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River Magic: Extraordinary Experience and the Extended Service Encounter

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This article explores the provision of extraordinary hedonic experiences on commercial, multiday river rafting trips in the Colorado River basin. White water river rafting provides a dramatic illustration of some of the complex features of delivering an extraordinary experience. Multiple methods were employed over two years of data collection to articulate the lived meaning of this experience from both the guides' and the consumers' perspectives. Robust quantitative measures were developed from rich qualitative data. Participant observation and interview data enriched the interpretation of quantitative results. Experiential themes of personal growth and self-renewal, ''communitas,'' and harmony with nature are evidenced across the data; they evolve and are woven together over the course of the trip. Together they are significant in explaining overall satisfaction. There is a complex relationship between client expectations and satisfaction. The narrative of the ratting experience rather than relationships between expectations and outcomes is shown to be central to its evaluation. Implications for other services and consumption activities are discussed.
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... De leur côté, Arnould et Price (1993) avancent que les consommateurs sont en quête d'expériences et sont à la recherche de sensations qui vont au-delà de leur imagination. Ce qu'ils cherchent avant tout c'est des expériences extraordinaires qui leurs offrent une absorption, un contrôle personnel, une joie, une valorisation et un renouvellement de leur perception (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). ...
... Imaginer tout ce qui pourrait, ou devrait être, est le fondement de la réalité. Arnould et Price (1993) Les consommateurs sont en quête d'expériences extraordinaires qui leur offrent de sensations qui vont au-delà de leur imagination, une absorption et un renouvellement de leur perception. Lacher et Mizerski (1995) Le processus qui mène à vivre une expérience absorbante est construit autour de quatre types de réactions intermédiaires : sensorielle, imaginative, émotionnelle et analytique. ...
... Cette idée de contraster avec la routine renvoie à la dichotomie ordinaire/extraordinaire de classification des expériences. Une expérience extraordinaire est définie comme un ensemble de pratiques intenses (Arnould et Price, 1993) qui mobilisent tous les sens du consommateur en lui offrant une absorption, un contrôle personnel, une joie, une valorisation, un laisser-aller spontané et un renouvellement de la perception (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990 (Amirou, 1994, p.150 différences dans les motivations des touristes par rapport à leurs séjours (Lengkeek, 2001). ...
Thesis
Notre recherche a émergé suite à une réflexion autour de la consommation touristique et de la richesse des réactions qu’elle engendre du fait de la multitude des besoins auxquels elle répond. Si les processus cognitifs, perceptuels, sensoriels ou encore émotionnels ont été largement étudiés, nous avons soulevé un gap dans la recherche en marketing touristique sur les réactions imaginatives. Géographes et sociologues du tourisme sont pourtant unanimes sur le lien étroit qui existe entre le système touristique et les imaginaires qui l’alimentent, le modèlent et l’orientent. A partir de là, nous avons décidé de placer l’imaginaire au centre de notre réflexion sur la relation touriste-destination en inscrivant celle-ci dans une perspective postmoderno-interprétative.Une première méthode qualitative, la netnographie, nous a permis de penser l’imaginaire touristique autour de trois composantes : une représentationnelle, une relationnelle (elle regroupe l’interaction sociale et l’interaction avec le lieu) et une identitaire (elle se réfère à la prise de conscience et l’image de soi). Elle a été complétée par une approche par récits de vie. Celle-ci a permis d’isoler trois profils imaginatifs (confirmé, intermédiaire, novice) qui se distinguent chacun par une façon de voyager ainsi qu’une finalité perçue du voyage. Ces profils imaginatifs correspondent chacun à un type de voyageur (engagé, équilibré, récréatif) et à une combinaison spécifique des trois composantes de l’imaginaire.La mobilisation de l’imaginaire dans un contexte de consommation touristique trouve ainsi toute sa légitimité dans l’enrichissement de la recherche en marketing touristique par des concepts empruntés à des champs disciplinaires voisins. D’un point de vue managérial, nous proposons le profil imaginatif comme critère de segmentation. Nous estimons en effet qu’une adaptation du marketing-mix au profil(s) imaginatif(s) cible(s) serait créatrice de valeur.
... Başka bir ifadeyle, deneyim yeni bir olgu değildir fakat yeni farklı bir ekonomik sunum olarak gündeme gelmektedir (Pine & Korn, 2012). Deneyim kavramı anlaşılması zor ve belirsizdir (Arnould & Price, 1993;Palmer, 2010). ...
... İlgili alan yazın incelendiği zaman farklı yazarlar tarafından deneyimler; zirve deneyimler, ana/temel deneyimler, tatmin edici deneyimler, optimal deneyim, akış deneyimi, anlamlı deneyimler, kaliteli deneyimler, olumlu ve olumsuz deneyimler, sıradan deneyimler, sıra dışı deneyimler, unutulmaz deneyimler vb. şekilde adlandırılmış ve bölümlere ayrılmıştır (Thorne, 1963;Ryan, 2010;Csikszentmihalyi, 2018;Jennings & Nickerson, 2006;Swanson, 2004;Duerden vd., 2018;Arnould & Price, 1993;Tung & Ritchie, 2011). Deneyim kavramının, deneyimlerin meydana gelişim zamanına işaret ettiği fakat her bir kavramın ayrı olarak değerlendirilmesi gerektiği belirtilmektedir. ...
... When the relevant literature is examined, experiences named and divided into sections as peak experiences, core/core experiences, satisfying experiences, optimal experience, flow experience, meaningful experiences, quality experiences, positive and negative experiences, ordinary experiences, extraordinary experiences, memorable experiences, etc. by different authors (Thorne, 1963;Ryan, 2010;Csikszentmihalyi, 2018;Jennings & Nickerson, 2006;Swanson, 2004;Duerden et al., 2018;Arnould & Price, 1993;Tung & Ritchie, 2011). It is stated that the concept of experience refers to the time of development of experiences, but each concept should be evaluated separately. ...
Article
Bu çalışma kapsamında, 2000’li yılların ortalarında gastronomi alanında öne çıkmış bir akım olan yaşayan mutfak konusu ele alınmıştır. Kapadokya’yı ziyaret eden turistlerin yaşayan mutfak deneyimlerinin demografik özelliklerine göre farklılıklarının ortaya konulması amacıyla yaşayan mutfak uygulamalarını deneyimleyen turistler üzerinde bir araştırma yapılmıştır. Araştırmada tesadüfi olmayan örnekleme yöntemlerinden kolayda örnekleme yöntemi tercih edilmiştir. Çalışmada uygulanan veri toplama tekniği ise sosyal bilimlerde sıkça başvurulan anket tekniğidir. Araştırma verileri 356 adet anketten elde edilen verilere dayanmaktadır. Yapılan analizler ve elde edilen bulgular sonucunda; turistlerin yaşayan mutfak uygulaması ile ilgili deneyimlerinde özellikle eğitim ve estetik deneyim algısının baskın olarak öne çıktığı ve turistlerin demografik özelliklerine göre deneyim boyutları ortalamaları arasında anlamlı farklar olduğu belirlenmiştir. Yaşayan mutfak deneyimi konusunda literatürde sınırlı sayıda araştırma olması yönüyle bu çalışmanın alan yazına bir ölçüde katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir.
... Time is another crucial dimension in the consumers search for the sacred; for instance, deceleration moments or slow forms of consumption can have spiritual benefits to consumers in need to escape from a sped-up pace of life (Huseman & Eckhardt, 2019). Accordingly, scholars have a wide interest in the consumption of ritualistic sacred events (Ladwein & Rémy, 2014), and extraordinary experiences, or experiences outside the ordinary realm of individuals' lives (Arnould, & Price, 1993;. ...
... Ethnographies were already considered as fieldwork in Consumer Culture Theory literature (Arnould & Price, 1993;Arnould & Wallendorf, 1994;Arnould, 1998;Hill, 1991;Stebbins, 1997;Shouten & McAlexander, 1995). Hill (1991) investigated homeless women and the meaning of their possessions. ...
... Hill (1991) investigated homeless women and the meaning of their possessions. Accordingly, Arnould and Price (1993) discussed the dramatic making of an extraordinary experience, the "River Magic". ...
Thesis
This dissertation is concentrated in the intersection between the commercial and the spiritual to understand how spiritual experiences are lived by consumers. We are aligned with the recently constituted field of Consumer Spirituality (Husemann & Eckhardt, 2019a, p. 393) that considers the "practices and processes engaged in when consuming market offerings (products, services, places) that yield 'spiritual utility'". Through an interpretive ethnographic approach in four Catholic pilgrimage sites in Latin America and Europe, this research reveals the patterns and differences of the spiritual consumption between and across each case studied. The findings highlight 12 themes emerged from the analysis that are related to the tensions andagreements between the spiritual and the commercial, the collective and individualized experience of pilgrims, the consumption of the spiritual as coping strategy do deal with mundane problems, the embodied and material consumption of the pilgrimage, and also issues related to accessibility,sustainability and over consumption in pilgrimage settings. This doctoral research therefore contributes to the literature on the marketization of the sacred, coping mechanisms, embodiment, materiality and other societal issues.
... 70). Experience represents encounters of a higher order, such as optimal or extraordinary events, typified by high levels of emotional intensity (Arnould & Price, 1993), which engage individuals in a personal way (Pine & Gilmore, 1998). ...
Article
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Building barriers to lock in customers and improving the affective customer experience are two key strategies employed by firms to enhance customer retention. Although pursuing the same goal, these strategies work differently: the former relies more on a calculative, cost–benefit approach to the exchange, while the latter promotes affective aspects of the relationship. Integrating experiential learning theory with social exchange theory, we provide a conceptual framework to understand the impact of lock-in and affective customer experience on customer retention, and the moderating role of relationship depth. Using a comprehensive data set for a sample of 13,761 customers covering all firms in one telecom market for two different services, we empirically test the framework via multinomial logit modeling. The results offer novel insights into the interplay between the two strategies. For poor affective customer experience (i.e., a score below five on a 0–10 scale), lock-in helps firms reduce customer churn (between 49.03% and 47.86%). However, the impact of lock-in decreases when affective customer experience improves and turns to be insignificant once the experience reaches the “acceptable level” (i.e., a score above seven on a 0–10 scale). Importantly, the separate and joint effects of the two strategies are stronger when there is a low relationship depth, and weaker when heavy relationships are established. The findings offer useful practical advice to manage these strategies in an efficient and optimal way.
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Chapter
Experiences can be subjective and internal responses, characterized by sensations, feelings and cognitions, but also behavioral responses evoked by stimuli. In the tourism context, the destinations promoters aim that visitors enjoy experiences considered pleasant and, ideally, memorable, because, in this way, increase the probability of revisit and recommendation. The protected green areas have gained a greater projection mainly from the beginning of the twentieth century. They are privileged places both in terms of tourist enjoyment and the attention of academic research. This interest is considerably increased taking into account the global health situation that makes this type of areas as more recommendable for tourist practices. The territory chosen in this case study is Peneda-Gerês, the only national park in Portugal that enjoys a certain international reputation. It is the only park in the Iberian Peninsula that integrates the Pan-Parks network, a network of excellence where only the best parks in Europe are included. The research objective was to analyze the experience and perceptions in terms of satisfaction, recommendation and revisit. In methodological terms, a netnographic research was decided considering the comments and evaluations made by visitors of this green area in TripAdvisor, a famous social platform for travelers. Twenty-two tourist attractions were identified, and all their comments were considered (n = 834) in a 3-year period. Firstly, it was possible to draw a basic profile of the visitor and to conclude by their high satisfaction resulting from the transmitted evaluations. A content analysis was also performed to categorize visitor perceptions into four major categories: sensory, emotional, behavioral and intellectual, which were further subdivided according to the types of references extracted from the visitors’ comments. Satisfaction and recommendation were other perceptions that could be found in the comments. Through the results, it was possible to observe that the visitors’ perception focuses mainly on a more sensory and affective component. KeywordsPerceptionsTourist experienceTourism in green areasPeneda-Gerês National Park
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