. The population of this research is repeat guests who had reserved the hotel room more than twice. The analysis used descriptive and quantitative analysis by analyzing data using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The result of the research showed that Hedonic and Utilitarian have a significant influence on trust. Hedonic gives significant influence towards e-loyalty, whereas Utilitarian does not give significant influence towards e-loyalty. Finally, trust gives significant value to e-loyalty. Hedonic and Utilitarian give indirect influence to e-loyalty. Based on these findings, the writer provided critical managerial implications that the hotel should focus on the website's content to help consumers find the information quickly and make them enjoy and grow their willingness to book and stay at the hotel.
... Hedonic versus utilitarian characteristics are important for purchases [40]. Hedonic consumption is based on customers' experiences of shopping and emotional attachment to a brand, focusing on fun, playfulness, enjoyment, excitement, and the need for surprise [41,42]. In contrast, utilitarian consumption is more goaldirected and pertains to the need to complete specific tasks efficiently and effectively [43,44]. ...
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In This study demonstrates how brands can build strong, sustainable engagement with customers and ascertains the key essence of communication between brands and customers. We examined the process of deepening customer engagement and generating customer benefits, which have been insufficiently discussed in the literature. We assessed long-term loyal customers who exhibited deep levels of engagement using two case studies of luxury fashion brands and utilitarian consumption in Japan. We collected qualitative data through one-on-one semi-structured interviews and analyzed them using the grounded theory approach. We found that a sustainable relationship between a brand and its customers is built when both their goals are consistent. Not only do customers select brands but brands also select customers based on their mission through interpersonal communication. Such interpersonal communication creates the possibility of fostering sustainable partnerships and positively impacts customers’ well-being.
... Accordingly, perceived value increases when customers perceive the benefits to outweigh the costs (Hsu & Lin, 2015). In general, perceived value is categorized into utilitarian value and hedonic value (Babin et al., 1994;Chiu et al., 2012). ...
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The containment measures for the COVID-19 pandemic, including social distancing, lockdown or quarantining, have led to a paradigm shift in people's life. In the wake of the pandemic, many people have begun adopting technology as a way to maintain their daily activities and limit face-to-face human interactions. While the pandemic has facilitated the widespread use of technology, little attention has been paid to how consumers' intention to continue using technology is affected by their rational evaluation and habitual response, simultaneously. To address this knowledge gap, this study employs the expectation-confirmation model as a theoretical lens to propose the research model and explain the antecedents of technology continuance intention from both perspectives of conscious versus unconscious responses. The conscious response is reflected in perceived value and satisfaction, whereas the unconscious response is characterized as habit. The proposed research model and hypotheses are supported by the data collected from 308 online food delivery service users. Our results show that habit is driven by perceived value and satisfaction, and then mediates the effects of them on continuance intention. Moreover, habit exerts the strongest effect on continuance intention and weakens the importance of perceived value as well as satisfaction to continuance intention. This study is expected to set the theoretical foundation for more future research that focus on the exploration of the conscious versus unconscious nature of consumers' technology continuance. The study concludes with practical implications and suggestions for catering businesses and relevant stakeholders.
... Holbrook and Hirschman (1982) suggested that consumer behavior goes beyond the objectives such as functional utility and price. The authors corroborated that such a view is too narrow to realize the contributing motivations to resulting consumer behavior (Babin et al. 1994). The value dichotomy, utilitarian vs. hedonic, realized from the products enables marketers to view the hedonic value offered by various brands that drives consumer behavior (Holbrook and Hirschman 1982). ...
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... These perceptions mainly form the basis for perceived value of customers, which in turn, affects their satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Babin, Darden, and Griffin (1994) have conceptualized perceived value as having two dimensions that are utilitarian and hedonic value. While utilitarian values are related with more functional attributes, hedonic values are more related with subjective attributes such as the interaction or service process (Arnold & Reynolds, 2003). ...
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Destination Image includes the spiritual concept and the perception of a person or a group from a destination. In addition, Destination Image can reflect a simplified set of fragmented perceptions that covers a lot of information about a place. Predigestedly, the Destination Image is a personal perception that can vary from one person to another .the main purpose of this study is to offer some efficient suggestions in the form of some applicable methods in managing the tourists’ image of Iran and especially Tabriz Metropolis as a tourism destination. Undoubtedly, responding to all the questions of both foreign and domestic tourists before entering Tabriz, does not seem very realistic because the tourism product is a complex set of values, intangible, inseparable, variable, and unreliable that there is nothing in hand to be examined or carried by the customer, but offering some methods proper to Tabriz’s social, economic, geographical and cultural features is possible.
... Accordingly, perceived value increases when customers perceive the benefits to outweigh the costs (Hsu & Lin, 2015). In general, perceived value is categorized into utilitarian value and hedonic value (Babin et al., 1994;Chiu et al., 2012). ...
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The containment measures for the COVID-19 pandemic, including social distancing, lockdown or quarantining, have led to a paradigm shift in people's life. In the wake of the pandemic, many people have begun adopting technology as a way to maintain their daily activities and limit face-to-face human interactions. While the pandemic has facilitated the widespread use of technology, little attention has been paid to how consumers' intention to continue using technology is affected by their rational evaluation and habitual response, simultaneously. To address this knowledge gap, this study employs the expectation-confirmation model as a theoretical lens to propose the research model and explain the antecedents of technology continuance intention from both perspectives of conscious versus unconscious responses. The conscious response is reflected in perceived value and satisfaction, whereas the unconscious response is characterized as habit. The proposed research model and hypotheses are supported by the data collected from 308 online food delivery service users. Our results show that habit is driven by perceived value and satisfaction, and then mediates the effects of them on continuance intention. Moreover, habit exerts the strongest effect on continuance intention and weakens the importance of perceived value as well as satisfaction to continuance intention. This study is expected to set the theoretical foundation for more future research that focus on the exploration of the conscious versus unconscious nature of consumers' technology continuance. The study concludes with practical implications and suggestions for catering businesses and relevant stakeholders.
... The finding that the largest effect is related to emotional and flexibility values rather than functional, economic, moral or even social value (by order of importance) extends to the CE domain the conventional understanding that consumption relies on utilitarian and hedonic/experiential motives (Babin et al., 1994;Holbrook & Hirschman, 1982) while bringing some nuances to the fore. Although germane with functional value, flexibility value is more concerned with convenience and ease of accessing a resource or service than its performance (i.e. ...
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... Furthermore, the scarcity of products caused by pre-sales and limited number of preferential policies during the carnival is likely to evoke consumers' perceived competitiveness [57], and consequently pressures them to search for more information in advance. In addition, as the experience also matters during consumers shopping process [58], interactions with others in a pleasure atmosphere will also have an impact on consumers' information search behavior and purchasing decisions [18]. Guided by these, Tmall platform has launched a great deal of amusements during the carnival, such as "countdown to the Double 11 Day", "team up for red packets" and "catching cats", which will consequently spark consumers' further visits and page views than usual. ...
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Alibaba's annual online shopping carnival is well known for being one of the most successful promotion campaigns, during which marketers often deliver as many informational incentives and promotion activities as possible to inspire consumers' fanatical participation and purchases. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of studies that examined the effect of such rationality manipulation on consumers decision-making process using real-world behavioral evidence, which gives us an opportunity to make up for this research gap. Using a unique shopping log dataset generated by consumers on the Tmall platform, we regard the promotional activities release date as source of exogenous shock and conduct a regression discontinuity in time design to examine the change in consumers rationality degree during the carnival. The empirical results show that consumers tend to deal with more external cues and be more stick to their original options within a shorter decision cycle during the carnival, which indicates their decreasing rationality degrees and thus verifies the effectiveness of marketers’ rationality manipulation. Interestingly, we also found an in-group bias that such rationality manipulation has different influences on consumer subgroups of different genders and ages. Among them, of particular note is that the consumer group younger than 24 years old not only has the biggest gender difference within the group, but also has the biggest difference with other age groups. Findings emerged from this study will help marketers improve promotion effectiveness and deliver a rational allocation of information resources on the e-commerce platform.
... The customer data were transcribed and analyzed, and several items generated. Items were also drawn from the literature and existing scales (Babin et al., 1994;Brakus et al., 2009;Cao & Li, 2015;Klaus & Maklan, 2012), yielding 29 items. ...
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Little is known about how omnichannel retailers should integrate their channels to provide their customers with seamless shopping journeys, or how this can impact desirable consumer behaviors. This gap in knowledge can be of significant concern for retailers due to the investment required in omnichannel and the potential negative impacts on their performance. This article explores the concept of the seamless shopping journey and proposes a valid and reliable measurement scale. By analyzing retailers’ omnichannel strategies and their consumers’ perceptions of seamless shopping, we show how retailer omnichannel integration strategies directly affect customers’ seamless shopping journey perceptions. Customers who perceive shopping as seamless are more engaged, likely to buy more and less likely to switch to another retailer. Our work offers actionable guidance to retailers seeking to enhance their omnichannel strategies and to achieve a seamless shopping journey.
... Millonig and Gartner (2011) used observational tracking, supported by GPS (outdoor) and Bluetooth (indoor) movement tracing, to develop data-driven typologies based on pedestrian movement characteristics. Their results have some synergy with existing typologies from consumer research [particularly the hedonistic/utilitarian typology introduced by Babin et al. (1994)]. Millonig and Gartner (2011) presented a very wellsourced typology of urban shoppers: they identified "passionate shoppers" (who stop often and for comparatively long times, mostly at fashion shops) (p. ...
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In this review paper, we aim to make the case that a concept from retail analytics and marketing—the customer journey —can provide promising new frameworks and support for agent-based modeling, with a broad range of potential applications to high-resolution and high-fidelity simulation of dynamic phenomena on urban high streets. Although not the central focus of the review, we consider agent-based modeling of retail high streets against a backdrop of broader debate about downtown vitality and revitalization, amid a climate of economic challenges for brick-and-mortar retail. In particular, we consider how agent-based modeling, supported by insights from consideration of indoor shopping, can provide planning and decision support in outdoor high street settings. Our review considers abstractions of customers through conceptual modeling and customer typology, as well as abstractions of retailing as stationary and mobile. We examine high-level agency of shop choice and selection, as well as low-level agency centered on perception and cognition. Customer journeys are most often trips through geography; we therefore review path-planning, generation of foot traffic, wayfinding, steering, and locomotion. On busy high streets, journeys also manifest within crowd motifs; we thus review proximity, group dynamics, and sociality. Many customer journeys along retail high streets are dynamic, and customers will shift their journeys as they come into contact with experiences and service offerings. To address this, we specifically consider treatment of time and timing in agent-based models. We also examine sites for customer journeys, looking in particular at how agent-based models can provide support for the analysis of atmospherics, artifacts, and location-based services. Finally, we examine staff-side agency, considering store staff as potential agents outdoors; and we look at work to build agent-based models of fraud from customer journey analysis.
... The findings of this study also showed that escapism strongly influenced cruise traveler experiences, which is not surprising because travelers, while cruising, escape from their daily routines and problems and feel as if they are in a different world. Further, during a cruise where people seek to consume experiences rather than simply products (Ahn & Back, 2019), hedonic values are more salient than utilitarian values (Babin et al., 1994). This study's results show that hedonic values are fundamental in cruise lines. ...
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This study develops a measurement scale to assess cruise traveler experience. Based on the data collected from 341 respondents (Sample 1), exploratory factor analysis resulted in 15 items under four dimensions: Hedonics & escapism, social interaction, recognition & self-esteem, and activities and facilities. This factorial structure was then subjected to confirmatory factor analysis for validation using the second wave of data collected from 396 respondents (Sample 2). Furthermore, this study found significant roles of four dimensions on cruise satisfaction and post-consumption cruise behavior. Thus, this study makes significant contributions to consumer behavior by developing and validating the cruise traveler experience scale.
... 38). Likewise, Babin et al. (1994) argued that the outcome of a service experience is evaluated not only by its utility but also by its experiential perspective for hedonic services. ...
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The current study investigated the influence of service quality factors on season ticket holder (STH) satisfaction and intention to renew their season tickets. The current study was particularly interested in exploring the unique contribution of the season ticket-specific service quality on STHs’ satisfaction and retention in the context of professional sports. Data were collected from 646 STHs from a Major League Baseball (MLB) team using an online survey. The findings from the hierarchical multiple regression models confirm the influence of the STHs’ team identification, three gameday service quality dimensions (game, facility, and interaction qualities factor), and the season ticket service quality (STSQ) on their level of satisfaction and intention to renew their season tickets. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that all groups of predictors contribute to predicting STH satisfaction and intention to renew, together explaining 42.4% and 34.7% of the variances in satisfaction and renewal intention, respectively. Results showed the importance of the season ticket service quality in satisfying and retaining STHs, even after controlling their team identification and gameday service quality. The findings of this study provide helpful tips for sport managers to ensure important service qualities and train their service employees accordingly.
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The rapid growth of on-demand services and the increasing competition among platforms make the repurchase behaviors of experienced clients an urgent and important problem. Drawing on the cognition-affection-connation framework, this study proposes a research model to examine how clients' repurchase intentions are shaped in the context of on-demand services by focusing on the service client-platform relationship. The model was tested with a sample of 519 respondents collected from experienced clients of the largest on-demand service platform in China, Meituan, via the questionnaire survey method. Our findings suggest that the three value constructs (i.e., cognition) derived from the service consuming experience, including utilitarian value, hedonic value and interactivity value, significantly contribute to the establishment of platform attachment (i.e., affection), which in turn drives repurchase intention (i.e., conation) toward on-demand services. This research outlines an attachment-based framework to gain an insightful understanding of client loyalty behaviors in the on-demand service context. It also makes contributions to the existing research by extending the cognition-affection-connation framework to online contexts and by illustrating the essential role of platform attachment derived from the client-platform relationship in driving clients' repurchase behaviors in platform-based businesses.
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This experiment aims to measure the psychological impact of wearing (un)sustainable clothing on emotions. Baseline levels of subjective well-being in a sample ( N = 39) were used to allocate participants to conditions: Group 1: wearing plain T-shirts; Group 2: wearing ‘sustainable’ T-shirts and Group 3: wearing ‘unsustainable’ T-shirts. Analysis showed statistically significant differences in positive ( H (2) = 11.600, p = 0.003) and negative ( H (2) = 20.046, p < 0.001) feelings. Participants wearing sustainable clothing felt more positive (Median [ Mdn ] = 26) than participants wearing unsustainable clothing ( Mdn = 20, p = 0.002). Participants wearing unsustainable clothing felt more negative ( Mdn = 15) than participants wearing sustainable clothing ( Mdn = 7, p < 0.001) and participants wearing a plain T-shirt ( Mdn = 8, p = 0.004). This study highlights the existence of a relationship between what we wear and how we feel, reinforcing the importance of knowing the source of our clothing.
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Images have become integral to consumers' sharing of consumption experiences due to their abilities of carrying rich and vivid information. This study investigates the impacts of restaurant review photo sentiment on customers’ perceived review usefulness and enjoyment using deep learning and econometric model analysis. The results indicate that (1) reviews with photos are more useful and enjoyable than reviews without photos; (2) a U-shaped relationship exists between review photo sentiment and review usefulness, with the effect of review photo sentiment on review enjoyment being positive and linear. Moreover, the effects can be strengthened by the number of review photos while weakened by the text-photo sentiment disparity. The above findings are reinforced by a sample of restaurant online reviews written by tourists in Las Vegas. This study contributes to the electronic word-of-mouth literature as well as to the application of machine learning technologies in computer vision to tourism and hospitality research.
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Cross-cultural user experience with mobile apps is a vital topic for international digital marketers. By integrating the affective contagion and the value-based perspectives, this study theorizes and validates the role of affinity in foreign users’ satisfaction with local mobile apps. We further propose that the effect of affinity via the affective contagion mechanism is contingent on cultural context and is mediated by foreign users’ value perception of local mobile apps. The proposed model is empirically tested by two samples of foreign users in China. By controlling a comprehensive set of extraneous variables, we find that culture affinity has a positive impact on foreign users’ satisfaction with local mobile apps, but people affinity has an insignificant effect. The results also indicate that the effect of culture affinity on satisfaction is stronger for foreign users from a high cultural context and mobile apps with a high cultural context. In addition, the proposed effect is mediated by perceived value in terms of enjoyment and utility. The findings support affective contagion effects in cross-national mobile apps adoption and improve our understanding of affinity on foreign users’ satisfaction and value perception. Specific guidelines are provided for mobile marketers and app developers in global markets.
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This research aims at investigating the potential double-edged sword effect of a retailer’s negative feedback, which may not only lead consumers to alter their purchase decisions, but also provide a shopping experience that is more effortful and thus be of less utilitarian value. Three experiments were performed involving 678 participants. Overall, results suggest a double-edged sword effect of negative feedback in online and offline retail contexts. When compared to no feedback, neutral feedback, or positive feedback, negative feedback leads consumers to change their initial product choice whatever their choice uncertainty and whatever the feedback source (human advisor or algorithmic advisor). However, it also leads to the perception of more cognitive effort and reduced utilitarian value, resulting in lower purchase and word-of-mouth intentions. The only situation in which negative feedback does not degrade the utilitarian value of the shopping experience is when consumers are highly uncertain about their initial product choice.
Chapter
Social and environmental sustainability in the supply chain has been a major concern over the last decade as public opinion has placed responsibility on the shoulders of retail companies for their lack of control over suppliers that go beyond the first tier, which are usually located in emerging countries with regulations far below international standards. The objective of this research is to identify the variables through which retail companies are building their brand equity with a fast fashion business model in the textile sector. An analysis has been carried out regarding the content of annual reports, as well as CSR and sustainability reports, of the main retail companies in the textile sector: The TJX Companies, Inditex, and H&M. Inditex, the company with the highest level of compliance, can be identified and considered as a case study.
The digital age has posed challenges to the convenience store (c-store) industry regarding the types of technology investment required to compete in the digital world, and the c-store industry has experienced years of customer count declines. This research empirically examines what store stimuli are important to c-store consumers and how these factors affect the customer experience, satisfaction, and revisit intentions. The data were collected from 502 c-store consumers, and the covariance-based structural equation modeling technique was used to test the hypothesized associations. We found that hedonic customer experience mediates the association between store image, price, service quality, omnichannel, and customer satisfaction. Utilitarian customer experience mediates the association between store image, product assortment, price, and customer satisfaction. In addition, customer satisfaction has a positive effect on the revisit intentions. The findings of the research contribute to the theory building of customer experience of convenience stores. This research reveals that emphasizing hedonic experiences could be the answer to reversing the declining consumer trips in the convenience store industry. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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El presente artículo tiene como objetivo determinar el nivel de calidad de los servicios de las empresas restauranteras de Cañete. La metodología fue de enfoque cuantitativo y diseño no experimental de carácter descriptivo se recolectó información de los comensales con un instrumento denominado Escala Mexicana de Calidad de Servicio en Restaurantes (Emcaser), donde los factores evaluados fueron: aseguramiento, ambiente, comida, instalaciones y conveniencia. Los resultados revelan una deficiente calidad del servicio en los restaurantes estudiados. Se concluye que los restaurantes en Cañete muestran una debilidad importante la cual requiere ser asumida por los propietarios en vista de desafíos que plantea el entorno cambiante y los requerimientos de sus clientes, ésta mejora mejorar conllevará a una mayor satisfacción de los mismos.
Chapter
Value is a fundamental concept in relationship marketing (RM). The company's ability to create value for its customers is seen as the most successful competitive strategy. The effervescence created by this subject in the scientific community and the diversity of proposed meanings and approaches have led to a theoretical confusion around this concept. In this chapter, the authors tried to study the concept of value through an extensive and eclectic literature review. They particularly attempted to focus on the perceived side of this concept, as the customer point of view is the primary concern for companies that are marketing oriented. The developments lead us to consider the customer-supplier relationship as a source of enrichment for the concept of perceived value. From there, it is better to talk in RM about “perceived relationship value” (PRV) rather than “perceived value.” PRV is then presented as a key integrative concept to build a successful customer-supplier relationship.
Article
Purpose Food packaging pictures are one of the most important extrinsic cues for consumers to evaluate food products before purchasing. Over the past decades, marketers have used exaggerated pictures to attract consumers' attention, enhance their attitude toward a product and increase their purchase intention. This study examined the interplay of “puff-up” product picture, food type and picture type in influencing consumers' responses via persuasion knowledge. Design/methodology/approach The research comprises two 2 × 2 factorial experiments. Study 1 tested the interaction effect of puffery (high vs low) and food type (utilitarian vs. hedonic) on consumers' responses using two fictitious brands of prepared food, whereas Study 2 tested the interaction effect of puffery (high vs. low) and picture type (ingredients vs. cooked food) using a fictitious brand of Chinese delicacy. Findings Results demonstrated that the degree of picture puffery did not influence consumers' responses to utilitarian food and ingredient image. Conversely, consumers were sensitive to puffery when they see hedonic food and cooked-food image. Our findings also suggested that consumers' persuasion knowledge mediates the relationship between puffery and their responses. Practical implications The presented findings facilitate marketers to know consumers' attitude about food puffery pictures. Originality/value This research is one of the first efforts to empirically explore the influences of persuasion knowledge on food puffery pictures. The importance of this work is underscored by the fact that a growing number of visual exaggerations are adopted on food packaging.
Article
Fitness application service providers are offering rewards, such as points to users as incentives for service use. However, it is questionable whether this reward offering is an effective measure for persuading consumers to use fitness applications continuously. This study examines how reward affects continued use of fitness applications. An online survey was conducted on 268 people who actually used the fitness application. Respondents were divided into two groups at random, an extrinsic reward group and a non-extrinsic reward group, to check the effects of the rewards. Structural equation modeling was used for data analysis. Factors influencing a user's continuous intention to use fitness applications will vary depending on whether rewards are provided. For the extrinsic reward group, perceived enjoyment and perceived privacy protection were significant variables to continue use of a fitness application. However, for the non-extrinsic reward group, monetary value was a significant variable. For continuous use of a fitness application, if rewards are provided, it is necessary to emphasize intrinsic factors such as fun rather than extrinsic factors such as savings and cost. On the other hand, without rewards, it is necessary to highlight extrinsic factors rather than intrinsic factors.
Article
Purpose Business-to-business (B2B) relations will become more prevalent in many areas such as delivery services, based on current trends supporting e-commerce proliferation. In addition, hyperlocal e-commerce, which focuses on customers in a small geographic region, relies heavily on another business to handle the supply chain. Emerging trends in business to business to customer (B2B2C) experiences provide retailers with opportunities to develop strategies for better customer service. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a scale for measuring business customer experience in the B2B2C aggregator business model. Design/methodology/approach Using the psychometric scale development procedure, the researchers devised a 29-item, six-dimensional scale measuring business customer experience with the help of two cross-sectional studies. Restaurant managers who rely on delivery partners to serve their customers were surveyed twice. The authors validated a scale for assessing business customer experience using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Findings Based on fit criteria, a higher-order formative structure was best suited to the scale. The dimensions identified were shared vision, interaction experience, end-customer focus, relationship experience, service experience and outcome focus. According to the study, business customer experience is more objective and utilitarian than existing paradigms on customer experience. Research limitations/implications Theoretically, this research helps to understand the underpinnings behind the formation of business customer experience and attempt to bring transformative service research focus in the B2B2C trilogy as better experiences predict the well-being of members of the business centre in the B2B. Practical implications Practically, this research helps businesses to revisit their strategies for a better relationship with business partners for jointly offering an improved experience to the end customers. Originality/value This study explains a pioneer attempt to develop a scale for business customer experience in the context of B2B2C aggregator business models.
Article
With the development of globalization and technology, it is seen that consumption is increasing rapidly. With the increasing online consumption and the effect of the COVID-19 epidemic, there are some differences in consumer behavior. One of these behaviors is compulsive buying behavior that individuals have difficulty in controlling and perform as a result of an impulse. Compulsive buying behavior is becoming a threat to individuals and families in today's societies. Considering all of these together with the relevant literature review, the aim of this study is to determine the differences in e-compulsive buying behaviors of women living in Turkey during the pandemic process in the context of demographic factors. In the research, convenience sampling method, which is one of the non-random sampling methods, was used and the online survey method was applied. In the study; there is a 7-item e-compulsive buying scale adapted by Türkyılmaz, Kocamaz, and Uslu (2016). As a result of the analysis, it was concluded that working women do more e-compulsive shopping than non-working women in terms of e-compulsive buying behaviors. On the other hand, it is observed that e-compulsive buying behaviors of female consumers differ in terms of monthly income. It has been determined that there is no difference in e-compulsive buying behaviors in terms of women's marital status, whether they have children, their age, education level and residential areas.
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Dinamik ve rekabetçi iş dünyasında karara varma ihtiyacı, tüketici davranışları üzerindeki etkileri ile önemli bir itici bir güç olarak gittikçe daha fazla dikkat çekmektedir. Bu temelde, araştırmanın amacı, karara varma ihtiyacının tüketicilerin faydacı ve hedonik tüketim davranışlarına etkisini incelemektir. Bu amaca yönelik online anket uygulaması ile Türkiye genelinde 605 katılımcıdan toplanan veriler SPSS programı ile analiz edilmiştir. Analiz sonuçlarına göre karara varma ihtiyacı boyutlarının faydacı ve hedonik tüketim ile ilişkili olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Karara varma ihtiyacının boyutlarından belirsizlikten rahatsız olma boyutunun ve hızlı karar verme boyutunun hedonik tüketim üzerinde; belirsizlikten rahatsız olma, yeni fikirlere kapalı olma, öngörülebilirlik ve düzen arama boyutlarının ise faydacı tüketim üzerinde anlamlı ve pozitif yönde etkisinin olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. A B S T R A C T The need for closure in a dynamic competitive business world and its implications on consumer behavior is gaining more and more attention as a major driving force. On this basis, the aim of the research is to examine the effect of the need for closure on the utilitarian and hedonic consumption behaviors of consumers. For this purpose, the data collected from 605 participants across Turkey with the online survey application were analyzed with the SPSS method. According to the results of the analysis, it has been determined that the dimensions of the need for closure are related to utilitarian and hedonic consumption. It has been concluded that the dimensions of closure; discomfort with uncertainty and quick closure dimensions have a significant and positive effect on hedonic consumption; discomfort with uncertainty, closed to new ideas, predictability and order seeking dimensions have a significant and positive effect on utilitarian consumption. "Tüm pazarlama kararları, varsayımlara ve tüketici davranışı bilgisine dayanmaktadır." (Hawkins, Mothersbaugh ve Best, 2007)
Article
Purpose Consumers often start using mobile health apps but quit using them after a brief period of time. However, app providers can only ensure their long-term existence in the market if their app is used a long period, so that they can thus generate long-term revenue from advertising, subscriptions and sponsorships. Therefore, this study aims to gain a deeper understanding of the determinants of consumers’ continuous usage intention. Design/methodology/approach Based on a sample of 274 current mobile health app users, this study tests whether ideal self-congruence and/or functional congruence strengthens consumers’ continuous usage intention. Findings The results reveal that ideal self-congruence and functional congruence positively affect consumers’ continuous usage intention. Furthermore, an initial favorable attitude toward a mobile health app (i.e. ideal self-congruence) leads to a more favorable evaluation of the functional attributes of the app regardless of consumers’ objective evaluation of these attributes. Practical implications Providers should specifically take consumers’ ideal self-concept into consideration to increase consumers’ continuous usage intention of mobile health apps. Matching consumers’ ideal self-concept further leads consumers to a more favorable evaluation of the functional attributes of mobile health apps. Originality/value Only a few studies have examined factors influencing the continuous usage intention of mobile health apps; moreover, these studies have largely neglected the symbolic dimension of consumption behavior. Therefore, this study introduces congruence theory into the context of mobile health apps to provide a holistic view of the influence of the symbolic (i.e. ideal self-congruence) and utilitarian (i.e. functional congruence) dimensions on mobile health app consumption.
Article
Traditionally software products have been classified as utilitarian or hedonic based on the value they provide to the users. In this cross-disciplinary study, we introduce another category of software products called social products i.e., those which provide symbolic value to its users. However, we also suggest these three types of software products are ideal types. In reality, most software products are likely hybrid. They provide differing magnitude of all three values: Utilitarian, Hedonic and Social. We use the different levels (high, medium, and low) of these three values to classify products as predominantly Utilitarian, predominantly Hedonic, predominantly Social and five types of Hybrids. This classification of products offers a fresh perspective into how users view different products in terms of the value they provide to them. The insights from the study can be used to assess software product positioning and to develop suitable product development strategies.
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Yaratıcı turizm, destinasyonların kültürel özelliklerine özgü faaliyetleri kullanarak turistlerin basit materyaller ile oluşturdukları öğrenme sürecini kapsamaktadır. Bu özelliği ile yaratıcı turizm, destinasyonların farklılaşmasını sağlayarak turistlere deneyim sunabilmektedir. Kültür turizminin kaynaklarını kullanan yaratıcı turizm, deneyim yaşamak isteyen turistlerin taleplerine uygun bir alternatif turizm çeşididir. Turistler destinasyon ziyaretlerinde deniz, kum, güneş üçlüsünün dışında alternatif deneyim arayışı içindedir. Kültürel özelliklere ilgi gösteren turistler, yerele özgü faaliyetleri ve kültürü tanıyarak daha fazla deneyim yaşama isteğindedir. Turistlerin gerçekleştirmek istedikleri bu deneyimlerin unutulmaz deneyimlere dönüşmesi destinasyonlar için önemli bir yere sahiptir. Yaratıcı turizm, destinasyonların kültürel öğelerinde farklılık sağlayarak unutulmaz deneyimler oluşturabilmesine yardımcı olabilir. Yapılan çalışmada, yaratıcı turizm faaliyetlerinin unutulmaz turizm deneyimi üzerinde etkisinin olup olmadığının tespit edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini; çömlek yapımı, halı/kilim dokuma, mücevher yapımı, yöresel yemek pişirimi, porselen boyama, çini yapımı, şarap yapımı, zeytinyağı yapımı, seramik yapımı, ebru sanatı ve taş oymacılığı gibi benzer faaliyetlerin bulunduğu destinasyonları ziyaret eden turistler oluşturmaktadır. Evrene ulaşmak adına yargısal örneklem tekniği kullanarak yaratıcı turizm faaliyetlerine katılan turistlere ulaşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Yaratıcı turizm faaliyetine katılan 270 turiste anket tekniği uygulanarak veriler elde edilmiştir. Toplanan verilerin analiz edilmesinde SPSS 18 ve AMOS 26 istatistiki programlar kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen veriler güvenirlilik analizi, açıklayıcı faktör analizi ve frekans analizine tabi tutulmuştur. AMOS 26 programı ile araştırma modelinin test edilmesi amacıyla doğrulayıcı faktör analizi ve yapısal eşitlik modellemesi yapılmıştır. Analiz bulguları doğrultusunda yaratıcı turizm faaliyetlerinin unutulmaz turizm deneyimi üzerinde istatiksel olarak anlamlı bir etkisinin bulunmadığı saptanmıştır. Ancak yaratıcı turizm deneyimi alt boyutu olan benzersiz katılımının; hazcılık, yenilik, yerel kültür, anlamlılık ve bilgi üzerinde anlamlı bir etkisinin olduğu, iç huzurun yenilik boyutu üzerinde, öğrenmenin bilgi boyutu üzerinde anlamlı bir etkisinin olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Creative tourism, includes the learning process created by tourists with simple materials using activities specific to the cultural characteristics of destinations. With this feature, creative tourism can offer tourists an experience by enabling the differentiation of destinations. Creative tourism, which uses the resources of cultural tourism, is an alternative type of tourism that meets the demands of tourists who want to have an experience. Tourists are in search of alternative experience outside the sea, sand, sun trio. Tourists, who are interested in cultural features, want to experience more by getting to know local activities and culture. The transformation of these experiences that tourists want to realize into memorable experiences has an important place for destinations. Creative tourism can help create memorable experiences by providing differences in the cultural elements of destinations. In this study aimed to determine whether creative tourism activities have an effect on memorable tourism experiences or not. The population of the study; pottery, carpet/rug, weaving, jewelry making, local cooking, porcelain painting, tile making, winemaking, olive oil, pottery, stone carving, marbling art form destinations with similar activities. In order to reach the population, it has been tried to reach the tourists participating in creative tourism activities by using the judicial sampling technique. Data were obtained by applying the questionnaire technique to 270 tourists participating in the creative tourism activity. SPSS 18 and AMOS 26 statistical programs were used to analyze the collected data. The obtained data were subjected to reliability analysis, explanatory factor analysis, and frequency analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed to test the research model with the AMOS 26 program. In line with the analysis findings, it has been determined that creative tourism activities do not have a statistically significant effect on the memorable tourism experience. However, the unique involvement of the creative tourism experience sub-dimension; It has been determined that hedonism has a significant effect on novelty, local culture, meaningfulness and knowledge, peace of mind has a significant effect on the novelty dimension, and learning has a significant effect on the knowledge dimension.
Chapter
Online shopping is one of the most popular online activities worldwide, in 2020, retail e-commerce sales worldwide amounted to 4.28 trillion US dollars and e-retail revenues are projected to grow to 5.4 trillion US dollars in 2022. Cornershop was born in 2015 with an initial capital of US $ 300 thousand. They managed to raise US $ 30 million and in just six years later, and after Uber announced that it would take 100% of the company, it was valued at no less than US $ 3,000 million. The present study aimed to model the continuity of use of the Cornershop app. The proposed model was made up of six latent variables, based on UTAUT2 which 8 hypotheses were proposed to explain the Behavioral Intention (BI) to use Cornershop. To obtain data, a survey was applied through SurveyMonkey, which consisted of 32 questions, intended to measure observable variables associated with the latent constructs of the model, and study the demographic profile of respondent that are users of Cornershop. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that Performance Expectancy, Habit, Price Value, Hedonic Motivation and Utilitarian Motivation, are statistically significant when predicting Behavioral Intention to use Cornershop. Other results, conclusions, and theoretical and practical recommendations are further discussed along the paper.
Article
Purpose Although fashion products feature a short lifespan owing to rapid changes in trends, fashion is one of the most active sectors in reward-based crowdfunding. This study aims to explore what drives backers to be involved in fashion projects despite the delay in obtaining rewards. Design/methodology/approach This study used the mixed method approach by conducting a critical incident technique and two online surveys with 801 crowdfunding backers. Findings Eight dimensions of backers' motivations were identified: altruism, enjoyment, novelty, information, economic incentive, reward, recognition, and social relationship. The finding was validated by testing the relationship with external variables. Research limitations/implications The findings provide the empirical foundation for studies on reward-based crowdfunding motivation and marketing strategy development appealing to backers' specific motivations. They highlight the importance of motivations in funding fashion projects and sharing information. Originality/value This study applies three motivational orientations and reflects the characteristics of product categories of rewards.
Conference Paper
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Nowadays tourism industry has changed into an influential phenomenon in the world economy, in a way that most countries consider this as the main source of income, occupation, development in the private sector, and development in fundamental structures. Meanwhile, urban tourism is the most popular and eminent kind of tourism, in a way that considering cities special position in most successful countries in the field, the city is the foundation and basis for tourism development. The present investigation tries to evaluate and analyze existing challenges of tourism, and provide appropriate solutions based on the country's economical, cultural and social conditions through the contrastive study of scientific findings regarding urban tourism in Iran, especially in the Tabriz metropolis.
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In recent years, the need to develop a user-centric Smart Product-Service Systems (smart PSS) with user experience (UX) has been widely recognized by both industry and academia. Although perceived value is a key driver of smart product/service development with unique experience, existing research has rarely systematically explored the perceived value of smart PSS that can be identified, which could lead organizations to be unable to adapt to this rapid digital transformation. Thus, this study adopted smart kitchen appliances to identify which dimensions of perceived value are influential in the development of the smart PSS with UX. The primary objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a comprehensive perceived value scale of smart PSS; and (2) validate the scale’s stability and goodness of fit. The analysis results of this study show that a one-order confirmatory factor analysis is effective for verifying the scale. Five latent variables, usefulness, flexibility, reliability, fee, and technicality, and 19 observable variables can be used as effective evaluation measurement indicators to demonstrate that a value-based viewpoint is crucial for development of the smart PSS with UX in the organization.
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Does fear of COVID-19 shape consumers’ tendency to anthropomorphize chatbots? To answer this question, this paper analyzed data from a survey of 377 US participants. Grounded in the three-factor theory of anthropomorphism, our results showed that fear of COVID-19 increases consumers’ tendency to imbue chatbots with human-like characteristics, which in turn leads to increased intention to use chatbot-powered mobile apps. In addition, our results also showed that consumers’ sensation-seeking (versus pragmatism-seeking) tendency toward using mobile apps moderated the indirect effect of fear on intention to use via perceived anthropomorphism. Our findings provide both theoretical and practical implications, especially with the recent call for utilizing chatbots in customer service due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Article
This study examined changes in consumer perceptions of product types and purchase intentions when a subscription model is introduced for products normally sold on a one-time basis. It then proposed product types likely to affect consumers’ purchasing intentions in the subscription economy and product categories best suited for the subscription economy. To this end, an experimental study was conducted with experts and general consumers using 99 subscription business cases. It was found that a regular delivery of products on a subscription basis gradually changes consumer perceptions of the products from utilitarian to hedonic and from search to experience ones. It was also found that consumption motivation is an important predictor of consumer purchase intentions in the subscription economy. In addition, experience-utilitarian and search-utilitarian products were associated with the highest purchase intentions among experts and general consumers, respectively. This suggests that a company’s strategy should be adjusted in line with consumers’ understanding of the subscription model. Therefore, suppliers need to understand the full implications of the new model, such as changed consumer perceptions and purchasing intentions, and strive to design a subscription model that is suitable for the target segments and product selections.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive model of impulse-buying that considers the impact of mobile device use on shopping behaviour as a tool for shopping preparation or as a tool for self-regulation. Design/methodology/approach Data were obtained through a single-stage mall intercept survey method using a structured questionnaire involving 406 respondents interviewed after checkout. Data analysis was conducted using a structural equation modelling approach with LISREL 8.8. Findings The results support most elements of the hypothesis of the proposed conceptual framework. Specifically, findings show the impact of mobile usage on shopping behaviour, which results in fewer impulse purchases. Practical implications The research demonstrates how shoppers using mobile devices in-store felt less of an urge to purchase during shopping, resulting in fewer unplanned purchases. The effects of mobile device use on in-store purchasing decisions are designed to create a new scenario for the practice of shopper marketing, and retailers and manufacturers will have to seek new ways to capture consumers’ attention in-store and to influence shoppers’ perceptions early in the shopping cycle without diminishing the role of in-store marketing levers. Originality/value Prior research found the antecedents of impulse-buying in individual characteristics, situational variables and endogenous variables. However, it did not consider mobile pre-shopping factors or mobile usage. Filling the gap in the existing literature, this work sets out to develop a comprehensive model of impulse-buying that considers the impact of mobile usage on shopping behaviour.
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that influence the usage intention for different instant messaging application platforms. This study targeted the widespread instant messaging software LINE, for which a survey of 485 valid respondents was conducted in Taiwan. Statistical and model structure analyses were applied to validate the hypotheses proposed in this study. We examined the differences between single- and multi-platform use cases in terms of the relationship between consumer value and behavioral intention. The results show that perceived interactivity, perceived playfulness, and perceived usefulness have significant effects on the continued usage and recommendation intentions of users in a single-platform use case. However, perceived interactivity and perceived playfulness did not have significant effects in multi-platform use cases. The findings of this study provide a new perspective for investigating the intention to continue using a multiplatform application. The results will benefit subsequent studies in this area and provide guidance for the development of instant messaging and other social media applications.
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In light of a growing interest in alternative consumption channels, this study proposes a conceptual framework that examines the relationship between repeat online consumers’ perceived value of used products and their re-purchasing intention from a secondary marketplace platform. Two studies were conducted. Study 1 aims to test the conceptual model, and Study 2 validates the model with two product types (hedonic vs. utilitarian). With fundamental societal marketing theory at heart, trust and engagement toward the seller and the consumer-to-consumer online secondary market platforms are hypothesized to mediate consumers’ perceived econ-centric functional value and their re-use intentions of the platform. The results show that all serial mediations (trust and engagement) are significant when the trust is directed toward the company that facilitates the platform, but not all serial mediations were significant when the trust is toward the seller. This study highlights the implications of trust and engagement and how these factors impact consumers’ intention to re-use a C2C online secondary marketplace platform.
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Product importance and related constructs have been inadequately defined and understood in the consumer behavior literature. This paper reviews and integrates these constructs and presents a framework for the analysis of product importance perceptions. Two forms of the construct are iden-tified, and the antecedents of and responses to product importance are specified. Implications for consumer research and marketing management are discussed.
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The authors report a study of the effects of price, brand, and store information on buyers' perceptions of product quality and value, as well as their willingness to buy. Hypotheses are derived from a conceptual model positing the effects of extrinsic cues (price, brand name, and store name) on buyers' perceptions and purchase intentions. Moreover, the design of the experiment allows additional analyses on the relative differential effects of price, brand name, and store name on the three dependent variables. Results indicate that price had a positive effect on perceived quality, but a negative effect on perceived value and willingness to buy. Favorable brand and store information positively influenced perceptions of quality and value, and subjects' willingness to buy. The major findings are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.
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Probing of the semiotic significance of gift exchange behaviors has recently been resumed. The symbolic exchange value of the gift is especially amenable to investigation via ethnographic methods and projective techniques. In this paper, negativity and ambivalence in gift exchange, a theme derived from a comparative ethnographic study of two midwestern American gift stores, are refined and elaborated through projective analysis. What emerges is a more balanced and comprehensive account of gift giving than presently available in the literature of consumer-object relations. Gift giving and receiving engender high levels of anxiety among consumers. Gifts create and exacerbate interpersonal conflict. They are frequently used as weapons, and consumers' responses to them are carefully canalized. The ways in which negativity is managed by donors and recipients are examined. Consumers, victims of sentiment and symbolism, are found to be entrapped in rituals and enjoined by cultural ideology from expressing discontent in most ways except fantasy. The impact of such fantasy on gift giving, and its relevance for marketers, is explored in this article.
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This paper argues for the recognition of important experiential aspects of consumption. Specifically, a general framework is constructed to represent typical consumer behavior variables. Based on this paradigm, the prevailing information processing model is contrasted with an experiential view that focuses on the symbolic, hedonic, and esthetic nature of consumption. This view regards the consumption experience as a phenomenon directed toward the pursuit of fantasies, feelings, and fun.
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Activation is a psychobiological concept that plays an important role in explaining consumer behavior. Following an introduction to the theory and measurement of activation, results of experimental research in advertising effectiveness are presented. The stronger the activation elicited by a stimulus, the better was the level of cognitive performance—a relationship that poses new questions for consumer research.
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This article reviews and integrates recent theories of addiction drawn from a diverse set of disciplines--consumer behavior, medicine, sociology, psychiatry, and psychology--to provide a comprehensive framework for understanding the etiology of addiction and other compulsive consumer behaviors. Interpretive material from personal interviews with addicted and nonaddicted drug users is then used to illustrate the consciousness of addictive consumption. Two a priori themes--serial/simultaneous addictions and personal crises/role transitions--and five emergent themes--relapse, deception, dysfunctional families, suicide, and boundaries--are discussed. Copyright 1992 by the University of Chicago.
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Why do consumers sometimes act against their own better judgment, engaging in behavior that is often regretted after the fact and that would have been rejected with adequate forethought? More generally, how do consumers attempt to maintain self-control in the face of time-inconsistent preferences? This article addresses consumer impatience by developing a decision-theoretic model based on reference points. The model explains how and why consumers experience sudden increases in desire for a product, increases that can result in the temporary overriding of long-term preferences. Tactics that consumers use to control their own behavior are also discussed. Consumer self-control is framed as a struggle between two psychological forces, desire and willpower. Finally, two general classes of self-control strategies are described: those that directly reduce desire, and those that overcome desire through willpower. Copyright 1991 by the University of Chicago.
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The development of a scale for measuring consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence is described. Consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence is hypothesized as a general trait that varies across individuals and is related to other individual traits and characteristics (McGuire 1968). The construct is defined as the need to identify with or enhance one's image in the opinion of significant others through the acquisition and use of products and brands, the willingness to conform to the expectations of others regarding purchase decisions, and/or the tendency to learn about products and services by observing others or seeking information from others. A series of studies provides evidence to support the convergent and discriminant validity of a two-dimensional scale.
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Self-regulation is a complex process that involves consumers’ persistence, strength, motivation, and commitment in order to be able to override short-term impulses. In order to be able to pursue their long-term goals, consumers typically need to forgo immediate pleasurable experiences that are detrimental to reach their overarching goals. Although this sometimes involves resisting to simple and small temptations, it is not always easy, since the lure of momentary temptations is pervasive. In addition, consumers’ beliefs play an important role determining strategies and behaviors that consumers consider acceptable to engage in, affecting how they act and plan actions to attain their goals. This dissertation investigates adequacy of some beliefs typically shared by consumers about the appropriate behaviors to exert self-regulation, analyzing to what extent these indeed contribute to the enhancement of consumers’ ability to exert self-regulation.