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Abstract

Although much research has been done on workplace aggression and bullying over the past two decades, academics have paid relatively little attention to bullying in their own institutions. In this article, we discuss what is currently known about bullying in academia, with a particular focus on faculty behavior, and apply empirical and conceptual findings from research on aggression and bullying in other work settings and the significant literature on conflict management in higher education. We begin by describing the nature and prevalence of aggression and bullying in higher education. Drawing on well-established findings from interpersonal aggression research, we discuss several important social, situational, and contextual antecedents to aggression (including academic culture, climate, values, and work practices) and demonstrate how these may serve as causes and consequences of bullying. Embedded in this discussion, we offer a number of specific propositions for future research. We conclude with a discussion of possible actions for prevention and management of bullying in higher educational settings.

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... Bullying at work means regularly harassing, offending, socially excluding someone or negatively affecting someone's work, in the course of which the person confronted ends up feeling powerless to defend themselves (Einarsen et al., 2011). Research on workplace bullying in higher education has largely been conducted in the Western context (Hollis, 2015;2016;Giorgi, 2012;Johnson-Bailey, 2015;Keashly and Neuman, 2010;Zabrodska and Kveton, 2013). Few studies have been conducted in Africa (Ahmad et al., 2017;Ngale, 2013;Kakumba et al., 2014;Pietersen, 2007). ...
... Earlier studies on workplace bullying in HEIs primarily focused on the frequency of bullying and the type of bullying behaviours (Cassell, 2011;Keashly and Neuman, 2010;McKay et al., 2008). These studies found that workplace bullying was prevalent in higher education across the globe, with the main perpetrators tending to be supervisors (Hollis, 2015;Zabrodska and Kveton, 2013), followed by colleagues, subordinates and students (May and Tenzek, 2018;McKay et al., 2008). ...
... Types of bullying behaviours vary and include the following: excessive workload allocation, removal of key areas of responsibility and being given trivial tasks to replace one's core duties (Dlamini, 2010;Botha, 2008), unreasonable deadlines, withholding information, interference in one's work activities, excessive work monitoring, ignoring or overlooking contributions, isolation and being ignored by others, belittling, silencing and having one's requests for assistance denied (Ahmad et al., 2017;Giorgi, 2012;Keashly & Neuman, 2010). McKay et al. (2008) found that academic staff also experienced bullying by students, includingthe disruption of lectures, and displays of lack of respect and accountability. ...
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Article
While transformation in the higher education sector in South Africa has been the subject of intensive research since 1994, few studies have explored the link between workplace bullying and transformation. Whereas workplace bullying has drawn researchers’ attention for decades, it is only recently that scholars have started to interrogate the phenomenon through the intersectional lens. This paper employs intersectionality to explore women academics’ experiences of workplace bullying and to suggest links between workplace bullying and gender transformation in the higher education sector in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a cross-section of 25 women academics who had experienced workplace bullying. As part of data triangulation, four union representatives and three human resources practitioners were also interviewed. The study’s main findings indicate that gender, race and class mediate women academics’ experiences of workplace bullying. In historically White universities, African, Coloured and Indian women academics, particularly those from working-class backgrounds, are more likely to be bullied, by seniors, peers, administrators and students. For White women academics, race ameliorates their workplace bullying experiences. The simultaneous effects of race, gender and class derail transformation as members of previously disadvantaged groups either remain stuck in junior academic positions, or exit the sector.
... Bullying at work means regularly harassing, offending, socially excluding someone or negatively affecting someone's work, in the course of which the person confronted ends up feeling powerless to defend themselves (Einarsen et al., 2011). Research on workplace bullying in higher education has largely been conducted in the Western context (Hollis, 2015;2016;Giorgi, 2012;Johnson-Bailey, 2015;Keashly and Neuman, 2010;Zabrodska and Kveton, 2013). Few studies have been conducted in Africa (Ahmad et al., 2017;Ngale, 2013;Kakumba et al., 2014;Pietersen, 2007). ...
... Earlier studies on workplace bullying in HEIs primarily focused on the frequency of bullying and the type of bullying behaviours (Cassell, 2011;Keashly and Neuman, 2010;McKay et al., 2008). These studies found that workplace bullying was prevalent in higher education across the globe, with the main perpetrators tending to be supervisors (Hollis, 2015;Zabrodska and Kveton, 2013), followed by colleagues, subordinates and students (May and Tenzek, 2018;McKay et al., 2008). ...
... Types of bullying behaviours vary and include the following: excessive workload allocation, removal of key areas of responsibility and being given trivial tasks to replace one's core duties (Dlamini, 2010;Botha, 2008), unreasonable deadlines, withholding information, interference in one's work activities, excessive work monitoring, ignoring or overlooking contributions, isolation and being ignored by others, belittling, silencing and having one's requests for assistance denied (Ahmad et al., 2017;Giorgi, 2012;Keashly & Neuman, 2010). McKay et al. (2008) found that academic staff also experienced bullying by students, includingthe disruption of lectures, and displays of lack of respect and accountability. ...
Article
While transformation in the higher education sector in South Africa has been the subject of intensive research since 1994, few studies have explored the link between workplace bullying and transformation. Whereas workplace bullying has drawn researchers’ attention for decades, it is only recently that scholars have started to interrogate the phenomenon through the intersectional lens. This paper employs intersectionality to explore women academics’ experiences of workplace bullying and to suggest links between workplace bullying and gender transformation in the higher education sector in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a cross-section of 25 women academics who had experienced workplace bullying. As part of data triangulation, four union representatives and three human resources practitioners were also interviewed. The study’s main findings indicate that gender, race and class mediate women academics’ experiences of workplace bullying. In historically White universities, African, Coloured and Indian women academics, particularly those from working-class backgrounds, are more likely to be bullied, by seniors, peers, administrators and students. For White women academics, race ameliorates their workplace bullying experiences. The simultaneous effects of race, gender and class derail transformation as members of previously disadvantaged groups either remain stuck in junior academic positions, or exit the sector.
... At the same time, there is behavior specific to academic science that must also be captured in any systemic study of academic bullying. This behavior includes abusing authorship or violating intellectual property rights [14]; threatening to cancel funding, positions, or visas [15]; and damaging budding scientists' reputations through bad recommendations or speaking negatively about them to others [16]. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of Tepper's measure to understand the extent of abusive supervision in academic science. ...
... Finally, exhausted, over-worked scientists may experience a depletion of personal or psychological resources [26] and react harshly to provocation from subordinates through conflict or poor performance [9]. Each of these antecedents suggests that power differentials between PIs and graduate students or postdocs, for example, exacerbate the likelihood that those in positions of authority may unleash their wrath toward those in less powerful positions [15,16,27]. The unique aspects of science, which require focused work on a series of studies or experiments that may eventually pay ...
... While we directed our survey toward all individuals in academic science, it is very likely that targets and witnesses had more motivation to participate in the study than those with no experience with bullying. Despite this likely bias, we still find these percentages extraordinary, especially in comparison to other estimates of abusive supervision in non-academic organizational contexts, which hover around 10À14% [42]; or in academic contexts, typically 25À33% [6] but may be as high as 42% [16]. However, all remaining results should be interpreted under the assumption that our survey is very likely skewed, in that targets and witnesses were more likely to respond than those with no experience with academic bullying. ...
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Article
Background Academic bullying is a topic of significant interest of late, with high profile cases featured in scientific journals. Our aim is to document the nature and extent of academic bullying behaviors, examining who are the primary targets and perpetrators as well as the responses to and outcomes of bullying. Methods We developed a cross-sectional global survey aimed primarily at those in academic science institutions. The survey was administered via Qualtrics and data were collected (between November 2019 and July 2021) from 2006 individuals whose participation was solicited through various means including advertisements in Science and Nature magazines and the American Chemical Society. Findings Among the 2006 survey participants, the majority of targets were graduate students or postdocs. An overwhelming proportion of participants reported either experiencing (84%) or witnessing (59%) abusive supervision, or both (49%). While a majority of perpetrators were male, they were proportionately no more likely to abuse than females. Perpetrators were more likely from the highest-ranked institutions and they were most likely PIs. Females were more likely to report being bullied but their scores on the Tepper abusive supervision scale and the contextual behavior checklist we developed were not greater than male targets. Male targets actually reported higher levels of certain bullying behaviors. While international scholars were no more likely to report being bullied, the severity of the behaviors they reported was significantly greater. Targets (64%) were most likely to use avoidant tactics (not reporting and relying on family/friends for support) in response to bullying due to fear of retaliation (61%). The small percentage that did report the abuse (29%) overwhelmingly reported unfair and biased (58%) outcomes. Additional qualitative analysis of open-ended comments revealed similar patterns. We also noticed that the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated academic bullying and changed the patterns of behaviors possibly due to the remote nature of interactions. Open-ended responses from targets are analyzed with examples provided. Interpretation Our results elucidated the various forms of abuse, the most likely perpetrators and targets, as well as the typical reactions of targets and witnesses. We investigated the results of targets’ actions following chronic bullying. Our findings highlight the domain, extent, and dynamics of academic bullying to hopefully motivate the scientific community to take action.
... These different dysfunctional behaviours have different effects in terms of the lived experiences of those targeted with mistreatment. For example, Keashly and Neuman (2010) note how the experience of being repeatedly mobbed by a group is different from the experience of being harassed once by a single actor. We will later address the concepts of intention through the lens of corruption. ...
... social conditions for mistreatment. For example, administrators could discuss how styles or patterns of supervision, and how sensitive personnel matters are handled, are often cited as triggers for aggression or violence (Keashly & Neuman, 2010). Administrators could also explore how academic organisations are vulnerable because they are embedded in a formal ranking structure among academic personnel that creates a power imbalance in relationships and because academic career structures and protections maintain personnel in long-term relationships, which can intensify interpersonal conflicts that have toxic spill-over effects on the organisational culture (Keashly & Neuman, 2010). ...
... For example, administrators could discuss how styles or patterns of supervision, and how sensitive personnel matters are handled, are often cited as triggers for aggression or violence (Keashly & Neuman, 2010). Administrators could also explore how academic organisations are vulnerable because they are embedded in a formal ranking structure among academic personnel that creates a power imbalance in relationships and because academic career structures and protections maintain personnel in long-term relationships, which can intensify interpersonal conflicts that have toxic spill-over effects on the organisational culture (Keashly & Neuman, 2010). ...
Chapter
A variety of problematic administrative, organisational and institutional behaviours exist in the internationalising higher education sector globally. These vexing behaviours need to be addressed to fully realise the desired outcomes of the internationalisation movement. Encapsulating these behaviours under the concept of maladministration, we describe problems with respect to administrative commitment and competence, institutional integrity, academic integrity, abuse of authority and financial control. We then outline a hypothetical educational administration curriculum that could be used to equip higher education administrators to identify and mitigate problems with maladministration in internationalisation processes and contexts. This proposed curriculum has two dimensions: educational governance and institutional, academic and administrative integrity; and human relations, organisational culture and dysfunctional behaviour.
... Due to this organizational structure, mistreatment or abuse of the rank and files can be severe or exacerbated [12]. Some researchers claimed that the faculty identified their colleagues as bullies, while the staff identified the supervisors as bullies [13]. In the academe, bullying is also more commonly associated with a masculine style of management [14]. ...
... Administrators in the higher education institution were also found to target the professional status of their victims [19]. Bullying behaviors that are directed on career advancement ("blocking of career goals" and "discounting one's accomplishments") are more prominent among faculty personnel as "one's accomplishments, intellectual rigor, and reputation" are deemed to be of critical importance to these individuals [13]. These bullying incidents, especially those work-related, are made possible due to the imbalance of power between the bully and the victim [8,24], making it difficult for the victims to defend themselves, thus, becoming more vulnerable to the said acts. ...
... It is important to see the relationship between corporatised and state or ruling-classcentric approaches, which abide by the violent equilibrium, and bullying, discrimination and harassment. Bullying (among other forms of harassment and aggression) occurs in relationships of disparate power, and corporatised and top-down approaches create an environment where power disparities are a necessary part of the corporatised order and identity (Keashly & Neuman, 2010;Misawa, 2015). ...
Article
We live in a South Africa defined by deep inequalities. The post-apartheid promise of free and quality education is met by the realities of lasting disparities related to race, gender, socioeconomic class and disability, among other factors. The University of Cape Town (UCT) has initiated two interdependent processes to chart and track transformation, inclusion and diversity during these turbulent times. First, the university has set up an Inclusivity Survey, using a validated scale to understand staff experiences in relation to inclusion. Secondly, the university has identified and piloted a set of Transformation Benchmarks inspired by a higher education barometer for transformation in South Africa and global diversity and inclusion standards, which encourages transformation agents to take concrete actions to further transformation. Both these processes, first implemented in 2019, experimented with new ways of tracing the shape of transformation, inclusion and diversity at UCT. The paper will explore the opportunities and limitations these structured approaches to transformation offer to higher education institutions. For example, while structured approaches are useful, some argue that these reduce the complexity of social struggles (like those against racism) to simple box-ticking exercises. In unpacking these issues, the paper seeks to ask: how can we better monitor, evaluate and track progress in an increasingly turbulent world?
... However, the meaning of this word; mobbing has many meanings, properties, kinds, deeps behaviors which are one kind of rudeness or the law of the jungle (2). However, the definition of bullying and mobbing or workplace aggression was explained by Lorelei Keashly and Joel H. Neuman at work in a very clearly that bullying means harassing, offending, socially excluding someone or negatively affecting someone's work tasks and an important point is this type of manner or behavior should be repeated regularly in a period (4). There is a race in ...
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Article
Innovative medical education greatly relies on lifelong learning with universal standards in research, for generating novel knowledge for improvement maximum patient care. The other side of innovative medical education relies on success of development of novel ideas, perspective; skill building, future career objectives. Leaders have curious roles in the research assistant education. In the current century, both technology and education raced forward in many countries. Mobbing and bullying is an important problem in all fields, every sphere of life in workplaces. Unethical behavior must not take place in universities because universities are the centers of learning, and best academic teaching in ethical standards. Bullying may damage every individual in every academic degree and effect academic performance. In this paper I will discuss a mobbing case which is done to a young academician in many years ago, which is not most frequently observed type. However, such bullying behaviors may increase due to COVID-19 pandemic. Because COVID-19 pandemic may cause various problems in social groups difficulties, anxiety, and economic challenges, problems. Nowadays everybody is experiencing worry, uncertainty, anxiety, fear of economic problems, fear of dying. COVID-19 pandemic has created some unexpected problems to everybody however, academic researchers have additional worries and fears such as; the expiration time of chemicals, problems on chemicals are not imported from abroad on time also difficulties of knockout or transgenic experimental animals cannot be imported from abroad on time, and all these problems cause fear of unsuccessful experimental results, spending extra time. All these anxieties may cause arouse increasing unstable friendships and mobbing possibilities. The COVID-19 disease takes our future and experimental plans to waste basket and change everything including friendship.
... Workplace bullying is the act of one individual, organisation or even groups of individuals targeting another individual in the workplace through negative and aggressive behaviour that can cause degradation of the employee's mental and physical health (Madan, 2014(Madan, , p. 1742. The concept of workplace bullying is used conversely with the term 'mobbing' (Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf, & Cooper, 2011;Keashly & Neuman, 2010). In German-speaking countries, the term 'mobbing' is preferred, whereas in English-speaking countries, the term 'bullying' is preferred to describe the same phenomenon (Chirilă & Constantin, 2013). ...
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Article
Orientation: Workplace bullying is a common occurrence in organisations worldwide, and higher education institutions are no exception. Research purpose: This study was conducted with the aim of determining the perceptions of workplace bullying amongst academic and support staff at a higher education institution in South Africa and to ascertain how they are affected by selected sociodemographic variables. Motivation for the study: Currently, there are limited published research studies reporting on the prevalence and/or experience of workplace bullying at tertiary education institutions in South Africa. Research approach/design and method: The study used a quantitative-based survey design. The research setting was limited to one higher education institution in South Africa. The target population of the study comprised all academic and support staff of the institution. A web-based standardised questionnaire was used to collect the data. Main findings: The results revealed that the respondents experienced negative behaviours related to exclusion the most, followed by managerial misconduct, humiliation and belittlement and hostility the least. Practical/Managerial implications: Understanding and addressing workplace bullying is critical to counteract this problem in organisations. The longer the phenomenon is left unattended, the worse it will become and the more difficult it will be to combat. Employers can play a pre-emptive role in the prevention of and intervention in workplace bullying. Contribution/value-add: The study sheds light on the experiences of bullying at a South African university and adds to the body of literature on bullying in the tertiary education sector in the national context.
... This is even more concerning since bullying tends to be long-standing. (5) It is also important to distinguish between bullying and harassment, as the two are often used interchangeably, but there are similarities and differences. Bullying and harassment are similar in that they are both about the actions that hurt or harm someone physically or emotionally and about an imbalance of power where the person being hurt or harmed has difficulty stopping the behaviour. ...
Article
Although bullying and harassment among academic staff has been well researched, research on students bullying and harassing academic teaching staff (ie, contrapower harassment) is less common. Contrapower harassment has been on the rise in academia over the last decade, partly attributable to changes in the student–faculty staff relationship. This study aimed to understand better the extent and impact of students’ contrapower harassment on paramedic academic teaching staff within Australian universities, as well as actions and interventions to address it.
... The relatively high incidence of bullying in the university sector has been attributed to specific social and work features of the academic profession [4]. Academic organizations have been described as high on role overload, low on job feedback, low on participation in important organizational decisions, and low on recognition and rewards practices [5]. ...
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Article
This article addresses a gap in the work psychology literature regarding psychosocial working conditions and bullying among staff in academic organizations. We examine the influences, institutional demands, and resources attached to given academic positions, such as how the level of social support and cooperation influence the level of experienced negative acts at work and bullying in different work groups in an academic work environment. We also examine whether some professions or positions in an academic organization are more vulnerable due to organizational structure, perceived and experienced resources, and demands to bullying or experiencing more negative acts at work. A common division of different employees in the university sector is between administrative/technical staff and scientific personnel. Our hypothesis in this study is that there are significant differences among these two groups regarding levels of experienced social support and cooperation, as well as levels of experienced negative acts at work. We postulate that differences in job demands and resources lead to significantly different levels of self-reported bullying for the two main groups of personnel. We expect scientific personnel to be more exposed to negative acts at work and bullying due to differences in the demands and resources associated with these positions.
... It is worth raising some queries as to why the teachers did not have strong interactions among the professional community or what caused the insufficient influence level of the factor on professional community/ colleagues. Keashly and Neuman (2010) partly explained these issues by mentioning the necessities of conflict management in creating a collaborative and collective working environment. Therefore, initial training in academic settings about dealing with conflictual or hostile cases should be obligatory for preservice teachers in Vietnam and other educational contexts. ...
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Article
The Vietnamese government has implemented many changes to improve the English competencies of the Vietnamese people. However, the results seemed unsatisfactory because the English as a foreign language teachers had been affected by many external factors. Thus, this study addressed two main research questions, including (1) What external factors affect EFL teachers’ responses to English language teaching pedagogical reforms? and (2) How these factors affect different groups of teachers in light of their backgrounds? This study was designed as a mixed-methods approach using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews to answer those questions. The current study involved 102 EFL high school teachers working in the Southwest of Vietnam. The results showed that the factor on students’ learning outcomes was the most influential external factor. Besides, the influence level of external factors was differed by the teachers’ educational qualifications in the influence level of some external factors, namely previous educational policies, students’ learning outcomes, and school facilities. At the end of this paper, some critical discussions, educational implications, limitations, and recommendations for further research are presented.
... 1 Stefan Blomberg (2016) observes that it can be difficult to measure the frequency of workplace bullying precisely because most people do not want to categorize themselves as victims of it out of shame (p. 52). 2 For discussions of the phenomena of bullying and mobbing specifically in academic workplaces, see Keashly and Neuman (2010), Lewis (2004), Twale and De Luca (2008), Westhues (2004), Zabrodska (2013) and Zabrodska et al. (2011). 3 In recent decades, numerous academic career guides have been published, some of which have the word "survival" in their titles. ...
... The first step towards an inclusive, fair, more diverse and therefore more creative volcanology community is the awareness and acknowledgement of the issues (e.g. Berhe et al. 2022;Keashly and Neuman 2010;McKay et al. 2008). ...
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Article
Equity, diversity and inclusivity (EDI) are principles all scientific groups and organisations should strive to achieve as they secure working conditions, policies and practices that not only promote high-quality scientific output but also well-being in their communities. In this article, we reflect on the progress of EDI in volcanology by presenting data related to memberships of international volcanology organisations, positions on volcanology committees, volcanology awards and lead-authorship on volcanology papers. The sparse demographic data available means our analysis focuses mainly on gender identity discrimination, but we show that discrimination related to ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, physical ability and socio-economic background is also occurring, with the intersection of these discriminations further exacerbating marginalisation within the volcanology community. We share suggestions and recommendations from other disciplines on how individuals, research groups and organisations can promote, develop and implement new initiatives to call out and tackle discrimination and advance EDI in the volcanological community. There is a lot of potential for improvement if we all see our role in creating a more equitable, diverse and inclusive volcanology community. This requires (1) awareness: acknowledgement of the problem, (2) commitment: through the statement of EDI core values and the development of action plans, codes of conducts and guidelines, (3) action: aiming for representation of all groups, and (4) reflection: development through critical self-reflection and a willingness to address shortcomings.
... In this case, the effect of the social comparison may negatively affect the performance. An extreme case of thereof are bullying episodes or misbehavior in academia (McKay et al., 2008;Keashly and Neuman, 2010;Giorgi, 2012). 3 The way in which people are integrated or promoted in a new workplace can affect individual self-esteem and academic self-concept as well. ...
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Article
This paper investigates the effect of university prestige stratification on scholars’ career achievements. We focus on 766 STEM PhD graduates hired by Mexican universities between 1992 and 2016. We rank university according to their prestige based on the pairwise assessment of quality contained in the PhD hiring networks. Further, we use a quasi-experimental design matching pairs of individuals with the same characteristics, PhD training or first job experience. Our results challenge the positive association between prestige and academic performance as predicted by the ‘Matthew effect’. Scholars hired internally sustain higher performance over their careers in comparison to those who move up or down the prestige hierarchy. Further, we find a positive (negative) relation between downward (upward) prestige mobility and performance that relates to the “big-fish-little-pond” effect (BFLPE). The evidence of a BFLPE-like effect has policy implications because hinders the knowledge flows throughout the science system and individual achievements.
... Due to differences in the operationalization of the concept and the timeframe for experience, as well as between countries, there is a great variety of estimates for the prevalence of this phenomenon (Keashly & Neuman, 2013). The range of estimated rates are from 18% to 68% of faculty members who suffer uncivil behaviors at work on a regular basis (Lester, 2013); other scholars evaluate this range to be 32-52% (Keashly & Neuman, 2010;McKay et al., 2008). According to Keashly, a leading scholar in the area of academic bullying, about one of four faculty members report having been bullied in a 12-month period and in addition to that, 40-50% indicate they have witnessed other faculty being bullied (Keashly, 2021). ...
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Article
Over the past two decades there has been a growing interest in workplace bullying in academe, and studies show that it is on the rise. The current study sought to explore the unique bullying methods and practices enacted in academe, and to estimate their prevalence. A preliminary study yielded 23 academic bullying methods, which constituted the basis for constructing a study questionnaire; we also included questions about the organizational culture in the institution where each respondent works and Big Five personality traits of respondents. Respondents were also encouraged to describe their specific experiences of being bullied. Participants were 328 faculty members from academic institutions around the state of Israel and of various academic ranks who completed our study questionnaire. The 23 bullying methods were classified into three categories by means of exploratory factor analysis as follows: humiliation; exploitation of status; and obstruction of promotion. Participants were also asked to mark what emotional, cognitive, physical, and medical self-reported consequences they suffer as a result of the bullying. We present these disturbing results as well as the self-reported adverse consequences to the victims. Participants working in institutions characterized by a clan organizational culture are less likely to experience academic bullying of all three types. Women report higher levels of humiliation and promotion obstruction as compared to the men. Untenured faculty suffer significantly higher levels of humiliation and exploitation of status than their tenured counterparts. We provide sample quotations of answers written by some of the many respondents who shared with us cases of bullying. We discuss these results and provide some practical recommendations to act against academic bullying.
... Bullying appears to be a common occurrence in academia. According to Keashly and Neuman (2010), organisational culture and institutional climate are key determinants of bullying. Cassell (2011: 34) notes Von Bergen's (2006) view of bullying as, Harassment that inflicts a hostile work environment upon an employee by a co-worker, typically through a combination of repeated, inappropriate, and unwelcome verbal, nonverbal, and or low-level physical behaviours that a reasonable person would find threatening, intimidating, harassing, humiliating, degrading, or offensive. ...
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Article
This study sought to explore the career trajectories of Black South African women academics from the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Ten in-depth interviews were conducted at five UKZN campuses. Participants were invited to recount their lived experiences in the academy, which continue to include political vicissitudes of race and gender. Existing scholarship on challenges faced by Black women is palpable; the South African landscape is distinctive, with complex intersections from the oppressive apartheid state followed by the 2004 post-apartheid higher education transformation. Prominent themes that developed, when examining race and gender, included institutional culture, the old boys’ network1 role overload, and academic bullying. The theoretical framework that underpinned this study is social constructivism with a precise focus on intersectionality. Intersectionality provided context to the racial and gendered experiences of women in the academy. The South African government recognizes intersectional experiences via legislation2 that addresses historical race and gender incongruences. Notwithstanding the focus on intersectionality, experiences of exploitation continue to be perpetrated against Black women in the academy. While the legislation includes race and gender targets which play a critical role in transformation, Black women academics faced intersectional gendered 3 challenges in apartheid-style ‘bush colleges’. This continued in a post-apartheid society where they are subject to gender and racial prejudices. The empirical evidence seeks to espouse Black women in academia by propositioning a framework on their historical experience and presenting the bearing that transformation has had on them exclusively. Black women, specifically, continue to be imperiled to innumerable career and personal adversities. Keywords: Old boys’ network, institutional culture, bush colleges, academic bullying, South Africa, higher education, Black, women
... In recent years, cyberbullying research has extended to older populations [4][5][6][7][8][9], including cyberbullying in college and in the workplace [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. ...
... Although not everyone agrees with a formal assessment of collegiality in the RPT process, collegiality matters in academic life. For one, individuals and instances that violate collegial norms can disrupt the effective functioning of an academic unit, sometimes escalating to the point of bullying [see 22,23]. Such instances have, at times, resulted in the dismissal of individual faculty members. ...
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Preprint
Review, promotion, and tenure (RPT) processes at universities typically assess candidates along three dimensions: research, teaching, and service. In recent years, some have argued for the inclusion of a controversial fourth criterion: collegiality. While collegiality plays a role in the morale and effectiveness of academic departments, it is amorphic and difficult to assess, and could be misused to stifle dissent or enforce homogeneity. Despite this, some institutions have opted to include this additional element in their RPT documents and processes, but it is unknown the extent of this practice and how it varies across institution type and disciplinary units. This study is based on two sets of data: survey data collected as part of a project that explored the publishing decisions of faculty and how these related to perceived importance in RPT processes, and 864 RPT documents collected from 129 universities from the United States and Canada. We analysed these RPT documents to determine the degree to which collegiality and related terms are mentioned, if they are defined, and if and how they may be assessed during the RPT process. Results show that when collegiality and related terms appear in these documents they are most often just briefly mentioned. It is less common for collegiality and related terms to be defined or assessed in RPT documents. Although the terms are mentioned across all types of institutions, there is a statistically significant difference in how prevalent they are at each. Collegiality is more commonly mentioned in the documents of doctoral research-focused universities (60%), than of master's universities and colleges (31%) or baccalaureate colleges (15%). Results from the accompanying survey of faculty also support this finding: individuals from R-Types were more likely to perceive collegiality to be a factor in their RPT processes. We conclude that collegiality likely plays an important role in RPT processes, whether it is explicitly acknowledged in policies and guidelines or not, and point to several strategies in how it might be best incorporated in the assessment of academic careers.
... Each of these might be relevant to the university setting. Keashly and Neuman (2015) blame the organisation's workplace competitive culture with leadership that does not tolerate nonconformity for breeding bullying and hostile behaviour at work, and conclude that "These are conditions that appear contrary to the academy's espoused notions of collegiality and civility, grounded in the "sacred" values of academic freedom and autonomy." I am sure that university managers do not see themselves as bullies, and may themselves feel hostage to the managerial approach. ...
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Book
This book is open access and discusses the re-imagining of the higher education sector. It exposes problems that relate to the way that universities have become over-managed business enterprises which may not reflect societal, national, or global educational needs. From there, it proposes some solutions, including three innovative programs, that make universities more responsive to needs, as well as reduce their impact on the environment. The central idea of this book is developing the ‘Distributed University,’ which distributes education to where it is needed, reducing local and global inequalities in access, and emphasizing local relevance in place of large centralized campuses, with a low impact on the environment. It emphasizes the distribution of trust in place of managerialism and collaboration in place of competition. By focusing on distributing education online, this book discusses how the higher education sector can be set up to adapt to the changes in the ways we work and learn today, and which will be required to adapt to and take advantage of the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
... Each of these might be relevant to the university setting. Keashly and Neuman (2015) blame the organisation's workplace competitive culture with leadership that does not tolerate nonconformity for breeding bullying and hostile behaviour at work, and conclude that "These are conditions that appear contrary to the academy's espoused notions of collegiality and civility, grounded in the "sacred" values of academic freedom and autonomy." I am sure that university managers do not see themselves as bullies, and may themselves feel hostage to the managerial approach. ...
Full-text available
Chapter
Managerialism creates burdens for academics with no evidence for its benefit. Business imperatives override educational. There is needless competition between universities. Research imperatives override education. Global inequalities in educational need are ignored, universities have not kept up with the way young people gain information and initiatives to reduce the environmental impact of higher education are ‘tinkering’ rather than the required total re-thinking of higher education.
... This freedom to pursue instruction and scholarship is key to faculty work (Boyer, 1990). However, it can be translated to how scholars act in their professional roles and their ability to act with impunity (Keashly & Neuman, 2010). For example, there have been several scandals of tenured faculty at prestigious institutions behaving unethically for years, but institutions have been ineffective in stopping them (see Anderson's 2018 article "Academia's #MeToo moment: Women accuse professors of sexual misconduct"). ...
Article
This conceptual article proposes the use of ethical mindfulness (EM) as a framework to promote more ethical practices among faculty, which can be especially important during times of uncertainty and volatility. First, we address some of the ethical challenges specific to faculty, focusing on the context surrounding academic work. Second, we highlight ethical sensemaking and the reasons why it may be difficult to change our ethical behavior. Finally, we describe the EM framework in further detail using our own experience as examples, and we argue this practice is one way we can try to change our behavior for the better.
... Such reviews can negatively impact all researchers, but disproportionately impact underrepresented researchers (Silbiger and Stubler, 2019). Regardless of career phase, no one is served well by unprofessional reviews, which contribute to the ongoing problem of bullying and toxicity prevalent in academia, with serious implications on the health and well-being of researchers (Keashly and Neuman, 2010). ...
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Peer reviewers serve a vital role in assessing the value of published scholarship and improving the quality of submitted manuscripts. To provide more appropriate and systematic support to peer reviewers, especially those new to the role, this study documents the feedback practices and experiences of two award-winning peer reviewers in the field of education. Adopting a conceptual framework of feedback literacy and an autoethnographic-ecological lens, findings shed light on how the two authors design opportunities for feedback uptake, navigate responsibilities, reflect on their feedback experiences, and understand journal standards. Informed by ecological systems theory, the reflective narratives reveal how they unravel the five layers of contextual influences on their feedback practices as peer reviewers (micro, meso, exo, macro, chrono). Implications related to peer reviewer support are discussed and future research directions are proposed.
... Beginning our doctoral journey, we were, initially, impressed by more horizontal and individualistic relationships between faculty and students. However, as we became more closely associated with professors and other students, we learned that the phenomenon of excessive entitlement also existed in American higher education as a pernicious problem affecting students (Braxton, Proper, & Bayer, 2011;Keashly & Neuman, 2010). ...
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This chapter presents the lived experience of 10 doctoral students and recent graduates from a North American University, who like graduate students elsewhere, have faced upstream battles against excessive faculty entitlement. The six sections of this chapter, each by different authors, explore how entitlement in the University, is experienced from different perspectives. The first four sections explore the deleterious effects of excessive faculty/teacher entitlement which can lead to competitiveness, selfishness and aggression. Section five focuses on student entitlement as experienced by an immigrant graduate teaching assistant, and section six explores how both faculty and student entitlement may be experienced at different stages of the immigrant experience. It is hoped that this chapter will create a platform with which to highlight these topics for ourselves and other doctoral students attending other universities, so that relationships and opportunities may improve for everyone.
... At the present time the trend of bullying in workplaces and schools is increasing day by day. There is a developing physique of lookup on this issue, each in Finland and in many other nations (Analitis et al., 2009;Coleyshaw, 2010;Finnish School Health Inquiry, 2010;Keashly and Neuman, 2010). However, there appears to bea dearth of research regarding bullying at university level. ...
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Bullying at university is a pervasive phenomenon that has negative outcomes on the psychological and actual wellbeing of students, their success and achievement. The examination expected to research the consequences of bullying on university level students. A self-administrated survey was planned by the exploration goals and theories. The sample size consists of 380 students randomly selected from different faculties of a public university in Bangladesh. The questionnaire was coded and analyzed using SPSS-AMOS-24 and descriptive analysis, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used for data analysis. The results of the study indicated that bullying exists at the university and affects student’s academic achievement and success, either by victims or the bullies. The bullied students resolved unpleasant situations using active or passive responses. This study discovers the causes and consequences of students bullying and gives suggestions to the students, university administration and parents of students on how to solve this problem. The study also helps prevent bullying by educating student about their rights, providing students with confidential way to report bullying, encouraging bystanders by to take immediate actions, such as speaking up and reporting the incident and emphasizing the importance of family involvement. This study has recommended that teachers and the university administration need to take different measures to reduce bullying. Teachers may coordinate with and talk to the bully’s students. Teachers, university administration, and NGOs can seta few projects for menaces to alleviate the university bullying. Moreover, the government should take legal action to prevent bullying. Therefore, the desirable application of the results of this research reality makesa valuable contribution to development at the national level.
... They stated that managers are mostly responsible for causing such types of atmosphere. In Keasly's study (2010), 38% of employees confirmed the manager's unfair behavior in higher education (38). Previous studies have reported unfair behaviors as displayed in performance evaluation, use of reprimand, distribution of educational resources, anger with employees, mission assignment and transfer of employees, working hours, forced planning and working hours, administrative duties, and pay (39,40). ...
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Introduction: Disruptive behaviors among nursing educators are a globally recognized problem. They have detrimental effects on nursing educators, the nursing profession, students and patients. This study aimed to explore nursing educators' experiences with disruptive behaviors in the professional work environment. Methods: The current study was conducted in 2019 and used a qualitative content analysis approach. Participants were selected purposely from nursing schools. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews with 20 nursing educators, and then analyzed according to the Graneheim and Lundman method. Results: Through analysis of the transcribed interviews, 4 categories and 10 subcategories were extracted. The categories include disrespectful interactions, inaccurate feedback on work performance, low acceptance in the clinical setting and perceived unfairness. Conclusion: Disruptive behaviors among nursing educators can affect professionalism as well as the quality of education provided by them. Therefore, considering factors that lead to disruptive behaviors in the professional work environment is necessary.
... Those in early-career positions may be reluctant to take active steps against harassment, fearing this will impact their ability to obtain recommendations for advancement in their field (e.g., graduate/medical school admission, tenure, grant funding). Furthermore, the hierarchical nature of research, combined with the stress of recruiting and maintaining participants, can complicate one's decision to report harassment (Keashly & Neuman, 2010). ...
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There has been a call to identify populations who are at-risk for harassment. At our institution, participant-perpetrated harassment led to the development of an institution-wide program called Cultivating Respect in Research Environments (CuRRE). In this article, we describe the proactive and multipronged approach used to promote and implement the CuRRE program. We describe a policy created to set guidelines and expectations for research participants and discuss the educational and skills-based trainings delivered to principal investigators and research staff members. Research staff members completed anonymous surveys before and after the training. Over half of the attendees reported having been harassed by a participant/patient. Attendees responded favorably to the training; they felt more confident and better equipped to address participant-perpetrated harassment at the conclusion of the training. Given the dearth of literature in this area, we offer our experiences to encourage others to address this issue within their own research environment and institution.
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Bullying is a public health menace of global significance. Personality traits have been shown to predict bullying roles. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of bullying and its relationship with the Big-Five personality traits among Nigerian in-school adolescents. Four hundred and thirty-two adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 15.32, SD = ± 1.58) were randomly selected from six secondary schools in Ilesa, Nigeria. Personality traits were assessed with the Big-Five Personality Inventory while bullying was assessed with the peer relationship questionnaire. The prevalence of bullying behaviour among the respondents was high at 85.4%. There was a statistically significant difference (p = .001) between perpetrators and non-perpetrators for the neuroticism trait. On regression analysis, agreeableness trait was predictive of bullying behaviour as perpetrator (B = −.090, SE = .023, β = −.231, t = −3.943 95% C.I. [−.135, −.045] p < .001) and as a victim (B = −.138, SE = .026, β = −.310, t = −5.384 95% C.I. [−.188, −.088] p < .001). There is a high prevalence of bullying among Nigerian in-school adolescents. Agreeableness trait predicted bullying behaviour either as perpetrators or victims. Our findings highlight the need for interventions targeting personality traits to prevent and fight school bullying.
Article
Guided by the job demand-control-support model of workplace strain, this study tested a theoretical model of academic work environments to explain workplace bullying in academia. College professors ( N = 503) completed a questionnaire about working in academia and experiencing bullying at work. Results of a conditional process analysis revealed that psychological job demands affected workplace bullying incidents directly, and indirectly through increased occupational stress; however, the mediated effect depended on how supportive the supervisor was and how much control professors had over their job duties (moderated moderated mediation). In departments where supervisors provided low to average social support to faculty, the indirect effect on bullying was weakened when professors had more decision authority over how they completed their job demands (moderated mediation). However, in departments where supervisors were highly supportive, there was no indirect effect of demands on workplace bullying through stress, despite how much or little decision authority professors had in doing their jobs (no moderated mediation). These findings speak to the importance of appointing a chairperson who will encourage professors’ autonomy in completing their work, and, more crucially, provide social support to discourage faculty bullying in response to job stressors.
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There is a significant difference in the number of research projects carried out on cyberbullying in childhood and adolescence when compared to the analysis of this problem in the university environment. However, more and more studies are giving visibility to the online bullying that occurs in higher education. This chapter presents a review of cyberbullying in the university context, focusing its attention not only on the cyberbullying that occurs among students but also on the cyberbullying from students to professors and among teaching staff. The negative consequences of this problem are outlined for those agents involved as well as for the quality of teaching and the institution in general. Finally, a reflection is made on how universities deal with cyberbullying and what preventive and intervention measures can be carried out in the specific context of higher education.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of perceived workplace incivility (WPI) on psychological well-being (PWB) in teachers of higher education and to test for the moderating role of gender and organizational tenure on the relationship between perceived WPI and PWB. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from teachers (N = 341) employed in government and private colleges through convenience sampling. A structural equation modeling technique was used for model testing. Findings Results showed a moderate level of perceived WPI by teachers from their colleagues or supervisors. Perceived WPI had a negative impact on PWB. Sixteen percent of the variance in PWB was explained by perceived WPI. Further, the multigroup analysis showed gender to moderate the relationship between perceived WPI and PWB, and this relationship was stronger for males than females. Organizational tenure was not a significant moderator. Research limitations/implications These findings expand the literature on perceived WPI and suggest that stringent policies are essential in academia to minimize the incidence of WPI. Additionally, interventions are to be introduced to mitigate the negative outcomes of WPI both at the individual and organizational levels. Originality/value The study explores the role of demographic variables (gender and organizational tenure) in the relationship between perceived WPI and PWB in teachers. The empirical evidence suggests higher perceived WPI in male teachers leading to lower PWB. The organizational tenure of an employee shows no influence on the assessment of the stressor.
Article
Colleges and universities are the main stakeholders in addressing academic bullying. To help address a variety of concerns on campus, including academic bullying, many colleges and universities have established organizational Ombuds Offices as a place to bring any issue affecting one's work or studies. This article considers the role of Ombuds Offices in addressing the issue of academic bullying. Ombuds offices, compared to the other institutional resources, have a unique capacity in helping targets of academic bullying to wisely consider their options. This piece provides information on what targets can expect from Ombuds offices.
This policy brief offers a short discussion on how workplace bullying is a human rights violation when the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is considered. Workplace bullying as an international issue should be prohibited. Higher education is particularly important in this context because there is a higher frequency of workplace bullying in higher education and higher education plausibly is in a viable position to end the lack of dignity experienced by those dealing with workplace bullying.
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Workplace bullying has shown a steep rise globally in the last three decades, reporting its pervasiveness among various sectors and industries. It is universally recognized as a significant work stressor causing severe health, well-being, and psychosocial problems for employees, the economy, and society. The claim comes as no surprise with the contemporary debate among organizations, especially MNCs HRSSC, striving to succeed globally and stay competitive through cost savings and increased productivity. However, SSC formation has swayed the HRD professions’ to strategic HR roles to focus on the organization’s profit-making goal, eventually at the expense of employees’ well-being by indirectly condoning workplace bullying. For these reasons, the present study investigates the prevalence of workplace bullying at MNC HRSSC in Malaysia to find out how the Western countries that pioneered the studies reveal the severity of workplace bullying manages organizations in Asian countries that are still at the early stage comparatively of recognizing the phenomenon. The study will examine the prevalence, the experience level of role stressors, namely role ambiguity and role conflict, which are relatable to the MNC HRSSC setup, and their consequent representation as antecedents to workplace bullying. A cross-sectional study was adopted to conduct descriptive and inferential statistical analysis with n=460. The descriptive statistical analysis used IBM SPSS (v24.0) to determine the prevalence of workplace bullying by adopting a two-step cluster analysis and the strict operational definition criterion and the role stressors experiences level. At the same time, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to determine the correlation and influence between the predetermined organizational antecedents (role ambiguity and role conflict) and workplace bullying. Data were collected using a 14-items Role Questionnaire (RQ) and 22-item Negative Act Questionnaires-Revised (22-items NAQ-R). Findings show a high prevalence rate of workplace bullying (66.7%), a high level of role ambiguity (72.6%), and role conflict (70.2%), resulting in a positive & significant relationship with workplace bullying. Thus, these results autonomously conclude that workplace bullying is prevalent among MNC HRSSC with a high level of role ambiguity and role conflict experience, which are significant antecedents based on the General Strain Theory (Agnew, 1992) underpinning theory. Therefore, the study recommends that local HRD professionals and policymakers review employees’ job descriptions to determine one’s role and set KPI accordingly. Global Business Services representing the MNC and the local HRSSC management team must develop and implement robust anti-bullying policies and programs and sustain them in practice to curtail the negative consequences.
Article
OBJECTIVE: Turnover of IT professionals has become a pressing problem for the management of Banks. To date, limited research has examined the role of human resource management practices (HRMP), person-organisation fit (POF), and person-job fit (PJF) in retaining IT professionals. This study provides an empirical analysis of the direct and indirect effect of HRMP on IT professionals’ turnover intention through POF and PJF. METHODS: The quantitative data collected from 292 IT professionals were analysed through PLS-SEM. RESULTS: The findings revealed a negative and significant relationship between HRMP and employees’ turnover intention. It was further revealed that HRMP relates positively to POF fit and PJF, whereas POF and PJF relate negatively to employees’ turnover intention. Moreover, the findings revealed that POF and PJF explain the intervening mechanism [mediation) between HRMP and turnover intention. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that IT professionals’ turnover intention is affected by their perceptions of HRMP, POF, and PJF. The study has further extended our understanding of the mediating mechanism involved between HRMP and turnover intention. This study suggests that organisations need to implement HRMP that not only enhances IT professionals’ knowledge, skills, and abilities but also strengthens their congruence with the values and goals of the organisations.
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Academic contrapower harassment occurs when those with less perceived power harass someone with more power. Cyberbullying as contrapower occurs when students express varying levels of incivility and bullying through assorted online mediums such as email, online evaluations, or social media sites. This project examines the experiences of three faculty women with different racial/ethnic backgrounds, age differences, years in the academy, and at different levels within their career, and explores the connection between sexism and racism that persist in academic settings. Experiencing varying levels of cyberbullying the authors have found departments, administration, and universities fail to provide training or policies to protect faculty from student bullying behaviors. The concept of hegemonic civility is used to illustrate how the actions of students and inaction of administrators uphold the hegemonic order.
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With gendered organization theory and n = 201 Historically Black Colleges and Universities women faculty, the following is addressed: RQ1 Which Historically Black Colleges and University women faculty, those at schools with or without an anti-bullying policy, are more likely to report workplace bullying? RQ2 What is the relationship between workplace bullying intensity and time spent strategizing against bullying, health problems, and organizational distrust for Historically Black Colleges and University women faculty? RQ3 How does workplace bullying affect the experiences of Historically Black Colleges and University women faculty? The mixed methods findings confirm the need for preventative structural changes policies to empower women.
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Focusing on conflict at the organizational level, this study explores Conflict Culture Theory by (a) conceptualizing perceived and ideal conflict cultures, (b) creating and implementing the Conflict Cultures Survey, and (c) testing Gelfand, Leslie and Keller's (2008) proposed two‐dimensional model. Tenured and tenure‐track faculty at a large, American university (N = 346) completed the survey. Ideal conflict cultures varied little whereas perceived conflict cultures varied across departments, suggesting that ideal and perceived conflict cultures are distinct constructs. Multi‐level modeling and interrater agreement indices for the conflict culture variables provide evidence that conflict cultures exist and vary by department. Results supported the two‐dimensional model rather than one‐ or four‐dimensional models, suggesting that conflict cultures vary along two dimensions: agreeableness and activeness. Practical implications for Conflict Culture Theory and the Conflict Culture Survey include predicting job satisfaction and commitment, identifying bullying or workplace harassment norms, and establishing individual‐organizational fit.
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Workplace bullying and incivility have been recognized as significant problems in both clinical and academic environments. These negative behaviors can lead to disengagement, stress, and lost productivity. The purposes of this study were to 1) identify predictors of bullying experiences and 2) assess the prevalence of being bullied among faculty and staff working in physical therapist education programs across the United States. More than one-third of US workers are bullied or have witnessed bullying in the workplace. When these disruptive behaviors occur within the context of physical therapist education, the impact can be detrimental to teaching and learning, clinical practice, and individual well-being. Participants included 529 Doctor of Physical Therapy faculty and staff. Respondents completed the uncivil workplace behavior questionnaire—revised and negative acts questionnaire—revised. Survey results revealed that 32.5% of academic faculty had experienced bullying within the last 6 months. The prevalence of bullying and incivility in academic physical therapy programs approaches that of the general workforce in the United States. Physical Therapy education programs must take an active role in preventing, recognizing, and managing uncivil behaviors in the academic environment.
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Review, promotion, and tenure (RPT) processes at universities typically assess candidates along three dimensions: research, teaching, and service. In recent years, some have argued for the inclusion of a controversial fourth criterion: collegiality. While collegiality plays a role in the morale and effectiveness of academic departments, it is amorphic and difficult to assess, and could be misused to stifle dissent or enforce homogeneity. Despite this, some institutions have opted to include this additional element in their RPT documents and processes, but it is unknown the extent of this practice and how it varies across institution type and disciplinary units. This study is based on two sets of data: survey data collected as part of a project that explored the publishing decisions of faculty and how these related to perceived importance in RPT processes, and 864 RPT documents collected from 129 universities from the United States and Canada. We analysed these RPT documents to determine the degree to which collegiality and related terms are mentioned, if they are defined, and if and how they may be assessed during the RPT process. Results show that when collegiality and related terms appear in these documents they are most often just briefly mentioned . It is less common for collegiality and related terms to be defined or assessed in RPT documents. Although the terms are mentioned across all types of institutions, there is a statistically significant difference in how prevalent they are at each. Collegiality is more commonly mentioned in the documents of doctoral research-focused universities (60%), than of master’s universities and colleges (31%) or baccalaureate colleges (15%). Results from the accompanying survey of faculty also support this finding: individuals from R-Types were more likely to perceive collegiality to be a factor in their RPT processes. We conclude that collegiality likely plays an important role in RPT processes, whether it is explicitly acknowledged in policies and guidelines or not, and point to several strategies in how it might be best incorporated in the assessment of academic careers.
Article
Walking the Talk: Toward a Values-Aligned Academy is the culmination of 18 months of research interviews across the Big Ten Academic Alliance (BTAA). Conducted by the HuMetricsHSS Initiative as an extension of their previous work on values-enacted scholarly practice, the interviews focused on current systems of evaluation within BTAA institutions, the potential problems and inequalities of those processes, the kinds of scholarly work that could be better recognized and rewarded, and the contexts and pressures evaluators are under, including, as the process progressed, the onset and ongoing conditions of COVID-19. The interviews focused primarily on the reappointment, promotion, and tenure (RPT) process. Interviewees outlined a number of issues to be addressed, including toxicity in evaluation, scholars’ increased alienation from the work they are passionate about, and a high-level virtue-signaling of values by institutions without the infrastructure or resources to support the enactment of those values. Based on these conversations, this white paper offers a set of recommendations for making wide-scale change to address systematic injustice, erasure, and devaluation of academic labor in order to strengthen the positive public impact of scholarship.
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Background The study concerned workplace mobbing, a phenomenon affecting about 3–20% of the Polish population. The aim of the article is to distinguish the manifestations of mobbing, to study the coexistence of mobbing manifestations, and to search for the relationships between the symptoms of mobbing, reactions to mobbing and methods of dealing with mobbing used by victims. Material and Methods Information on the above variables was obtained using a questionnaire on mobbing, risk factors, and responses to mobbing. The questionnaire was completed by 781 people (women: 66%, men: 34%). The average age of the respondents was 29 years. The current statistical analysis included: distinguishing the manifestations of mobbing by means of a confirmatory factor analysis, studying the coexistence of mobbing manifestations by means of a cluster analysis, and detecting the relationships between mobbing manifestations, reactions to mobbing and ways of dealing with it based on the system of structural equations. Results The results of the research revealed 3 categories of relationships: a co-occurrence of mobbing manifestations, a relationship of mobbing manifestations with reactions to mobbing, and a relationship of mobbing reactions with methods of dealing with mobbing. Conclusions Mobbing was found in 22% of the examined group. The study revealed the existence of 5 clusters of mobbing manifestations (i.e., subgroups of respondents characterized by experiencing at least 1 of the mobbing manifestations). In the most numerous clusters in which the symptoms of mobbing were diagnosed, unfriendly working conditions prevailed. In the context of mobbing, people were found to more often react with passivity or with using interpersonal coping methods. However, they rarely turned to institutions for help or used aggression against the mobber. Med Pr. 2022;73(1):1–12
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The incremental progression of women into academia, as both students and staff, has disrupted, but not dismantled, cultures and practices of gender inequality. The #MeToo and other movements have engendered a focus on the prevalence, and normalization, of sexual violence on campus. Most UK studies focus on intra-student or staff-student experiences, which construct it as either a student issue or individualized transgressions. In this article, we draw on data from a convergent mixed-methods study in a UK university, in which quantitative and qualitative data were collected from staff and students on experiences of sexual harassment and perceptions of gender inequality. In this article, we focus specifically on staff data. It is argued that a cultural practice, or conducive context, of gender inequality within the institution is the scaffold for sexual harassment. This invidious circle of gender inequality and sexual harassment is mutually supportive and sustaining. Using this one university as a case study, we argue that for women in academia, parity in entry has not equated to parity of experience – with women having to navigate the paradox of the academy as an ostensibly welcoming, yet hostile, environment.
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Hostile online communication is a global concern. Academic research and teaching staff are among those professionals who routinely give public comments and are thus vulnerable to online attacks. This social psychological and criminological study investigated online harassment victimization among university researchers and teachers. Survey participants ( N = 2,492) were university research and teaching staff members from five major universities in Finland. Victimization was assessed with a 20-item inventory. The study included a wide range of both background and general measures on well-being at work. Participants also took part in an online experiment involving a death threat targeting a colleague. Results showed that 30% of the participants reported being victims of online harassment during the prior 6 months. Victims were more often senior staff members, minority group members, and from the social sciences and humanities. Those active in traditional or social media were much more likely to be targeted. Victims reported higher psychological distress, lower generalized trust, and lower perceived social support at work than non-victims. Individuals who were targeted by a colleague from their work community reported higher post-traumatic stress disorder scores and a higher impact of perceived online harassment on their work compared to other victims. In the experimental part of the study, participants reported more anxiety when a close colleague received a death threat. Participants also recommended more countermeasures to a close colleague than to an unknown person from the same research field. Results indicate that online harassment compromises well-being at work in academia. There is an urgent need to find ways of preventing online harassment, both in workplaces and in society at large.
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Because of the lack of direct measurements, our understanding of different forms of aggression in organizations is still very limited. As such, there has been increasing calls for going beyond the existing theoretical presumptions and indirect measurements which have been dominating the research. Based on the literature on workplace aggression as well as affective events theory and stressor-emotion model, we intend to identify the unique aggression profiles and to reveal what types of emotional responses they produce for the target employees. We collected data on 249 aggression incidents in Pakistan’s higher education sector through survey. The results of the cluster analysis suggest five distinct types of workplace aggression, which are separated by the particular aggression behaviors involved (e.g. direct-indirect, verbal-physical aggression), perceived strength, blame attribution, third party presence, and identity of the offender. Further statistical analysis indicates that target employees give different emotional responses (anger, sadness, embarrassment, disappointment, feeling insulted) to these diverse mistreatments. As a key contribution, this study makes it clearer that the sources, organizational processes and underlying social dynamics might vary a lot across different aggression experiences depending on what the topic is, who are involved, and how the targets perceive the situation. Second, it presents an initial test regarding how instead of a standard emotional reaction, diverse negative emotional responses accompany different aggression profiles.
Conference Paper
Örgütsel Mutluluk
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Post(doctoral) students form a large status group in universities. As they have a considerable influence on the achievement of the universities’ objectives they have to be understood as key resources. Their employment conditions and work situations have long been the subject of a controversy public debate. It is assumed that various problem areas not only have negative consequences for the scientists, but also for the universities. Although there are already studies that deal with the situation of (post)doctoral students, there is little knowledge about the perception of those affected. Against this background, the article discusses the perception of the work situation of (post)doctoral students based on survey data from 1.053 respondents.
Article
Despite women’s increased participation in academic employment patterns, a global gender gap on senior leadership in universities remains. This mixed methods study explores toxic leadership as a potential contributing factor to the gender gap on senior management levels in universities in South Africa. The Schmidt Toxic Leadership Scale (2008) is used to collect data for the quantitative component, while open-ended questions regarding women’s experiences with toxic leaders guided the qualitative component. The quantitative findings suggest that the women surveyed experience high levels of toxic leadership. The qualitative findings advance understandings of women leaders’ perception and experience of toxic leadership in the higher education landscape of South Africa. The triangulation of the findings reveals that the personal characteristics and behaviors of toxic leaders in universities conform with the literature on toxic leadership. The multiple toxic behaviors of leaders identified in this study could cause serious and enduring harm for women and universities in South Africa. Since toxic leadership has proven to lead to various distressing outcomes, a disconcerting conclusion of the study is that it impedes women’s advancement. The article concludes with recommendations for future research and actions to mitigate workplace toxicity. View-only version of the article is available by using the following SharedIt link: https://rdcu.be/cw8qQ
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A general model of affective aggression was used to generate predictions concerning hot temperatures.Experiment 1 examined hot temperatureeffectson hostileaffect, hostilecognition,perceived arousal, and physiological arousal in the context of a study of video games. Experiment 2 examined hot temperature effects on hostile affect, perceived and physiological arousal, and general positive and negative affect in the context of briefaerobicexercise. Consistent results were obtained. Hot temperatures produced increases in hostile affect, hostile cognition, and physiological arousal. Hot temperatures also produced decreasesin perceived arousal and generalpositive affect. These results suggest that hot temperatures may increase aggressive tendencies via any of three separate routes. Hostile affect, hostile cognitions, and excitation transfer processes may all increase the likelihood of biased ap- praisals of ambiguous social events, biased in a hostile direction. Social theories relating heat stress to aggressive behav- ior and aggression-related affects can be found in writ- ings as ancient as those of the Rome of Cicero (106-43 B.C.) and as recent as last summer's newspapers. Refer- ences to hot temperatures producing aggression can be found in works as hallowed as Shakespeare's Romeoand Juliet and as obscure as a 1985 Ohio State student news- paper cartoon. If consensus were truth, then scientific investigation of the hypothesis that temperature influ- ences aggression would be unnecessary.
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This paper reports on an exploratory study on workplace bullying in further education and higher educational institutions in Wales. Coverage of the study compared perceptions and experiences across six areas: workplace bullying, sexual harassment, racial harassment, sex discrimination, unfair promotional opportunities, and reduced promotion opportunities. The study methodology incorporated structured interviews with 20 key informants, a postal survey of higher/further education trade union members (NATFHE) in Wales, and in depth interviews with a small number of victims of bullying. Respondents hear of workplace bullying primarily from the broadcast media and not through internal communications. Respondents to the survey had experienced higher levels of workplace bullying than they experienced sex discrimination, sexual harassment or racial harassment. As a source of hearing about bullying, colleagues appear to provide a link that enables victims to admit to their own suffering. The perceived reasons for the bullying are linked to poor managerial training.
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Drawing on narrative theory, we propose a scenario-based approach to conducting discussions among junior and senior faculty about issues affecting job satisfaction. This study reports how discussions of fictional scenarios (based on data drawn from 123 faculty interviews) prompt open dialogue, foster greater consciousness, empathy, and empowerment among faculty, and guide positive institutional responses.
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It is the authors' contention, and the central thesis of this chapter, that to the extent these behaviors involve efforts by individuals to harm others at work, or the organizations in which this work occurs, they represent instances of workplace aggression and the authors believe there are substantial theoretical and practical benefits to be derived in studying them as such. In this chapter, they argue the merits of this position and provide theoretical and empirical support for this line of reasoning. They begin by focusing on the need for concept clarity and an integrating framework for exploring the many behaviors subsumed in this text and follow this discussion with a definition of aggression in general and of workplace aggression in particular. Within this discussion, they describe the defining characteristics of aggression and violence and then compare and contrast these characteristics with other forms of counterproductive work behavior. After building what they hope is a compelling case for the use of workplace aggression as one possible integrating construct, the authors present a contemporary theoretical model of aggression that has proven useful in exploring (and explaining) the many causes and mediating processes associated with a wide variety of harm-doing behaviors. They conclude with some recommendations regarding future work in this area and, in particular, the need to consider the dynamics of the process in which these negative workplace behaviors are embedded--a process that often reveals the underlying nature of, and motive for, such acts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Universities attempt to hire the highest quality faculty they can, but they are not always successful at retaining them. Furthermore, some faculty members who do remain may not function as engaging colleagues who make others want to stay. This study investigates why some faculty members leave and why others stay by illuminating the complexities of individual experiences. Using semi-structured interviews rather than surveys, a matched cohort of 123 faculty members (half current and half former) from one institution was interviewed. Although some of their primary reasons for satisfaction or dissatisfaction (e.g., collegiality, mentoring) were predicted by general survey research, there were also unforeseeable issues that strongly influenced satisfaction and decisions to stay or leave, demonstrating the importance of institution-specific research. This paper provides a method for collecting institution-specific information as well as several arguments for conducting interviews instead of pre-defined surveys.
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In the present article, recent research on sex differences in aggressive styles is reviewed. The concept of indirect aggression is particularly presented and discussed. It is argued that it is incorrect, or rather, nonsensical, to claim that males are more aggressive than females. A theory regarding the development of styles of aggressive behavior is presented.
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"Emerging Systems..." presents illustrative real-life examples as well as cutting-edge methods and tools for integrating systems of dispute resolution into standard corporate procedures. This resource investigates the systems that organizations have developed to manage common and costly workplace conflicts involving supervisor-employee relationships; race, age, and gender discrimination complaints; sexual harassment; occupational safety and health; reasonable accommodation of the disabled; and wrongful termination, as well as other problems stemming from governmental regulations and court actions.
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Workplace bullying This chapter sets out to examine a phenomenon that has been studied relatively recently: that of workplace bullying. Bullying has been established as a feature of schools and playgrounds for many years (e.g., Burk, 1897) and as such has received considerable attention (e.g., Bernstein & Watson, 1997; Besag, 1989; Olweus, 1983). Contemporary studies of bullying at work have drawn from the original conceptual base in childhood studies and have developed the topic to be applicable to modern-day working situations. Within a decade, research in this topic has grown to a point that it is well established in several countries. Currently, we perceive a turning point at which other more established areas of academic endeavor are now looking at workplace bullying as a phenomenon in order to understand linkages and contribute as a broader academic community to our sense making in this area. The very appearance of this chapter ...
Article
This study explored beliefs held by faculty and administrators about post-tenure review and the factors that influenced beliefs within one state system. Values of autonomy and collegiality, career stage, and institutional history and context were found to influence beliefs about the purposes, processes, and outcomes of post-tenure review.
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And so, as described in the previous chapter, the attempt to understand how people will react to conditions of scarcity leads directly to the issue of whether they experience their fate and the fates of those they care about as just or unjust. This statement is not at all simple nor obvious in its implications, as we shall see in a moment. After all, identifying the sense of justice as the key issue is equivalent to saying that in order to understand what will happen in our future, collectively and individually, we must solve one of the most enigmatic and complex problems that has preoccupied social analysts throughout the history of Western civilization: How does the theme of justice appear in people’s lives?
Article
Examining a neglected issue, we investigated the relationships between employees' feeling mistreated, grievance filing, the nature of the perceived mistreatment, and employee withdrawal. Results indicated higher exit-related withdrawal for those who perceived mistreatment and higher work withdrawal behavior for those who experienced personalized mistreatment. Withdrawal measures for grievance filers were not significantly different from those for nonfilers when we accounted for the role of perceived mistreatment.
Article
Bullying or mobbing is used for systematically harassing a person for a long time. In the context of stress theory, bullying is a severe form of social stressors at work, whereas in terms of conflict theory, bullying signifies an unsolved social conflict having reached a high level of escalation and an increased imbalance of power. Based on a qualitative study with 20 semi-structured interviews with victims of bullying and a quantitative questionnaire study with a total of 149 victims of bullying and a control group (N = 81), it was investigated whether bullying victims use specific conflict management strategies more often compared with individuals who are not bullied, and whether coping strategies used by successful copers with bullying differ from those of the unsuccessful copers. Successful copers were those victims who believe that their situation at work has improved again as a result of their coping efforts. The qualitative data showed that most victims started with constructive conflict-solving strategies, changed their strategies several times, and finally tried to leave the organization. In the interviews, the victims of bullying most often recommended others in the same situation to leave the organization and to seek social support. They more often showed conflict avoidance in the quantitative study. Successful victims fought back with similar means less often, and less often used negative behaviour such as frequent absenteeism. Moreover, they obviously were better at recognizing and avoiding escalating behaviour, whereas in their fight for justice, the unsuccessful victims often contributed to the escalation of the bullying conflict.
Article
This paper relates research on workplace bullying to the prevention measures which an organisation might consider implementing. The implications of collecting research information only from targets of bullying is highlighted, and discussed in relation to identifying bullies and targets. Incidence studies are used to track environmental patterns and processes. Included in such studies is the recent UK UNISON survey, where patterns of consistency are found between targets and non-targets in attitude questions regarding the causes of bullying, but strong divergence of response regarding other parameters. The effectiveness of actions taken by targets of bullying is also reported. These find that reports of bullying stopping as a result of action by targets are rather rare, and advising targets to discuss the situation with the bully without professional support (such as from a personnel officer or union representative) is probably misguided as retaliation from the bully is likely.
Article
Enthusiastic employees far out-produce and outperform the average workforce:they step up to do the hard, even 'impossible' jobs.ï¾ Most people are enthusiastic when they're hired: hopeful, ready to work hard, eager to contribute. What happens? Management, that's what. The authors tell you what managers do wrong, and what they need to do instead. It's about giving workers what they want most, summarized in the Three-Factor Theory: to be treated fairly; to feel proud of their work and organizations; and to experience camaraderie. Sounds simple, but every manager knows how tough it can be. Nostrums, fads, and quick and easy solutions have abounded in the management literature, but swiftly go out of style when they fail to meet the test in the workplace. The authors provide research-grounded answers to crucial questions such as: Which leadership and management practices can have the greatest positive performance impact? What does employee satisfaction really mean? What's the relationship between employee satisfaction, customer loyalty, and profit? Sirota and his colleagues detail exactly how to create an environment where enthusiasm flourishes and businesses grow.
Article
Many professors have been traumatized by academic bullies. Unlike bullies at school, the academic bully plays a more subtle game. Bullies may spread rumors to undermine a colleague's credibility or shut their target out of social conversations. The more aggressive of the species cuss out co-workers, even threatening to get physical. There is nothing new about this type of academic bullying. What's new is how it's talked about now, and, thanks to the blogosphere, where and how often. This article describes how the Web provides new outlets for combating workplace aggression. It also describes how different universities address the issue of academic bullying.
Article
Community colleges have provided an entree into higher education for many women. Yet, women faculty perceive the overall climate of community colleges as "chilly." To deconstruct the interpersonal dynamics that may lead to perceptions of a chilly climate, this study examines the prevalence of workplace bullying among and between community college faulty. The purpose is to understand the nature of harassment, the ways in which women define and respond to it, and the importance of contextual factors in the prevalence. Workplace bullying is a form of interpersonal aggression that has implications for how individuals perceive the organizational climate, job productivity, and job satisfaction. Findings from this study indicate that workplace bullying among faculty includes many subtle practices characterized by informal and formal use of power, faculty workplace bullying is affected by several enabling structures specific to the context, and victims typically respond with avoidance. This study has implications for harassment policies, faculty involvement in institutional governance, and the gendered nature of interpersonal dynamics.
Article
This book's 14 chapters provide models of conflict management and practical guidance for those working in institutions of higher education. The chapters are: (1) "What's It All About? Conflict in Academia" (Susan A. Holton); (2) "Administration in an Age of Conflict" (Gerald Graff); (3) "The Janus Syndrome: Managing Conflict from the Middle" (Walter H. Gmelch); (4) "Chairs as Department Managers: Working with Support Staff" (Mary Lou Higgerson); (5) "Spanning the Abyss: Managing Conflict Between Deans and Chairs" (Ann F. Lucas); (6) "The Cutting Edge: The Dean and Conflict" (Nancy L. Sorenson); (7) "And Never the Twain Shall Meet: Administrator-Faculty Conflict" (Judith A. Sturnick); (8) "Managing Conflict on the Front Lines: Lessons from the Journals of a Former Dean and Provost" (Clara M. Lovett); (9) "Student Affairs and Academic Affairs: Partners in Conflict Resolution" (Lynn Willett); (10) "Can We Agree To Disagree? Faculty-Faculty Conflict" (Cynthia Berryman-Fink); (11) "Views from Different Sides of the Desk: Conflict Between Faculty and Students" (John W. "Sam" Keltner); (12) "Student-Student Conflict: Whose Problem Is It Anyway?" (Janet Rifkin); (13) "Conflict Resolution in the Academy: A Modest Proposal" (Joel M. Douglas); and (14) "Academic Mortar To Mend the Cracks: The Holton Model for Conflict Management" (Susan A. Holton). An appendix provides "Conflict Management Programs for Administrators" (Gillian Krajewski). (Some chapters contain references.) (DB)
Article
In conjunction with declining enrollment and the call for accountability, several developments have occurred which are stress producing among higher education faculty. These include: (1) mandated student evaluations; (2) stringent guidelines for promotion; (3) increased fear of dismissal; (4) inadequate salary increases; and (5) growing apathy among student populations. (JN)
Article
This chapter provides a 2X2 model for organizing the effects of both teacher and student improprieties on teaching and learning and puts the subsequent chapters in focus using that model.
Article
I argue that the impact of context on organizational behavior is not sufficiently recognized or appreciated by researchers. I define context as situational opportunities and constraints that affect the occurrence and meaning of organizational behavior as well as functional relationships between variables, and I propose two levels of analysis for thinking about context - one grounded in journalistic practice and the other in classic social psychology. Several means of contextualizing research are considered.
Article
The proposed model posits that different forms and combinations of justice perceptions are likely to elicit different forms of aggression that also vary in terms of the target of aggression and the manner in which harm is delivered to the target. Eight possible combinations of justice perceptions are described and the forms of aggression each combination is most likely to elicit are proposed. Potential moderators of the proposed relationships are discussed. Implications of the model are described and future research directions are suggested.
Article
abstractWe explore the effects of the social context on the relationship between psychological contract breach (PCB) and perceived organizational support (POS) in two studies. We build on the premise that psychological contract breach (i.e. the organization's failure to fulfil the obligations employees believe they are owed) signals to employees that they are not cared for and valued by the organization (i.e. reduces POS). In support, a longitudinal study of 310 employees shows that PCB at Time 1 explains significant variance in POS at Time 2 (beyond that explained by POS at Time 1). Building on this result, we advance the argument that employees' perceptions of organizational politics serve as a heuristic for the overall benevolent or malevolent character of the organization and its agents. Accordingly, we expect that when employees perceive PCB and high levels of organizational politics, they will be more likely to hold the organization responsible for PCB and thus report lower levels of POS in response to breach. This line of reasoning received support in a second study of 146 employees which showed that perceptions of organizational politics moderate the PCB–POS relationship. Our results suggest that the social context in which psychological contract breaches occur matters and that managers should consider the organization's perceived political landscape when anticipating how employees will respond to broken promises.
Article
This article discusses results from a research project which set out to investigate gender differences in the nature and experience of bullying within the higher education sector. Gender differences emerged in the form and perception of bullying as well as in target responses. Results also indicate that, irrespective of gender, bullies can capture and subvert organizational structures and procedures (such as official hierarchies, mentoring systems and probationary reviews) to further their abuse of the target and to conceal their aggressive intent. These outcomes are discussed in relation to gendered assumptions behind management practices and in relation to the masculinist ethic that underpins many higher education management initiatives. Overall, results indicate that bullying cannot be divorced from gender and that such behaviour needs to be seen in a gendered context.
Article
This ethnography focuses on the techniques of normalization used by university professors who are accused by their colleagues of bullying behavior. We examine how the organizational structure and institutional values of the university provide protective coloration for academic intimidation and discourage both the detection and effective labeling of such behavior. In noting that attempts to label bullying behavior frequently fail because the judgments are seen as mere matters of opinion in an environment whose principal currency of exchange is opinion itself, we modify and extend Sykes and Matza's discussion of neutralization techniques to academic settings. While we cannot speak to the presence or absence of guilt feelings on the part of alleged academic bullies, or to whether neutralization techniques successfully assuage such feelings, we can nevertheless discern the operation of these techniques to resist the imputation of unflattering social identities and/or to lay claim to public identities that are highly esteemed within the academy. Moreover, we identify three additional techniques of normalization that are employed by alleged ivory tower bullies: appropriation and inversion, in which accused bullies claim victim status for themselves; evidentiary solipsism, in which alleged bullies portray themselves as uniquely capable of divining and defining the true meaning-structure of events; and emotional obfuscation, which takes the form of employing symbols and imagery that are chosen for their perceived ability to elicit an emotional response on the part of an academic audience.
Article
The role of the sociopathic bully is considered in terms of his/her responsibility for acts of evil in organizations. First, the literature on bullying is considered with the suggestion made that the term bully may be something of a euphemism, contributing to the problem of bullying not being taken sufficiently seriously. Bullying is then considered as a means of torture in organizations. The case study is introduced, where the author—an academic—is daring to share her story. Several of Biderman''s constructs of coercion (Amnesty International, 1975. Report on Torture. London: Gerald Duckworth.) are used to showcase the case material shared which, when taken together, depict the relentless and deliberate nature of the bullying that took place. The paper concludes with an evil outcome of the bullying but, also, the success of the target in surviving. Some practical considerations as to what to do if bullying takes place are considered.
Article
This paper examines the results of a workplace bully survey sent to faculty, instructors and librarians at a mid-sized Canadian university in 2005. The potential sources of workplace bullying by colleagues, administrators and students are examined. The survey determined that workplace bullying is of particular concern for employees that are newly hired or untenured. The systemic nature of this phenomenon and the spillover effect from one job domain to another are identified. The findings indicate costs for the university linked to workplace bullying. Costs include increased employee turnover, changed perception of the university by employees and reduced employee engagement.
Article
Pdf article from Conflict Management in Higher Education Report, Volume 4, Number 1, (Oct. 2003), which presents the concept of a "Communication Protocol [which] is a set of guidelines for day-to-day communication and informal problem solving developed in a mediation context involving a group of co-workers, these Protocols are most effective when developed with the full participation of both staff and management, although difficult to achieve, in academic units the chair needs to participate, the more inclusive the group, the more the Protocol will reflect the culture and norms of the organization."
Article
In recent years, the existence of a significant problem in workplaces has been documented in Sweden and other countries. It involves employees "ganging up" on a target employee and subjecting him or her to psychological harassment. This "mobbing" behavior results in severe psychological and occupational consequences for the victim. This phenomenon is described, its stages and consequences analyzed. An ongoing program of research and intervention that is currently being supported by the Swedish government is then considered.
Workplace Behavior Project Survey Building a constructive communication climate: The Workplace Stress and Aggression Project
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Keashly, L., & Neuman, J. H. (2008). Workplace Behavior Project Survey. Keashly, L., & Neuman, J. H. (2009). Building a constructive communication climate: The Workplace Stress and Aggression Project. In P. Lutgen- Sandvik & B. Sypher (Eds.), Destructive organizational communication: Processes, consequences and constructive ways of organizing (pp. 339– 362). London: Routledge.
In press) North American perspectives on workplace hostility and bullying
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Keashly, L., & Jagatic, K. (In press). North American perspectives on workplace hostility and bullying. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Workplace bullying: Development in theory, research and practice (2nd ed.). London: CRC Press.
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Westhues, K. (2006). The unkindly art of mobbing. Academic matters: the Journal of higher Education, 18-19. www.ocufa.on.ca/Academic%20
Faculty discipline: Legal and policy issues in dealing with faculty misconduct
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Euben, D. R., & Lee, B. A. (2006). Faculty discipline: Legal and policy issues in dealing with faculty misconduct. Journal of College and university law, 32, 241-308.
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Bullying in academia: An examination of workplace bullying in New Zealand universities
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Raskauskas, J. (2006, April). Bullying in academia: An examination of workplace bullying in New Zealand universities. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.
Faculty incivility: The rise of the academic bully culture and what to do about it
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Twale, D. J., & De Luca, B. M. (2008). Faculty incivility: The rise of the academic bully culture and what to do about it. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Mob rule: In departmental disputes, professors can act just like animals
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Gravois, J. (2006). Mob rule: In departmental disputes, professors can act just like animals. Chronicle of higher Education, 52(32), A32.