The Effect of Verbal and Visual Components of Advertisements on Brand Attitudes and Attitude Toward the Advertisement
This article presents the results of a study designed to obtain a better understanding of the effects of using valenced visual information in advertising. In the study, subjects saw advertisements for hypothetical products that contained affect-laden photographs with different valences (Picture Type Manipulation). The results indicate that the affect-laden photographs had an effect on both attitude toward the advertisement ( A ad ) and brand attitudes; however, no differences were found in the product attribute beliefs that were formed. Photographs that were evaluated positively created more favorable attitudes toward the advertisements and brand attitudes, whereas the reverse was true for photographs that were evaluated negatively. The results of an analysis of covariance indicate that the inclusion of both the predicted attitude from structured scales (ΣΣ b i , e i ) and elicited beliefs did not eliminate all the reliable Picture Type effects on brand attitudes; however, the inclusion of A ad did eliminate these effects. In addition, A ad was found to affect brand attitudes for advertisements that contain only copy, and evidence is presented that A ad and brand attitudes are separate hypothetical constructs. Finally, a Dual Component model is presented to explain the effects of visual and verbal information in advertisements.
Available from: Tiffany Barnett White
- "To determine attitude toward the Cam's brand, we used a fouritem scale following Gardner (1985), Mitchell (1986), and Spears and Singh (2004). Specifically, participants were asked how they would rate the Cam's brand on four dimensions from a scale of 1 (bad, low quality, dislike very much, unappealing) to 7 (good, high quality, like very much, appealing). "
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ABSTRACT: The organic label has been studied extensively in the literature; however, few studies take into consideration the context in which the organic purchase takes place. In this study, we examine the product type (fresh vs. non-fresh) as well as the retail outlet (Walmart vs. Target). Using an online experiment (N = 605), we determine how the organic label interacts with each of these contexts and how these interactions impact downstream evaluations such as likelihood of purchase, expected taste, and attitude and trust toward the product brand. Firstly, results showed that likelihood of purchasing organic and non-organic products was similar, probably as a result of the counterbalancing between the “halo” effect of organic products and the deterring effect of similar taste and higher cost (compared to non-organic products). Secondly, organic labeling benefits virtue and vice products in distinct aspects – organic virtue product had better expected taste while organic vice product had higher expected nutrition. Finally, findings suggest that Target may be a better outlet for promoting organic vice product whereas organic virtue product is more trusted in Walmart. This study has important implications for the National Organic Program, the Organic Trade Association, producers, and food brand managers.
Available from: Marko Sarstedt
- "For construct measurement, this study draws on Bergkvist and Rossiter's (2007, 2009) seven-point semantic differential scales, which many prior studies also used (e.g., MacKenzie & Lutz, 1989, Mitchell, 1986). Similarly, this study adopts Bergkvist and Rossiter's (2009) bipolar seven-point global (tailor-made) SI measures of A Ad , and A Brand . "
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ABSTRACT: Single-item measures have recently become more en vogue due to studies arguing in favor of their psychometric properties vis-à-vis multi-item scales. However, their effective use requires (1) expert raters to designate the focal construct as being doubly concrete, and (2) researchers to find a ‘good’ single item to represent the construct. This study examines whether expert raters identify the doubly concrete nature of constructs that prior research presents as exemplary in this respect. Furthermore, the study compares the efficacy of a broad range of selection mechanisms based on expert judgment and statistical criteria for identifying the best item in a scale. The results show that expert raters do not share the commonly held belief that researchers can validly measure constructs such as attitude toward the ad, or brand, with single items. Further analyses show that neither rater assessments, nor statistical criteria prove valuable regarding identifying an appropriate single item from a set of candidate items.
Available from: Keith Coulter
- "Presumably, personal names and dates carry positive affect because they serve to define a person's self-concept (Koole and Pelham 2003). Thus if a person and a brand share name letters, one possibility is that the valence could transfer directly from the person to the brand (i.e., independent of any conscious brand-related thoughts), in a process similar to that described by the Dual Mediation model of persuasion (MacKenzie, Lutz, and Belch 1986; Mitchell 1986). "
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ABSTRACT: This research examines how the implicit egotism resulting from consumers' positive self-associations affects their evaluations of product prices. The effects can occur when the product's price and the consumer share either name-letters (name-letter/price effect) or birthday-numbers (birthday-number/price effect).Through a series of studies, the authors demonstrate that the positive affect linked to name-letters and birthday-numbers transfers directly to consumers' price predilections and ultimately affects their purchase intentions. More specifically, consumers like prices (e.g., "fifty-five dollars") that contain digits beginning with the same first letter (e.g., "F") as their own name (e.g., "Fred," "Mr. Frank") more than prices that do not. Similarly, prices that contain cents digits (e.g., $49.15) that correspond to a consumer's date of birth (e.g., April 15) also enhance pricing liking and purchase intentions. Across groups of consumers, the authors' findings demonstrate that implicit egotism effects can result in greater purchase intentions for a higher-priced product compared with a lower-priced product.
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