ArticlePDF Available

Nervilia makinnoni Duthie. and Nervilia plicata (Andrews) Schltr. (Orchidaceae): new records for flora of Nepal

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Nervilia makinnoni Duthie and Nervilia plicata (Andrews) Schltr. (Orchidaceae) are reported as new records to Nepal. Detail description, illustrations and relevant notes are provided. Key words: conservation status; herbarium; orchids; phenology.DOI: 10.3126/botor.v6i0.2920 Botanica Orientalis - Journal of Plant Science (2009) 6: 109-110
Content may be subject to copyright.
Bhakta Bahadur Raskoti
1*
and Rita Ale
2
1
IUCN Nepal, Kupondole, Lalitpur, Nepal;
2
Bank Street graduate School of Education, New York, USA; *Corresponding
author, e-mail: bbraskoti@gmail.com
Abstract
Nervilia makinnoni Duthie and Nervilia plicata (Andrews) Schltr. (Orchidaceae) are reported as new records to Nepal. Detail
description, illustrations and relevant notes are provided.
Key words: conservation status, herbarium, orchids, phenology.
Introduction
The genus Nervilia Comm. ex Gaudich is one of the widespread
genera of the family Orchidaceae. It has about 80 species in the
world distributed in tropical Africa, Madagascar, Asia, The Malay
Archipelago, The Pacific Island and North Australia (Pearce
and Cribb 2002).
The genus Nervilia is characterized as globose or ovoid
and fleshy tuber having single leaf that grows after flower
withered, leaf may be cordate, orbicular, or kidney-shaped with
a stalk. Flower with thin pedicel, sepals and petals similar,
narrowly long, open, half open or closed; labellum suberect,
base without spur, slender column.
Nepal harbors 377 species of orchids (Orchidaceae) belonging
to 100 genera (Rajbhandari and Dahal 2004). The genus Nervilia
comprises 5 species in Nepal distributed mostly at altitudes of 400-
1000 m asl in litter-covered loose soil. The previously recorded
species were N. aragoana Gaudich, N. crociformis (Zollinger &
Morritzi) Seidenf., N. falcata (King & Pantl.) Schltr., N. gammieana
(Hook. f.) Schltr. and N. microglossa (Hook. f.) Schltr. (Banerji 1978;
Press et al. 2000; Subedi 2002; Rajbhandari and Dahal 2004).
In this study Nervilia makinnoni Duthie and Nervilia plicata
(Andrews) Schltr. are reported as new records to Nepal. N. plicata
is distributed in India, Myanmar, Thailand, China, Laos, Vietnam,
Malaysia, The Philippines and Australia (Pearce and Cribb 2002);
whereas, N. mackinnonii is distributed in India (Duthie 1970). These
two species are not previously recorded from Nepal (Hara et al.
1978; Banerji and Pradhan 1984; Press et al. 2000; DPR 2001;
Rajbhandari and Dahal 2004). There is no record of the specimens
of these two species in the National Herbarium, Kathmandu (KATH)
and Tribhuvan University Central Herbarium (TUCH). The
specimens of N. mackinnonii and N. plicata have been collected
by the first author from the Kathmandu valley and Arghakhanchi
district, respectively and deposited at TUCH.
Results
Nervilia mackinnonii (Duthie) Schltr. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45: 402 (1911).
Pogonia
mackinnonii Duthie J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist.
71(2): 43 (1903).
Tuber globose, 1 cm in diameter. Leaf petiole 6 cm long, arising
after flowering, petiole 7 cm, heptagonal, 2.5-4.5 × 3.7-5 cm, margin
entire, base cordate, all lobes rounded except terminal acute lobes.
Flower scape 10 cm long, sheathed; raceme with a pedicellate,
solitary flower; floral bracts lanceolate, acute. Flowers 1.8 cm across,
spreading, pale yellow, lip white tinged with purple. Sepals linear-
lanceolate, 2 cm long, apex acuminate. Petals linear-lanceolate, 2
cm long, apex acute; labellum oblong, 1.5 cm long, 3-lobed near
middle, lateral lobes erect, acute; midlobe narrowly oblong, apex
sub-acute; column slender, 7 mm. Anthers broad, margins of the
cells toothed. Pollinia 2, clavate. Ovary 4 mm, cylindrical.
Phenology: Flowering in May and fruiting in June.
Habit and habitat: Terrestrial on litter-covered loose soil, in full
shade. Occurs in the subtropical forest at altitudes of 1700 m asl.
Specimens examined: Central Nepal: Bagmati Zone, Kathmandu District,
Nagarjun forest, 1700 m asl, May 15, 2007, B.B. Raskoti 196 (TUCH).
Conservation status: Threatened due to habitat destruction.
Note: This species is closely related to Nervilia macroglossa
but the leaves are distinctly lobed, the flowers are smaller and
spreading, the lateral lobes of the lip are distinct.
Nervilia plicata
(Andrews) Schltr. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45: 403 (1911).
Arethusa plicata
Andrews Bot. Repos. 5: t. 321 (1803).
Tuber globose, 10 mm in diameter. Leaf petiole 1.5-3 cm;
growing after flowering; orbicular-cordate, 7.5-11 × 10-13 cm,
interveinal areas and margin hirsute, base cordate, margin entire,
apex acute. Flower scape 12 cm tall, lower part with tubular sheaths;
raceme 2-3 flowers. Flowers half opened, brownish yellow with
Short communication
Nervilia makinnoni Duthie. and Nervilia plicata (Andrews)
Schltr. (Orchidaceae): new records for flora of Nepal
Botanica Orientalis – Journal of Plant Science (2009) 6: 109–110 ISSN 1726-6858
© 2009 Central Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University
http://www.cdbtu.edu.np/botanica-orientalis
purplish red veins. Sepals and petals subequal, linear-oblong, 2
cm, apex acuminate; labellum concave, subrhombic, 2 cm long,
glabrous, near middle obscurely 3-lobed; lateral lobes erect, apex
obtuse; mid-lobe ovate, apex emarginated; column 10 mm, apex
clavate. Anthers broad. Ovary 6 mm, elliptic, ridged, glabrous.
Phenology: Flowering in May and fruiting in June.
Habit and habitat: Terrestrial on humus-rich damp places, in
full shade. Occurs in the tropical forest at 900-1000 m asl.
Specimens examined: Central Nepal (Lumbini Zone,
Pokharathok-9, Arghakhanchi at altitudes of 600-1000 meters); May
27, 2007; Raskoti 204 (TUCH).
Conservation status: Threatened due to over grazing.
Note: This species is related to Nervilia hookeriana but it
differs in having lip shorter than sepals, lacking distinct lateral
lobes, and leaves with coarse hairs on both sides.
Acknowledgements
The authors are thankful to the curators of the National Herbarium
and Plant Laboratories (KATH) and Tribhuvan University Central
Herbarium (TUCH) for allowing us to examine herbarium specimens.
© 2009 Central Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University, Botanica Orientalis (2009) 6: 109-110
110 B. B. Raskoti and R. Ale / Nervilia makinnoni. and Nervilia plicata
(i) (ii)
Fig. 1. i. Nervilia mackinnonii (Duthie) Schltr. A. habit; B. plant bearing flower; C, flower (spread out); D. labellum (front view); E. labellum
(side view); F. column and ovary; G. anther; H. pollinia. ii. Nervilia plicata (Andrews) Schltr. A. habit; B. plant bearing flower; C, flower
(spread out); D. labellum; E. anther.
References
Banerji M.L. and Pradhan P. 1984. The Orchids of Nepal Himalaya. J.
Cramer. In der A.R. Gantner Verlag Kommanditgesellschaft. FL-9490
VADUZ. Germany.
Banerji M.L. 1978. Orchids of Nepal. Today and Tomorrow’s publishers,
New Delhi, India.
DPR 2001. Flowering Plants of Nepal (Phanerogams). Bulletin Department
of Plant Resources No. 18, Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, His
Majesty Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Hara H., Stearn W.T. and Williams L.H.J. 1978. An Enumeration of the
Flowering Plants of Nepal. Volume 1. British Museum (Natural History)
London, UK.
Duthie J.F. 1970. Orchid of North-West Himalaya. Royal Botanical Garden
Calcutta. Today’s and Tomorrow Printers, New Delhi, India.
Pearce N. and Cribb P. 2002. The Orchids of Bhutan. Royal Botanical
Garden Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.
Press J.R., Shrestha K.K and Sutton D.A. 2000. Annotated Checklist of the
Flowering Plants of Nepal. The Natural History Museum, London, UK.
Rabhandari K.R. and Dahal S. 2004. Orchids of Nepal: a checklist. Botanica
Orientalis 4: 89–106.
Subedi A. 2002. Orchids around Pokhara Valley of Nepal. Occasional paper
Volume 1. Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development
(LI-BIRD), Pokhara, Nepal.
... The flowers comprise 5 oblanceolate tepals and a labellum that varies in outline, colour and the degree to which its raised lateral margins envelop the column. Morphs with a white and yellow-marked labellum are known from India (Pagag et al. 2014), Nepal (Raskoti & Ale 2010), China (Song et al. 2007), Thailand (Gale & Watthana 2014), Vietnam (Averyanov 2011) and Borneo (Hamilton 2013), whereas morphs with a predominantly pink or purple labellum are reported from India (Hooker 1890), Bhutan (Pearce & Cribb 2002), China (Chen & Gale speciation in certain Bulbophyllum species (Teixeira et al. 2004). Indeed, micromorphological and histochemical characterisation of the labellar osmophore in two Ophrys species proved instrumental in refining hypotheses regarding highly specialised, deceptive attraction of pollinating male hymenoptera (Ascensão et al. 2005). ...
Full-text available
Article
Nervilia plicata is a morphologically variable terrestrial orchid with a wide geographic range in tropical Asia. Several forms have previously been recognised as distinct taxa due primarily to differences in the size, outline and colour of perianth parts. As a first step towards understanding the links between floral polymorphism, pollination ecology and genetic differentiation within the N. plicata complex, we sought to ascertain whether distinct colour morphs in 18 populations in Thailand and South China were correlated with discrete differentiation in macro- or micromorphological characters. Perianth morphology was studied in the field and under stereomicroscopy, and labellum anatomy was examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Phenetic analyses comprising Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) of 16 characters revealed four clusters representing distinct floral morphs — pink morph with small, entire labellum; purple morph with large, undulate labellum; white and yellow morph with large, entire labellum; and white and yellow morph with small, entire labellum — among which the size, shape, density and periclinal wall surface of dome-shaped papillae in the secretory zone of the labellar adaxial epidermis varied discontinuously. Our results provide evidence of micromorphological differentiation among N. plicata populations in parts of tropical Asia. Pollinator observations and analyses of genetic diversity are required to establish whether this variation is of any ecological, evolutionary or taxonomic significance.
... At several instances, distributions are ambiguously written and they were cross-checked with actual herbarium specimens and field visits for proper authentication. We collected information from various published books, theses and web pages (Don 1825, Benerji and Thapa 1976, Malla et al. 1976, Benerji 1978, Benerji and Pradhan 1984, Polunin and Stainton 1984, Stainton 1988, Press et al. 2000, Rajbhandari et al. 2000, White and Sharma 2000, Anonymous 2001, Rajbhandari and Bhattarai 2001, Pearce and Cribb 2002, de Millevile and Shrestha 2004, Rajbhandari 2004, Rajbhandari and Dahal 2004, Ghimire 2009, Wu and Hong 2009, Maity et al. 2009, Raskoti 2009, Rajbhandari and Baral 2010, Web 1 and 2) and research papers that reported new species from Nepal (Panigrahi and Wood 1974, Tuyama 1975, Bajracharya et al. 1993, Shakya and Bania 1998, Shakya and Chaudary 1999, Shakya 2000, Tsukaya and Ohba 2000, Bajracharya 2001, Bajracharya et al. 2002, Shakya et al. 2002, Bajracharya and Shrestha 2003, Rajbhandari 2003, Bajracharya and Shrestha 2004, 2006, Panthi and Chaudhary 2005, Rai et al. 2007, Shakya and Shrestha 2007, Margonska and Kowalkowska 2008, Raskoti et al. 2008, Raskoti 2009, 2013, Raskoti and Ale 2009a, 2009b, 2011, Raskoti and Shakya 2009, Subedi et al. 2011, Web 1 and 2). Moreover, different collection trips were carried out in various parts of Nepal between 2001 and 2010. ...
Full-text available
Article
An annotated checklist comprised of 458 taxa of orchids known from Nepal is provided, including 104 genera, 437 species, 16 varieties, 3 subspecies and 2 forma and 18 endemic species. In Nepal, orchid species are distributed from 60–5200 m a.s.l. In the checklist, notes on altitudinal ranges, habit, habitat, global distribution, phenology, etc. are presented.
... At several instances, distributions are ambiguously written and they were cross-checked with actual herbarium specimens and field visits for proper authentication. We collected information from various published books, theses and web pages (Don 1825, Benerji and Thapa 1976, Malla et al. 1976, Benerji 1978, Benerji and Pradhan 1984, Polunin and Stainton 1984, Stainton 1988, Press et al. 2000, Rajbhandari et al. 2000, White and Sharma 2000, Anonymous 2001, Rajbhandari and Bhattarai 2001, Pearce and Cribb 2002, de Millevile and Shrestha 2004, Rajbhandari 2004, Rajbhandari and Dahal 2004, Ghimire 2009, Wu and Hong 2009, Maity et al. 2009, Raskoti 2009, Rajbhandari and Baral 2010, Web 1 and 2) and research papers that reported new species from Nepal (Panigrahi and Wood 1974, Tuyama 1975, Bajracharya et al. 1993, Shakya and Bania 1998, Shakya and Chaudary 1999, Shakya 2000, Tsukaya and Ohba 2000, Bajracharya 2001, Bajracharya et al. 2002, Shakya et al. 2002, Bajracharya and Shrestha 2003, Rajbhandari 2003, Bajracharya and Shrestha 2004, 2006, Panthi and Chaudhary 2005, Rai et al. 2007, Shakya and Shrestha 2007, Margonska and Kowalkowska 2008, Raskoti et al. 2008, Raskoti 2009, 2013, Raskoti and Ale 2009a, 2009b, 2011, Raskoti and Shakya 2009, Subedi et al. 2011, Web 1 and 2). Moreover, different collection trips were carried out in various parts of Nepal between 2001 and 2010. ...
Full-text available
Article
An annotated checklist comprised of 458 taxa of orchids known from Nepal is provided, including 104 genera, 437 species, 16 varieties, 3 subspecies and 2 forma and 18 endemic species. In Nepal, orchid species are distributed from 60–5200 m a.s.l. In the checklist, notes on altitudinal ranges, habit, habitat, global distribution, phenology, etc. are presented.
Full-text available
Article
Recent field expeditions in Langbiang Plateau of southern Vietnam resulted in new data for the orchid flora of Vietnam. Two new species (Nervilia pubilabia and Panisea sagittata), two new national records (Cheirostylis tortilacinia and Goodyera reticulata) and the rediscovery of a supposedly extinct species (Liparis nana) are reported, and background data about their morphology, biogeography, ecology, conservation and taxonomy are also provided.
The Orchids of Nepal Himalaya
  • M L Banerji
  • P Pradhan
Banerji M.L. and Pradhan P. 1984. The Orchids of Nepal Himalaya. J. Cramer. In der A.R. Gantner Verlag Kommanditgesellschaft. FL-9490 VADUZ. Germany.
Orchids of Nepal. Today and Tomorrow's publishers
  • M L Banerji
Banerji M.L. 1978. Orchids of Nepal. Today and Tomorrow's publishers, New Delhi, India.
Orchid of North-West Himalaya. Royal Botanical Garden Calcutta. Today's and Tomorrow Printers
  • J F Duthie
Duthie J.F. 1970. Orchid of North-West Himalaya. Royal Botanical Garden Calcutta. Today's and Tomorrow Printers, New Delhi, India.
The Orchids of Bhutan
  • N Pearce
  • P Cribb
Pearce N. and Cribb P. 2002. The Orchids of Bhutan. Royal Botanical Garden Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal. The Natural History Museum
  • J R Press
  • K K Shrestha
Press J.R., Shrestha K.K and Sutton D.A. 2000. Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal. The Natural History Museum, London, UK.
Orchids of Nepal: a checklist
  • K R Rabhandari
  • S Dahal
Rabhandari K.R. and Dahal S. 2004. Orchids of Nepal: a checklist. Botanica Orientalis 4: 89–106.
Orchids around Pokhara Valley of Nepal
  • A Subedi
Subedi A. 2002. Orchids around Pokhara Valley of Nepal. Occasional paper Volume 1. Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development (LI-BIRD), Pokhara, Nepal.
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal. The Natural History Museum
  • J R Press
  • K Shrestha
  • D A Sutton
  • U K London
  • K R Rabhandari
  • S Dahal
Press J.R., Shrestha K.K and Sutton D.A. 2000. Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal. The Natural History Museum, London, UK. Rabhandari K.R. and Dahal S. 2004. Orchids of Nepal: a checklist. Botanica Orientalis 4: 89-106.
Bulletin Department of Plant Resources No. 18, Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation
  • M L Banerji
Banerji M.L. 1978. Orchids of Nepal. Today and Tomorrow's publishers, New Delhi, India. DPR 2001. Flowering Plants of Nepal (Phanerogams). Bulletin Department of Plant Resources No. 18, Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, His Majesty Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.