Le Marxism in Latin America. From José Carlos Mariategui to Chiapas and the Zapatists
José Carlos Mariagegui, the first major Latin American Marxist thinker, who died in 1939, considered socialism to be the sole alternative to the domination of Latin American by US imperialism. He dreamt of an Indo-American socialism which would not be the mere carbon-copy of precedents elsewhere; which, on the contrary, would be the heroic creation of the peoples of the continent. Because of the hegemony of Stalinism within the Latin American left, it was in fact the « carbon-copy » which was to dominate thinking for many years. The renewal of Marxism was to come about in the 1960s, with the Cuban revolution and the rise of Guevarism, whose repercussions include the theology of liberation and movements such as the Mexican Zapatist movement of the 1990s.