Article

Ethnopharmacological Studies on Allspice (Pimenta dioica) in Laboratory Animals

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Abstract

An aqueous suspension of allspice, Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae), has been studied for antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, gastric antiulcer, and cytoprotective activities in experimental models. The suspension produced significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma in rats, a significant inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing and tail flick reaction time and reduction of yeast-induced hyperpyrexia in mice. The suspension also showed antiulcer and cytoprotective activity by protecting gastric mucosa against indomethacin and various necrotizing agents including 80% ethanol, 0.2M NaOH and 25% NaCl in rats. The allspice suspension also increased the gastric wall mucus in rats. Acute toxicity studies showed neither mortality nor adverse effects up to a dose of 7.5 g/kg in mice.

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... [8] Pimenta dioica (Allspice) contains a multitude of potential bioactive agents that may contribute to health promotion, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, catechins, and several phenyl-propanoids. [9] Berries contain about 2.5% esential oils that include following bioactive compounds: eugenol (60-75%), eugenol methyl ether, Cineole (eucalyptol), phellandrene and caryophyllenes. [10] Allspice is claimed to possess properties such as; antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumorigenic. ...
... [10] Allspice is claimed to possess properties such as; antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumorigenic. [9,10] It is used to combat stress, depression and over come fatique because of it"s comforting scent. ...
... In humans electrolyte homeostasis may be controlled by hormones such as antidiuretic hormone aldosterone and parathyroid hormones. This is reflected in the work of researchers 9,10 . who suggested that pimenta dioica berries possess antioxidant and antitumorigenic properties. ...
Article
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Pimenta dioca is used in the Eastern region of Nigeria for culinary purposes. This tradition is passed down from generation to generation by the natives of the Niger Delta. Long term effect of Pimenta dioca on electrolyte level in Niger Delta is yet to be determined. The study was aimed to determine the electrolyte concentration in albino rats fed with Pimenta dioca berries.
... On the other hand, the P. dioica named as allspice is a tropical tree widely exploited in America, used as well as a spice and condiment to flavor food, perfume essence, and in traditional medicine to treat colds, stomach pain, muscle and joint pain, indigestion, menstrual cramps, and dyspepsia (Mérida-Reyes et al., 2020;Zhang and L. Lokeshwar, 2012). Allspice has shown antioxidant, hypotensive, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity, as well as analgesic, antipyretic, antiulcer and cytoprotective activity in vivo models (Al-Rehaily et al., 2002;Lorenzo-Leal et al., 2019b;Zhang and L. Lokeshwar, 2012). ...
... Nevertheless, anti-inflammatory activity from allspice is controversial as there is a report where the P. dioica essential oil did not reduce the pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) production, nor enhanced the antiinflammatory IL-10 production (Lorenzo-Leal et al., 2019b), but there is other study where the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased using a ground extract instead of essential oil (Mueller et al., 2010). In addition, an allspice aqueous extract showed an anti-inflammatory effect on carrageenan-induced paw edema (Al-Rehaily et al., 2002). ...
... dioica). This anti-inflammatory effect is in agreement with an allspice aqueous extract tested in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model (Al-Rehaily et al., 2002). ...
Article
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An inflammation response occurs when the body reacts to exogenous and endo enous noxious stimuli, and it helps the body respond to infection and repair tissues, adapt to stress, and remove dead or damaged cells. Anti-inflammatory drugs such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are traditionally used to treat inflammation; however, these drugs often cause negative side effects. For this reason, developing and establishing effective alternative medicines for treating many chronic diseases with underlying inflammation is critically dependent on the identification of new organic molecules and bioactive substances. Aromatic and volatile compounds found in essential oils isolated from Pimenta dioica (allspice), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), and Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) are a source of bioactive compounds. Allspice essential oil reduces ear inflammation more than 65% and the anti-inflammatory activity of allspice essential oil is enhanced when combined with sweet orange peel and cumin essential oils, resulting in the reduction of edema inflammation by more than 85%, similar to indomethacin. As an alternative to anti-inflammatory treatment, essential oil mix is pharmacologically safe as it is neither toxic nor mutagenic.
... Allspice has also been shown to have antioxidant (Kikuzaki et al. 1999) and antimicrobial (Du et al. 2009) properties. Moreover, some studies indicate that allspice has significant cytoprotective activities (Al-Rehaily et al. 2002;Ramos et al. 2003;Nayak and Abhilash 2008). Therefore, it may potentially be used for disease prevention and growth promotion in fish. ...
... Quadratic effects were as follows: weight gain = 3,998 + 255.24x -13.631x 2 (R 2 = 0.73); SGR = 7.4277 + 0.1094x − 0.0059x 2 (R 2 = 0.76); and FCR = 1.136 -0.0724x + 0.0041x 2 (R 2 = 0.84 Tilapia fry by improving nutrient digestibility, which in turn leads to improved nutrient utilization (fat and nitrogen) and ultimately better growth. Al-Rehaily et al. (2002) reported that different active compounds of allspice stimulate digestion and improve protein assimilation in the upper intestinal tract of humans. Yılmaz et al. (2013a) also demonstrated that other herbs, such as rosemary, thyme, and fenugreek, can stimulate digestion in Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax via increased bile production as well as possible stimulation of the pancreas and increased secretion of digestive enzymes. ...
Article
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Abstract Allspice Pimenta dioica as a feed additive was studied for its effects on growth performance and disease resistance in Mozambique Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Five isonitrogenous (36% crude protein) and isocaloric (18.5 kJ/g) diets were formulated to contain 0 (control), 5, 10, 15, or 20 g of allspice/kg of fish feed. In a 50-d feeding trial, 15 plastic tanks (21 L) were stocked with 35 fish fry (0.012 g) each. After the feeding trial, fish were exposed to Streptococcus iniae and mortalities were recorded. The second-order polynomial regression indicated that the dietary allspice level of 10 g/kg provided the best growth performance and feed utilization. The greatest survival after pathogen challenge was also obtained from the diet supplemented with allspice at 10 g/kg. Therefore, allspice acts as a growth promoter to improve feed utilization and weight gain in Mozambique Tilapia fry and acts an antimicrobial agent to enhance disease resistance during first feeding of fry. These results suggest that allspice can be used as an alternative to antibiotics in controlling streptococcal disease in tilapia culture. Received October 19, 2012; accepted January 20, 2014.
... Similarly, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and gastric antiulcer activities were proven for aqueous suspension of P. dioica (L.) in animal models where combination of anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activity represented a remarkable discovery for the ideal anti-inflammatory agent without the potential adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract [55] which matched with our results for AME of P. racemosa leaves. Additionally, the antiulcerogenic and hepatoprotective activities were proved for other member of Myrtaceae by using animal models [56]. ...
Article
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Background Pimenta racemosa tree has many traditional uses where its leaves are used as herbal tea for treatment of flatulence, gastric disorder, osteoarthritis, colds and fever in addition to its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. So, this study aimed to isolate phenolic constituents of 80% aqueous methanol extract (AME) of leaves and evaluate its biological activities. Methods The defatted AME was chromatographed and structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using UV, NMR spectroscopy and UPLC-ESI-MS analysis. Antioxidant activity was investigated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan - induced paw oedema, while antinociceptive activity was determined by chemical and thermal stimuli. Anti-ulcerogenic effect of AME against gastric damage induced by ethanol in Wister male albino rats was evaluated. Also, hepatoprotective activity was investigated through determination of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) following oral administration of paracetamol. Both of Anti-ulcerogenic and hepatoprotective activities (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.wt.) were supported by histopathological examinations. ResultsGallic acid (1), methyl gallate (2), avicularin (3), quercetin 3-O-β-D-arbinopyranoside (4), quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), quercetrin (6), cynaroside (7), strictinin (8), castalagin (9), grandinin (10) quercetin (11) and ellagic acid (12) were isolated. AME showed significant radical scavenging activity (SC50 = 4.6 μg/mL), promising anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of oedema and antinociceptive activity by reduction in number of writhes after acetic acid injection and prolongation of reaction time towards the thermal stimulus. AME reduced the gastric mucosal lesions compared with ethanol control and ranitidine groups, ALT at the three doses and AST only at 125 and 250 mg/kg b.wt., when compared with paracetamol group. The results were confirmed by histopathological studies. ConclusionP. racemosa leaves are rich in phenolic compounds and showed significant biological activities.
... [1] The allspice essential oil is incorporated in processed foods and in patent drugs to add both flavor and aroma, whereas in the cosmetic industry it finds its ways into many exotic perfumes, cosmetics, soaps, and aftershaves. [2,3] Spray-drying microencapsulation is widely employed for the preparation of dry stable additives, essential oils, and flavors and involves the emulsification of a core material, usually a lipid, with a dense solution of wall material such as a protein, vegetable gum, maltodextrin, or modified starch and atomization and drying of the emulsion. [4] In order to obtain efficient microcapsules, these biopolymers must possess excellent emulsification properties and form semipermeable membranes that limit oxygen transfer, because oxidation is considered a preponderant factor in determining the shelf life of most core materials. ...
Article
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The adsorption isotherms of allspice essential oil microencapsulated in biopolymers blend (whey protein concentrate [WPC], mesquite gum [MG], and maltodextrin DE10 [MD]) in different proportions (WPC17%-MG17%-MD66% w/w and WPC66%-MG17%-MD17% w/w) with wall-to-core material ratios of 4:1 were determined at 25, 35, and 40°C. The isotherms were fitted using the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model and the enthalpies and entropies, both differential and integral, were estimated by the Clausius-Clapeyron method. The minimum integral entropy was considered as the point of maximum stability where strong bonds between the adsorbate and adsorbent occurred, and water would be less available and likely to participate in spoilage reactions. The point of maximum stability was found between 13.79 and 15.11 kg H2O/100 kg d.s. (corresponding to water activity, a W , of 0.444–0.551) for the microcapsules with WPC17%-MG17%-MD66% w/w as wall material and 18.71–19.63 kg H2O/100 kg d.s. (a W = 0.591–0.713) for the microcapsules with WPC66%-MG17%-MD17% w/w as wall material in the temperature range studied.
... Nevertheless, in contrast to the toxicity and side effects of these synthetic antifungal medicinal drugs (Reichenberger et al., 2002;Lumbreras et al., 2003;Maertens, 2004) the P. dioica does not exhibit acute toxicity not even at high doses. On the contrary, some studies indicate significant cytoprotective activities of P. dioica (Al-Rehaily et al., 2002;Ramos et al., 2003;Nayak and Abhilash, 2008). Anyway, the results suggest that the P. dioica essential oil may have a great potential to be used for safe and eco-friendly antifungal treatments e.g. of stored products and in the management of a plant infectious disease due to its mentioned extremely low toxicity to mammals and superior efficiency against target fungi. ...
Article
Essential oils from 25 species of medicinal plants were tested as mycelial growth inhibitors against six important pathogenic and toxinogenic fungal species. An agar dilution method was used for determination of the inhibitory effect namely on Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium verticillioides, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium brevicompactum, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. All essential oils used in our experiment evidently affected growth of these fungi. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated in the case of five essential oils showing the most significant antifungal activity. The superior antifungal activity was finally proved on the base of MIC values in the case of Pimenta dioica. The chemical composition of P. dioica essential oil was determined by means of GC–MS analysis.
... Additionally, the dry fruits of the plant have been also used for digestant, hypertention 1 , adiposity and analgesic 2 . The main component of the essential oil is eugenol, β-caryophyllene and squalene [2][3][4][5] . ...
Article
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The effects of microwave delivered power and radiation time in microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MHD) on the yield and composition of the essential oil obtained from dry fruits of Pimenta dioica were studied. The optimum conditions for MHD were microwave delivered power 1000 W for microwave radiation time 3 min and then microwave delivered power 300 W for microwave radiation time 1 h at a 1:20 ratio of spice to water. In order to compare with classical hydrodistillation (HD), the HD extraction was also performed. The obtained oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Twenty-four components were identified in the HD oil and twenty-two components in the MHD oil. Among the identified volatile compounds from P. dioica, the main components from both oils were found to be similar, but their contents were significantly different including methyleugenol (43.01% in the HD oil, 44.10% in the MHD oil), eugenol (28.84 %, 30.91 %), caryophyllene (6.64 %, 5.10 %) and α-pinene (6.34 %, 5.55 %). In addition two minor compounds, citronellal and palmitic acid are only present in the HD oil.
... Allspice has also been shown to have antioxidant (Kikuzaki, Hara, Kawai & Nakatani 1999) and antimicrobial properties (Du, Olsen, Avena-Bustillos, McHugh, Levin, Mandrell & Friedman 2009). Moreover, some studies indicate significant cytoprotective activities of allspice (Al-Rehaily, Al-Said, Al-Yahya, Mossa & Rafatullah 2002;Ramos, Visozo, Piloto, Garcia, Rodriguez & Rivero 2003;Nayak & Abhilash 2008). For its aforementioned properties, especially the antioxidant activity, allspice seems as a good feed additive and it can be used for ameliorating stressful conditions. ...
Article
The present study investigated the effects of dietary allspice powder supplementation on welfare status of Tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus assessed by hemato-immunological and serum biochemical parameters. Five diets were formulated to contain 0 (control), 5, 10, 15 or 20 g of allspice kg � of fish feed. Fish were fed experimental diets for 60 days. Supplementation of allspice powder at 10 g kg positively influenced the serum glucose, plasma lysozyme activity and myeloperoxidase activity. Dietary allspice powder at 15 g kg also positively influenced the serum biochemical parameters (total protein, albumin and globulin) and plasma lysozyme activity. However, 20 g kg allspice powder group had significantly lower values of respiratory burst activity and red blood cell count than other experimental groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that supplementation of allspice powder at 10 or 15 g kg for 60 days, had beneficial effects on improvement of some immunological and serum biochemical status of O. mossambicus. These findings suggest that dietary supplementation of allspice powder might further improve the resistance to fish pathogens.
... An alcohol extract of the leaves, administered by mouth to mice, showed a lethal dose at which half the group of test animals died (LD 50 ) of 2.5 g/kg body weight (Lagarto Parra et al., 2001). Another acute toxicity study of a water suspension of Pimenta dioica given orally to mice (plant part not stated) showed neither mortality nor adverse effects up to a dose of 7.5 g/kg body weight (Al-Rehaily et al., 2002). ...
Book
This book highlights the results from over a year of ethnobotanical research in a rural and an urban community in Jamaica, where we interviewed more than 100 people who use medicinal plants for healthcare. The goal of this research was to better understand patterns of medicinal plant knowledge, and to find out which plants are used in consensus by local people for a variety of illnesses. For this book, we selected 25 popular medicinal plant species mentioned during fieldwork. Through individual interviews, we were able to rank plants according to their frequency of mention, and categorized the medicinal uses for each species as “major” (mentioned by more than 20% of people in a community) or “minor” (mentioned by more than 5%, but less than 20% of people). Botanical identification of plant specimens collected in the wild allowed for cross-linking of common and scientific plant names. To supplement field research, we undertook a comprehensive search and review of the ethnobotanical and biomedical literature. Our book summarizes all this information in detail under specific sub-headings.
... Reports on the pharmacological activities, particularly antimicrobial, antioxidant and tumoricidal activity of different parts of the plant are available in the literature, and a few bioactive compounds have been isolated and characterized. Al-Rehaily et al. [15] conducted studies on the pharmacological properties of the aqueous suspension of fruits of P. dioica for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, gastric antiulcer, and cytoprotective activities in experimental models. Their studies showed that the extract had anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective and antiulcer activities. ...
Article
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p> Objective : To assess the antifungal activities of the extracts of leaves of Pimenta dioica against human pathogenic fungi and identify the class of phytochemical responsible for the biological activity. Methods : The shade dried, and powdered leaves of Pimenta dioica were subjected to polarity based solvent extraction by soaking. The extracts were dried in a rotary flash evaporator and subjected to antifungal activity assay against Candida albicans , Microsporum canis and M. gypseum , by disc diffusion method. Antifungal active petroleum ether extract was subjected to phytochemical analysis to identify the active compound. The extract was then subjected to Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Bioautography, by agar overlay method. The fractions were collected by Preparative TLC method and subjected to antifungal activity assay by disc diffusion method. Further, the Libermann-Burchard test was conducted to detect the broad group of compounds responsible for the bioactivity. Results : Among the five extracts viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous, the petroleum ether extract showed significant antifungal activity against Microsporum canis (50 mm), Microsporum gypseum (60 mm) and Candida albicans (23 mm). Terpenoids, tannins and flavonoids were found to be the chief constituents of the petroleum ether extract. The TLC of the extract revealed 7 spots with the Rf values 0.37, 0.42, 0.45, 0.52, 0.59, 0.76, 0.96 with the solvent system of hexane and acetone (1:0.5). The bioautography assay revealed inhibitory activity in the spots at Rf values 0.52 and 0.59. These fractions obtained by preparative TLC also confirmed the same. The phytochemical analysis of the fractions on the TLC plate suggests that the compound is triterpene or steroid. Conclusion : The antifungal activity of Pimenta dioica and the bioactive phytochemical has been reported in the present study. Preliminary phytochemical analysis has indicated that the compounds are triterpenes or steroids. The results indicate that the active compounds are potential lead molecules for new antifungal drugs in the management of infectious fungi.</p
... For this reason, it is necessary to generate the toxicity profile of each EO since the toxicity of an EO can vary based on its composition (Tisserand and Young, 2014). Pimenta dioica extract is, however, non-toxic and reports indicate significant cytoprotective activities (Al-Rehaily et al., 2002;Ramos et al., 2003;Nayak and Abhilash, 2008). They can be applied as safe and organic antifungal treatments. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, the utilization of essential oils extracted from spices has been garnering interest due to their phytochemical constituents which could be extracted using various techniques. Studies have demonstrated antimicrobial activities from essential oils against foodborne pathogens, and thus, their application has been considered to be a possible preservative for foods. Pimenta dioica is a type of aromatic plant, and its essential oil is is rich in eugenol, a phenolic compound with wide antimicrobial spectrum. Other bioactive compounds in P. dioica extract include glycosides, alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins, flavonoids, and tannins. The incorporation of essential oils into food is limited because they have an intense aroma, and might affect consumer acceptance. Therefore, nanotechnology is applied as a tool to rectify this limitation, and it is now possible to apply essential oils in active packaging, or to encapsulate them in biodegradable materials or edible coatings with controlled release. However, there is little information on the interaction of nanoencapsulated bioactive composites, and thus, it is essential to assess the viability of biomaterials before their use. The objective of this work is to show the use of the essential oil of Pimenta dioica and its phytochemical composites in a general way for its potential application in food technology.
... Allspice (Berries of the tree Pimenta dioica) contains many bioactive agents such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, catechins, and several phenylpropanoids [108]. Allspice berries contain 2-5% essential oil which is enriched in eugenol (60-75%), eugenol methyl ether, cineole, phellandrene, and caryophyllenes [109]. ...
... Other Herbs used in treatment of cancer are as follows: Green tea: (20). Wedelia chinensis (Asteraceae) (32), Platycodon grandiflorum (Campanulaceae), Morus alba (Moraceae), Prunus armeniaca (Rosaceae), Rhus verniciflua (Anacardiaceae), Perilla frutescens (Labiatae), Stemona japonica (Stemonaceae), Tussilago farfara (Compositae), and Draba nemorosa (Brassicaceae) (36) Veratrum californicum (17), All Spice, (7,33,47). Basil, (16,38,42), Cardamom, (32), Cinnamom, (54), Coriander, (8,11), Garlic, (40). ...
... Leaves of the tree Pimenta dioica (PD) (Myrtaceae) are used as ingredients in many cuisines worldwide. In addition, it has been used in traditional medicine to treat different illnesses [10][11][12]. Rosmarinus officinalis (RO) (Lamiaceae) is an herb used worldwide in cuisine, and it can also be used in traditional medicine for its antimicrobial, antiparasitic, and antinociceptive activities; also, it is a strong candidate as an anti-inflammatory and a wound-healing agent [13][14][15][16][17][18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Essential oils (EOs) are natural products composed of a mixture of volatile and aromatic compounds extracted from different parts of plants that have shown antimicrobial activities against pathogens. In this study, EOs extracted from Pimenta dioica (Myrtaceae) and Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) were assessed for their antimicrobial activities using a panel of pathogenic Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal strains. The antimicrobial activity was measured by the minimal inhibitory concentration required for the growth inhibition of the microorganisms. The cytotoxicity of the EOs was tested ex vivo using the model of human-derived macrophage THP-1 cells. In addition, an inflammatory response was evaluated using the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF- α . Results showed that both EOs had antimicrobial activity and different pathogens were exposed to concentrations ranging between 600 and 2000 μ g/mL. In addition, the EOs showed no inflammatory activity when exposed to human macrophages, but a potent anti-inflammatory activity was measured when the oil from Rosmarinus officinalis was exposed to macrophages . This study demonstrates that the use of EOs is an effective alternative for pathogenic bacterial and fungal control, alone or in combination with antibiotic therapy. Moreover, the oil extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis could be used as potent anti-inflammatory agent.
... HEW doses or standard drug was orally administered straight away subsequent to this step and 25 min later post-drug response time was considered. A 10-s cutoff time for the light beam was exercised in turn to prevent tissue damage [14]. ...
Article
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The medicinal plant Haloxylon salicornicum is utilized for therapeutic purposes. We previously reported the antioxidant potential of hexane fraction and methanol extracts of the same species. However, since these solvents could be clinically toxic, the current findings investigated the pharmacological effects of the water fraction. The pain relieving, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic potential of H. salicornicum water extract (HEW) were studied at two concentrations (250 and 500 mg/kg) in rodents. The carrageenan stimulated rat paw edema assay was exercised to assess anti inflammatory potential in rats; yeast-stimulated hyperthermia was utilized to test antipyretic activity in mice; analgesic properties were assessed based on acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flicking, and hot-plate test; and antioxidant potential was examined with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. We found that 500 mg/kg HEW inhibited edema by 44.03%. Yeast-induced hyperthermia in mice was reduced by 250 and 500 mg/kg HEW after 30, 60, and 120 min with significant level of (P < 0.001) compared to rectal temperature of yeast administered group. The high dose of HEW (500 mg/kg) improved the reaction time of mice in the hot-plate test from 6.66 ± 0.33 to 11.33 ± 0.49 s after 120 min. In the acetic acid-stimulated writhing test, 250 and 500 mg/kg HEW decreased writhing by 32.71% and 51.40%, respectively, after 20 min. HEW also showed antioxidant effects. These results demonstrate that HEW is bioactive and has therapeutic potential for treating a variety of ailments.
... An alcohol extract of the leaves, administered by mouth to mice, showed a lethal dose at which half the group of test animals died (LD 50 ) of 2.5 g/kg body weight (Lagarto Parra et al., 2001). Another acute toxicity study of a water suspension of Pimenta dioica given orally to mice (plant part not stated) showed neither mortality nor adverse effects up to a dose of 7.5 g/kg body weight (Al-Rehaily et al., 2002). ...
Chapter
Synonyms: Myrtus pimenta L., Myrtus dioica L., Pimenta officinalis Lindl. (Adams, 1972)
... The tannin casuariin from the leaves of P. dioica of Egypt showed strong cytotoxic effect against hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep-G2), against human colon cancer cells (HCT-116), and mild cytotoxicity against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) [12]. The aqueous suspension of the fruits of P. dioica showed antiulcer and cytoprotective activity of the gastric mucosa against indomethacin in rats [13]. The final aqueous fraction of the leaves of P. dioica from Costa Rica showed a hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats [14]; and the ethanol extract of P. dioica leaves showed significant liver protection in Wistar rats poisoned with carbon tetrachloride [6]. ...
Article
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Background: Pimenta dioica is a native tree of Central America, Southern Mexico, and the Caribbean used in traditional medicine. It grows in wet forests in the Guatemalan departments of Petén and Izabal. Since the plant is not being economically exploited in Guatemala, this study was aimed at determining the composition of the essential oil of P. dioica leaves and fruits and the antibacterial activity of the leaves in order to evaluate its possible use in health products. The essential oils of fruits and leaves are used as rubefacient, anti-inflammatory, carminative, antioxidant, and antiflatulent in different countries. Fruits and leaves of P. dioica from Izabal Department were collected in April 2014 and extracted by hydrodistillation method. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Yields of 1.02 ± 0.11% for dried leaves and 1.51 ± 0.26% for fruits were obtained. Eugenol was the main component (65.9-71.4%). The leaf oil showed growth inhibition against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria. The authors consider that the tree's leaves can be evaluated as a source of ingredients for antiseptic products, and that it is important to evaluate other types of properties such as anti-inflammatory activity.
Article
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The present study aimed at determining and comparing antimicrobial and radical scavenging activity of leaf and bark extract of Pimenta dioica (Linn.) Merill (Myrtaceae). Antibacterial activity of extracts was evaluated against six bacteria and two fungi by agar well diffusion assay. Radical scavenging effect of extracts was determined by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay. Leaf extract was more effective than bark extract against test microbes and the inhibitory effect was dose dependent. Salmonella typhi and Crypotococcus neoformans were highly sensitive to extracts among bacteria and fungi respectively. Extracts have shown dose dependent scavenging of DPPH free radicals. Leaf extract scavenged DPPH radicals more efficiently than bark extract. The bioactivities of leaf and bark extracts observed in this study could be attributed to the presence of bioactive components in the extracts. The plant can be a potent candidate for the development of agents active against pathogens and oxidative stress.
Article
In the present investigation, an ethanol extract of celery [Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae/Umbelliferae)], at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, was evaluated for antigastric ulcer activity using various experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. Ulcers were induced by indomethacin, cytodestructive agents (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH and 25% NaCl) and cold restraint stress. Gastric secretory studies were undertaken by using pylorus ligation (Shay rat model). In addition to gastric wall mucus (GWM), non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also estimated in gastric tissues after 80% ethanol treatment. Pretreatment of celery extract produced dose-dependent reduction in all experimentally induced gastric lesions. Ethanol (80%) decreased the levels of GWM, NP-SH and increase in MDA concentration in gastric tissue. Celery extract showed the ability to significantly replenish the ethanol-induced depleted levels of GWM and gastric mucosal NP-SH. The gastric mucosal MDA level was also significantly lowered in extract pretreated rats. The celery extract showed stomach protection against the models used for ulcerogenesis. Results were further confirmed by using histopathological assessment. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of various chemical constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, volatile oils, alkaloids, sterols and/or triterpenes. Acute toxicity test revealed no deleterious or toxic symptoms or mortality over a period of 14 days. However, the LD(50) was found to be 7.55 g/kg, and showed a large margin of safety. The results suggest that Apium graveolens extract significantly protects the gastric mucosa and suppresses the basal gastric secretion in rats, possibly through its antioxidant potential.
Chapter
More than 180 spice-derived compounds have been identified and explored for their health benefits (Aggarwal et al. 2008). It is beyond the scope of this chapter to deal with all herbs and spices that may influence the risk of cancer and tumor behavior. Therefore, a decision was made to review those with some of the more impressive biological responses reported in the literature, and a conscious effort was made to provide information about the amount of spices needed to bring about a response and thus their physiological relevance. When possible, recent reviews are included to provide readers with additional insights into the biological response(s) to specific spices and to prevent duplication of the scientific literature. Because there is a separate chapter devoted to curcumin (a bioactive component in turmeric) in this book and there are also several excellent reviews published about curcumin (Patel and Majumdar 2009; Aggarwal 2010; Bar-Sela, Epelbaum, and Schaffer 2010; Epstein, Sanderson, and Macdonald 2010), turmeric is not discussed in this chapter.
Article
Pimenta dioica (L.) (Allspice) is commonly known as Jamaica pepper, belongs to the family Myrtaceae. The present work was aimed to determine the phytochemical screening analysis, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of different extracts of Pimenta dioica leaves. Phytochemical screening indicates the presence of carbohydrate, protein, steroid, alkaloid, flavonoids, phenol and terpenoids in ethanolic extract; protein, phenol and terpenoids were present in diethyl ether extract; whereas carbohydrate, alkaloid, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, tannin and terpenoids present in aqueous extract. The antioxidant content of the P. dioica leaf extract was evaluated by ferrous ion chealating assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay and DPPH test. The antioxidant activity was found to be increased with increasing concentration of ethanol extract. The functional groups present in Pimenta dioica leaves was analysed which indicate the presence of carboxylic acid, alkyl halides alkanes and misc. In antibacterial activity, maximum zone of inhibition was observed in aqueous extract against K. pneumonia, S. aureus and S. mutans; ethanolic extract confirmed a strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis. The presence of antioxidant properties and antimicrobial effects of P. dioica suggests that it can be used against the human pathogenic bacteria and for other disease management and rejuvenation immunity support.
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In the present study, an attempt has been made to validate the claimed uses of 'Okra' Hibiscus esculentus in liver diseases. The preventive action of ethanolic extract of okra (EEO) against liver injury was evaluated in rodents using carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity model. EEO, at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, exerted significant dose-dependent hepatoprotection by decreasing the CCl4-induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehyde (MDA) non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and total protein (TP) levels in the liver tissue. A significant reduction was also observed in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the extract are being comparable to standard silymarin. These findings were supported by histological assessment of the liver biopsy. The ability of okra extract to protect chemically induced liver damage may be attributed to its potent antioxidant property.
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The aim of the present work was to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of crude extracts (aqueous, ethanolic, and acetonic) of Pimenta dioica L. leaves collected in Tabasco, México. The following tests were carried out: total phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), antioxi-dant activity (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP methods), and antibacterial activity (disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration techniques) using Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. To identify compounds in the extracts, UHPLC-QToF was utilised. The acetonic extract (AE) yielded the highest phenolic content (626.29 ± 28.11 mg GAE/g dry extract, p < 0.05). The phenolic content of the aqueous (WE) and ethanolic extracts (EE) (488.29 ± 15.56 and 516.35 ± 4.96 mg GAE/g dry extract, respectively) did not show a significant difference. Likewise, AE yielded the highest antioxidant activity of 52.26 ± 11.74 µg/mL (IC 50), 116.90 ± 10.82 µg/mL (IC 50), and 7.52 ± 0.16 mM TE/g dry extract for DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay, respectively. Again, the EE and WE did not show a statistical difference for the DPPH and ABTS assays, while the antioxidant activity with the FRAP assay showed statistically different results for the three extracts in the order of AE > EE > WE. In addition, all three extracts showed antibacterial activity, with B. cereus and S. aureus (Gram-positive bacteria) more sensitive than S. Typhimurium and E. coli (Gram-negative bacteria); however, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were high with respect to the positive control (amikacin). Using the HPLC analysis, it was possible to detect and confirm the presence of some compounds such as phenols, flavonols, triterpenes, sapogenins, and polyalcohol in AE, EE, and WE. The antioxidant activity was closely related to the content of total phenols, although not all phenolic compounds had antibacterial activity. Extracts of P. dioica leaves are a source of phenolic compounds and can be used as antioxidant agents in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.
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Pimenta dioica (Linn.) Merill (family: Myrtaceae) is commonly known as Allspice, Pimenta, Pimento, Clove pepper and Jamaica pepper. The aim of the present study was to determine antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of leaf and bark of P. dioica. Inhibitory effect of leaf and bark extracts was determined by agar well diffusion assay against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans recovered previously from burn and dental caries patients respectively. The extracts were found to be effective in inhibiting test bacteria. S. mutans isolates were highly susceptible to extracts when compared to S. aureus isolates. The potential of extracts to inhibit clinical isolates of bacteria could be attributed to the presence of inhibitory components that are present in the extracts. The plant can be a potential candidate for the development of agents active against pathogenic bacteria.
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The present study aims to assess medicinal plants in Jizan region comparing with total medicinal plants in Saudi Arabia Kingdom. The result revealed that there are 306 species present in the Kingdom with 11 endemic species on the other hand, there are 141 species in Jizan region which constitute about (46.08%) of total medicinal plants in the Kingdom with 5 endemic species with (45.45%). This study confirms on importance of medicinal plants protection because almost of them are rare or endangered species.
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Full-text available
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of crude extracts (aqueous, ethanolic, and acetonic) of Pimenta dioica L. leaves collected in Tabasco, México. The following tests were carried out: total phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), antioxi-dant activity (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP methods), and antibacterial activity (disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration techniques) using Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. To identify compounds in the extracts, UHPLC-QToF was utilised. The acetonic extract (AE) yielded the highest phenolic content (626.29 ± 28.11 mg GAE/g dry extract, p < 0.05). The phenolic content of the aqueous (WE) and ethanolic extracts (EE) (488.29 ± 15.56 and 516.35 ± 4.96 mg GAE/g dry extract, respectively) did not show a significant difference. Likewise, AE yielded the highest antioxidant activity of 52.26 ± 11.74 µg/mL (IC 50), 116.90 ± 10.82 µg/mL (IC 50), and 7.52 ± 0.16 mM TE/g dry extract for DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay, respectively. Again, the EE and WE did not show a statistical difference for the DPPH and ABTS assays, while the antioxidant activity with the FRAP assay showed statistically different results for the three extracts in the order of AE > EE > WE. In addition, all three extracts showed antibacterial activity, with B. cereus and S. aureus (Gram-positive bacteria) more sensitive than S. Typhimurium and E. coli (Gram-negative bacteria); however, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were high with respect to the positive control (amikacin). Using the HPLC analysis, it was possible to detect and confirm the presence of some compounds such as phenols, flavonols, triterpenes, sapogenins, and polyalcohol in AE, EE, and WE. The antioxidant activity was closely related to the content of total phenols, although not all phenolic compounds had antibacterial activity. Extracts of P. dioica leaves are a source of phenolic compounds and can be used as antioxidant agents in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.
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The antiradical properties of essential oils and extracts from the clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata Thumb.) and berries of tree (Pimenta dioica (L.) Meriff.) were studied and compared with the properties of synthetic antioxidant ionol (2,6-ditret-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene, BHT) in model reactions with the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The essential oils of clove bud and pimento had qualitatively close composition of the main components but differed by their quantitative content. In the studied samples, eugenol was the main compound with high antiradical activity. The reaction rates of essential oils and extracts with the DPPH radical were practically the same for essential oils and twice the reaction rate of BHT. The values of antiradical efficiency (AE) were also close for essential oils and were twice that for extracts and ionol. A synergetic action of components in the essential oil and extract of pimento on antiradical efficiency values was found.
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The Arabian Peninsula is recognized as an arid area dominated by deserts and poor biodiversity. However, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (henceforth abbreviated into KSA) has a wide range of flora, consisting of different species of trees, herbs, and shrubs and containing numerous edible and medicinal plants. The KSA is characterized by its vast area of diverse geographical landscapes and climates. Consequently, there is enormous variation in the distribution of plants across the Kingdom. The traditional use of ethnomedical plants in the KSA represents a strong interconnection among familiar remedies, health, diet, and traditional healing practices characterized by specific cultures. The present paper reviews a collection of medicinal plants in KSA used in ethnomedicine. This review might be useful in developing strategies for the sustainable use of medicinal plants which are among the threatened important natural resources in folk medicine in the KSA. The present study reports 309 genera which cover 471 species from a total of 2253 known species belonging to 89 families. The most dominating families are Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae, Apiaceae, Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Poaceae, Amaranthaceae, Boraginaceae, Apocynaceae, Convolvoulaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Capparaceae, Polygonaceae, and Zygophyllaceae.
Chapter
Caryophyllus pimenta (L.) Mill., Eugenia micrantha Bertol., Eugenia pimenta (L.) DC., Eugenia pimenta var. longifolia DC., Eugenia pimenta var. ovalifolia DC., Evanesca crassifolia Raf. nom. illeg., Myrtus aromatica Salisb. nom. superfl., Myrtus aromatica Poir. nom. illeg., Myrtus dioica L. (basionym), Myrtus pimenta L., Myrtus pimenta var. brevifolia Hayne, Myrtus pimenta var. longifolia Sims, Myrtus piperita Sessé & Moc., Myrtus tabasco Willd. ex Schltdl. & Cham., Pimenta aromatica Kostel., Pimenta communis Benth. & Hook.f., Pimenta dioica var. tabasco (Willd. ex Schltdl. & Cham.) Standl., Pimenta officinalis Lindl., Pimenta officinalis var. cumanensis Schiede & Deppe, Pimenta officinalis var. longifolia (Sims) O.Berg, Pimenta officinalis var. ovalifolia (DC.) O.Berg, Pimenta officinalis var. tabasco (Willd. ex Schltdl. & Cham.) O.Berg, Pimenta pimenta (L.) H.Karst., nom. inval. Pimenta vulgaris Lindl., Pimenta vulgaris Bello, Pimentus aromatica Raf. nom. superfl., Pimentus geminata Raf., Pimentus vera Raf. nom. superfl.
Chapter
The evergreen tree Pimenta dioica provides the culinary spice pimento or allspice of commerce. The dried, mature but not ripe, berries are the spice of commerce. Pimento is also sold as ground spice. The extraction and chemical composition of other commercially important products obtained from the spice, like berry oil, leaf oil and oleoresin, are detailed. Cultivation, propagation and post-harvest processing are reviewed in the chapter. The use of allspice in food, medicine and perfumery and the functional properties are also described. Cleanliness, safety issues and trade specifications are also enumerated in the chapter.
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Antioxidant activities of two commercial spices, Myristica fragrans (HOUTT, nutmeg) and Pimenta dioica (L., allspice), were analyzed for the first time in a hemin-enhanced oxidation (HET) assay. Hemin is a potentially cytotoxic factor that can act as an efficient prooxidant. Relative activities of the two spices were compared in HET and other assays. When standardized for total phenolic content (mg gallic acid equivalents, GAE), ethanolic and aqueous Myristica extracts had 4-and 10-fold greater activity relative to Pimenta (p < 0.05). Myristica also had a 3-fold greater aqueous:ethanolic activity ratio compared to Pimenta. Our results (a) provide novel evidence for potent Myristica antioxidants, especially water-soluble ones, in HET assays, and (b) provide a basis for further testing of Myristica phytochemicals in heme-related pathological models. Most other reported protocols also indicate a higher Myristica potency relative to Pimenta, with standardized relative antioxidant activity variations up to 27-fold. Such variation, as well as the distinct reactive species implicated in some pathologies, emphasize the importance of comparing multiple assays to evaluate antioxidant activities.
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Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae) fruit and leaves are traditionally used for the treatment of hypertension and angina, as well as for their antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae) in order to scientifically validate its pharmacological importance. In the current study, the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of ethyl acetate (Per-1), n-butanol (Per-2) and aqueous (Per-3) fractions of a methanol extract of Persimmon leaves were tested. Wistar rats weighing 190–210 g (for the anti-inflammatory assay) and male albino mice (Swiss) weighing 18–24 g (for the antipyretic and analgesic assays) were utilized as the experimental animals. The rats were separated into eight groups (for anti-inflammatory) and seven group (for antipyretic), each consisting of six rats. Each sample was treated orally and two doses: 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight were used in these experiments. The Per-3 sample at a dose of 200 mg/kg produced the highest inflammation inhibition at 59.28%. The same sample at a dose of 200 mg/kg lowered body temperature from 38°C of hyperthermia mice back to 36.65 ± 0.12°C after 120 min, close to the normal temperature (35.21 ± 0.29°C). In the tail flick model, sample Per-3 showed 67.74% highest nociception inhibition. Similar results were obtained with Acetic acid and hot-plate assay. These results confirm that the n-butanol and aqueous fractions of persimmon are active and may be used for further pharmacological screening.
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The present study aims to assess medicinal plants in Jizan region comparing with total medicinal plants in Saudi Arabia Kingdom. The result revealed that there are 306 species present in the Kingdom with 11 endemic species on the other hand, there are 141 species in Jizan region which constitute about (46.08%) of total medicinal plants in the Kingdom with 5 endemic species with (45.45%). This study confirms on importance of medicinal plants protection because almost of them are rare or endangered species.
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Full-text available
The Arabian Peninsula is recognized as an arid area dominated by deserts and poor biodiversity. However, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (henceforth abbreviated into KSA) has a wide range of flora, consisting of different species of trees, herbs, and shrubs and containing numerous edible and medicinal plants. The KSA is characterized by its vast area of diverse geographical landscapes and climates. Consequently, there is enormous variation in the distribution of plants across the Kingdom. The traditional use of ethnomedical plants in the KSA represents a strong interconnection among familiar remedies, health, diet, and traditional healing practices characterized by specific cultures. The present paper reviews a collection of medicinal plants in KSA used in ethnomedicine. This review might be useful in developing strategies for the sustainable use of medicinal plants which are among the threatened important natural resources in folk medicine in the KSA. The present study reports 309 genera which cover 471 species from a total of 2253 known species belonging to 89 families. The most dominating families are Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae, Apiaceae, Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Poaceae, Amaranthaceae, Boraginaceae, Apocynaceae, Convolvoulaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Capparaceae, Polygonaceae, and Zygophyllaceae. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13002-018-0263-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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The hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of an ethanolic extract of 'Rocket' Eruca sativa L. (EER), on liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) was investigated. Wistar albino rats were administered 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight extract orally for 10 consecutive days. Marker enzymes GOT, GPT, ALP, GGT and bilirubin were estimated in serum. Whereas, non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), total protein (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated in liver tissue as markers for oxidative stress. Histopathological assessment was also done on liver tissue. CCl(4) induced liver poisoning in all treated animals was evident by elevated serum GOT, GPT, ALP, GGT and bilirubin levels. Induction of oxidative stress in the liver tissue by CCl(4) was evidenced by a fall in the levels of NP-SH and TP; and an increased level of MDA concentration. EER administration for 10 days prevented the CCl(4) induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the extract also reduced the pentobarbital-induced prolongation of sleeping time in mice. The ability of rocket extract to protect the liver toxicity in rats was further confirmed by histological findings in the liver tissue. In conclusion, it was observed that Eruca sativa L. extract protects the liver against CCl(4) induced hepatic injury through its potent antioxidant activity in rats.
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1 In order to study the antigenotoxic potential of eugenol in humans, ten healthy non-smoking males ingested a daily amount of 150 mg eugenol or the placebo for seven consecutive days. After a washout period of one week, groups ingesting eugenol or the placebo were crossed and received the other treatment for seven consecutive days. 2 On days 8 and 22 blood samples were taken for the assessment of standard clinical biochemical parameters. To study the possible antigenotoxic effect of eugenol, on day 8 and 22 blood samples were collected and exposed in vitro to the established genotoxic agents mitomycin C and vinblastine. After exposure the percentage of cells with chromosome aberrations and micronuclei was deter mined in cultured white blood cells. On days 8 and 22 paracetamol (500 mg p.o.) was administered as test substance to measure phase-II biotransformation capa city. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were determined in erythrocytes and blood plasma. 3 No significant differences in the clinical biochemical parameters were detected between the eugenol-period and the placebo-period, indicating that daily administration of 150 mg eugenol for 7 days has no toxic affects. 4 No significant differences on the cytogenetic para meters were found after ingestion of eugenol. Thus, there are no indications for an antigenotoxic potential of eugenol in humans, consuming daily 150 mg eugenol for 7 days. 5 A significant reduction in α-class GSTs in plasma (P<0.05), but not in the other measured biotransformation parameters, was found in volunteers during the eugenol- period as compared to the placebo-period. This may either reflect GST-inhibition by eugenol or protection against background damage of liver cells by eugenol.
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A role for mucus in providing a microenvironment over sites of gastric damage, which is conducive to reepithelialization, has been proposed. We tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of disruption of such mucus on the recovery of epithelial integrity after damage induced by 50% ethanol. Exposure of an ex vivo chambered gastric mucosa to topically applied 50% ethanol resulted in copious release of mucus, cellular debris, and plasma, which formed a continuous cap over the mucosal surface. Ethanol-induced gastric damage was accompanied by extensive surface epithelial cell damage and a marked decrease in transmucosal potential difference. During the 30 min after ethanol was removed from the chamber, the epithelium became reestablished and the potential difference gradually recovered to 94% of the level before ethanol treatment. However, if the mucolytic agents N-acetylcysteine (5%) or pepsin (0.5%) were added to the bathing solutions, the “mucoid cap” disintegrated and the recovery of potential difference was significantly retarded (recovering to only 51% and 52% of levels before ethanol treatment). Histologic evaluation confirmed that mucosae treated with either agent had significantly less (p < 0.005) intact epithelium at the end of the experiment. Removal of the mucoid cap with forceps caused a similar inhibition of the repair of the epithelium and the recovery of potential difference. Both mechanical and chemical (N-acetylcysteine) disruption of the mucoid cap resulted in a significant increase in the mucosal leakage of albumin and hemoglobin, supporting previous histologic evidence that the mucoid cap traps blood components over the damaged mucosa. These studies support the hypothesis that mucus released in response to topical application of an irritant plays an important role in the repair of epithelial damage through the process of restitution.
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A phenylpropanoid, threo-3-chloro-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propane-1,2-diol, was isolated from the berries of Pimenta dioica together with five known compounds, eugenol, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamaldehyde, vanillin and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propane-1,2-diol. In addition, the stereochemistry of 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propane-1,2-diol was determined. The phenylpropanoids inhibited autoxidation of linoleic acid in a water-alcohol system.
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A reproducible antipyretic test method has been developed to assay low doses of po administered aspirin in rats. Rectal temperatures recorded 19–24 hr after a sc injection of 20 ml/kg of an aqueous suspension of brewer's yeast were elevated 1.5 to 2.0°C. Statistically significant antipyresis was demonstrated 15 min after a po dose of 150 mg/kg of aspirin. Maximum effect occurred 120 min post drug. Aspirin, administered po at 5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, exhibited antipyretic activity at all doses. The ED50 values calculated from these data ranged from 10.3 to 21.1 mg/kg. Untreated fevered controls showed no marked temperature variability during the test period.
A critical review of the analytical methods employed for the determination of the relevant components of seasonings is presented. Where the available methods were inadequate, new ones have been devised. Particular emphasis has been placed on those methods of analysis that provide a rapid and sufficiently accurate appraisal of seasoning extracts and essential oils from seasonings under routine control laboratory conditions. At the same time, the margin of error of these methods has been determined. The individual seasoning extracts were assessed according to the following criteria: (1) essential oil--cardamom, laurel leaves, cloves, origanum (marjoram), sage, and thyme; (2) essential oil and nonvolatile lipids--dillseed, coriander, caraway, mace, nutmeg, pimento (allspice), and celery seed; (3) essential oil and/or pungent ingredients--capsicum, ginger, and pepper; (4) essential oil and/or coloring matter--turmeric (curcuma) and paprika; (5) essential oil and other components--garlic, onion, and cinnamon.
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K.P. BHARGAVA, M.B. GUPTA and K.K. TANGRI, tMechanism of ulcerogenic activity of indomethacin and oxyphenbutazone, European J. Pharmacol. 22 (1973) 191–195.The ulcerogenic activity of indomethacin and oxyphenbutazone in albino rats was dose dependent. The gastric ulcers produced by indomethacin and oxyphenbutazone were significantly reduced by pretreatment with phenoxy-benzamine, phentolamine and by prior bilateral adrenalectomy and spinal cord transection while imipramine pre-treatment potentiated their incidence. Mepyramine prevented the ulcerogenic activity of oxyphenbutazone but failed to prevent the ulcers produced by indomethacin. Pretreatment with 2-bromolysergic acid diethylamide (BOL-148). propranolol and atropine failed to protect the animals from the ulcerogenic activity of indomethacin and oxyphenbutazone. The mechanism of ulcerogenic activity of these compounds is discussed.
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Experiments with guinea-pig lung suggest that some of the therapeutic effects of sodium salicylate and aspirin-like drugs are due to inhibition of the synthesis of prostaglandins.
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The effect of administration of carbon tetrachloride and dimethylnitrosamine in vivo on hepatic microsomal function related to drug metabolism was measured. It was found that the capacity of isolated microsomes to demethylate dimethylaniline was diminished during the first hour after carbon tetrachloride poisoning and during the second hour after dimethylnitrosamine poisoning. Thereafter the microsomes from carbon tetrachloride-poisoned livers showed a continuous decline in activity so that at 24hr. there was little residual capacity to undertake demethylation. Microsomes from dimethylnitrosamine-poisoned animals were not different from controls at 24hr. During the first 3hr. there was a transient rise in the accumulation of the N-oxide intermediate in carbon tetrachloride-poisoned livers, with a subsequent fall to below control values. In dimethylnitrosamine poisoning there was a parallel decrease in N-oxide accumulation with decreased demethylation. In the latter part of the first 24hr. the ratio of N-oxide accumulation to demethylation was increased in both instances. At 2hr. after poisoning with either compound there was no evidence of altered NADPH(2)-dependent neotetrazolium reduction or lipid peroxidation. NADPH(2)-dependent azo-dye cleavage was decreased. There was no difference in microsomal cytochrome b(5) content, but there was a decrease in the amount of cytochrome P-450. This latter change was correlated with the decreased capacity for NADPH(2)-dependent oxidative demethylation. It is suggested that dimethylnitrosamine is associated with a defect in microsomal NADPH(2)-dependent electron transport at the level of cytochrome P-450. In addition to affecting cytochrome P-450, carbon tetrachloride is associated with a second severe block involving the release of formaldehyde from the N-oxide intermediate.
Article
The changes in cell structure produced during stimulation of proton secretion by CO2 in turtle bladder were examined using ultrastructural morphometric methods. One hour after CO2 addition, the area of the luminal membrane of the carbonic anhydrase-containing (CA) cell population was increased 2.5-fold and the volume percent of electron-lucent cytoplasmic vesicles in these CA cells was decreased by 61%. No changes were observed in the epithelial granular cells. These results suggest that during CO2 stimulation the vesicles fuse with the luminal membrane. CO2 stimulation of proton secretion is inhibited by the cytoskeleton-disrupting drugs colchicine and cytochalasin B and by 99% deuterium oxide as the Ringer solvent. Deuterium oxide also inhibits the decrease in cytoplasmic vesicles. Thus stimulation of proton secretion by turtle bladder CA cells depends to a large extent on vesicle fusion and the resultant increase in luminal surface area.
Article
Several prostaglandins (PG) were found earlier to be cytoprotective for the stomach and the intestine. We now report that mild irritants, given intragastrically, are also cytoprotective by stimulating the release of PG by the stomach. Several "mild irritants," 10-20% ethanol, 0.2-0.35 M HCl, 0.05-0.075 M NaOH, 2-4% NaCl, and water at 70 degrees C, were given orally to fasted rats. Fifteen minutes later, one of the following necrotizing agents was administered orally: 100% ethanol, 0.6 M HCl, 0.2 M NaOH, 25% NaCl solution, and boiling water. One hour later, the stomachs were removed and necrotic lesions graded. The mild irritants inhibited the necrotic lesions dose dependently. After a single treatment, protection lasted 1 h; repeated administrations maintained cytoprotection for as long as the mild irritants were being given. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of PG synthesis, abolished cytoprotection by mild irritants. After oral administration of NaOH at cytoprotective concentrations (0.01-0.1 M), the amounts of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and thromboxane B2 formed by the gastric mucosa increased steadily up to threefold. The protection elicited by mild irritants is called "adaptive cytoprotection." The increased synthesis of PG may represent a physiological, natural defense mechanism that may be necessary to maintain cellular integrity of the gastrointestinal mucosa, in spite of the hostile environment caused by luminal contents.
Article
9-Hydroxy-19,20-bis-nor-prostanoic acid (IBI-C83) was evaluated on gastric acid secretion and gastric lesions induced in laboratory animals by a variety of experimental conditions: compound IBI-C83 is proved effective in decreasing basal, histamine- and pentagastrin-stimulated total acid output in rats and in pentagastrin perfused dogs. The concentration of N-acetylneuraminic acid in the gastric fluid, a marker of mucus secretion, is enhanced in rats by IBI-C83. This drug prevents gastric damage induced by non-steroidal antiinflammatory compounds such as acetylsalicylic acid, indometacin and phenylbutazone, gastric ulcers following pylorus ligation, and facilitates healing of the gastric ulcers evoked by subserosal injection of acetic acid. A prominent feature of IBI-C83 is its capacity to protect the rat from gastric damage elicited by necrotizing agents such as absolute ethanol, hydrochloric acid and hypertonic saline. This property, called "cytoprotection" and common to naturally occuring prostaglandins, is independent on the antisecretory activity of IBI-C83 and is not shared, at least in the reported experimental models, by the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine. In spite of the prostaglandin-like properties displayed in its cytoprotective activity, compound IBI-C83 does not affect cardiovascular functions, gastrointestinal transit and uterine motility.
Article
We have examined the role of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in a model of inflammation in vivo. Carrageenan administration to the subcutaneous rat air pouch induces a rapid inflammatory response characterized by high levels of prostaglandins (PGs) and leukotrienes in the fluid exudate. The time course of the induction of COX-2 mRNA and protein coincided with the production of PGs in the pouch tissue and cellular infiltrate. Carrageenan-induced COX-2 immunoreactivity was localized to macrophages obtained from the fluid exudate as well as to the inner surface layer of cells within the pouch lining. Dexamethasone inhibited both COX-2 expression and PG synthesis in the fluid exudate but failed to inhibit PG synthesis in the stomach. Furthermore, NS-398, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, and indomethacin, a nonselective COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, blocked proinflammatory PG synthesis in the air pouch. In contrast, only indomethacin blocked gastric PG and, additionally, produced gastric lesions. These results suggest that inhibitors of COX-2 are potent antiinflammatory agents which do not produce the typical side effects (e.g., gastric ulcers) associated with the nonselective, COX-1-directed antiinflammatory drugs.
Article
The antioxidant properties of three related compounds, dehydrozingerone, isoeugenol and eugenol, were investigated using various models. Isoeugenol was found to be the most active in inhibiting ferrous-ion-, ferric-ion- and cumene-hydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates. These compounds also showed significant hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Isoeugenol was potent in scavenging superoxide anion generated by the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system, whereas eugenol was found to inhibit xanthine oxidase. The high antioxidant activity of isoeugenol may be due to the presence of a conjugated double bond, which increases the stability of the phenoxyl radical by electron delocalization. Such electron delocalization is not possible with eugenol. In dehydrozingerone, the stability was decreased by an electron withdrawing keto group at the para position.
Article
Teucrium buxifolium Spanish endemic, have traditionally been used for the treatment of rheumatic and other inflammatory affections. In this work, phytochemical screening was carried out to ascertain the qualitative composition of this species and we have studied the anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activity of Teucrium buxifolium. This species has exhibited potent anti-inflammatory properties against experimentally-induced arthritis and carrageenin paw edema. Additionally, Teucrium buxifolium species have displayed significant antiulcer and cytoprotective activity.
Article
Prostaglandins (PGs) can be synthesized through the activities of two cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms. COX-1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues and its activity provides for the relative small amounts of PGs required for the mediation and modulation of normal physiological functions. In inflammatory conditions, COX-2 is rapidly induced by cytokines, growth factors and bacterial endotoxin, and its enzymatic activity accounts for the large amounts of PGs produced during inflammation. The currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are nonselective inhibitors of both COX isoforms. Inhibition of COX-2 leads to the therapeutically desired inhibition of the synthesis of pro-inflammatory PGs, but at the same time produces side effects associated with inhibition of COX-1 and the consequent suppression of the production of PGs necessary for normal cellular functions. Selective inhibition of COX-2 expression explains, at least in part, the potent anti-inflammatory activity of corticosteroids. However, the systemic and ocular side effects of these steroids have greatly limited their use, especially their long-term use for the management of chronic inflammatory conditions. The current effort to develop highly selective nonsteroidal COX-2 inhibitors for the treatment of arthritis and other inflammatory diseases can also be expected to yield a new approach to the treatment of uveitis and other ocular inflammatory conditions. This new class of NSAIDs will provide anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity while circumventing the most serious side effects of the current available NSAIDs, resulting from their inhibition of the physiologically required COX-1 activity.
Article
The hypotensive activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Pimenta dioica and several fractions of the aqueous extract was observed in anaesthetized normotensive rats. General effects of the extracts and fractions were assessed through Hippocratic screening showing a central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of the aqueous extract of Pimenta dioica (30, 70, 100 mg/kg) produced a dose-related significant fall in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). The ED50 was 53.94 mg/kg. The hypotensive effect of identical doses (100 mg/kg) of the aqueous extract (95% decrease) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than the effect of the ethanolic extract (67% decrease). The final aqueous fraction produced the greatest hypotensive activity compared to the other fractions of the total aqueous extract. There were no significant changes in the heart rate and no abnormalities were observed in the EKG. The mechanisms of action of the extracts have not been determined. Structural elucidation of the compounds responsible for this activity is under investigation.
Article
Three new galloylglucosides, (4S)-alpha-terpineol 8-O-beta-D-(6-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (1); (4R)-alpha-terpineol 8-O-beta-D-(6-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (2), and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propane-1,2-diol 2-O-beta-D-(6-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (3), were isolated from the berries of Pimenta dioica together with three known compounds, gallic acid (4), pimentol (5), and eugenol 4-O-beta-D-(6-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (6). The structures of 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of MS and NMR spectral data and enzymatic hydrolysis. These galloylglucosides (1-3, 5, and 6) showed radical-scavenging activity nearly equivalent to that of gallic acid (4) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical.
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A simple method has been designed for evaluating both non-narcotic and narcotic analgesics. The method is based upon the specific antagonism of analgesics to the typical “syndrome” produced by intra-peritoneal injection of 2-phenyl-1,4-benzo-quinone in mice. The antagonism occurs at doses far below those producing depression or other toxic effects. There is also a good correlation between clinical efficacy of a number of analgesics and their relative potency as established by this method. The endpoint is sharp, and the method is simple and quantitative.
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A method is presented for measuring the edema induced by injection of 0.05 ml of 1% solution of carrageenin, an extract of Chondrus, into the plantar tissues of the hind paw of the rat. Peak edema develops within the first 3 to 4 hours, and is inhibited by pretreatment of the animals by single oral doses of antiinflammatory agents, steroid or non-steroid. Log dose responses to drugs are linear and parallel, and yield potency ratios with relatively narrow confidence limits. The potency ratios obtained for aspirin, phenylbutazone and hydrocortisone are fairly close to the ratios of their respective daily doses in the treatment of rheumatic disease. A potent antihistaminic-antiserotonin compound, cyproheptadine, is without effect on carrageenin-induced edema.
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Medicinal plants of Jamaica Mechanism of ulcerogenic activity of indomethacin and oxyphenbuta-zone Diverse effects of SKF 52 and antioxidants on CCL 4 induced changes in liver microsomal P-450 content and ethylmor-phine metabolism
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Dehydrogrngeroue and isoeugenol as inhibitors of lipid peroxidation and as a free radical scavengers
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A method for quanti-tative estimation of gastric barrier mucus
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Diverse effects of SKF 52 and antioxidants on CCL4 induced changes in liver microsomal P-450 content and ethylmor-phine metabolism
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Galloyl-glucosides from berries Pimenta dioica
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Dehydrogrngeroue and isoeugenol as inhibitors of lipid peroxidation and as a free radical scavengers
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