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Can Expressions of Anger Enhance Creativity? A Test of the Emotions as Social Information (EASI) Model

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Abstract

We investigated whether expressions of anger can enhance creative performance. Building on the emotions as social information (EASI) model (Van Kleef, 2009), we predicted that the interpersonal effects of anger expressions on creativity depend on the target's epistemic motivation (EM)—the desire to develop an accurate understanding of the situation (Kruglanski, 1989). Participants worked on an idea generation task in the role of “generator.” Then they received standardized feedback and tips from an “evaluator” (a trained actor) via a video setup. The feedback was delivered in an angry way or in a neutral way (via facial expressions, vocal intonation, and bodily postures). Participants with high EM exhibited greater fluency, originality, and flexibility after receiving angry rather than neutral feedback, whereas those with low EM were less creative after receiving angry feedback. These effects were mediated by task engagement and motivation, which anger increased (decreased) among high (low) EM participants.

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... Emotions confer flexibility in action by enabling people to reorder priorities as situations change and to set long-term goals, especially when choices involve incomplete data or incommensurate alternatives. This is in line with social-functional theories of emotion, which suggest that emotional expressions provide information to observers, which may influence their behaviour (Van Kleef, Anastasopoulou, & Nijstad, 2010). Therefore, by considering what emotions "do", Ahmed (2004) pointed out that "emotions shape the very surfaces of bodies, which take shape through the repetition of actions over time, as well as through orientations towards and away from others" (p. ...
... Accordingly, negative emotional displays lead followers to invest more effort. Thus, in a collaborative task, a partner's expression of emotions may increase a focal person's motivation to perform well (Van Kleef, Anastasopoulou, & Nijstad, 2010). So emotion also represents an important dimension in major change processes and it can help organisations achieve renewal and growth (Huy, 2005). ...
... To rethink Ha-ha as a moment of laughter and Aha! as a moment of discovery, indicates that when Ha-Ha and Aha! interplay, emotions (laughter) and rationality (discovery) are also interacting. As Turner and Stets (2005) stated, sociological theories of emotions almost always assume that emotions guide decisions, both consciously and unconsciously. People pursue lines of conduct that generate positive (emotional) outcomes (such as laughter), while avoiding those that lead to negative (emotional) consequences. ...
... The cognitive-affective-social theory of learning in digital environments framework builds on the emotions as social information theory, which postulates that negative emotional cues expressing anger or disappointment can act as social signals for observers to recognize that their performance is deficient and in need of additional effort to improve performance levels, whereas expressions of happiness can inform people that their performance levels are sufficient, which may then signal observers to reduce effort (Kleef et al., 2011). Empirical studies predicated on emotions as social information theory have demonstrated that expressions of anger by a human evaluator can enhance task engagement or effort (Kleef et al., 2010a;Sy et al., 2005) and task performance (Kleef et al., 2010b;Chi and Ho, 2014;Kleef et al., 2009;Sy et al., 2005) more than a positive or a neutral emotional display. Framed within the learning context, Doorn et al. (2014) affirmed the emotions as social information effects insofar as the instructor who expressed anger through facial expressions, vocal tone ILS and body stance while conveying learning tips led to superior task performance among learners than the instructor expressing happiness when dispensing tips. ...
... As males tend to use selective processing (Meyers-Levy and Loken, 2015) while valuing positive more than negative emotions (Dubé and Morgan, 1996;Maheswaran and Meyers-Levy, 1990), male learners may "overlook" the inferences regarding learning performance levels and effort demands based on the expressed anger. Instead, through the emotional contagion process predicted by the emotions as social information theory ( Van Kleef, 2009;Kleef et al., 2011Kleef et al., , 2010aVan Kleef, 2010), they may feel angry and hold negative social perceptions toward the instructor or teacher displaying anger, thereby reducing learning effort and performance. The study by Doorn et al. (2014) revealed that a human instructor's expressed anger (versus happiness) enhanced learning performance among female subjects. ...
... This study draws mainly on the emotions as social information theory ( Van Kleef, 2009, 2010Kleef et al., 2011), encapsulated within the cognitive-affective-social theory of learning in digital environments framework (Schneider et al., 2021). This study offers novel insights into a pedagogical agent's expressed positive and negative emotions in the multimedia learning context, extending beyond the emotions as social information model's conventional studies with human leaders and instructors (Doorn et al., 2014;Kleef et al., 2010bKleef et al., , 2010aKleef et al., , 2009Sy et al., 2005) and multimedia learning research focusing on infusing positive emotional expressions into a pedagogical agent's persona or teaching delivery style (Liew et al., 2017Beege et al., 2020;Lawson et al., 2021aLawson et al., , 2021bLawson and Mayer, 2021;Horovitz and Mayer, 2021;Ba et al., 2021). Therefore, the study's constraints and recommendations for future research are discussed. ...
Article
This study aims to examine if a pedagogical agent’s expressed anger, when framed as a feedback cue, can enhance mental effort and learning performance in a multimedia learning environment than expressed happiness. A between-subjects experiment was conducted in which learners engaged with a multimedia learning material that taught programming algorithms, featuring a pedagogical agent who expressed anger or happiness as a feedback cue in response to the learners’ prior performance. Learners completed a self-reported scale and post-test for measuring mental effort and learning performance, respectively. Female learners reported higher mental effort and had better learning performance when the pedagogical agent expressed anger than happiness. Male learners reported marginally lower mental effort when the pedagogical agent expressed anger than happiness. This study focuses on a pedagogical agent’s expressed emotion as social information to learners. Extending from research advocating a pedagogical agent’s positive emotional expression, this study highlights the potential benefits of a pedagogical agent’s negative emotional expression, such as anger, as a cue for learners to enhance learning effort and performance in a multimedia learning environment.
... The effects of these two cues, however, may be different in different settings. According to the emotions as social information (EASI) model (Van Kleef et al., 2004, 2010aVan Kleef, 2009), social context can affect behavior by regulating the way we process emotional information. Other people's emotional states can affect the observer's behavior by triggering the observer's inference process and emotional response, and the observer's epistemic motivations and the situational social context play a role in regulating this effect. ...
... Specifically, in a cooperative setting, individuals utilize the emotional response pathway to process emotional information, and emotional information of the expresser directly stimulates the same emotional state in the observer, leading to trust effects at the emotional level. In this context, other people's facial expression has a "top-down" startup impact on the observer (Van Kleef et al., 2010a). Therefore, a happy facial expression increases the observer's trust in the observe, while an angry expression does the opposite. ...
... Therefore, a happy facial expression increases the observer's trust in the observe, while an angry expression does the opposite. However, in a competitive setting, it is not easy to accurately grasp the emotional information of others because of the complexity of the social environment, and the inference processing pathway plays a more significant role (Van Kleef et al., 2010a). Therefore, while facial expression still plays a pivotal role in competitive settings, the emotional face effect was smaller than in cooperative settings. ...
Article
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People often judge trustworthiness based on others’ faces (e.g., facial expression and facial gender). However, it is unclear whether social context plays a moderating role in forming trustworthiness judgments. Based on the emotions as social information (EASI) model, differing contexts may impact the effect of facial expression; however, there is no evidence demonstrating that differing contexts will or will not influence the effect of facial gender. In this study, we used two experiments to examine how facial expression and facial gender affect facial trustworthiness judgments and whether the effects on facial trustworthiness judgments are consistent in cooperative and competitive settings. Twenty-seven undergraduates (14 female; Mage = 21.81 years, SD = 2.66) participated in experiment 1. The results showed significant main effects of facial expression and facial gender as well as the interaction between them. To examine the social context effect, 28 undergraduates (18 female; Mage = 20.93 years, SD = 2.94) participated in experiment 2. The results showed the main effects of facial expression, facial gender, and social context. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between facial gender and facial expression and a marginally significant interaction between social context and facial expression. These results suggest that in the process of judging facial trustworthiness, individuals’ judgments are affected by both facial expression and facial gender. Furthermore, the effect of facial gender on facial trustworthiness judgments presents cross-situational stability, and the role of facial expression is influenced by the settings. These findings support and expand the EASI model.
... Given the complexity of this process, the model also identifies several potential moderators that may change how individuals ultimately react to the emotions of others. As EASI theory has been used in experimental studies examining the effects of leader emotions on team performance , as well as collaborator emotions on participant creativity (Van Kleef, Anastasopoulou, & Nijstad, 2010), it provides a highly relevant framework through which to investigate the core research question of our study. ...
... Research by Van Kleef et al. (2010), using the EASI model as a theoretical backdrop, suggests that the effects of anger displays on creativity can depend individual differences. Using an a) b) c) d) Figure 3. ...
Article
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Leaders who exhibit abusive supervision often engage in rudeness and public criticism of subordinates. However, numerous examples exist of leaders who demonstrate such behaviour, while also articulating an inspiring vision that serves to engage their followers. Despite the existence of leaders who exhibit both abusive supervisory behaviour and visionary characteristics, little research has explored how these two variables – both potent, yet divergent, predictors of leader effectiveness – interact to impact followers. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine whether vision serves to moderate the relationship between abusive supervision and two follower outcomes – follower performance (quantity, practicality, and creativity) and affective commitment. Across two experiments, we found support for the hypothesized buffering effect of leader vision on the relationship between abusive supervision and performance quantity, both when abusive supervision was examined in its generalized form (Study 1) and when separated based on performance promotion or injury initiation attributions (Study 2). Vision also mitigated the negative effects of abusive supervision on creativity in Study 1, though these effects were not replicated in Study 2. Overall, our findings suggest that a leader’s vision impacts the way that followers respond to abusive supervision. Implications for leaders and organizations as well as future research directions are discussed.
... Moreover, negotiators with low epistemic motivation tend to relate the counterpart's expression of anger to the person rather than the task. This is not the case for negotiators with high epistemic motivation because they assess the displayed emotions more carefully and consider their deeper implications (Van Kleef et al. 2010a). Similarly, in the context of EMC, positive emotions result in more integrative bargaining , and anger leads to more distributive positioning and competition. ...
... eNS may even be used for emotional training without direct human counterparts, which reduces the costs for human capital. eNS could use predefined sentences or entire text messages transmitting and communicating specific emotions, as is already done for research purposes (Van Kleef et al. 2004a;e.g., Van Kleef et al. 2004b, 2010a. Related research already shows that virtual negotiators are able to express emotions via facial expressions that are correctly interpreted by their human counterparts (e.g., Qu et al. 2013Qu et al. , 2014). ...
Chapter
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Research on emotions has largely focused on their importance for the individual. However, our survival as a species has depended on our ability to efficiently form groups with coordinated behavior. There is increasing awareness of the powerful role of emotions in cognition and decision-making. Thus, to better understand group behavior, we must improve our understanding of group emotional states and how they arise from inter-individual transmission of affect. We propose that the automatic yet flexible nature of emotional contagion in groups suggests the involvement of an empathy subprocess known as neural resonance, a common-coding mechanism in the brain for the perception and experience of internal states and behavior. We propose that cognitive processes like appraisal and theory of mind interact reciprocally with neural resonance to facilitate the emergence of group states. In this light, empathy emerges as a group-level mechanism by which humans selectively yet flexibly “coalesce” to produce group-level emotions and behavior. We conclude the chapter with a discussion of possible research outcomes for this hypothesis.
... In response to anger, people might experience fear, reciprocated anger, or guilt and shame. In situations with negative displays of emotion, individuals that have affective reactions often perceive situations that elicited the response as competitive and are less motivated to understand the development of the situation, whereas positive emotional displays suggest cooperation and harmless or even beneficial situations (Van Kleef, DeDreu, et al., 2010;Van Kleef, Anastasopoulou, et al., 2010). In this case, if inmates express positive emotion, thus eliciting positive emotion in parole board members (e.g., through humor or pride in one's own rehabilitation accomplishments), then parole boards might feel positive and evaluate the inmate and more positively, reducing the perception of risk (see Slovic & Peters, 2006). ...
... For example, people tend to think that a date is going well if their dating partner is smiling and laughing and displaying happiness. Understanding others' emotions is motivated by the desire to discover the development of the situation, which can be interpreted under competitive or cooperative circumstances (Van Kleef, De Dreu, et al., 2010;Van Kleef, Anastasopoulou, et al., 2010). In this case, parole board members observing positive emotions in the inmate might view the hearing as a cooperative meeting to discuss improvement and rehabilitation. ...
Article
Parole boards often incorporate numerous factors when making release decisions. These factors are typically related to the inmates’ case files. However, in some instances, parole boards’ decisions are influenced by factors outside of the case files, sometimes referred to as extra-legal factors. According to the emotion as social information model, emotion can communicate specific messages to others, and in this case, parole board members might unknowingly incorporate their own emotions and inmates’ emotional displays into their decisions. The current study examines the role of parole board member and inmate emotional expressions as predictors of parole release decisions. Parole hearings were coded for emotion, parole board and inmate gender, supporter presence, and risk scores. Overall, risk scores and parole board members’ emotions predicted release decisions. Higher risk scores were associated with a lower likelihood of release, and inmates’ negative emotion was related to a lower likelihood of release. Implications are discussed.
... First, an inferential process can take place in which the receiver deduces information from the emotional expression. These inferences often take the form of 'reverse appraisals' (Hareli and Hess 2010), whereby receivers make inferences about the causes underlying the emotion, and adjust their own attitudes and behavior accordingly (Van Kleef et al. 2010). If for instance someone expresses anger about a colleague's tardiness, this anger may lead the colleague to realize that being late is not acceptable, which may motivate punctuality in the future (Van Kleef et al. 2011). ...
Article
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Anger expression is increasingly prevalent in Western mass media, particularly in messages that aim to persuade the audience of a certain point of view. There is a dearth of research, however, investigating whether expressing anger in mediated messages is indeed effective as a persuasive strategy. In the present research, the results of four experiments showed that expressing anger in a persuasive message was perceived as less socially appropriate than expressing non-emotional disagreement. There was also evidence that perceived appropriateness mediated a negative persuasive effect of anger expression (Study 2–4) and that anger expression resulted in perceptions of the persuasive source as unfriendly and incompetent (Studies 1 and 2). In all, the findings suggest that politicians and other public figures should be cautious in using anger as a persuasive instrument.
... Across multiple studies, expressions of anger have been found to increase an observer's creativity depending on the observer's ability to process information. In one study, Van Kleef, Anastasopoulou, and Nijstad (2010) had participants complete an alternative-uses task, and then they were given feedback on their performance. This feedback was presented in either an angry or a neutral emotional tone. ...
... When expressing an emotion, an inferential process is triggered in which the receiver deduces information from the emotional expression. These inferences often take the form of "reverse appraisals" (Hareli & Hess, 2010), whereby receivers make inferences about the causes underlying the emotion and adjust their own attitudes and behavior accordingly (Van Kleef, Anastasopoulou, & Nijstad, 2010). When this happens, effective social influence takes place. ...
Article
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Anger expression is increasingly prevalent in political news messages. However, the persuasive effects of expressing anger in a political context have received scant attention from researchers. We conducted two experiments to investigate the hypothesis that anger expression is detrimental to persuasion because it runs counter to well‐established social norms for the polite expression of opinions. We created political news messages including a persuasive appeal by a politician that was supported either with an expression of anger or with an expression of nonemotional disagreement. The results of Experiment 1 (N = 120) showed that anger messages were perceived as less appropriate than control messages, and that politicians expressing anger were perceived as less likable and less competent than politicians who disagreed in nonemotional terms. In Experiment 2 (N = 1,005), the negative effects of anger expression on perceived likability and competence were replicated. Also in line with Experiment 1, anger messages were perceived as less appropriate, but this time only for those with negative a priori attitudes toward the advocated position. In contrast, those with positive a priori positions toward the advocated position perceived anger messages as more appropriate than the control messages.
... However, past research also emphasized the role of other employee individual difference variables influencing observer reactions to leader anger. For example, van Kleef and colleagues (G. A. van Kleef, Anastasopoulou et al., 2010; showed that employees with high levels of personal need for structure respond to leader anger with increases in work performance and creativity, respectively. Thus, future research could explore whether supervisors' personal need for structure equally modulates their perceptions of manager anger and whether this has repercussions for the leadership behaviours they display at work. ...
Article
The question of how leaders’ expressions of anger influence employees have been the subject of considerable scholarly debate. So far, however, research on the consequences of angry leadership has predominantly focused on the effects of supervisor expressions of anger, neglecting the potential influence of higher-level managerial anger. In this study, we integrate the emotions as social information theory with the adapted elaboration likelihood model to examine how manager anger trickles down across organizational hierarchical levels (i.e., managers, supervisors, and employees) to affect employee moral behaviour. Results of a multi-source field study conducted in Chile demonstrate that perceptions of manager moral behaviour and supervisor servant leadership serially mediate a negative relationship between manager anger and employee moral behaviour. Furthermore, counter to our predictions, trait negative affectivity of supervisors did not moderate the trickle-down relation of manager anger on employee moral behaviour. Our research elucidates the process by which manager anger can “set the tone” in an organization and trickle down across hierarchical levels to predict the moral behaviour of employees.
... The role of negative mood for creativity is far less clear and contextual conditions likely moderate it (e.g., Van Kleef et al., 2010). While positive mood seems to support early idea generation, 7 CREATIVE LOCKDOWN neutral and negative emotions enhance performance in later idea production (Kaufmann & Vosburg, 2002). ...
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The current COVID-19 pandemic is influencing our lives in an enormous and unprecedented way. Yet while this impact is being intensively studied with regard to a broad range of health, social, and psychological aspects, the effects of COVID-19 for creativity have been overlooked. Here, we explore COVID-19-lockdown’s consequences for creative activity. To this end, we relied on two extensive diary studies. The first, held in March 2019 (pre-pandemic), involved 78 students who reported their emotions and creativity over two weeks (927 observations). The second, conducted in March 2020 (during the pandemic and lockdown), involved 235 students who reported on their emotions, creativity, and the intensity of thinking and talking about COVID-19 over a month (5,904 observations). Multilevel meditations and dynamic structural equation modeling have shown that compared to 2019, during the lockdown, students engaged slightly, yet statistically significantly more in creative activities. Analysis of diaries collected during the pandemic also showed that students who spent more time discussing or searching for information about COVID-19 were not only more engaged in different creative activities but also declared more positive emotions. We propose potential explanations of these unexpected results along with future studies directions.
... A related question would be whether other emotions are inadvertently involved in the process. That is, if the task also induced a significant amount of anger, it might serve to increase creativity if angry individuals pushed themselves harder and produced more ideas (e.g., Chong & Park, 2017;Van Kleef, Anastasopoulou, & Nijstad, 2010). In a similar vein, the dual-pathway model of mood-creativity argues that feelings of anger and frustration can facilitate creativity through a perseverance and effort-driven mechanism . ...
... In addition to these processes, emotions moderate the relationship between trust perception and trust behavior (Fengling et al., 2019) and trust perception and purchase intention (Carbonell et al., 2019). Emotions with positive valence (admiration, gratitude, happiness, and satisfaction) are strong drivers of positive relations, such as trust and friendships, whereas negative ones (devastation, fear, sadness, and anger) lead to negative links and render people more punitive and selfish (Van Kleef, Anastasopoulo, & Nijstad, 2010). Positive emotions showed significant effects on building up strong social bonds and creating novel opportunities (Fredrickson, 2001), taking risks (Au, Chan, Wang, & Vertinsky, 2003), and leading to higher trust (Dunn & Schweitzer, 2005). ...
Article
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Trust stands as a cornerstone in value chain management. Although formal institutions guarantee the contractual arrangements, it is recognized the role that human capital can play in the sustainability of these arrangements. Trust among actors plays an important role in contracting decisions and cooperative membership. There is, however, a concern to understand trust development and the determinants of trust perception. In this paper, trust perception is explained by emotions and calculative self-interest along with other predictors, namely transaction costs in the value chain exchange. We assume that emotional non-calculative trust and calculative self-interest are both present in local rural economies, making this context appropriate to test our hypothesis regarding the importance of emotional links in networking and contracting along the value chain. We used a sample of breeders in a local community to construct the emotional non-calculative self-interest and the calculative self-interest components and investigated how these two indicators contribute to generate trust perception. In addition, transaction costs related to opportunism, uncertainty and, dependency have strong effect on trust perception. The results provide support that emotional non-calculative self-interest fosters trust perception; despite opportunistic behavior and distrust, breeders are able to build trusty links using close relationships. Smallholder dairy farmers could use existing social networks to control high transaction costs, to foster trust and institute sustainable contracts as a way to coordinate transactions. Keywords: trust perception, bonding, emotion, calculative self-interest, Tunisia, Dairy value chain.
... The additive and disjunctive models are derived from Steiner's (1972) [15] influential analysis of how individual contributions affect team performance. The model that is most often invoked in analyses of individual-to-team creativity is the additive model that posits that the sum or average of individual members' creativity is positively related to team creativity-the creativity of all members contributes to team creativity [51][52][53][54], which does not negate individual differences in creativity, but sees less creative contributions too as adding to team creativity. Both operationalizations-average and sum-reflect the pooling of members' creativity, but most empirical tests operationalized the additive model as the average rather than the sum of individual creativity to control for the impact of team size [22,55,56]. ...
Article
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One of the most fundamental questions in team creativity research is the relationship between individual member creativity and team creativity. The two answers that team creativity research has advanced–teams are more creative when their average member creativity is higher (the additive model) and teams are more creative when their most creative member is more creative (the disjunctive model) are straightforward. Surprising, however, is that neither the additive model nor the disjunctive model is consistently supported, begging the question of what moderates the predictive power of these models. We address this question by integrating individual-to-team creativity models with team process research. We propose that team information elaboration is a key moderating variable, such that average member creativity is more positively related to team creativity with higher information elaboration, and the highest member creativity is more positively related to team creativity with lower information elaboration. A multi-source study of 60 sales teams (483 employees) in a Chinese bakery chain supported these hypotheses. In addition, the study did not support the prediction that the most creative member’s outgoing advice ties (as a conduit for the dissemination of ideas) would further moderate the joint effect of the highest individual creativity and team information elaboration on team creativity.
... That is, one would need to assess the relation between depressive symptoms and Flexibility while controlling for Fluency in order to distinguish between productivity deficits (Fluency) and variety deficits (Flexibility). Although some authors report 'average Flexibility' or 'average Originality' scores after dividing each score by the participants' Fluency scores (Dixon, 1979;Van Kleef, Anastasopoulou, & Nijstad, 2010), this kind of measure has been called into question due to poor reliability (Hocevar & Michael, 1979). In addition, the aim of this study was to develop a task that could probe divergent thinking deficits in depression that relate to deficits in producing interpretations for events in natura. ...
Article
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Depression is associated with biased interpretations and beliefs that are resistant to change. This kind of cognitive rigidity may depend on two distinct factors—a reduced ability for processing information that conflicts with these interpretations and beliefs and a reduced ability for generating alternative representations. Although depressive symptoms are typically not associated with deficits in common divergent thinking tasks, these tasks may not be sensitive or specific enough to detect the rigid cognition associated with depression. Accordingly, a novel task was developed to assess divergent thinking in line with the level of construal and thematic contents typical of depressive cognition (the Divergent Inference Task—DIT). In a preliminary investigation using a nonclinical sample, depressive symptoms were correlated with deficits in producing divergent interpretations for realistic scenarios using the DIT. This finding may represent an important psychological mechanism that contributes to the persistence of biased interpretations and beliefs in depression.
... Such integration not only extends the LMX literature, but also extends EASI theory because much of the EASI literature examines affect on a continuum basis without considering distinct paths for negative and positive affect (e.g., Côté et al., 2013;Van Kleef, Anastasopoulou, et al., 2010;Wang et al., 2012). Our work demonstrates the value in examining negative and positive affect as distinct processes and adds to other evidence demonstrating that separating out affective states based on valence demonstrates significantly different effects (Gooty et al., 2019;Van Kleef et al., 2009;van Knippenberg & Van Kleef, 2016). ...
Article
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Despite evidence that affect shapes perceptions of workplace relationships, the role of affect in the reciprocal exchange process of leader‐member exchange (LMX) theory is often overlooked. We argue that this is likely due to a continued focus on global assessments of LMX quality, rather than examination of the reciprocal, interlocked actions and reactions that take place daily between members of the dyad. A leader's affective state may indeed spark this reciprocal exchange process on a daily level and ultimately shape the state of the leader‐follower relationship. In this study, we integrate LMX theory and emotions‐as‐social‐information (EASI) theory to examine how the leader's negative and positive affective states uniquely contribute to the reciprocal exchange process. In doing so, we advance understanding of the distinction of state LMX as well as the unique process for leader's negative affective state within the reciprocal exchange process. Using a 15‐day experience sampling methodology study of 76 leader‐follower dyads, we find that a leader's positive and negative affective states transmit effects along the affective and inferential paths posited in EASI theory to influence follower performance on a daily basis. Interestingly, a leader's positive affective state is stronger along the affective path and a leader's negative affective state is stronger along the inferential path. We also find that leaders reciprocate the daily shift in follower performance with OCBI directed toward the follower. Finally, as expected, the reciprocal exchange process alters state LMX (leader‐rated). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... This work explores two specific kinds of intuition -problem-solving intuition and creative intuition -and a third type of problem-solving called rational thinking, through various timed design activities to investigate the effects of incubation, distraction, and mood on design outcomes. Van Kleef et al. suggested that 'task engagement and time spent on task' affected the results in a study of mood and creativity (Van Kleef et al., 2010). Mood could also affect a designer's ability to generate ideas, create solutions, and solve problems in innovative ways. ...
Article
This study examines the correlation between quality and feasibility of generated design solutions with mood and rational vs. intuitive thinking. It was hypothesized that positive moods lead to better intuitive thinking, which will result in higher design quality and feasibility. The participants, who were junior and senior level undergraduate students with a design background, were given the 32-point Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) before solving nine 7-min design tasks in a manner that cultivated either analytical or intuitive thinking. Cronbach’s alpha was used to confirm the reliability and consistency of the self-reported mood data. Spearman’s correlation was used to illustrate the mood–performance relationship, revealing that high design solution quality is significantly positively correlated with vigor and energetic mood in the Creative Intuition (CI) condition, and downhearted mood in the Problem Solving Intuition condition, while significantly negatively correlated with depression, worn-out and bad-tempered moods in the CI condition. High design solution feasibility was positively correlated with an exhausted mood in the Rational Thinking condition, and negatively correlated with composed and relaxed moods in the CI condition. These findings help further the understanding of how mood impacts design outcomes in intuitive and analytical problem solving, which may have implications design practice.
... In particular, anger is likely to influence an individual's creative malevolence. On the one hand, malevolent creativity usually requires an individual to intentionally harm another object, which is often triggered by anger (Anderson & Bushman, 2002); on the other hand, past research has shown that anger boosts general creative performance (Russ & Kaugars, 2001;van Kleef et al., 2010). These findings suggest that anger may be an important factor in malevolent creativity, and it is an interesting and novel topic to explore how anger affects malevolent creativity. ...
Article
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The current study aimed to explore the effect of anger on malevolent creativity and its underlying mechanisms and to determine whether such an effect could be modulated by strategies of emotional regulation. Experiment 1 compared the differences of malevolent creativity between individuals in anger, sadness, and neutral emotions and found that individuals in anger produced more and more novel malevolent ideas, emotional arousal, and implicit aggression mediate the effect of anger on the malevolent creative performance. Experiment 2 explored how different emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, expressive inhibition) influenced the malevolent creative performance of angry individuals. It was found that the cognitive reappraisal group and the expression inhibition group had lower levels of malevolent creativity than the control group. Emotional arousal and implicit aggression mediated the effects of two kinds of emotion regulation strategies on malevolent creativity. These results suggest that anger promotes creativity by enhancing implicit aggression and emotional arousal, and the cognitive reappraisal and expression inhibition strategies can be used as effective strategies to weaken the malevolent creativity of the angry individuals.
... The study by Freshman and Guthrie (2009) demonstrates a negative effect of goals on happiness. However, prior studies have revealed inconsistent results with regard to the effect of emotions on creative performance: emotions and moods can have a positive or negative effect on creative performance (Baas et al. 2011b;Davis 2009;De Dreu et al. 2008;James et al. 2004;Van Kleef et al. 2010). Hence, different factors such as operationalization and context (e. g., task, controlling supervision) appear to be important for the relationship between emotions and creative performance (Davis 2009;Oldham and Cummings 1996). ...
Article
Taking into account the dual pathway to creativity model, we conducted an experiment (N = 101) to investigate the influence of goals on creative performance aspects (cognitive persistence, creative fluency, cognitive flexibility, originality and appropriateness). Our experiment revealed that having an assigned goal versus having no goal caused anger to outweigh happiness, which led to more cognitive persistence and creative fluency. We observed no influence on cognitive flexibility and originality. An assigned goal led to less appropriate ideas than having no goal, but this effect was not mediated by emotions. Our findings suggest that goals should be applied depending on whether open-minded in-depth ideation or appropriate ideas are desired.
... Two important affective factors of creativity and emotions are closely intertwined and they are both related to emotional intelligence. Leafing through literature reveals a considerable amount of research based on the influence of certain emotional states on creative performance (Ho and Siu 2011;Van Kleef et al. 2010). For instance, De have found a link between positive emotions and divergent thinking in the right hemisphere of the brain. ...
Article
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It goes without saying that educators strive for the ideal of developing higher order thinking skills like critical, reflective, logical, metacognitive, and creative thinking among their learners. Wundt (1916) considered lower order skills like Emotions as the base for the creation of these skills. Research on emotions and Emotional Intelligence has significantly increased over the past two decades with many fields contributing including psychology, neuroscience, sociology and endocrinology. The current study tried to uncover the interplay among Creativity, Emotions and Emotional Intelligence. To this end, the researchers studied the relationship of the constructs among 160 EFL learners. The results of the study showed no relationship between EQ and creativity, however, EQ components positively and significantly influence positive emotions and the reverse is true for negative emotions; EQ influences negative emotions, negatively and significantly. The findings of the current study could help further the knowledge on the interplay among Emotional issues and Creativity.
... For instance, one study demonstrated that students performed better in idea generation after receiving angry (vs. neutral) feedback, but only when their personal need for structure was high (Van Kleef et al., 2010). ...
... The role of negative mood for creativity is far less clear, and contextual conditions likely moderate it (e.g., Van Kleef et al., 2010). While positive mood seems to support early idea generation, neutral and negative emotions enhance performance in later idea production (Kaufmann and Vosburg, 2002). ...
Article
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is influencing our lives in an enormous and unprecedented way. Here, we explore COVID-19-lockdown's consequences for creative activity. To this end, we relied on two extensive diary studies. The first, held on March 2019 (pre-pandemic), involved 78 students who reported their emotions and creativity over 2 weeks (927 observations). The second, conducted on March 2020 (during the pandemic and lockdown), involved 235 students who reported on their emotions, creativity, and the intensity of thinking and talking about COVID-19 over a month (5,904 observations). We found that compared with 2019, during the lockdown, students engaged slightly yet statistically significantly more in creative activities. An analysis of diaries collected during the pandemic also showed that the days when students spent more time discussing or searching for information about COVID-19 were characterized by a higher creative activity yet also mixed emotions. We discuss potential explanations of these unexpected results along with future study directions.
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This chapter explores the important role that anger plays in teaching and learning.
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Drawing on the specific emotion approach, and based on the emotional regulation theory and cognitive and activation perspectives on emotions, this study examined the differentiated impact of state and trait anger on creative process engagement (CPE) and the moderating influences of emotion reappraisal and suppression. Data were obtained from daily surveys (N = 422) of 98 employees from three consultancy companies. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis revealed that trait anger has a stronger impact on CPE than state anger does. Furthermore, the relationship between state anger and CPE is stronger when emotion reappraisal is lower, rather than higher, and the relationship between trait anger and CPE is also stronger when emotion suppression is lower, rather than higher.
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Purpose This paper aims to explore how Chinese negotiators’ positive and negative emotions affect value claiming during dyadic negotiations and examine the influence of these aroused emotions on the recipient as well as the antecedents and consequents of such reactions. Design/methodology/approach Using a simulated face-to-face negotiation between buyers and sellers, the authors conducted an experiment based on the manipulation of the sellers’ emotions. About 280 undergraduates participated in a simulated negotiation. SPSS20.0 statistical analysis software was used to test the hypothesis. Findings The results indicated that the sellers who demonstrates negative emotions claimed more value than happy sellers (direct effect), and the perceived power disadvantage mediated this effect. Moreover, buyers in the happy dyads displayed a higher evaluation of their guanxi (relationship). This experiment also indicated that the sellers’ emotions (happiness or anger) evoked a reciprocal emotion in the buyers, supporting the social contagion perspective. More importantly, as emotion recipients, the buyers’ reactions exerted further influence on the outcomes (ripple effect); specifically, in the happy dyads, the buyers’ positive emotional reactions were negatively related to their individual gains. Finally, the buyers with low agreeableness were more likely to display negative emotional reactions. Research limitations/implications Negotiators should have an understanding of how emotions may shape conflict development and resolution via direct and ripple effects. In general, during Chinese negotiations, expressing anger is an effective negotiation tactic that incurs the expense of damaged relationships with counterparts. Originality/value The findings validated the impact of emotions in the Chinese negotiation context. Further, the paper extended the research by demonstrating the influence of emotions on the recipients’ reactions. Both the direct and ripple effect provided evidence for adopting the strategic choice perspective during negotiations.
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Decades of research provide rich knowledge about the nature of creative potential (e.g., personality, motivation, and cognitive abilities predicting creativity) and creative products. However, the process between generating creative ideas and actualizing these ideas in creative products is less well understood. In this chapter, we argue that the success of transforming creative ideas into accomplishments substantially depends on effective self-regulation processes. We adapt and extend personality and social psychological research on self-regulation and define two broad groups of self-regulation processes in creativity: (1) revising and restrategizing (including regulating process expectations, adjusting approach, and managing ambitious goals/embracing risk); and (2) sustaining and maintaining effort (including planning and organization strategies, persistence in the face of obstacles, and managing emotions). We conclude the chapter by discussing future directions in the study of self-regulation in the creative process.
Chapter
Creativity is evident in many human activities that generate new and useful ideas, including scientific discovery, technological innovation, social innovation, and artistic imagination (Thagard & Stewart, 2011). Research suggests that creativity can be explained partly by personality characteristics but also by situational variables related to changing or enhancing affective states.
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Negotiation has been an important area of research within organizational behavior and management science for the past 50 years. In this review, we adapt Brett’s model of culture and negotiation (Brett, 2000) and use it as an organizing guide to examine the factors that research has shown to affect 3 key measures, namely: negotiators’ interests and priorities, strategies and social interactions, and outcomes. Specifically, the model focuses on psychological factors including cognitions and biases, personality, motivation, emotions and inclination to trust; and social-environmental factors including reputation and relationship, gender, power and status, and culture. We conclude with a discussion of how future directions might address some of the limitations of current research.
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The purpose of this sourcebook is to explore teaching and emotion in higher education.
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The study of intragroup dynamics in management studies views conflict as a contingency process that can benefit or harm a group based of characteristics of the group and context. We review five models of intragroup conflict in management studies. These models include diversity-conflict and behavioral negotiation models that focus primarily on conflict within a group of people; social exchange and transaction cost economics models that focus primarily on conflict within a group of firms; and social dilemma models that focus on conflict in collectives of people, organizations, communities, and generations. The review is constituted by summarizing the insights of each model, foundational papers to each model; the most recent uses and developments of the models in the last decade; the complementarity of these models; and the future research directions.
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In this research, we explore how employees’ self-reflections following a failed attempt to help a coworker shape future helping intentions and behaviors. Specifically, we propose a dual-process model of parallel affective and cognitive pathways to delineate how, and why, reflecting on an interpersonal helping failure with self-compassion would result in countervailing effects on future helping. Whereas self-compassion reduces employees’ future helping via the alleviation of guilt (affective mechanism), it also increases employees’ future helping via the facilitation of helping self-efficacy (cognitive mechanism). We further draw on theories of attribution to propose that these effects depend on who was at fault for the helping failure, such that the effects are strengthened when coworker blame attribution is low. Results across four studies improve our understanding of the phenomenon of interpersonal helping failures, and the role of employee self-reflection in shaping the impact of these failures on future intentions and behavior.
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Customers interact directly with service employees and influence their attitudes and behaviors, but the extant research mainly focuses on receipt of coworker or leader gratitude (i.e., intra-organization sourced gratitude), with little attention on receipt of customer gratitude (i.e., extra-organization sourced gratitude). Integrating emotions as social information theory with a social identity approach, this research aims to address this issue by exploring why and when receipt of customer gratitude contributes to employees’ work effort. Through a field study and an experiment, we found that: (1) receipt of customer gratitude promotes employees’ occupational and organizational identification, both of which in turn lead to increased work effort; (2) employees’ other-orientation can enhance the positive relationships between receipt of customer gratitude and occupational and organizational identification; and (3) employees’ other-orientation strengthens the positive relationship between receipt of customer gratitude and employees’ work effort through both occupational and organizational identification. These findings have notable implications for research and practice.
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Research has recognized that people regulate their emotions not only for seeking pleasurable experiences but also for receiving instrumental gains. We draw on the theoretical framework of instrumental emotion regulation (IER; Tamir, 2005, 2009) to shed new light on the relationships among creativity, emotion, and psychological well‐being. We outline propositions that explain why there are concurrent creative and well‐being benefits when people experience emotional states that are consistent with their personality trait (e.g., worrisome emotions being consistent with trait neuroticism) even if such trait‐consistent emotions are negative. The IER perspective offers new interpretations of the creativity—well‐being relationship through motivating a more holistic view of emotion regulation and well‐being. We present an integrative theoretical model explicating that instrumental regulation toward trait‐consistent emotions engages people in emotional states that feel affectively right (affective path), motivate them intrinsically (motivational path), and boost cognitive efficiency (cognitive path), thus yielding potential downstream benefits on creativity and well‐being.
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Resumo Tratou-se de um estudo correlacional com 108 líderes e 176 liderados de quatro empresas públicas ou de economia mista em que se testou o efeito da percepção de raiva e de poder do líder no desempenho do liderado, moderado por dois traços pessoais dos liderados (conscienciosidade e agradabilidade). A base teórica foi o modelo EASI (Emotion as Social Information). Os liderados responderam três instrumentos: a) traços pessoais de agradabilidade e conscienciosidade; b) Medida de Poder Social Global do líder; e c) Escala de Percepção da Expressão Emocional de raiva do líder. Os líderes responderam à Medida de Desempenho de Tarefa de seus liderados. Os resultados indicaram que apenas a conscienciosidade moderou a relação entre a percepção de raiva do líder e o desempenho do liderado.
Thesis
Ce travail de thèse s’est intéressé au rôle de la diversité sur le fonctionnement des équipes de travail. Il a répondu à l’ambiguïté des résultats de la littérature et à l’appel de nombreux auteurs à porter une plus grande attention sur les processus sous-jacents à l’impact de la diversité. D’un part, ce travail a adopté une approche minimaliste et a proposé le paradigme du compère virtuel, afin d’isoler la part sociocatégorielle de la diversité. D’autre part, il a utilisé la créativité, plutôt que la performance, comme outils de compréhension, puisqu’elle implique des enjeux sociopsychologiques spécifiques. En induisant une simple perception de diversité culturelle, nous avons notamment observé une baisse (surtout qualitative) de la pensée divergente chez les participants ayant fait face à la diversité. Les résultats observés mettent à mal les principales prédictions de la littérature. Aussi, nous leur avons opposé deux interprétations possibles. La première repose sur le rôle de la validation sociale et la deuxième sur celui de l’interdépendance sociale. Les observations et les déductions qui en découlent ont mis en lumière la complexité du rôle de la diversité dans le fonctionnement des équipes de travail.
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The present research aims to determine the relation of creativity with romantic motive and mental health. The objectives of the present study are to determine: 1) exploring the effects of training status (painter versus non-painter) and age group (older versus younger) on mental health, romantic motive and universals of aesthetics and overall quality of creative production. 2) Exploring the relationship of mental health and romantic motive with universals of aesthetics and overall quality of creative production. 3) Exploring effects of induced romantic motives on universals of aesthetics and overall quality in creative productions. A total of 220 male participants comprising 40 established painting professionals, 40 non-painting professionals, 70 painting students and 70 non-painting students responded to an Information schedule, the General Health Questionnaire-28, PGI wellbeing scale, and the Sternberg Triangular Love Scale. Subsequently, the participants were divided in control and experimental groups. Participants of the experimental group produced a spontaneous drawing (spontaneous condition), to be followed by two experimental conditions where romantic motive was induced in random succession by (a) showing the picture of a sexually attractive woman, and (b) fantasizing a romantic relationship. They produced drawings after each induced condition. The control group produced three consecutive drawings without any induction of romantic motive. The drawings were scored by raters in terms of universals of aesthetics and overall quality of creative production. Descriptive statistics, MANOVA and correlation showed significant effects of training status and age group on the 10 creativity variables taken in combination. Creative production was not associated with reported mental health or romantic motives. But, in the experimental part, while there was no difference among the three conditions in the control groups, there were significant differences in experimental group in non-painters and especially in the painters.
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To access organizational resources, subordinates often strive to influence supervisors’ impressions. Moreover, subordinates’ interactions with supervisors are known to be ripe with emotions. Nevertheless, research on upward impression management has rarely examined how subordinates’ emotion regulation in supervisor interactions may shape their tangible outcomes. The present study introduces subordinates’ emotional labor toward supervisors as a novel means of upward influence. Building on the emotions‐as‐social‐information model, we propose that supervisor‐directed emotional labor indirectly relates with supervisory reward recommendations by shaping supervisors’ liking and perceived competence of subordinates. Moreover, we cast supervisors’ epistemic motivation as a boundary condition for these indirect relations. We tested these notions using time‐lagged data from 377 subordinates and 91 supervisors. When supervisors’ epistemic motivation was higher (but not lower), (1) supervisor‐directed surface acting related negatively with supervisors’ liking and perceived competence of subordinates and (2) supervisor‐directed deep acting related positively with supervisors’ liking of subordinates. Liking and perceived competence, in turn, related positively with supervisors’ willingness to recommend subordinates for organizational rewards. These findings highlight supervisor‐directed emotional labor as an upward impression management strategy with both beneficial (deep acting) and detrimental (surface acting) implications, and they illustrate important mechanisms and a key contingency factor for these consequences.
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The positive affect and negative affect schedule (PANAS) is a popular measure of positive (PA) and negative affectivity (NA). Developed and validated in Western contexts, the 20‐item scale has been frequently administered on respondents from Asian countries with the assumption of cross‐cultural measurement invariance. We examine this assumption via a rigorous multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, which allows us to assess between‐group differences in both strength of scale item‐to‐latent factor relationship (metric invariance test) and mean of each scale item (scalar invariance test), on a large sample of 1,065 respondents recruited from Singapore (Asian sample) and the United States (Western sample). We found that two items assessing PA (“excited” and “proud”) and three items assessing NA (“guilty,” “hostile,” and “ashamed”) exhibited metric noninvariance whereas 11 of the remaining metric invariant items exhibited scalar noninvariance, suggesting that the PA and NA constructs differ from what the PANAS is expected to measure for Asian respondents. Our findings serve as a cautionary note to researchers who intend to administer the PANAS in future studies as well as to researchers interpreting the results of past studies involving respondents from Asian countries.
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Previous studies regarding the effect of experiencing anger on creative performance have shown controversial findings. Some studies have reported that anger hampers creative performance, whereas others have shown that anger promotes cognitive motivation and improves creative performance. Anger is associated with hostility, threats, and conflict, states that are congruent with low agreeableness. In contrast, anger is incompatible with an agreeable individual's preference for harmony and peace. Experiencing this negative activating emotion should be demanding and stressful to them and thereby hamper creative task engagement. Accordingly, we conducted an experimental study to examine whether agreeableness moderated the association between anger and creative performance. A total of 128 undergraduates were randomly assigned to receive either induced anger or a neutral emotion and then completed a creativity task. We found that participants with lower levels of agreeableness showed better fluency, flexibility, and originality in creativity in the anger relative to the neutral‐emotion condition, whereas participants with higher levels of agreeableness showed better creative performance in the neutral emotion relative to the anger condition. The present findings not only provide a viable account for integrating inconsistent findings regarding the facilitating effect of anger on creativity but also contribute to contingent strategies for promoting creative performance.
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Epistemic motivation, which is the desire to understand the environment and others’ emotions more accurately, influences individuals’ behaviour. To explore the role of university students’ epistemic motivation in learning, I examined the interaction effects of teachers’ emotional feedback type (positive vs. negative) × students’ epistemic motivation level (high vs. low) × task type (divergent vs. convergent) on enjoyment, effort, feedback perception and performance. Regardless of task type, students in the high epistemic motivation condition showed higher task effort and performance, whereas students in the low epistemic motivation condition showed lower task enjoyment when receiving negative emotional feedback. The students who undertook a divergent-thinking task in the low epistemic motivation condition and received negative (vs. positive) emotional feedback perceived that the feedback was less helpful in improving their performance. This study indicates that the effects of negative emotional feedback on learning can be differentiated by students’ epistemic motivation level and task type.
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Creativity is critical to organizational success. Understanding the antecedents of creativity is important. Although there is a growing body of research on how (mixed) emotions affect creativity, most of the work has focused on intrapersonal processes. We do not know whether contrasting emotions between interacting partners (i.e., interpersonal mixed emotions) have creative consequences. Building on information processing theories of emotion, our research proposes a theoretical account for why interpersonal mixed emotions matter. It hypothesized that mixed- (vs. same-) emotion interactions would predict higher collective creative performance. We tested the hypothesis in two-party integrative negotiations (105 dyads). We manipulated negotiators' emotional expressions (angry-angry, happy-happy, angry-happy dyads) and measured the extent to which they generated creative solutions that tapped into hidden integrative potential in the negotiation for a better joint gain. The results overall supported the hypothesis: (i) there was some evidence that mixed-emotion dyads (i.e., angry-happy) performed better than same-emotion dyads; (ii) mixed-emotion dyads, on average, achieved a high level of joint gain that exceeded the (non-creative) zero-sum threshold, whereas same-emotion dyads did not. The findings add theoretical and actionable insights into our understanding of creativity, emotion, and organization behavior.
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Svrha – Cilj je ovog rada procijeniti utjecaj dviju nekognitivnih taktika oporavka usluge koje poduzeća koriste, a to su utjecaj izražavanja emocionalne uključenosti pružatelja oporavka usluge i namjernog dopuštanja percepcije određene razine kontrole samih korisnika koji sudjeluju u oporavku. Metodološki pristup – U istraživanju je korišten faktorski eksperimentalni dizajn, testirani su scenariji oporavka usluge u restoranu. Rezultati i implikacije – Rezultati upućuju na to da afektivno djelovanje zaposlenika i korisnikova percepcija kontrole pozitivno utječu na zadovoljstvo. Naše istraživanje također pokazuje da korisnici nikada ne percipiraju izolirano organizacijske aktivnosti. Postoje brojne interakcije između različitih oblika pokušaja oporavka. Rezultati pokazuju da postoje interakcije između svake kombinacije kompenzacije, afektivnog djelovanja zaposlenika i percipirane kontrole. Implikacije za menadžere upućuju na korištenje portfolia taktika za oporavak usluge. Ograničenja – Istraživanje se temelji na manipulacijama scenarijima koji su razvijeni i testirani u više koraka, ali neki ispitanici mogu shvatiti scenarije manje realističnima od stvarnog života i osobnih interakcija. Drugo, mogu postojati individualne razlike u osjetljivosti na emocionalni prijenos. U ovom je istraživanju fokus bio na općim procesima korisnika, a individualne razlike su područje koje se može istražiti u budućnosti. Doprinos – Na ovaj način proširujemo kognitivno dominirajuće razumijevanje oporavka usluge kroz uključivanje utjecaja afektivne (“zaposlenikovo afektivno djelovanje”) i konativne/ponašajuće (˝percepcija samokontrole korisnika˝) taktike oporavka usluge.
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Persuasive appeals sometimes include expressions of anger in an attempt to influence message recipients' thoughts, attitudes, and behaviors. The current research investigated how angry expressions change the way in which a persuasive appeal is considered. In five experiments, participants reported more favorable attitudes towards strong than weak appeals attributed to sources expressing anger, indicating careful processing of those appeals. However, participants reported equally favorable attitudes towards appeals attributed to sources expressing other emotions, indicating a lack of careful processing. Angry expressions induced extensive processing even in those not dispositionally inclined to do so, and also influenced attitudes towards issues related to, but not specifically addressed in, the appeal. Mediation and causal-chain analyses indicate that extensive processing was induced by the threat signaled by angry expressions.
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Because 1 function of categorization is to provide structure and control to social interactions and because individuals differ in the extent to which they desire control and structure, individual differences in personal need for structure (PNS) should moderate the extent to which people categorize. Spontaneous trait inferences (STIs) were used to assess the use of traits in categorization. High-PNS Ss were more likely to form STIs and more likely to recall names of target actors in the stimulus sentences. This research provides evidence for the organization of behavioral information in person nodes in circumstances where processing goals did not explicitly request such organization. It also provides a link between the examination of chronic sources of motivation and social categorization, perhaps the most fundamental social-cognitive variable.
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Two experiments were executed to study how persons test hypotheses about others. Experiment 1 demonstrated that subjects can be sensitive to contextually presented alternatives to a given hypothesis. Subjects who addressed the hypotheses that an interviewee was an architect or a painter selected different information than did those who addressed the hypotheses that the interviewee was an architect or a computer engineer. In both cases, subjects' informational choices appeared guided by the principle of diagnosticity. Notably, they predominantly selected information whose diagnostic value with respect to the pertinent hypothesis-alternative pair was high rather than low. Experiment 2 demonstrated that subjects' sensitivity to a contextually mentioned alternative (architect) to a given target hypothesis (painter) may be affected by their motivational orientation. Subjects with a high need for openness (as manipulated by high fear of invalidity) and low need for closure were more likely to seek diagnostic information demarcating the hypothesis from the alternative than subjects with a high need for closure and low fear of invalidity. Thus, the present research highlights the subjective determinants of information diagnosticity: It suggests that diagnosticity may depend on the cognitive context of hypothesis testing (the type of alternatives juxtaposed to a target hypothesis), and on individuals' epistemic motivations, which may affect their sensitivity to contextually suggested hypotheses. Two experiments were executed to study how persons test hypotheses about others. Experiment 1 demonstrated that subjects can be sensitive to contextually presented alternatives to a given hypothesis. Subjects who addressed the hypotheses that an interviewee was an architect or a painter selected different information than did those who addressed the hypotheses that the interviewee was an architect or a computer engineer. In both cases, subjects' informational choices appeared guided by the principle of diagnosticity. Notably, they predominantly selected information whose diagnostic value with respect to the pertinent hypothesis-alternative pair was high rather than low. Experiment 2 demonstrated that subjects' sensitivity to a contextually mentioned alternative (architect) to a given target hypothesis (painter) may be affected by their motivational orientation. Subjects with a high need for openness (as manipulated by high fear of invalidity) and low need for closure were more likely to seek diagnostic information demarcating the hypothesis from the alternative than subjects with a high need for closure and low fear of invalidity. Thus, the present research highlights the subjective determinants of information diagnosticity: It suggests that diagnosticity may depend on the cognitive context of hypothesis testing (the type of alternatives juxtaposed to a target hypothesis), and on individuals' epistemic motivations, which may affect their sensitivity to contextually suggested hypotheses.
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We hypothesized that anger expressions increase expressers’ ability to claim value in negotiations, but only when the recipients of these expressions have poor alternatives. This effect occurs because anger expression communicates toughness, and only recipients who have poor alternatives are affected by the toughness of their counterpart. In Experiment 1, participants read a scenario about a negotiator who either was angry or not. In Experiment 2, dyads negotiated face-to-face after one negotiator within each dyad was advised to show either anger or no emotion. In both studies, recipients of anger expressions who had poor alternatives conceded more. Experiment 2 also provided evidence that toughness ascribed to the expresser mediated the effect of anger expression on claiming value.
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In a laboratory experiment, three-person interactive and three-person nominal groups of college students brainstormed without externally imposed time constraints. All groups were homogeneous with regard to gender. Half of the participants were instructed to continue brainstorming until they ran out of ideas (expectancy stop rule), whereas the other half were instructed to continue until they were satisfied with their performance (satisfaction stop rule). We found that interactive groups were more persistent than nominal groups in both of the stop rule conditions and thereby compensated for their usual productivity loss. We also found, as predicted, that women were more persistent in the satisfaction stop rule condition, whereas men were more persistent in the expectancy stop rule condition. This effect may be due to gender differences in self-evaluations
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The author developed a model that explains and predicts both longitudinal and cross-sectional variation in the output of major and minor creative products. The model first yields a mathematical equation that accounts for the empirical age curves, including contrasts across creative domains in the expected career trajectories. The model is then extended to account for individual differences in career trajectories, such as the longitudinal stability of cross-sectional variation and the differential placement of career landmarks (the ages at first, best, and last contribution). The theory is parsimonious in that it requires only two individual-difference parameters (initial creative potential and age at career onset) and two information-processing parameters (ideation and elaboration rates), plus a single principle (the equal-odds rule), to derive several precise predictions that cannot be generated by any alternative theory.
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This article presents six new principles emerging from four decades of academic and industry research on the generation of high-quality creative ideas by “brainstorming”. The principles are: (a) brainstorming insructions are essential and should emphasize, paradoxically, number and not quality of ideas; (b) a specific, difficult target should be set for the number of ideas; (c) individuals, not groups, should generate the initial ideas; (d) groups should then be used to amalgamate and refine the ideas; (e) individuals should provide the final ratings to select the best ideas, which will increase commitment to the ideas selected; and, (f) the time required for successful brainstorming should be kept remarkably short. By following these principles, brainstorming will more dependably produce high-quality creative results.
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This paper reviews research on the role of anger in conflict. We distinguish between intrapersonal and interpersonal effects of anger, the former referring to the impact of parties’ feelings of anger on their own behavior and the latter referring to the impact of one parties’ anger on the other’s behavior. We further compare the effects of anger across a variety of conflict settings, including negotiation, ultimatum bargaining, prisoner’s dilemma, resource dilemma, and coalition formation. At the intrapersonal level, anger is associated with competition in all conflict settings. In contrast, the interpersonal effects of anger differ across situations, with anger sometimes eliciting cooperation, sometimes eliciting competition, and sometimes having no effect. Based on the research reviewed, we conclude that the interpersonal effects of anger in conflict are determined by the level of interdependence of the parties, their information processing tendencies, and the justifiability of the anger expressions.
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Research on multiparty negotiation has investigated how parties form coalitions to secure payoffs but has not addressed how emotions may affect such coalition decisions. Extending research on bilateral negotiations which has generally argued that it is beneficial to communicate anger, we argue that it constitutes a considerable risk when there are more than two people present at the negotiation table. Using a computer-mediated coalition game we show that communicating anger is a risky strategy in multiparty bargaining. The main findings of three studies were that participants: (1) form negative impressions of players who communicate anger and therefore (2) exclude such players from coalitions and from obtaining a payoff share, but (3) make considerable concessions on those rare occasions that they choose to form a coalition with an angry player, or (4) when they had to form a coalition with an angry player. We discuss the implications of these results for theorizing on emotions, negotiations, and coalition formation.
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Group emotional contagion, the transfer of moods among people in a group, and its influence on work group dynamics was examined in a laboratory study of managerial decision making using multiple, convergent measures of mood, individual attitudes, behavior, and group-level dynamics. Using a 2 times 2 experimental design, with a trained confederate enacting mood conditions, the predicted effect of emotional contagion was found among group members, using both outside coders' ratings of participants' mood and participants' self-reported mood. No hypothesized differences in contagion effects due to the degree of pleasantness of the mood expressed and the energy level with which it was conveyed were found. There was a significant influence of emotional contagion on individual-level attitudes and group processes. As predicted, the positive emotional contagion group members experienced improved cooperation, decreased conflict, and increased perceived task performance. Theoretical implications and practical ramifications of emotional contagion in groups and organizations are discussed.
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We examined how leader emotional displays affect team performance. We developed and tested the idea that effects of leader displays of anger versus happiness depend on followers' epistemic motivation, which is the desire to develop a thorough understanding of a situation. Experimental data on four-person teams engaged in an interdependent team task showed that teams with higher epistemic motivation performed better when their leaders displayed anger (mediated by team members' performance inferences), whereas teams with lower epistemic motivation performed better when the leaders expressed happiness (mediated by team members' affective reactions). Theoretical contributions and managerial ramifications are discussed.
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recently, we have begun to explore . . . [the] process of emotional contagion / people's conscious analyses give them a great deal of information about their social encounters / [people] can also focus their attention on their moment-to-moment emotional reactions to others, during their social encounters / this stream of reactions comes to them via their fleeting observations of others' faces, voices, postures, and instrumental behaviors / further, as they nonconsciously and automatically mimic their companions' fleeting expressions of emotion, people also may come to feel as their partners feel / by attending to the stream of tiny moment-to-moment reactions, people can gain a great deal of information on their own and their partners' emotional landscapes begin by defining emotion and emotional contagion and discussing several mechanisms that we believe might account for this phenomenon / review the evidence from a variety of disciplines that "primitive emotional contagion" exists / examine the role of individual differences in emotional contagion / outline some of the broad research questions researchers might profitably investigate (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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Because 1 function of categorization is to provide structure and control to social interactions and because individuals differ in the extent to which they desire control and structure, individual differences in personal need for structure (PNS) should moderate the extent to which people categorize. Spontaneous trait inferences (STIs) were used to assess the use of traits in categorization. High-PNS Ss were more likely to form STIs and more likely to recall names of target actors in the stimulus sentences. This research provides evidence for the organization of behavioral information in person nodes in circumstances where possessing goals did not explicitly request such organization. It also provides a link between the examination of chronic sources of motivation and social categorization, perhaps the most fundamental social–cognitive variable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Three experiments investigated the consequences of the epistemic motivation toward closure on the emergence of creative interactions in small groups. In the first study, need for closure was manipulated via time pressure. Results showed that in groups under high need for closure (i.e. under time pressure) the percentage of creative acts during group discussion was reduced. The second study replicated this result using an individual differences operationalization of the need for closure. In the third study, groups composed of individuals high (versus low) in need for closure performed less creatively, and exhibited less ideational fluidity during group interaction. Moreover, it was demonstrated that conformity pressure mediates the negative relationship between dispositional need for closure and group creativity. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The amount of time available to reach an agreement, information about a negotiator's own position, and information about the opponent's position were manipulated in a simulated contract negotiation. As in decision making research, time pressure in negotiation was expected to decrease response time and change response strategy. Information was expected to be an advantage to negotiators when clarifying their preferences but a disadvantage if information about competing opponent interests was present. Results supported this expectation. Different patterns of concessions and in concessions and inconsistencies were found under high and low time pressure and type of information.
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This chapter examines some of the literature demonstrating an impact of affect on social behavior. It will consider the influence of affect on cognition in an attempt to further understand on the way cognitive processes may mediate the effect of feelings on social behavior. The chapter describes the recent works suggesting an influence of positive affect on flexibility in cognitive organization (that is, in the perceived relatedness of ideas) and the implications of this effect for social interaction. The goal of this research is to expand the understanding of social behavior and the factors, such as affect, that influence interaction among people. Another has been to extend the knowledge of affect, both as one of these determinants of social behavior and in its own right. And a third has been to increase the understanding of cognitive processes, especially as they play a role in social interaction. Most recently, cognitive and social psychologists have investigated ways in which affective factors may participate in cognitive processes (not just interrupt them) and have begun to include affect as a factor in more comprehensive models of cognition. The research described in the chapter has focused primarily on feelings rather than intense emotion, because feelings are probably the most frequent affective experiences. The chapter focuses primarily on positive affect.
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This chapter presents an integrated understanding of various impression formation processes. The chapter introduces a model of impression formation that integrates social cognition research on stereotyping with traditional research on person perception. According to this model, people form impressions of others through a variety of processes that lie on a continuum reflecting the extent to that the perceiver utilizes a target's particular attributes. The continuum implies that the distinctions among these processes are matters of degree, rather than discrete shifts. The chapter examines the evidence for the five main premises of the model, it is helpful to discuss some related models that raise issues for additional consideration. The chapter discusses the research that supports each of the five basic premises, competing models, and hypotheses for further research. The chapter concludes that one of the model's fundamental purposes is to integrate diverse perspectives on impression formation, as indicated by the opening quotation. It is also designed to generate predictions about basic impression formation processes and to help generate interventions that can reduce the impact of stereotypes on impression formation.
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The ideas presented in this book have been incubating for over 25 years. I was in the first grade, I believe, when the ideas that eventually developed into this social psychology of creativity first began to germinate. The occasion was art class, a weekly Friday afternoon event during which we were given small reproductions of the great masterworks and asked to copy them on notepaper using the standard set of eight Crayola® crayons. I had left kindergarten the year before with encour­ agement from the teacher about developing my potential for artistic creativity. During these Friday afternoon exercises, however, I developed nothing but frus­ tration. Somehow, Da Vinci's "Adoration of the Magi" looked wrong after I'd fin­ ished with it. I wondered where that promised creativity had gone. I began to believe then that the restrictions placed on my artistic endeavors contributed to my loss of interest and spontaneity in art. When, as a social psy­ chologist, I began to study intrinsic motivation, it seemed to me that this moti­ vation to do something for its own sake was the ingredient that had been missing in those strictly regimented art classes. It seemed that intrinsic motivation, as defined by social psychologists, might be essential to creativity. My research pro­ gram since then has given considerable support to that notion. As a result, the social psychology of creativity presented in this book gives prominence to social variables that affect motivational orientation.
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An experiment was conducted to investigate whether the need for cognitive closure affects the degree of creativity in small groups. Participants in groups of four performed a task in which they had to create advertising slogans for a given product. Some of the groups were composed of individuals with high dispositional need for closure, whereas other groups were composed of individuals with low need for closure. Results showed that ideational fluency, degree of elaboration, and creativity, as rated by independent judges, was lower in high (vs. low) need-for-closure groups. These results suggest that the tendencies to restrict the number of hypotheses generated and to produce conventional ideas, consequences of the need for closure, lower the degree of creativity in interacting groups.
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An experiment was conducted to test the proposition that comparison with others similar to oneself in performance affords more accurate self-evaluations than comparison with dissimilar others. A previous study presumably demonstrating this effect (R. Radloff, 1966, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Suplement, 1, 6–26) was reinterpreted. It was suggested that in that particular experiment, performance dissimilarity of comparison others may have been confounded with subjects' disconfirmed expectancies concerning own performance. In the present experiment, similarity of comparison others (manipulated via performance extremity relative to others in the group) was orthogonally manipulated to consistency (versus inconsistency) with an expectancy. As predicted, inconsistency with expectancy exerted adverse effects on the accuracy of self-evaluations whereas dissimilarity from comparison others did not. Significance of the findings for social comparison processes was discussed.
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Creativity often leads to the development of original ideas that are useful or influential, and maintaining creativity is crucial for the continued development of organizations in particular, and society in general. Most research and writing has focused on individual creativity, yet in recent years, there has been an increasing acknowledgment of the importance of the social and contextual factors in creativity. Even with the information explosion and the growing necessity for specialization, the development of innovations still requires group interaction at various stages in the creative process. Most organizations increasingly rely on the work of creative teams where each individual is an expert in a particular area. This book summarizes the exciting new research developments on the processes involved in group creativity and innovation, and explores the relationship between group processes, group context and creativity. It draws from a broad range of research perspectives, including those investigating cognition, groups, creativity, information systems and organizational psychology. The first section in this book focuses on how group decision making is affected by factors such as cognitive fixation and flexibility, group diversity, minority dissent, group decision-making, brainstorming and group support systems. Special attention is devoted to the various processes and conditions which can inhibit or facilitate group creativity. The second section explores how various contextual and environmental factors affect the creative processes of groups. The chapters explore issues of group autonomy, group socialization, mentoring, team innovation, knowledge transfer and creativity, at the level of cultures, and societies.
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In the present article we argue that emotional interactions are not appropriately captured in present emotion research and theorizing. Emotional stimuli or antecedents are dynamic and change over time because they often interact and have a specific relationship with the subject. Earlier emotional interactions may, for example, intensify later emotional reactions to a specific person, or our anger reactions towards powerful or powerless others may differ considerably. Thus, we suggest that such social factors not only affect the intensity, but also the nature of emotional experiences and expressions, and specifically the nature of the social movement (e.g., moving towards, away, or against). We discuss different processes that are implicated in the relation between the social environment and our emotions, describe how emotional expressions shape social behavior, and provide suggestions for incorporating the social dimension of emotion in future research.
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The idea that emotions regulate social interaction is increasingly popular. But exactly how do emotions do this? To address this question, I draw on research on the interpersonal effects of emotions on behavior in personal relationships, parent–child interactions, conflict, negotiation, and leadership, and propose a new framework that can account for existing findings and guide future research: the emotions as social information (EASI) model. I demonstrate that emotional expressions affect observers’ behavior by triggering inferential processes and/or affective reactions in them. The predictive strength of these two processes—which may inspire different behaviors—depends on the observer’s information processing and on social-relational factors. Examples of moderators that determine the relative predictive strength of inferences and affective reactions include power, need for cognitive closure, time pressure, display rules, and the appropriateness and target of the emotional expression, which are all discussed.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in anxiety and defense mechanisms between differently creative people. Two extreme groups that scored either very high or very low on a test of the creative function were selected from a larger cohort (N = 60). Each group consisted of 12 male undergraduate students, who took a test of defense mechanisms and completed anxiety inventories. The results showed that the high-creative group had more anxiety than the low-creative group. The high-creative group also used a greater number of different defense categories than the low-creative group. The number of defense categories was positively correlated with a fluency measure in the creativity test. These results are discussed in terms of variability in basal arousal, flexibility, and a creative defensive style.
Book
This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Previous work has shown that positive mood may facilitate creative problem solving. However, studies have also shown positive mood may be detrimental to creative thinking under conditions favoring an optimizing strategy for solution. It is argued herein that the opposite effect is observed under conditions promoting loose processing and satisficing problem-solving strategies. The effects of positive and negative mood on divergent-thinking performance were examined in a quasi-experimental design. The sample comprised 188 arts and psychology students. Mood was measured with an adjective checklist prior to task performance. Real-life divergent-thinking tasks scored for fluency were used as the dependent variables. Results showed natural positive mood to facilitate significantly task performance and negative mood to inhibit it. The re was no effect of arousal. The results suggest that per sons in elevated moods may prefer satisficing strategies, which would lead to a higher number of proposed solutions. Persons in a negative mood may choose optimizing strategies and be more concerned with the quality of their ideas, which is detrimental to performance on this kind of task.
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Pruitt and Carnevale's examination of behavior in negotiations and its antecedents and consequences looks at the nature of negotiator strategies and tactics and their impact on the outcomes of negotiation. Among the antecedents examined are the negotiator's role in his or her organization, conflict style, the other party's behavior, the way the issues are framed, and various aspects of the relationship between the parties. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Individual differences in the desire for simple structure may influence how people understand, experience, and interact with their worlds. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that the Personal Need for Structure (PNS) scale (M. Thompson, M. Naccarato, and K. Parker, 1989) possesses sufficient reliability and convergent and discriminant validity. In Studies 3–5, Ss high in PNS were especially likely to organize social and nonsocial information in less complex ways, stereotype others, and complete their research requirements on time. These data suggest that people differ in their chronic desire for simple structure and that this difference can have important social–cognitive and behavioral implications. A consideration of chronic information-processing motives may facilitate the theoretical integration of social cognition, affect, motivation, and personality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This book is designed to be a text, and aims to present the principles and procedures of creative thinking. The author claims that study of the general principles of creation and the methods used by famous creators can help a person do his own creating. There are 26 chapters, covering a wide variety of topics, such as "imagination in marital relations," "the age factor in creativity," "ways by which creativity can be developed," "factors that tend to cramp creativity," "the element of luck in creative conquests," "the value of thinking up plenty of hypotheses," "the effect of emotional drives on ideation," "creative collaboration by teams," and many others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this chapter, the authors present a social functional account of emotions that attempts to integrate the relevant insights of evolutionary and social constructivist theorists. The authors' account is summarized in 3 statements: (1) social living presents social animals with problems whose solutions are critical for individual survival; (2) emotions have been designed in the course of evolution to solve these problems; and (3) in humans, culture loosens the linkages between emotions and problems so that cultures find new ways of using emotions. In the first half of the chapter the authors synthesize the positions of diverse theorists in a taxonomy of problems of social living and then consider how evolution-based primordial emotions solve those problems by coordinating social interactions. In the second half of the chapter the authors discuss the specific processes according to which culture transforms primordial emotions and how culturally shaped elaborated emotions help solve the problems of social living. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Emotions play an important role in coordinating social life. In the last decade, traditional research on the intrapersonal effects of emotions has been complemented by a growing focus on interpersonal effects. I propose that a primary function of emotion at this interpersonal level is to disambiguate social interaction by providing information about the expresser’s feelings, goals, motives, and intentions. Building on this idea, I introduce the emotions as social information (EASI) model. The model posits that emotional expressions influence observers by eliciting affective reactions in them and/or by triggering inferential processes, depending on the observer’s information processing motivation and ability and on social-contextual factors. I discuss implications of this view for theorizing about the social functions of emotions; the evolution of emotion; the influence of emotional expressivity, emotion recognition, and emotion regulation; and the role of culture.
Article
Social decisions are heavily influenced by emotion. For decades, the dominant research paradigm has been characterized by a focus on the decision maker's own positive or negative mood. We argue that a full understanding of the role of emotion in social decision making requires a complementary focus on interpersonal effects (i.e., the effects of one individual's emotions on the other's behavior); a focus on discrete emotions rather than general mood states; and a distinction between cooperative and competitive settings. To advance insight into these issues, we present the Emotions as Social Information (EASI) model. The model is grounded in two basic assumptions, namely that individuals use others' emotions to make sense of ambiguous situations, and that the effects of others' emotions and the processes that drive them depend critically on the cooperative or competitive nature of the situation. A review of recent research supports our analysis. We demonstrate that the interpersonal effects of emotions are pervasive and can be better understood in terms of the unique social functions of each emotion than in terms of valence. Effects in cooperative settings are best explained in terms of affective reactions (i.e., emotional contagion, affect infusion, and mood management), whereas effects in competitive contexts are better understood in terms of the strategic inferences individuals draw from other's emotions. We conclude by discussing the implications of our model and highlighting avenues for future research.
Article
In a series of laboratory experiments, we tested the influence of strategically displaying positive, negative, and neutral emotions on negotiation outcomes. In Experiment 1, a face-to-face dispute simulation, negotiators who displayed positive emotion, in contrast to negative or neutral emotions, were more likely to incorporate a future business relationship in the negotiated contract. In Experiment 2, an ultimatum setting, managers strategically displaying positive emotion were more likely to close a deal. This effect was mediated by negotiators’ willingness to pay more to a negotiator strategically displaying positive versus negative emotions. In Experiment 3, display of positive emotion was a more effective strategy for gaining concessions from the other party in a distributive setting. Negotiators made more extreme demands when facing a negotiator strategically displaying negative, rather than positive or neutral, emotions. Implications for strategic display of emotion in negotiations are discussed.
Article
In brainstorming research, quantity is assumed to breed quality. However, little is known about the cognitive mechanisms underlying this relationship. A parsimonious explanation assumes a random process, in which every idea has an equal chance of being a high-quality (original and feasible) idea. In contrast, a ‘deep exploration’ approach suggests that the originality (but not the feasibility) of generated ideas is dependent on the degree to which people engage in deep exploration of their knowledge. We conducted two experiments to test the latter hypothesis. Prior to a brainstorming task, participants were primed with subcategories of the brainstorming topic. Priming caused a higher relative productivity and average originality within the primed subcategory, but did not affect global productivity and originality across categories. This effect was replicated in dyadic interactions. These results support the deep exploration hypothesis, and suggest that the relationship between quantity and quality is more complex than has previously been assumed.
Article
This meta-analysis synthesized 102 effect sizes reflecting the relation between specific moods and creativity. Effect sizes overall revealed that positive moods produce more creativity than mood-neutral controls (r= .15), but no significant differences between negative moods and mood-neutral controls (r= -.03) or between positive and negative moods (r= .04) were observed. Creativity is enhanced most by positive mood states that are activating and associated with an approach motivation and promotion focus (e.g., happiness), rather than those that are deactivating and associated with an avoidance motivation and prevention focus (e.g., relaxed). Negative, deactivating moods with an approach motivation and a promotion focus (e.g., sadness) were not associated with creativity, but negative, activating moods with an avoidance motivation and a prevention focus (fear, anxiety) were associated with lower creativity, especially when assessed as cognitive flexibility. With a few exceptions, these results generalized across experimental and correlational designs, populations (students vs. general adult population), and facet of creativity (e.g., fluency, flexibility, originality, eureka/insight). The authors discuss theoretical implications and highlight avenues for future research on specific moods, creativity, and their relationships.
Article
This paper presents a general statistical methodology for the analysis of multivariate categorical data arising from observer reliability studies. The procedure essentially involves the construction of functions of the observed proportions which are directed at the extent to which the observers agree among themselves and the construction of test statistics for hypotheses involving these functions. Tests for interobserver bias are presented in terms of first-order marginal homogeneity and measures of interobserver agreement are developed as generalized kappa-type statistics. These procedures are illustrated with a clinical diagnosis example from the epidemiological literature.
Article
Four experiments examined freely interacting groups to investigate the determinants of group members' reactions to opinion deviates and conformists. In the 1st experiment, the deviate was rejected more when he or she articulated the dissenting opinion in close proximity to the group-decision deadline versus at an earlier point in the group discussion. In the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th experiment, the deviate was rejected more when the group discussion was carried out in a noisy versus a quiet environment. Furthermore, when the conformist's contributions to the group's attempts to reach consensus were made salient (in Experiment 4), he or she was evaluated more positively in a noisy versus a quiet environment. The results were discussed in terms of the notion that group members' tendency to denigrate a deviate or extol a conformist may be stronger when their need for collective cognitive closure is heightened.