A large number of epidemiological studies carried out since the early 1980s have shown that the consumption of wine, particularly of red wine, helps to prevent coronary heart disease and some cancers. Evidence from a recently published meta-analysis of 13 studies (involving 209,418 subjects) on the relationship between wine consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease has revealed an average significant reduction of 32% of overall vascular risk associated with moderate (1-2 drinks or 150-300 mL/day) versus no wine consumption. From 10 studies involving 176,042 persons there was strong evidence to support a J-shaped relationship between different amounts of wine intake and vascular risk, suggesting that light to moderate wine drinkers have lower vascular risk than either heavier drinkers or non-drinkers. Wines, especially red wines, contain about 1800-3000 mg/L of polyphenolic com-pounds, most of which are potent antioxidants and are therefore thought to function as cardioprotectives and anti-carcinogens. It has been shown that flavonoids (flavonols, anthocyanins, catechins and pro-anthocyanidins) as well as non-flavonoids from red wine strongly inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation, eicosanoid synthesis, and platelet aggregation, which are significant steps in reducing coronary heart disease mortality. For some polyphenols, an anticarcinogenic function has also been suggested, and a few studies in cell lines and animal models have shown that some wine polyphenols may affect molecular events in the initiation, promotion, and pro-gression of some cancers. WINE CONSUMPTION AND RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Epidemiological Evidence Studies of wine and its effects on health have a long history, ranging from anecdotal accounts in ancient times to more recent rigorous studies of populations with hundreds of thousands of participants (Rimm and Stampfer, 2002; de Gaetano et al., 2002). Most studies suggest that men and women who drink 1 to 2 drinks per day on average have lower total mortality rates, reflected in lower incidence of coronary heart disease (Di Castelnuovo et al., 2002), diabetes (Ajani et al., 2000, Wannamethee et al., 2003.), ischemic stroke (Reynolds et al., 2003) and in some populations prostate cancer (Schoonen et al., 2005) and dementia (Mukamal et al., 2003). The benefit of moderate alcohol consumption on risk of coronary disease has been documented in almost 100 studies (Rimm and Stampfer, 2002). Evidence from a recently published meta-analysis of 13 studies (involving 209,418 subjects) on the relationship between wine consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has revealed an average significant reduction of 32% of overall vascular risk associated with moderate (1-2 drinks or 150-300 mL/day) versus no wine consumption (Di Castelnuovo et al., 2002). Interestingly, in studies with men only, the protection offered by wine was relatively small (13%) and not significant; in contrast, in studies with both sexes the protection was 47%. Whether women are more susceptible to the benefit of wine or if they are more likely to drink lower amounts, thus captivating its maximal advantage, remains to be established.