Article

Antithrombotic Potential of Grape Juice and Red Wine for Preventing Heart Attacks

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Abstract

Epidemiologic studies have shown an inverse col relation between the intake of dietary flavonoids and death from coronary artery disease. This is often attributed to the antioxidant properties of flavonoids found in wine and other fruit beverages. We have previously shown that the flavonoids in red but not white wine and purple grape juice significantly inhibit in vivo platelet activity in a canine model of arterial stenosis with intimal damage and periodic thrombosis. We then tested the platelet inhibitory effects of red and white wine and purple grape juice in 10 healthy human subjects. Blood samples were obtained for whole blood aggregometry before and after each fasting subject consumed 5 ml/kg of either a French red wine, French white wine, or 12 mg/kg of purple grape juice. There was a 7-day washout period between consumption of each beverage. In the 10 subjects, whole blood platelet aggregation in response to collagen decreased by 39 +/- 11% (p < 0.01) and by 28 +/- 106% (p < 0.05) in response to ADP after the red wine but there were no significant changes after the white wine. Blood alcohol content averaged 0.06 g/dl after both wines. The purple grape juice decreased collagen-induced platelet aggregation by 34 +/- 11% (p < 0.03) and ADP-induced aggregation by 24 +/- 12% (p < 0.05). Many of the same polyphenolic compounds occur in wine and purple grape juice although there are significantly more of these compounds in red wine and purple grape than in white wine. Red wine and purple grape juice also have significantly higher amounts of antioxidant substances than white wine. It may be that the antiplatelet/antioxidant polyphenolic compounds in red wine or purple grape juice can reduce the rate of progression of the atherosclerotic process, and reduce the incidence of acute occlusive platelet mediated coronary thrombosis.

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... Neither orange nor grapefruit juice had any platelet inhibitory effect (Osman et al. 1998). In human subjects, 350 mL of red wine or 700 mL of purple grape juice given once inhibited ex vivo platelet aggregation (Folts et al. 1994, Folts 1998) while 350 mL of white wine had no significant effect on ex vivo platelet aggregation (Folts et al. 1994, Folts 1998. ...
... Neither orange nor grapefruit juice had any platelet inhibitory effect (Osman et al. 1998). In human subjects, 350 mL of red wine or 700 mL of purple grape juice given once inhibited ex vivo platelet aggregation (Folts et al. 1994, Folts 1998) while 350 mL of white wine had no significant effect on ex vivo platelet aggregation (Folts et al. 1994, Folts 1998. ...
... There has been debate as to the reasons why red wine might reduce the risk of CAD. The alcohol may reduce risk by increasing HDL concentration (Gaziano et al. 1993), while the nonalcoholic constituents in red wine and grapes have protective antioxidant and antiplatelet properties (Demrow et al. 1995, Folts 1998, Folts et al. 1994, Havsteen 1983, Maxwell et al. 1994, Renaud and de Lorgeril 1992. This study strongly supports the existence of a platelet inhibitory effect by some constituent in grape juice. ...
Article
Full-text available
Coronary artery disease is responsible for much mortality and morbidity around the world. Platelets are involved in atherosclerotic disease development and the reduction of platelet activity by medications reduces the incidence and severity of disease. Red wine and grapes contain polyphenolic compounds, including fla- vonoids, which can reduce platelet aggregation and have been associated with lower rates of cardiovascular dis- ease. Citrus fruits contain different classes of polyphe- nolics that may not share the same properties. This study evaluated whether commercial grape, orange and grape- fruit juices, taken daily, reduce ex vivo platelet activity. In a randomized cross-over design, ten healthy human sub- jects (ages 26 -58 y, five of each gender) drank 5-7.5 mL/(kg z d) of purple grape juice, orange juice or grape- fruit juice for 7-10 d each. Platelet aggregation (whole blood impedance aggregometry, Chronolog Model #590) at baseline was compared to results after consumption of each juice. Drinking purple grape juice for one week reduced the whole blood platelet aggregation response to 1 mg/L of collagen by 77% (from 17.9 6 2.3 to 4.0 6 6.8 ohms, P 5 0.0002). Orange juice and grapefruit juice had no effect on platelet aggregation. The purple grape juice had approximately three times the total polyphenolic concentration of the citrus juices and was a potent plate- let inhibitor in healthy subjects while the citrus juices showed no effect. The platelet inhibitory effect of the flavonoids in grape juice may decrease the risk of coro- nary thrombosis and myocardial infarction. J. Nutr. 130: 53-56, 2000.
... Neither orange nor grapefruit juice had any platelet inhibitory effect (Osman et al. 1998). In human subjects, 350 mL of red wine or 700 mL of purple grape juice given once inhibited ex vivo platelet aggregation (Folts et al. 1994, Folts 1998) while 350 mL of white wine had no significant effect on ex vivo platelet aggregation (Folts et al. 1994, Folts 1998. ...
... Neither orange nor grapefruit juice had any platelet inhibitory effect (Osman et al. 1998). In human subjects, 350 mL of red wine or 700 mL of purple grape juice given once inhibited ex vivo platelet aggregation (Folts et al. 1994, Folts 1998) while 350 mL of white wine had no significant effect on ex vivo platelet aggregation (Folts et al. 1994, Folts 1998. ...
... There has been debate as to the reasons why red wine might reduce the risk of CAD. The alcohol may reduce risk by increasing HDL concentration (Gaziano et al. 1993), while the nonalcoholic constituents in red wine and grapes have protective antioxidant and antiplatelet properties (Demrow et al. 1995, Folts 1998, Folts et al. 1994, Havsteen 1983, Maxwell et al. 1994, Renaud and de Lorgeril 1992. This study strongly supports the existence of a platelet inhibitory effect by some constituent in grape juice. ...
Article
Coronary artery disease is responsible for much mortality and morbidity around the world. Platelets are involved in atherosclerotic disease development and the reduction of platelet activity by medications reduces the incidence and severity of disease. Red wine and grapes contain polyphenolic compounds, including flavonoids, which can reduce platelet aggregation and have been associated with lower rates of cardiovascular disease. Citrus fruits contain different classes of polyphenolics that may not share the same properties. This study evaluated whether commercial grape, orange and grapefruit juices, taken daily, reduce ex vivo platelet activity. In a randomized cross-over design, ten healthy human subjects (ages 26-58 y, five of each gender) drank 5-7.5 mL/(kg. d) of purple grape juice, orange juice or grapefruit juice for 7-10 d each. Platelet aggregation (whole blood impedance aggregometry, Chronolog Model #590) at baseline was compared to results after consumption of each juice. Drinking purple grape juice for one week reduced the whole blood platelet aggregation response to 1 mg/L of collagen by 77% (from 17.9 +/- 2.3 to 4.0 +/- 6.8 ohms, P = 0.0002). Orange juice and grapefruit juice had no effect on platelet aggregation. The purple grape juice had approximately three times the total polyphenolic concentration of the citrus juices and was a potent platelet inhibitor in healthy subjects while the citrus juices showed no effect. The platelet inhibitory effect of the flavonoids in grape juice may decrease the risk of coronary thrombosis and myocardial infarction.
... In vitro study 17 different fruit juices studied Tomato juice was the most effective platelet inhibitor of the fruit juices tested In vitro study Tomato juice studied The inhibition of platelet aggregation was found to be dose dependent n0/14 men and 6 women, 43 Á82 years old with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance Orange juice and grapefruit juice had no effect on platelet aggregation Folts (1998) n0/10 healthy subjects, 21 Á55 years old Comparison between consumption of red wine, white wine and purple grape juice (1 week apart) A significant decrease in ex vivo whole blood platelet aggregation after consumption of red wine and purple grape juice, but not white wine ...
... Frankel et al. (1998) also found that vitamin C from purple grape juice had no significant effect on its antioxidant capacity, suggesting that polyphenols or other components were the active constituents of this juice. Both purple grape juice and red wine contain polyphenols exhibited significant anti-platelet characteristics (Folts 1998). In comparison, similar effects were not seen for orange juice, grapefruit juice or white wine (Folts 1998;Keevil et al. 2000). ...
... Both purple grape juice and red wine contain polyphenols exhibited significant anti-platelet characteristics (Folts 1998). In comparison, similar effects were not seen for orange juice, grapefruit juice or white wine (Folts 1998;Keevil et al. 2000). Other constituents of PFV juices that could benefit CVD risk include potassium and folate (Strazzullo et al. 2004). ...
Article
While it is widely accepted that fruit and vegetables (F&V) lower the risk of cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the role of pure fruit and vegetable (PFV) juices is often downplayed. This review poses two questions: Are the protective benefits of F&V dependent upon constituents lacking in PFV juices (e.g. fibre)? Do PFV juices impact on disease risk when considered separately from F&V? Studies comparing the effects of fibre and antioxidants were reviewed, yielding the finding that the impact of F&V may relate more strongly to antioxidants, than to fibre. For the second question, high-quality published studies that considered PFV juices were reviewed. The impact of PFV juices on cancer risk was weakly positive, although a lack of human data and contradictory findings hampered conclusions. For CVD, there was convincing evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies that PFV juices reduced risk via a number of probable mechanisms. It was concluded that the view that PFV juices are nutritionally inferior to F&V, in relation to chronic disease risk reduction, is unjustified.
... A Finnish study of 5133 men and women over a 20-year period conducted by Knekt et al (1996) found that those with highest intake of flavonoids had a modestly reduced risk for coronary disease. More recently, confusing statistics regarding the CHD mortality rate and lifestyle of the French population termed "French paradox" triggered substantial interest of the scientific community worldwide (Foltz J, 1998;Zenebe et al, 2003). It was proposed that the lower CHD mortality rate among the French, considering their high consumption of saturated fat, smoking, and other risk factors for CVD comparable with those in American population, may be attributed to a higher consumption of red wine rich in polyphenolic compounds. ...
... Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies were initiated to test the hypothesis and detect constituents of red wine responsible for its possible cardioprotective effects, as well as identify the mechanisms of action. It was shown that extracts of red wine, as well as other polyphenol-containing plants can induce endothelium-dependent vasodilation, affect blood pressure, reduce lipid oxidation, and prevent platelet aggregation (Nakamura et al, 2002;Pomerleau RG et al, 2005;Foltz J, 1998;Zenebe et al, 2003). Current research is focused on identification of the precise biochemical mechanisms by which polyphenolic compounds exert their beneficial action on human health including cardioprotection. ...
... Anthocyanins exerted multiple protective effects against CVD (Foltz, 1998;Nakamura et al, 2002;Andriambeloson et al, 1998;Serraino et al, 2003). ...
Article
We examined the effect(s) of wild blueberries on the major vasodilation pathways of Sprague-Dawley and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Weanling male Sprague-Dawley and SHR were fed a control (C-Sprague-Dawley, HC-SHR) or a blueberry-enriched (B-Sprague-Dawley, HB-SHR) diet for 8 wks. Aortas were excised and 3mm rings were prepared. After equilibration and preconditioning, rings were precontracted with L-phenylephrine (L-Phe, 3 x 10-7 M). A concentration response curve (CRC) was produced using Acetylcholine (Ach, 10-9 to 3 x 10-6 M), to obtain endothelium-dependent (ED) vasodilation. After a 30 min washout period, a second Ach CRC was obtained in the presence of the inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthase L-NG-methyl-arginate (L-NMMA) (10-4M) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX) mefenamic acid (MFA) (lcrsM). The percent relaxation to the initial precontraction was used to determine vessel sensitivity (pD2) to agonists. A one-way Analysis of Variance test (ANOVA) demonstrated no significant difference in Ach-induced vasodilation (Fmax) between control (C) and blueberry (B) groups in aortas of Sprague-Dawley rats. The NOS inhibition with L-NMMA significantly reduced maximum vasodilation in both treatment groups, with aortas from B group, exhibiting greater decrease of vasodilation (-27% in C and -39% in B aortas). Inhibition of the COX pathway with MFA did not significantly alter the ED vasodilation in response to Ach in either diet group in Sprague Dawley rats. These findings confirm that ED vasodilation in animal model with functional endothelium, such as Sprague-Dawley rats, is mainly mediated through the NO pathway. In the SHR, ED Ach-induced vasodilation was not significantly different between HC and HB aortas. Inhibition of the NOS pathway, significantly reduced maximum vasodilation in both diet groups (- 38% in HC and -34% in HB aortas). Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition slightly (not significantly) enhanced ED-vasodilation in HC aortas (101%) but caused a 3% reduced vasodilation in HB aortas, suggesting the presence of vasoconstrictor(s) in HC rats. Thus, blueberries in the SHR may operate through the COX pathway either by reducing the synthesis of vasoconstrictor and/or enhancing the synthesis of vasodilator prostanoids, which may affect NO bioavailability.
... Studies show that the anthocyanin accelerates formation of an intermediate to regenerate the G-proteincoupled receptor in the retina of the eye [92]. Protection from heart attacks is also associated with administration of anthocyanins, particularly in the form of grape juice and wine but also from other sources [93,94 ]. This role is attributed to the ability of these products to reduce inflammation, enhance capillary strength and permeability, and inhibit platelet formation. ...
... This role is attributed to the ability of these products to reduce inflammation, enhance capillary strength and permeability, and inhibit platelet formation. The mechanism of vasorelaxation that was observed is due to increased nitric oxide release [93]. Anthocyanins can even be shown to aid in the prevention of obesity and diabetes. ...
Article
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Anthocyanins are a class of polyphenols responsible for the orange, red, purple and blue colors of many fruits, vegetables, grains, flowers and other plants. Consumption of anthocyanins has been linked as protective agents against many chronic diseases and possesses strong antioxidant properties leading to a variety of health benefits. In this review, we examine the advances in the chemical profiling of natural anthocyanins in plant and biological matrices using various chromatographic separations (HPLC and CE) coupled with different detection systems (UV, MS and NMR). An overview of anthocyanin chemistry, prevalence in plants, biosynthesis and metabolism, bioactivities and health properties, sample preparation and phytochemical investigations are discussed while the major focus examines the comparative advantages and disadvantages of each analytical technique.
... In other research related to cardiovascular impairment, the roles of anthocyanin pigments versus other flavonoids delivered in the phytochemical extract have not been completely sorted out. Protection from heart attacks through administration of grape juice or wine was strongly tied to the ability of the anthocyaninrich products to reduce inflammation and enhance capillary strength and permeability, and to inhibit platelet formation and enhance nitric oxide (NO) release[37]. Similarly, delivery of a black currant concentrate with intense anthocyanin content caused endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in rat aorta rings in vitro[38]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Anthocyanin pigments and associated flavonoids have demonstrated ability to protect against a myriad of human diseases, yet they have been notoriously difficult to study with regard to human health. Anthocyanins frequently interact with other phytochemicals to potentiate biological effects, thus contributions from individual components are difficult to decipher. The complex, multicomponent structure of compounds in a bioactive mixture and the degradation of flavonoids during harsh extraction procedures obscure the precise assignment of bioactivity to individual pigments. Extensive metabolic breakdown after ingestion complicates tracking of anthocyanins to assess absorption, bioavailability, and accumulation in various organs. Anthocyanin pigments and other flavonoids that are uniformly, predictably produced in rigorously controlled plant cell culture systems can be a great advantage for health and nutrition research because they are quickly, easily isolated, lack interferences found in whole fruits, can be elicited to provoke rapid and prolific accumulation, and are amenable to biolabeling so that metabolic fate can be investigated after ingestion.
... These constituents have been shown to have a beneficial effect on human health. In particular, phenolic compounds have a wide range of physiological properties: they are antibacterial (Özkan et al., 2004; Rodríguez Vaquero et al., 2005), antioxidant (Guendez et al., 2005; Spigno et al., 2007), anticancer (Morré and Morré, 2006), anti-inflammatory (Middleton et al., 2000 ), and antithrombotic (Folts, 1998 ), and they also play an important role in protecting against a number of pathological disturbances, such as artherosclerosis and brain dysfunction. Extracts from Vitis vinifera are commonly used to formulate dietary antioxidant supplements together with synthetic vitamins (E and C), minerals (selenium), soy isoflavones, tomato concentrate, rosemary extract, citrus flavonoids , and others (Monagas et al., 2006). ...
Article
Osmotic treatment (OT) is applied to obtain high quality intermediate moisture products impregnated with particular solutes, for instance phenolics from commercial grape seed extracts. To investigate how the nature of osmo-active solutes affects mass transfer of grape phenolics in a solid model food, sucrose, sodium chloride and glycerol were used as osmo-active solutes. Mass transfer of total and individual grape phenolics of low molecular weight were characterized by the diffusional approach and Peleg’s model. Of all the osmo-active solutes investigated, sodium chloride led to the highest phenolic infusion rate for each individual phenolic analyzed. With all the osmo-active solutes, the non esterified flavan-3-ol monomers showed a higher initial rate of phenolic mass transfer (1/k1) than their corresponding gallate esters and flavan-3-ol dimers. The phenolic content in the osmo-treated model food was similar or higher than that of the richest fruits and vegetables in all the conditions tested, thus increasing the antioxidant capacity of the product.
... In addition, studies linking chromosomal alterations and DNA cleavage with the incidence of cancer [34] have increased the interest in antimutagenic and antigenotoxic activities of anthocyanins353637. Positive effects in preventing cardiovascular diseases383940 and inflammation414243 have also been reported. Additionaly, beneficial anthocyanins effect have observed on test involving diabetes and obesity prevention [44, 45], improvement of visual acuity [46] and the prevention of the decline in neural function caused by aging, besides improving memory capacity [47, 48].Table 1 contains additional information on anthocyanins medicinal properties. ...
Chapter
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Plant cell and tissue culture strategies provide a valuable tool for the production of plant chemicals and have been extended to commercial use for biosynthesis of various high-value metabolites of importance to pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries. In this chapter, different systems for the production of anthocyanins under in vitro conditions are discussed. Anthocyanins are used to color food as a substitute of synthetic red dyes and recently, great attention has been focused on their multifaceted pharmacological potential. In vitro production of these pigments has been obtained from several plant species. Most systems are based on the use of callus and cell suspension cultures, although organ cultures have also been studied. Several studies on the regulation of anthocyanins biosynthesis under in vitro conditions have been reported, although additional research is still necessary in order to allow commercial production. In general, these studies have shown that anthocyanins biosynthesis is strongly influenced not only by physical conditions as light and temperature, but also by other parameters such as osmotic pressure, hormones, basal medium composition and nutrient stress. Strategies such as elicitation and use of conditioned medium have also been reported. In addition, the use of in vitro technologies has allowed the production of anthocyanins that usually are not found in field-grown plants. Large scale production of these pigments in standardized conditions remains as one of the great challenges for researchers in plant biotechnology.
... These have been shown to have antioxidant and antiplatelet properties in vitro (Fuhrman et al. 1995, Tzeng et al. 1995. We have previously demonstrated that 10 mL red wine/kg (approximately three glasses), but not white wine, which contains lower amounts of flavonoids, significantly inhibits in vivo platelet activity and coronary thrombosis in the Folts cyclic flow model (Demrow et al. 1995) and in human volunteers (Folts 1998). We also demonstrated that 10 mL/kg of WelchЈs Purple Grape Juice significantly inhibited in vivo platelet activity and experimental coronary thrombosis (Demrow et al. 1995). ...
Article
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Platelet aggregation (PA) contributes to both the development of atherosclerosis and acute platelet thrombus formation (APTF) followed by embolization producing cyclic flow reductions (CFR) in stenosed and damaged dog and human coronary arteries. In seven anesthetized dogs with coronary stenosis and medial damage, CFR occurred at 7 +/- 3/30 min and were abolished 127 +/- 18 min after gastric administration of 10 mL of purple grape juice/kg. Collagen-induced ex vivo whole blood PA decreased by 49 +/- 9% after the abolishment of CFR with grape juice. Ten mL of orange juice/kg (n = 5) and 10 mL of grapefruit juice/kg (n = 5) had no significant effect on the frequency of the CFR or on ex vivo PA. In vitro studies have suggested that flavonoids bind to platelet cell membranes and thus may have an accumulative or tissue-loading effect over time. To test this we fed 5 mL of grape juice/kg to 5 cynomologous monkeys for 7 d. Collagen-induced ex vivo PA decreased by 41 +/- 17% compared to control (pre-reatment) after 7 d of feeding. In the same 5 monkeys, neither 5 mL of orange juice/kg nor 5 mL of grapefruit juice/kg given orally for 7 d produced any significant change in PA. Grape juice contains the flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin, which are known inhibitors of PA in vitro. Orange juice and grapefruit juice, while containing less quercetin than grape juice, primarily contain the flavonoids naringin, luteolin and apigenin glucoside. The flavonoids in grapes were shown in vitro to be good inhibitors of PA, whereas the flavonoids in oranges and grapefruit to be poor inhibitors of PA. The consumption of grape juice, containing these inhibitors of PA, may have some of the protection offered by red wine against the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) and acute occlusive thrombosis, whereas orange juice or grapefruit juice may be ineffective. Thus, grape juice may be a useful alternative dietary supplement to red wine without the concomitant alcohol intake.
... Dark-pigmented fruits such as nutraceutical-rich blackberries and Concord grapes contain phytochemicals. Anthocyanins, which impart the red-blue color to juices, have been linked to chemo-, neurological and cardiovascular protective effects in vitro and in animal studies (Folts 1998;Lila 2004;Seeram et al. 2006;Shukitt-Hale et al. 2009). Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not approve health claims for anthocyanins (Food and Drug Administration 2011), understanding consumers' reactions to a potential health statement 1 can more efficiently direct future research to maximize consumer utility. ...
Article
As human life expectancy increases, the potential for nutraceutical products expands. Economic theory and sensory science were integrated to determine (1) consumer acceptance of potential health statements about a juice blend and (2) the relative satisfaction consumers derived from sensory and nutraceutical characteristics of a juice blend. Four nonhypothetical experimental auction sessions with 11–12 consumers/session were held (n = 47) to elicit willingness-to-pay (WTP) for an optimized juice blend (87% Concord grape and 13% blackberry). Participants in two sessions tasted the product first and then received a potential health statement about the juice blend regarding positive benefits of anthocyanins before the third round (vice versa for the other two sessions). The WTP for the juice blend was higher when subjects tasted the product first and then received the potential health statement, which indicated a contrast effect caused by treatment order. Agreement with the potential health statement was not correlated to WTP. Nutraceutical product launch should be accompanied with in-store taste sessions to introduce consumers to product sensory properties. Consumers' willingness-to-pay for nutraceuticals can be assessed through nonhypothetical experimental auctions. Nonhypothetical value elicitation methods use real money and products to advantageously eliminate hypothetical bias. Experimental auctions allow product attributes such as nutraceutical status to be assessed along with sensory characteristics; hence, auctions can more easily capture all product aspects that contribute to consumer liking. Understanding how consumers value all attributes can provide crucial information about a product's marketplace sustainability.
... It has been proposed that the polyphenols in red wine and grape juice may also exhibit cardioprotective effects via mechanisms beyond blood lipids. The ex vivo inhibition of platelet activity by purple grape juice (350 mL) seems to be similar to that produced by 700 mL of red wine (64). In fact, dealcoholated red wine demonstrated a significant inhibition of in vitro platelet aggregation that was comparable to phenolic extracts from red wine, especially the catechin-anthocyanidin fraction (65). ...
Article
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is multifactorial with a complex etiology. Conventional risk factors including serum lipids account for less than one half of future IHD events. In the past few years, novel risk factors such as hemostatic and thrombotic factors contributing to the development and progression of IHD have been explored. Typically, diet is the first line of consideration in the prevention of IHD, but very little is known about the effect of diet and nutrients on hemostasis and thrombosis. Cross-sectional studies indicate that vegetarians may have a lower concentration of certain markers of hemostasis compared with nonvegetarians. Platelet aggregation, an index of thrombosis, appears to be higher among vegetarians than nonvegetarians, perhaps because of the lower intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids among vegetarians. Monounsaturated-fat-rich plant foods may have a protective role in hemostasis and may explain in part the lower incidence of IHD in Mediterranean countries where residents consume a diet high in monounsaturated fatty acid. Finally, certain fruits and vegetables such as soy, garlic, and purple grapes may have antithrombotic effects, which may in part be due to the phytochemicals in these foods. Although this review suggests that a plant-based diet with sufficient n-3 fatty acids and certain fruits and vegetables may have a favorable impact on hemostasis and thrombosis, the evidence is neither sufficient nor conclusive at this time to warrant specific recommendations for the public. Clearly, much remains to be done in this area of investigation.
... However, more recent studies implicate wine polyphenols as the key mediator (reviewed in Ruf 2004). Clinical trials demonstrating that grapes and grape juice decrease platelet aggregation support the polyphenol argument (Folts 1998, Keevil et al. 2000. That is contradicted by findings that 300 mL of white wine daily for two weeks exhibited a higher antiplatelet activity than red wine with the same alcohol content (Pignatelli et al. 2002). ...
Article
As indicated by epidemiological studies, regular and moderate wine consumption, particularly red wine, has been associated with health benefits. Clinical studies and work performed with animal models indicate that wine may protect against cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, certain types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, neurological disorders, and metabolic syndrome. The mechanism of action has been attributed to antioxidant, lipid regulating, and anti-inflammatory effects. A variety of wine constituents have been studied in various disease models. Both the alcoholic and polyphenolic components of wine are believed to contribute to these beneficial effects. As wine is a complex mixture, it is likely that a multitude of chemical constituents, as well as their metabolites, work synergistically to impact human health. In sum, although wine drinking may be contraindicated in certain individuals, in healthy people, regular consumption of moderate amounts of wine may protect against certain chronic health conditions.
... It seems particularly relevant to assess how such interactions might be of use in practical juice processing. In vivo studies on the protective biological eects of American Concord juice on cardiac disease markers are gradually appearing in the literature (e.g. the recent work by Folts, 1998;Stein et al., 1999;Keevil et al., 2000), but the potential biological eects of non-alcoholic, European grape juices remains to be clari®ed. ...
Article
Antioxidant activities of red and white European grape juices towards copper induced lipid oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were examined in vitro. LDL lipid peroxidation was assessed spectrophotometrically by monitoring the development of conjugated lipid hydroperoxides at 234 nm. Red grape juice concentrate inhibited lipid peroxidation of LDL by prolonging the lag phase by 2.7 times relative to a control when evaluated at a total phenolic concentration of 10 μM gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Both red grape juices tested blocked lipid peroxidation of LDL at 20 μM GAE. White grape juice exerted prooxidant activity at 5–20 μM GAE. The antioxidant activity, inhibition of lipid peroxidation of LDL in vitro, was correlated with the juices’ levels of total phenols (r > 0.98, P < 0.01), anthocyanins (r > 0.99, P < 0.01), flavan-3-ols (r > 0.97, P < 0.05), and hydroxybenzoates (r > 0.96, P < 0.05) when the phenolic composition of each grape juices was analysed by HPLC. 5 μM ascorbic acid alone did not exert antioxidant activity towards LDL, but combinations of 5 μM ascorbic acid with 5 μM GAE juice phenols eliminated the prooxidant activity of white grape juice, and significantly improved the antioxidant activities of red grape juices.
... Resveratrol and other phytochemicals in grapes may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. For example, in studies conducted with grapes and grape juice, clinical trials have demonstrated decreased platelet aggregation (Pace-Asciak et al., 1996;Folts, 1998;Keevil et al., 2000;Freedman et al., 2001), improved endothelial function (Stein et al., 1999;Coimbra et al., 2005;Lekakis et al., 2005), reduced blood pressure (Park et al., 2004), and positive influences on biomarkers such as HDL, LDL, apo-B, and MCP-1 (Hansen et al., 2005;Zern et al., 2005;Castilla et al., 2006). Accordingly, it is apparent that grape consumption can modulate several factors that are associated with health benefits. ...
Article
Grape skins and seeds are sources of various quality characters of grapevine varieties, such as phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, resveratrol etc. The Greek vineyard is characterized by a large number of indigenous grapevine varieties which remain almost unexploited in terms of their different phenolic content. The aim of this study was to assay the polyphenolic content of seven red native Greek grapevine varieties (‘Kolliniatiko’, ‘Bekari’, ‘Bakouri’, ‘Kountoura mavri’, ‘Doubrena mavri’, ‘Thrapsa’, and ‘Mavro Spetson’) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a diode array detector and spectrophotometer. All studied varieties were cultivated in the same area and under the same conditions. The results revealed that despite the fact that anthocyanins and phenolic compounds content were in high levels for all varieties, statistically significant differences were recorded among them. The highest anthocyanins concentration was recorded in ‘Kolliniatiko’, while the lowest anthocyanins concentration was recorded in ‘Mavro Spetson’. Grapevine variety ‘Mavro Spetson’ presented the highest concentration of total phenolic compounds, with statistically significant difference compared to ‘Kountoura mavri’ and ‘Bekari’. Grapevine varieties ‘Kolliniatiko’ and ‘Bekari’ presented the highest concentrations in trans-resveratrol and piceid content, while grapevine variety ‘Doubrena mavri’ presented the highest concentration in vanillin content. These unexploited rare native cultivated varieties contained appreciable amounts of non-colored phenols as well as anthocyanins, meaning that they would be worthy of further study and use for the production of quality wines.
... Alcohol has anticoagulant properties that limit blood clotting by making platelets less prone to stick together and reducing the levels of fibrin protein that binds them together. Clinical trials have shown that in addition to wine, grapes, and grape juice can decrease platelet aggregation [31,32]. The benefits of alcohol and polyphenols may be additive, since alcohol, red wine, and polyphenolic grape extract each inhibit platelet adhesion in human blood [33]. ...
Article
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Moderate wine consumption has been associated with reduced cardiovascular (CV) risk, but most investigations have been conducted in Caucasian populations. To investigate the relationship of wine consumption to CV risk markers, we studied a multi-ethnic sample of middle-aged, healthy women (N = 2900; 48% white, 28% black, 7% Hispanic, 8% Chinese, 9% Japanese) participating in SWAN over 7 years with repeated assessments of CV risk factors. Consumption of wine was stable and common with 20% reporting none, 69% light (<1/day), 7% moderate ( = 1/day), and 4% heavy (>1/day). To guard against underreporting, we took the maximum reported wine consumption over 7 years as the predictor. We used mixed models with a random intercept and random time to assess the relationship between wine consumption and CV risk factors with moderate consumption as the reference. Outcome variables were log-transformed where necessary. Longitudinal models were adjusted for ethnicity, age, and time-varying menopausal status, hormone therapy use, overall alcohol consumption, high density lipoprotein (HDL), statin use, and a healthy lifestyle score based on physical activity, not smoking, and weight maintenance. Interactions of wine consumption with time were not significant. Moderate wine consumers had significantly lower levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, p < .001), fibrinogen (p < .001), factor VII (p < .01), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, p < .05) than women who drank no or little wine. These associations were independent of significant effects of healthy lifestyle and overall alcohol consumption and similar across ethnic groups. Moderate wine consumption may protect against CVD via inflammatory and clotting pathways.
... Resveratrol and other phytochemicals in grapes may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. For example, in studies conducted with grapes and grape juice, clinical trials have demonstrated decreased platelet aggregation (Pace-Asciak et al., 1996;Folts, 1998;Keevil et al., 2000;Freedman et al., 2001), improved endothelial function (Stein et al., 1999;Coimbra et al., 2005;Lekakis et al., 2005), reduced blood pressure (Park et al., 2004), and positive influences on biomarkers such as HDL, LDL, apo-B, and MCP-1 (Hansen et al., 2005;Zern et al., 2005;Castilla et al., 2006). Accordingly, it is apparent that grape consumption can modulate several factors that are associated with health benefits. ...
Article
Grape skins and seeds are sources of various quality characters of grapevine varieties, such as phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, resveratrol etc. The Greek vineyard is characterized by a large number of indigenous grapevine varieties which remain almost unexploited in terms of their different phenolic content. The aim of this study was to assay the polyphenolic content of seven red native Greek grapevine varieties ('Kolliniatiko', 'Bekari', 'Bakouri', 'Kountoura mavri', 'Doubrena mavri', 'Thrapsa', and 'Mavro Spetson') using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a diode array detector and spectrophotometer. All studied varieties were cultivated in the same area and under the same conditions. The results revealed that despite the fact that anthocyanins and phenolic compounds content were in high levels for all varieties, statistically significant differences were recorded among them. The highest anthocyanins concentration was recorded in 'Kolliniatiko', while the lowest anthocyanins concentration was recorded in 'Mavro Spetson'. Grapevine variety 'Mavro Spetson' presented the highest concentration of total phenolic compounds, with statistically significant difference compared to 'Kountoura mavri' and 'Bekari'. Grapevine varieties 'Kolliniatiko' and 'Bekari' presented the highest concentrations in transresveratrol and piceid content, while grapevine variety 'Doubrena mavri' presented the highest concentration in vanillin content. These unexploited rare native cultivated varieties contained appreciable amounts of non-colored phenols as well as anthocyanins, meaning that they would be worthy of further study and use for the production of quality wines.
... Non-pregnant adult women should limit ethanol intake to one drink/day and adult men two drinks/day [1] . Red wine is probably the best to reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease because of the added antioxidants found in this style of ethanol [37,38] . One drink of ethanol in the US is considered 12 ounces of beer (5% ethanol), or 1.5 ounces of hard liquor (40% ethanol), or 5 ounces of wine (12% ethanol) [39] . ...
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The aim of this study was to systematically review the range, nature, and extent of current research activity exploring the influence of diet on health. The problem is most people are too limited in their knowledge about nutrition to stay healthy for their lifetime. Also, this literature review has wider implications in scientific research by assembling the latest information from several epidemiological and experimental studies on the agents found in nutrients that theoretically lower incidence of type 2, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. Many relevant theories on the mechanisms behind these protective effects will be in one convenient location for all to study. The research question: If a person wanted to consume the healthiest diet possible for one day, what type and how much nutrients should they choose?
... 26,40,41 Flavonoids of red wine and grape juice, have a role in the inhibition of in vitro platelet activity in a canine model of arterial stenosis with intimal damage and periodic thrombosis. 42 Grape seed anthocyanidines are anti-carcinogenic and chemopreventive and 400 protect against oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and apoptotic cell death. 43 Prevalence of cataract and adult-onset of diabetes is higher in India and other tropical countries. ...
Article
Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are a major fruit crop in the world. Grapes seem to confer health benefits due to their antioxidant activity. We have evaluated the antioxidant potential of 11 grapes varieties from India and nearby Asian countries. The assays employed involve different levels of antioxidant action like ferric reducing antioxidant power, radical scavenging by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ferrylmyoglobin/2,2'-azobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The total phenolic and flavonoids contents were also estimated. Our study indicates that cv. Mango is the most potent followed by Sharad Seedless. Ethanolic extracts were found to be more effective than aqueous extracts. Cv. Sharad Seedless, Mango, and Manikchaman also had high ORAC values. Their HPLC analysis showed the presence of various antioxidant polyphenols. In conclusion our studies identified some varieties of grapes with high antioxidant activities and showed that their high antioxidant potential may be due to their phenolic and flavonoid contents.
... Flavonoids from red wine and purple grape juice inhibit in vivo platelet-mediated experimental coronary thrombosis (Demrow and Folts, 1995). They also inhibit ex vivo platelet aggregation in humans (Folts, 1998). Grape flavonoids increase the release of nitric oxide and decrease the production of super oxide in aggregating platelets, which limits the size of a developing platelet aggregate (Freedman et al., 2001). ...
Article
A large number of epidemiological studies carried out since the early 1980s have shown that the consumption of wine, particularly of red wine, helps to prevent coronary heart disease and some cancers. Evidence from a recently published meta-analysis of 13 studies (involving 209,418 subjects) on the relationship between wine consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease has revealed an average significant reduction of 32% of overall vascular risk associated with moderate (1-2 drinks or 150-300 mL/day) versus no wine consumption. From 10 studies involving 176,042 persons there was strong evidence to support a J-shaped relationship between different amounts of wine intake and vascular risk, suggesting that light to moderate wine drinkers have lower vascular risk than either heavier drinkers or non-drinkers. Wines, especially red wines, contain about 1800-3000 mg/L of polyphenolic com-pounds, most of which are potent antioxidants and are therefore thought to function as cardioprotectives and anti-carcinogens. It has been shown that flavonoids (flavonols, anthocyanins, catechins and pro-anthocyanidins) as well as non-flavonoids from red wine strongly inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation, eicosanoid synthesis, and platelet aggregation, which are significant steps in reducing coronary heart disease mortality. For some polyphenols, an anticarcinogenic function has also been suggested, and a few studies in cell lines and animal models have shown that some wine polyphenols may affect molecular events in the initiation, promotion, and pro-gression of some cancers. WINE CONSUMPTION AND RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Epidemiological Evidence Studies of wine and its effects on health have a long history, ranging from anecdotal accounts in ancient times to more recent rigorous studies of populations with hundreds of thousands of participants (Rimm and Stampfer, 2002; de Gaetano et al., 2002). Most studies suggest that men and women who drink 1 to 2 drinks per day on average have lower total mortality rates, reflected in lower incidence of coronary heart disease (Di Castelnuovo et al., 2002), diabetes (Ajani et al., 2000, Wannamethee et al., 2003.), ischemic stroke (Reynolds et al., 2003) and in some populations prostate cancer (Schoonen et al., 2005) and dementia (Mukamal et al., 2003). The benefit of moderate alcohol consumption on risk of coronary disease has been documented in almost 100 studies (Rimm and Stampfer, 2002). Evidence from a recently published meta-analysis of 13 studies (involving 209,418 subjects) on the relationship between wine consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has revealed an average significant reduction of 32% of overall vascular risk associated with moderate (1-2 drinks or 150-300 mL/day) versus no wine consumption (Di Castelnuovo et al., 2002). Interestingly, in studies with men only, the protection offered by wine was relatively small (13%) and not significant; in contrast, in studies with both sexes the protection was 47%. Whether women are more susceptible to the benefit of wine or if they are more likely to drink lower amounts, thus captivating its maximal advantage, remains to be established.
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Grape contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties which are believed to be protective against various types of cancer. This antioxidative protection is possibly provided by the effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus defending cellular DNA from oxidative damage and potential mutations. This study of healthy adults tested whether a daily regimen of grape juice supplementation could reduce cellular DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes and reduce the amount of free radicals released. Sixty-seven healthy volunteers (16 women and 51 men) aged 19-57 years were given 480 ml of grape juice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their normal diet, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. The DNA damage was determined by using the single cell gel (comet) assay with alkaline electrophoresis and was quantified by measuring tail length (TL). Levels of free radicals were determined by reading the lucigenin-perborate ROS generating source, using the Ultra-Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer System. Grape juice consumption resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage expressed by TL (before supplementation: 88.75 +/- 1.55 microm versus after supplementation: 70.25 +/- 1.31 microm; P=0.000 by paired t-test). Additionally, grape juice consumption for 8 weeks reduced the ROS/photon count by 15%, compared to the beginning of the study. The preventive effect of grape juice against DNA damage was simultaneously shown in both sexes. These results indicate that the consumption of grape juice may increase plasma antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes achieved at least partially by a reduced release of ROS. Our findings support the hypothesis that polyphenolic compounds contained in grape juice exert cancer-protective effects on lymphocytes, limiting oxidative DNA damage possibly via a decrease in free radical levels.
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It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that functional foods, including whole foods and fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods, have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis, at effective levels. The Association supports research to define further the health benefits and risks of individual functional foods and their physiologically active components. Dietetics professionals will continue to work with the food industry, the government, the scientific community, and the media to ensure that the public has accurate information regarding this emerging area of food and nutrition science. Knowledge of the role of physiologically active food components, from both phytochemicals and zoochemicals, has changed the role of diet in health. Functional foods have evolved as food and nutrition science has advanced beyond the treatment of deficiency syndromes to reduction of disease risk. This position reviews the definition of functional foods, their regulation, and the scientific evidence supporting this emerging area of food and nutrition. Foods can no longer be evaluated only in terms of macronutrient and micronutrient content alone. Analyzing the content of other physiologically active components and evaluating their role in health promotion will be necessary. The availability of health-promoting functional foods in the US diet has the potential to help ensure a healthier population. However, each functional food should be evaluated on the basis of scientific evidence to ensure appropriate integration into a varied diet.
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The French have one of the lowest incidences of coronary heart disease in the Western world despite a diet with a relatively high fat content. This phenomenon that has puzzled researchers worldwide for more than a decade is known as the 'French paradox' and has been linked to the high consumption of red wine in France. Red wine is rich in the complex polyphenols, the proanthocyanidins, and these compounds have recently attracted attention as potential cardiac-protective compounds. The present review summarizes the literature on proanthocyanidins with focus on their chemical structure, the occurrence, the daily intake from foods, the bioavailability and metabolism, and the evidence for a protective effect against cardiovascular diseases.
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Grape products, rich in polyphenolics, inhibit platelet aggregation (PA), a risk factor for coronary artery disease. We postulated that combining extracts of grape seed (GSD) and grape skin (GSK), primary sources of grape polyphenolics, individually shown to inhibit PA, might enhance their individual antiplatelet effects. This hypothesis was examined in vitro (human platelets) and ex vivo (dog platelets) by studying the effects of the extracts on collagen-induced whole blood PA. In vitro, threshold concentration of only GSD, individually incubated with blood, significantly inhibited PA; PA was inhibited by 12.7 +/- 3.5% (P < or = 0.01). No significant changes in Pa were observed with threshold concentrations of GSK, used individually. In two dose combinations, GSD and GSK inhibited PA 40.5 +/- 10.1% (P < or = 0.005) and 96.5 +/- 3.1% (P < or = 0.001). In the ex vivo study, seven dogs were fed threshold doses of GSD or GSK individually, in combination or in combination with a proprietary enzyme blend (EB; thought to enhance bioavailability) for 8 d. PA was measured before and after each treatment. PA measurements were also repeated 24 h after the final dose of GSD + GSK + EB. Feeding the extracts individually did not affect PA, whereas feeding them in combination inhibited PA by 31.9 +/- 7.1% (P < or = 0.05). Feeding EB in addition to GSD + GSK inhibited PA by 56.2 +/- 8.1% (P < or = 0.005); 24 h later, PA was still inhibited by 31.5 +/- 10.5% (P < or = 0.05), suggesting a residual antiplatelet effect from the administration of the final dose. The results suggest that the components of GSD and GSK, when present in combination as in red wine, grape juice or in a commercial preparation containing both extracts, exhibit a greater antiplatelet effect than when present individually.
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This article provides an overview of current research on flavonoids as presented during a workshop entitled, "Flavonoids and Heart Health," held by the ILSI North America Project Committee on Flavonoids in Washington, DC, May 31 and June 1, 2005. Because a thorough knowledge and understanding about the science of flavonoids and their effects on health will aid in establishing dietary recommendations for bioactive components such as flavonoids, a systematic review of the science of select flavonoid classes (i.e., flavonols, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins) was presented. The objectives of the workshop were to 1) present and discuss current research on flavonoid intake and the relation between flavonoids and heart health; 2) develop information that could lead to expert consensus on the state-of-the-science of dietary intake of flavonoids on heart health; and 3) summarize and prioritize the research needed to establish the relations between specific flavonoids and heart health. Presentations included the basics of the biology of flavonoids, including the types and distribution in foods, analytical methodologies used to determine the amounts in foods, the bioavailability, the consumption patterns and potential biomarkers of intake, risk assessment and safety evaluation, structure/function claims, and the proposed mechanism(s) of the relation between certain flavonoids and heart health endpoints. Data presented support the concept that certain flavonoids in the diet can be associated with significant health benefits, including heart health. Research gaps were identified to help advance the science.
Article
In the dog, monkey, a nd human we have shown that 5 ml/kg of red wine or 5-10 ml/kg of purple grape juice but not orange or grapefruit juice inhibits platelet activity, and protects against epinephrine activation of platelets. Red wine and purple grape juice enhances platelet and endothelial production of nitric oxide (Fitzpatrick et al., 1993, Parker et al., 2000). This is thought to be one of the mechanisms whereby purple grape juice significantly improved endothelial function in 15 patients with coronary artery disease. The consumption of purple grape juice by the patients also offered increased protection against LDL cholesterol oxidation, even though all the patients were also taking another antioxidant vitamin E, 400 IU/day. The number of people and animals in these studies was small; however, each one acted as their own control as measurements were made in each before, and then after consumption of red wine or purple grape juice. Thus these studies are thought to be significant. We feel that the results of these studies are encouraging and justify further research on larger numbers of subjects. This suggests that the flavonoids in purple grape juice and red wine may inhibit the initiation of atherosclerosis by one or more of the mechanisms described above. It will take years to fully characterize the potential benefits of daily consumption of red wine or purple grape juice for maintaining a healthy heart. Based on the existing evidence of antiplatelet and antioxidant benefits and improved endothelial function from red wine and purple grape juice, it seems reasonable to suggest that moderate amounts of red wine or purple grape juice be included among the 5-7 daily servings of fruits and vegetables per day as recommended by the American Heart Association to help reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
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To assess the safety of grape seed extract with less than 5.5% catechin monomers (IH636), 4 groups of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were provided grape seed extract in the diet at levels of 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% for a period of 90 days. All animals survived the duration of the study, and no significant changes in clinical signs, hematological parameters, organ weights, ophthalmology evaluations, or histopathological findings were observed. A significant increase in food consumption was observed in male and female rats provided the grape seed extract diets compared to that of the control rats, especially in male rats consuming 2.0% grape seed extract. This effect was not accompanied by increases in body weight gains. Grape seed extract appeared to increase the insoluble fraction of the diet. Male rats in the high-dose group exhibited decreased serum iron levels and decreased serum iron/total iron binding capacity ratio compared to those of the controls, although all values were within historical ranges for Sprague-Dawley rats. In conclusion, administration of the grape seed extract IH636 to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats in the feed at levels of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% for 90 days did not induce any significant toxicological effects.
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Moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages has been shown to reduce the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to abstinence and heavy drinking. Epidemiologic studies suggest that any form of alcoholic beverage offers this protection. However, several studies have shown that the polyphenolic compounds found in many alcoholic beverages are more effective than pure alcohol for improving specific biologic factors known to contribute to atherosclerotic development. The alcoholic beverage polyphenols improve endothelial function, protect LDL from oxidation, inhibit platelet activity, inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration, and reduce the activation of monocytes in the post-prandial period. Not only does pure alcohol not provide these benefits, but it has also been shown to act as a pro-oxidant, impair endothelial function, and possibly be proinflammatory. In studies comparing red wine, white wine, beer, and liquor, the red wine and dark-colored beer seem to provide more protection than liquor, even though the alcohol contents (per serving) are similar. The results suggest that the type of alcoholic beverage consumed does make a difference because pure alcohol cannot fully account for the beneficial effects.
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Anthocyanins are naturally occurring water-soluble plant pigments belonging to the flavonoids chemical class. The red, blue and purple colours of leaves, flowers and fruits of plants confirm that they are rich sources of anthocyanins. Many in vivo and in vitro studies reveal that anthocyanins have different health beneficial effects such as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, antihypertensive and anticancer properties. Major benefits of anthocyanin administration are owing to their potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Recent investigations have revealed that anti-inflammatory activities of anthocyanins follow the inhibitory pathways of NF-кB-mediated decline of inflammatory cytokines production. Inhibition of the anti-inflammatory pathways also influences the modulation of arteriolar disorders and cardiovascular complications due to anthocyanin administration. Moreover, anthocyanins improve diabetes, obesity and cancer pathology by inhibiting NF-кB-mediated inflammatory pathways. However, considerable variations in activities do exist among structurally diverse anthocyanins. This review appraises the recent literature regarding the health benefits of anthocyanins and their molecular mechanisms in various oxidative stress related pathophysiological conditions.
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It is reported that consumption of antioxidant-rich foods significantly increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in humans. Also, it is proved that the antioxidants from plant foods improve the body's antioxidant defence by acting additively and synergistically. As a result, rational combination of antioxidant-rich foods is recommended to population in the prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases. Both apple and grape are antioxidant-rich fruits. In this study, 2 weeks dietary intervention study was carried out in 25 healthy subjects to investigate the influences of apple and grape juices consumption on body antioxidant status. Our results indicated that 2 weeks of apple and grape juice consumption increased the plasma T-AOC and decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde. However, no change was found in the content of plasma carbonyl. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were enhanced by 2 weeks of fruit juice consumption; however, no change was found in the activity of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase. The in vitro comet assay results indicated that apple and grape juice consumption did not influence lymphocyte damage upon hydrogen peroxide treatment. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine content was not affected by 2 weeks of fruit juice intervention. These findings indicated that concomitant intake of apple and grape juice was efficient in enhancing the body's antioxidant status.
Chapter
The Mediterranean diet is one of the lifestyle modifications recommended in the Mind-Body Wellness Program. It is not simply a diet. It is a lifestyle. It is a stress reducer, both at the cellular level (oxidative stress reduction) and the system level (psychosocial stress reduction). It includes a philosophy to cook and choose foods to eat where the foods themselves and how they are prepared is, itself, medicine. Preparing the food fresh and preserving its nutrient content enable food to be antioxidants, anti-inflammatories, and anti-atherosclerotics, as well as provide vitamins, minerals, nutrients, and the energy needed for health and wellness. The Mediterranean diet is founded on olive, grape, and whole wheat. Aside from these three ingredients, the Mediterranean diet adds polyphenols and resveratrol to the mix to further the benefits of the program.
Chapter
It is now recognized that foods contain a wide variety of physiologically active substances, in addition to the macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber components.
Article
Background Grape juice is a beverage derived from Vitis sp genus, mainly V. labrusca, V. vinifera and V. rotundifolia species, in which sales have increased steeply because of the alleged beneficial health effects it exerts when consumed regularly. However, the isolated and interlinked impacts of geographical origin, varietal, and farming system on the juice's chemical composition and functional properties still are not fully comprehended. Scope and approach This paper aims to assess how the producing region, variety, and farming system of grapes (conventional, organic, and biodynamic) affect the quantitative and qualitatively the chemical composition and the functionality (in vitro, in vivo) of juices. Key findings and conclusions Data have shown that the effects of botanical and geographical origins of purple grapes on the chemical composition (especially phenolic compounds) and functional properties of juices are remarkable. On the other hand, organic and biodynamic grape juices have very similar composition and functional properties in vitro, while organic and conventional are somewhat different. This evidence is in line with in vivo animal studies and human trials on healthy individuals have shown: differences in functional properties, especially antioxidant effects, between organic and conventional grape juices are negligible from the nutritional and biochemical perspectives.
Article
Antioxidant activities of red and white European grape juices towards copper induced lipid oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were examined in vitro. LDL lipid peroxidation was assessed spectrophotometrically by monitoring the development of conjugated lipid hydroperoxides at 234 nm. Red grape juice concentrate inhibited lipid peroxidation of LDL by prolonging the lag phase by 2.7 times relative to a control when evaluated at a total phenolic concentration of 10 muM gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Both red grape juices tested blocked lipid peroxidation of LDL at 20 muM GAE. White grape juice exerted prooxidant activity at 5-20 muM GAE. The antioxidant activity, inhibition of lipid peroxidation of LDL in vitro, was correlated with the juices' levels of total phenols (r > 0.98, P < 0.01), anthocyanins (r > 0.99, P < 0.01), flavan-3-ols (r > 0.97 P < 0.05), and hydroxybenzoates (r > 0.96, P < 0.05) when the phenolic composition of each grape juices was analysed by HPLC. 5 M ascorbic acid alone did not exert antioxidant activity towards LDL, but combinations of 5 muM ascorbic acid with 5 muM GAE juice phenols eliminated the prooxidant activity of white grape juice, and significantly improved the antioxidant activities of red grape juices.
Article
A large number of epidemiological studies carried out since the early 1980s have shown that the consumption of wine, particularly of red wine, helps to prevent coronary heart disease and some cancers. Evidence from a recently published metaanalysis of 13 studies (involving 209,418 subjects) on the relationship between wine consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease has revealed an average significant reduction of 32% of overall vascular risk associated with moderate (1-2 drinks or 150- 300 mL/day) versus no wine consumption. From 10 studies involving 176,042 persons there was strong evidence to support a J-shaped relationship between different amounts of wine intake and vascular risk, suggesting that light to moderate wine drinkers have lower vascular risk than either heavier drinkers or non-drinkers. Wines, especially red wines, contain about 1800-3000 mg/L of polyphenolic compounds, most of which are potent antioxidants and are therefore thought to function as cardioprotectives and anti-carcinogens. It has been shown that flavonoids (flavonols, anthocyanins, catechins and pro-anthocyanidins) as well as non-flavonoids from red wine strongly inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation, eicosanoid synthesis, and platelet aggregation, which are significant steps in reducing coronary heart disease mortality. For some polyphenols, an anticarcinogenic function has also been suggested, and a few studies in cell lines and animal models have shown that some wine polyphenols may affect molecular events in the initiation, promotion, and progression of some cancers.
Article
Methanolic extracts of bran from black glutinous rice cultivars were screened for potential health benefits using cellular bioassays for quinone reductase (QR) induction in murine hepatoma cells and inhibition of NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Fractionation of the crude extract by semi-preparative HPLC afforded respective fractions enriched in phenolic acids, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins. The relative potency of QR induction was phenolic acids > proanthocyanidins > anthocyanins, and the activity of the crude extract was conserved among the aggregate of these fractions. In contrast, all three fractions were more potent than the crude extract in terms of anti-inflammatory effect. This suggests synergism effects among anti-inflammatory agents through partial purification. Inhibition of macrophage NO production by binary mixtures of gallic acid or caffeic acid with the anthocyanin-rich fraction indicated potential synergism. These results warrant further efforts to identify the active agents and substantiate synergistic interactions through isobologram analysis. Three rich isolates, phenolic acid-, anthocyanin-, and proanthocyanidin-rich, from black glutinous rice bran extract show chemopreventive property. Combinatorial anti-inflammatory effects between anthocyanin and individual gallic and caffeic acids were found.
Article
It is the position of The American Dietetic Association that functional foods, including whole foods and fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods, have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis, at effective levels. The Association supports research to further define the health benefits and risks of individual functional foods and their physiologically active components. Dietetics professionals will continue to work with the food industry, government, the scientific community, and the media to ensure that the public has accurate information regarding this emerging area of food and nutrition science. Knowledge of the role of physiologically active food components, both from phytochemicals and zoochemicals, has changed the role of diet in health. Functional foods have evolved as food and nutrition science has advanced beyond the treatment of deficiency syndromes to reduction of disease risk. This position reviews the definition of functional foods, their regulation, and the scientific evidence supporting this emerging area of food and nutrition. Foods can no longer evaluated only in terms of macronutrient and micronutrient intake. Analyzing the content of other physiologically active components will be necessary. The availability of health-promoting functional foods in the US diet has the potential to help ensure a healthier population. However, each functional food should be evaluated on the basis of scientific evidence to ensure appropriate integration into a varied diet.
Article
Grapes are a valuable source of numerous phytonutrients, including the intensively studied constituent, resveratrol. A question worth addressing is the potential of dietary grape consumption to positively modulate human health. Many studies have suggested cardiovascular benefits, and some work has indicated cancer chemopreventive activity. Data are particularly compelling in the area of skin cancer prevention. With financial support provided by the California Table Grape Commission, novel and exciting preliminary data are emerging from independent research suggesting beneficial activity against other less prevalent but devastating illnesses, such as Alzheimer's disease and urinary bladder dysfunction. It is further suggested that some of the copious amounts of data obtained with resveratrol may be relevant to grape consumption, especially responses that can be mediated by low concentrations of the substance. Whether future specific health claims will be sought from or allowed by regulatory authorities is not known, but based on existing data, it is clear that grapes should be considered an integral component of fruit and vegetable enriched diets that are recommended by health authorities and widely accepted as beneficial for human health and disease prevention.
Article
Expanding interest in the nutraceutical market inspires sensory- and nutraceutical-oriented optimization methods. Black cherry (BlkCh), Concord grape (Con) and pomegranate (Pom) juices were blended according to a mixture design (seven juice treatments) and evaluated by descriptive and consumer panels. Consumers (n = 100) evaluated estimated overall liking (OL), pre- and post-antioxidant information OL, appearance OL, just-about-right (JAR) attributes, purchase intent and familiarity to determine an optimum juice formulation and the influence of consumer characteristics on acceptance of nutraceutical-rich juices. Descriptive (n = 10) and consumer (n = 100) data showed that Con juice attributes (sweetness, Concord flavor, caramelized flavor) were positive, and that the attributes of BlkCh and Pom juices were negative. Post-antioxidant information OL was high for Con juice (7.48) and low for BlkCh juice (5.01) and Pom juice (5.01). Using the desirability function, juice blend solutions were generated based on OL for pre-antioxidant-information (77% Con + 3% Pom + 20% BlkCh) and post-antioxidant information (75% Con + 12% Pom + 13% BlkCh). Pom juice had the most antioxidants, and the post-antioxidant information solution had a higher level of Pom. JAR analysis showed that 33% Con + 33% Pom + 33% BlkCh juice had fewer nonoptimal attributes than 100% Pom or 100% BlkCh juice, but had more antioxidants than 100% Con juice. Evaluating consumer OL, diagnostic and descriptive data provided a comprehensive understanding of how products could be adjusted to maximize consumer acceptance.
Article
The constant fight against aging increases the demand for products that have the potential to promote health. Dark-pigmented fruits such as blackberries, blueberries and Concord grapes show potential to fulfill this demand. Four techniques (response surface, ideal point, desirability function and intuition) were used to optimize a mixture of blackberry, blueberry and Concord grape juice based on sensory and potential health properties. Participants (n = 108) evaluated 10 blending treatments for overall impression on the 9-point verbal hedonic scale and ideal intensities of attributes on the ideal point scale. In a validation study (n = 78), the juice blend formulated using the desirability function solution (87% Concord + 13% blackberry) had the highest overall liking mean (7.6), although it was not statistically different from the ideal point solution (9% blackberry + 20% blueberry + 71% Concord) (7.0), the intuitive optimum (66% Concord + 34% blueberry) (6.9) or 100% Concord (7.3). When consumers were informed about the anthocyanin content of the juices, they were more likely to buy the three juice samples highest in anthocyanins and less likely to buy the two juice samples lowest in anthocyanins. This suggests that pursuing research that validates the health information and informing consumers of this information could have positive results in the marketplace. During product development, sensory properties are heavily emphasized as important factors in the final product. However, the impact of potential health properties on purchase intent and consumer liking should be considered. Approaches that investigated the role of both sensory properties and presence of potentially health beneficial compounds in product optimization are presented.
Chapter
Introduction Citrus Grapes and Wine Vaccinium Other Fruits Conclusions Literature Cited
Article
We aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of dihydromyrcenol and geranyl formate extracted from the Vitis vinifera L. plant in a rat model of acute hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride. The study was performed on 54 Sprague-Dawley male rats. The animals were divided into 9 study groups with 6 rats in each. At the end of the 7-day study period, the animals were sacrificed. The effects of dihydromyrcenol and geranyl formate on hepatic injury were evaluated based on the comparisons of the changes in the weight, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and histopathological changes in the liver. Dihydromyrcenol significantly reduced the carbon tetrachloride-associated ballooning degeneration and apoptotic cell counts; this reduction was moderate with low doses of geranyl formate, while no reductions were observed with high doses of geranyl formate. The changes in the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were in accordance with these findings. It can be concluded that in an experimental model of acute hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride, dihydromyrcenol presents a hepatoprotective effect, while geranyl formate presents partial hepatoprotective effects at low doses and no hepatoprotective effects at high doses.
Article
Grape flavonoids are members of a larger group of plant compounds called polyphenols. Epidemiological evidence relating to the traditional Mediterranean diet, which is high in polyphenols, derived from vegetables and red wine, suggests that dietary polyphenols are of benefit to health and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Overall, the evidence is promising for the benefit of grape flavonoids in the form of red wine, red grape juice and related preparations for cardiovascular risk factors. There are data to suggest a reduction in platelet activation, inflammation and low-density lipoprotein oxidation, and improvement of endothelial function with grape flavonoids. The evidence for grape flavonoids and renal function, cognition and cancer is less clear. However, it is important to note that much of this research has been carried out in animal and cell models; relatively little work has been done in humans and specifically on the health of menopausal women. There are no general safety concerns with ingestion of grape products. Obviously, consumption of red wine should be within recommended limits and it should be noted that grape juice has high sugar content. Grape flavonoids are also available as a supplement. In conclusion, it is likely that grape flavonoids do benefit the menopausal women. Further research is needed on the mode and dosage of application to maximize these benefits.
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Quercetin (3.3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) has previously been shown to inhibit cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases prepared from various cell homogenates and the function of intact human platelets. We now report that (1) high concentrations of quercetin raise platelet cAMP levels; and (2) quercetin potentiates the inhibitory effect of prostacyclin (PGI2) on ADP-induced washed human platelet aggregation and the elevation of platelet cAMP levels elicited by PGI2. These results suggest a role for cAMP in the mechanism of action of quercetin on blood platelets.
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The effects of flavone on platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism were tested in vitro. When incubated at a concentration of 50 microM, flavone completely suppressed platelet aggregation induced by 150 microM AA in thirty-six out of forty-three subjects tested. A lower concentration (10 microM) was effective in about 50% of the donors. Flavone also inhibited the second wave of aggregation induced by epinephrine and ADP. Platelet thromboxane formation, estimated both by radioimmunoassay measurements and by studies of 14C-labeled AA metabolism, was depressed by flavone. Flavone-treated platelets preferentially utilized [14C]AA for the lipoxygenase pathway while cyclo-oxygenase activity was depressed. Adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) was measured in flavone-treated and control platelets. While their baseline levels were similar, flavone-treated platelets showed a lower stimulation of cAMP induced by prostacyclin (PGI2) than did controls. Phosphodiesterase activity was not affected by flavone as judged from the decay rates of PGI2-stimulated cAMP levels. From these findings we conclude that the antiaggregating activity of flavone is not a consequence of changes in platelet cAMP but is due to inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase.
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The mechanism of the antiaggregating activity of flavonoids was studied in vitro. The activity of fifteen different compounds was tested on platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid metabolism. The effect of flavonoids on platelet adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels under basal conditions, as well as after stimulation by prostacyclin (PGI2), was also measured. The glycons of flavonoids in general and the flavanone derivatives that we tested did not affect platelet function. On the other hand, flavone, chrysin , apigenin and phloretin inhibited platelet aggregation by depressing the cyclooxygenase pathway. In addition, flavone, chrysin and apigenin reduced the platelet cyclic AMP response to PGI2. This effect was probably mediated by an inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Myricetin and quercetin, however, increased the PGI2-stimulated rise of platelet cyclic AMP. Both of these flavonoids inhibited primarily lipoxygenase activity. Modification of platelet cyclic AMP metabolism through inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity was found to be the probable mechanism of their antiaggregating effect.
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The nature of the pathologic lesion in sudden cardiac ischemic death is in dispute. Among 100 subjects who died of ischemic heart disease in less than six hours, coronary thrombi were found in 74. There was no difference in incidence between those who died in less than 15 minutes, those who died in 15 to 60 minutes, and those who died after one hour. Among 26 cases without an intraluminal thrombus, plaque fissuring was found in 21; thus, in only 5 cases was no acute arterial lesion demonstrated. No intraluminal thrombi were found in age-matched controls. Forty-eight of the 74 thrombi were found at sites of preexisting high-grade stenosis; 14 were found at points of previous stenosis of less than 50 per cent of the diameter of the lumen. Forty-seven per cent of the thrombi were found in the right coronary artery. Only 30 per cent were found in the left anterior descending coronary artery. The pathologic process in sudden ischemic death involves a rapidly evolving coronary-artery lesion in which plaque fissuring and resultant thrombus formation are present. These findings have implications for the prevention of sudden cardiac death by antithrombotic therapy.
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Flavonoids are polyphenolic antioxidants naturally present in vegetables, fruits, and beverages such as tea and wine. In vitro, flavonoids inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoprotein and reduce thrombotic tendency, but their effects on atherosclerotic complications in human beings are unknown. We measured the content in various foods of the flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, apigenin, and luteolin. We then assessed the flavonoid intake of 805 men aged 65-84 years in 1985 by a cross-check dietary history; the men were then followed up for 5 years. Mean baseline flavonoid intake was 25.9 mg daily. The major sources of intake were tea (61%), onions (13%), and apples (10%). Between 1985 and 1990, 43 men died of coronary heart disease. Fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction occurred in 38 of 693 men with no history of myocardial infarction at baseline. Flavonoid intake (analysed in tertiles) was significantly inversely associated with mortality from coronary heart disease (p for trend = 0.015) and showed an inverse relation with incidence of myocardial infarction, which was of borderline significance (p for trend = 0.08). The relative risk of coronary heart disease mortality in the highest versus the lowest tertile of flavonoid intake was 0.42 (95% CI 0.20-0.88). After adjustment for age, body-mass index, smoking, serum total and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, physical activity, coffee consumption, and intake of energy, vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and dietary fibre, the risk was still significant (0.32 [0.15-0.71]). Intakes of tea, onions, and apples were also inversely related to coronary heart disease mortality, but these associations were weaker. Flavonoids in regularly consumed foods may reduce the risk of death from coronary heart disease in elderly men.
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Previous studies have suggested that moderate alcohol intake exerts a protective effect against coronary heart disease. Alterations in plasma lipoprotein levels represent one plausible mechanism of this apparent protective effect. We therefore examined the interrelation among alcohol consumption, plasma lipoprotein levels, and the risk of myocardial infarction in 340 patients who had had myocardial infarctions and an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls. The case patients were men or women less than 76 years of age with no history of coronary disease who were discharged from one of six hospitals in the Boston area with a diagnosis of a confirmed myocardial infarction. Alcohol consumption was estimated by means of a food-frequency questionnaire. We observed a significant inverse association between alcohol consumption and the risk of myocardial infarction (P for trend, < 0.001 after control for known coronary risk factors). In multivariate analyses, the relative risk for the highest intake category (subjects who consumed three or more drinks per day) as compared with the lowest (those who had less than one drink a month) was 0.45 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.80). The levels of total high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and its HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions were strongly associated with alcohol consumption (P for trend, < 0.001 for each). The addition of HDL or either of its subfractions to the multivariate model substantially reduced the inverse association between alcohol intake and myocardial infarction, whereas the addition of the other plasma lipid measurements did not materially alter the relation. These data confirm the inverse association of moderate alcohol intake with the risk of myocardial infarction and support the view that the effect is mediated, in large part, by increases in both HDL2 and HDL3.
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The enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-OHSD) oxidizes cortisol to inactive cortisone. Its congenital absence or inhibition by licorice increases cortisol levels at the mineralocorticoid receptor, causing mineralocorticoid effects. We tested the hypothesis that flavonoids found in grapefruit juice inhibit this enzyme in vitro and that grapefruit juice itself inhibits it in vivo. Microsomes from guinea pig kidney cortex were incubated with cortisol and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) and different flavonoids and the oxidation to cortisone measured with use of HPLC analysis. In addition, healthy human volunteers drank grapefruit juice, and the ratio of cortisone to cortisol in their urine was measured by HPLC and used as an index of endogenous enzyme activity. Both forms of 11 beta-OHSD requiring either NAD or NADP were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the flavonoids in grapefruit juice. Normal men who drank grapefruit juice had a fall in their urinary cortisone/cortisol ratio, suggesting in vivo inhibition of the enzyme. Dietary flavonoids can inhibit this enzyme and, at high doses, may cause an apparent mineralocorticoid effect.
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To test the hypothesis that red wine, by virtue of its relatively high concentration of polyphenols, is more protective against atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) than white wine, and that grape juice enriched in one of these, trans-resveratrol, may share some of these properties, studies were performed on 24 healthy males aged 26-45 years. Each consumed the following beverages for periods of 4 weeks: red wine, white wine, commercial grape juice and the same grape juice enriched with trans-resveratrol. Apart from the last beverage, 2 weeks abstinence was maintained before commencing the schedule. Blood was taken at the beginning and end of each schedule to determine plasma thromboxane B2 (TxB2) concentration and the IC50 (concentration required for 50% aggregation) for ADP and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. White wine (P < 0.05) but not red wine increased the IC50 for ADP. Both wines increased the IC50 for thrombin (P < 0.02 and P < 0.001, respectively) and also lowered plasma TxB2 concentrations (P < 0.01 and P < 0.025, respectively). Neither grape juice altered ADP-induced aggregation or TxB2 concentrations, but the commercial juice lowered the IC50 for thrombin (P < 0.001) whereas the resveratrol-enriched juice caused a dramatic increase (P < 0.001). In vitro experiments demonstrated that the aggregation of fresh washed human platelets by ADP and thrombin was moderately reduced by both grape juices, strongly by red wine and not at all by white wine. The synthesis of TxB2 by platelets from labelled arachidonate was stimulated by commercial grape juice, slightly enhanced by resveratrol-enriched juice and strongly inhibited by red wine with white wine having little effect. Platelets from subjects consuming the commercial juice had a higher ratio of cyclo-oxygenase to lipoxygenase product formation and those consuming the resveratrol-enriched juice a lower ratio than during the control period. We conclude that trans-resveratrol can be absorbed from grape juice in biologically active quantities and in amounts that are likely to cause reduction in the risk of atherosclerosis. The failure of red wines (which have a 20-fold excess of polyphenols over white wines) to show any advantage suggests that, in vivo, ethanol is the dominant anti-aggregatory component in these beverages which are more potent than grape juices in preventing platelet aggregation in humans.
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In the presence of red wine or grape juice, low-density lipoprotein was significantly resistant to oxidation; the biological activity of flavonoids, but not ethanol or nonflavonoid phenolic compounds, appeared to contribute to the antioxidant properties of red wine and grape juice. A significant antioxidant activity was also confirmed in low-density lipoprotein from humans after ingesting red wine but not grape juice, suggesting that flavonoids in red wine can be absorbed from the intestine more efficiently than those in grape juice.