Article

Runoff of Estrogen Hormone 17??-Estradiol from Poultry Litter Applied to Pasture

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Abstract

Environmental loading of hormones contained in poultry litter may cause or contribute to disruptions in the health and reproduction of animals. A runoff study was conducted to evaluate the hypothesis that poultry litter applied to pasture contributes the estrogen hormone 17β-estradiol to runoff. The objectives were to determine the effects of (i) rate of litter application, (ii) amending litter with alum [aluminum sulfate (Al 2(SO 4) 3 · 14H 2O)], and (iii) multiple storms on runoff concentrations and losses of 17β-estradiol from poultry litter applied to fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber) plots. Normal litter and litter treated in production houses with 1.2 kg alum m -2 were applied to four replicated plots 1.52-m wide by 3,05- m long on Captina silt loam (fine-silty, siliceous, mesic Typic Fragiudult) at 1,76, 3.52, 5.28, and 7.05 Mg ha -1. Simulated rain was applied immediately thereafter and 7 d later at 50 nm h -1. Runoff samples were collected at 5-min intervals for 30 min beginning 2.5 min after runoff began, and a single flow-weighted composite was obtained front the six discrete samples. The 17β-estradiol content of the composites was determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay. First-storm runoff concentrations and mass losses increased with application rate and were 1.28 μg L -1 and 198.8 mg ha -1 from the highest application rate of normal litter. Amending the litter with alum reduced mean 17β-estradiol concentrations by 42% and losses by 46% in first-storm runoff. Overall, second-storm runoff concentrations and losses were 66 and 69% less than from the first storm. This research indicates that field-applied poultry litter can contribute 17β-estradiol to runoff, that this hormone can persist for at least 7 d under field conditions, and amending poultry litter with alum can significantly reduce transport in runoff.

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... In addition, in the case of farmed birds, increasing the level of estrogen in the body may have adverse effects on the animal, but also resulted in the hypothesis that the use of their feces in farmland has recently been recognized as the main source of estrogen in the environment [4]. Poultry feces, causing contamination of surface waters with estrogens [5,102,103], negatively affect the reproductive behavior of wild birds (i.e., the perception of male sounds by females), including the development of their offspring, due to accumulation in the body (Figure 2) [104][105][106][107]. The sensitivity of birds to estrogen levels in the environment is, however, strongly correlated with the species and their age, except during development. ...
... Too high level of estrogens in the environment can also disturb the behavior of birds, often increasing the risk of aggressive behavior and impair the functioning of the immune system. On the other hand, the increased level of estrogens is also accumulated in the egg and the forming embryo, which may cause, among others: impairment of male reproductive behavior or disruption of sexual differentiation of the nervous systems that controls reproduction, and in worst case death of the embryo [4,104,[106][107][108][109][110]. ...
... Estrogen contamination route (based on[5,102,103,105,106]). ...
Article
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Nowadays, there is a growing interest in environmental pollution; however, knowledge about this aspect is growing at an insufficient pace. There are many potential sources of environmental con-tamination, including sex hormones—especially estrogens. The analyzed literature shows that es-trone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and synthetic ethinyloestradiol (EE2) are the most significant in terms of environmental impact. Potential sources of contamination are, among others, livestock farms, slaughterhouses, and large urban agglomerations. Estrogens occurring in the environment can negatively affect the organisms, such as animals, through phenomena such as feminization, dysregulation of natural processes related to reproduction, lowering the physiological condition of the organisms, disturbances in the regulation of both proapoptotic and anti-apoptotic processes, and even the occurrence of neoplastic processes thus drastically decreasing animal welfare. Un-fortunately, the amount of research conducted on the negative consequences of their impact on animal organisms is many times smaller than that of humans, despite the great richness and di-versity of the fauna. Therefore, there is a need for further research to help fill the gaps in our knowledge.
... Those published before 2000 provide fewer details. These studies were included because they reported the concentrations of microorganisms and selected micropollutants in different manures, but their main aims were to analyse the land runoff once the manure was distributed on the soil (Busheé et al., 1998;Nichols et al., 1997Nichols et al., , 1998 or the effects on nutrient mineralisation on soil and plant growth (Patten et al., 1980). In Table S1, the level of accuracy of each study is highlighted as well as the main issues addressed in the reviewed papers. ...
... 2.0-3.3 Aznar et al., 2018;Arikan et al., 2016;Dutta et al., 2010;Jenkins et al., 2006;Leal et al., 2012;Nichols et al., 1997 Solid manure ...
... With regard to treated poultry manure a limited number of data are available and refer to the antibiotic salinomycin (3 values) and the hormones 17β-estradiol (2 values) and testosterone (3 values) (Nichols et al., 1997;Ramaswamy et al., 2010;Hakk et al., 2005;Shore et al., 1993). Limiting the attention to the investigations providing concentrations before and after a specific poultry treatment, it emerges that salinomycin reduces from 22,000 ng/g dm to 76 ng/g dm in the case of composting (Ramaswamy et al., 2010), 17β-estradiol reduces from the initial concentration of 83 ng/g dm to 13 ng/g dm after a composting step (Hakk et al., 2005) and from 133 ng/g dm to 101 ng/g dm if treated with alum (Nichols et al., 1997). ...
Article
This study consists of a review based on 104 papers published between 1980 and 2019, which dealt with the occurrence of pharmaceuticals, hormones and a selection of microorganisms in raw and treated manure from different types of animal farms. The selected pharmaceuticals and hormones are those regularly administered to livestock for treating and preventing diseases. Worldwide, manure is commonly spread on soil as a fertilizer due to its nutrient content. However, this practice also represents a potential pathway for micropollutant release into the environment. In this context, this study evaluates the predicted concentrations of some antibiotics in soil after the application of swine slurry on soil and compares them with corresponding measured concentrations found in the literature. Enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline were the antibiotics with the highest concentrations that were found in raw and treated manure and that showed a high risk together with sulfamethazine. Future research should focus on monitoring other pathogens, parent compounds and their main metabolites in raw and treated manure, studying the spread and development of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment due to residues of antibiotics in manure applied to soil, and evaluating predicted no effect concentrations of pharmaceuticals and hormones commonly administered to livestock with regard to terrestrial organisms.
... 7 Diffuse sources of EDCs occur from agricultural runoff, from crops sprayed with EDCs or manure from grazing farm animals. 8 Sludge application to land is another route where the presence of EDCs may be transferred to surface waters via runoff (see Chapter 5). Additionally, percolation from these and other sources into groundwater have caused contamination with EDCs. 9 ...
... However, runoff from manure may contribute to the estrogenic burden entering the aqueous environment. 8,184 In the Netherlands, manure runoff and percolation to waterways used for the abstraction of drinking water has led to the government placing a ban on the number of livestock per farming household. A significant contribution of E2 to aquatic waters can occur from runoff of poultry litter applied to pasture land. ...
... E2 runoff was found to be persistent for up to 7 days after an initial application of poultry litter. 8 With a soilbinding capability for E1 and E2 of approximately 60%, thought to be due to the phenolic groups, percolation through to groundwater sources will be limited. 185 The majority of steroid estrogens have been predicted to be in the dissolved aqueous phase because of the greater surface volume. ...
... Large quantities of estrogens are present in livestock manure, such as cow dung, swine manure, chicken manure, and duck manure [16][17][18][19][20][21][22]. For instance, Wenzel et al. (1998) observed an estrogen activity (E1 and 17β-E2) of 600 to 1600 µg/kg in cow manure [23]. ...
... The detection rate (D (%)) of an estrogen in manure was calculated according to the following equation: D (%) = N detectable /N total × 100, where N detectable is the number of manure samples with detectable levels of the estrogen under investigation, and N total is the total number of manure samples. Table 3) [28], which may be because the amount of estrogens in manure varies depending on the sex and age of the poultry [17]. 17β-E2 was documented to range from 14 µg/kg in immature male broilers to 533 µg/kg in hens [40]. ...
... The primary estrogen excreted by hens is E3 (Table 2), which is consistent with reports that E1 and E3 are the main estrogens excreted by chickens [41]. As seen in Table 3, 17β-E2 was detected in poultry broiler litter at a concentration of 133 µg/kg [17] and in poultry manure at a concentration of 149.8 µg/kg [21], which are considerably higher than all of the concentrations measured in this study. As for poultry, previous studies have mainly focused on the estrogens found in hen manure and have seldom reported on the estrogens found in duck manure. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the occurrence and contamination risk of estrogens in livestock manure in Jiangsu Province, China. Four estrogens-estriol (E3), 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), bisphenol A (BPA), and 17α-ethinyloestradiol (EE2)-were detected in livestock manure from hens, ducks, swine, and cows. The respective mean concentrations of each estrogen found in these manures were 289.8, 334.1, 330.3, and 33.7 μg/kg for E3; 38.6, 10.9, 52.9, and 38.8 μg/kg for 17β-E2; 63.6, 48.7, 51.9, and 11.7 μg/kg for BPA; and 14.3, 11.3, 25.1, and 21.8 μg/kg for EE2. Estrogens were most frequently detected at high concentrations in the manure of finishing pigs, followed by the manure of growing pigs and piglets. Estrogens can be partially degraded after banking up for seven days; yet, great quantities of estrogens remain in livestock manure. The total estradiol equivalent quantity (EEQt) estimated to be present in aquatic environments but originating from livestock waste was 10.5 ng/L, which was greater than the hazard baseline value (1 ng/L) and also higher than the proposed lowest observable effect concentration (10 ng/L) of E2 in aquatic environments. The results of our study demonstrate that livestock waste is an important source of estrogens, which may potentially affect the hormonal metabolism of aquatic organisms.
... Aus umweltökologischer Sicht werden hier vor allem die Verschmutzung des Grundwassers mit Nitrat sowie die Eutrophierung von Oberflächengewässern mit Stickstoff und Phosphat diskutiert. Wie neuere Untersuchungen in den USA gezeigt haben, birgt der Einsatz größerer Mengen von Geflügelmist als Wirtschaftsdünger über längere Zeiträume außerdem das Risiko einer Anreicherung von Schwermetallen, Pathogenen, Hormonen sowie in der Mast eingesetzten Medikamenten und Futterzusatzstoffen in den Böden (MOORE et al. 1998;KIN-GERY et al. 1994;MCMURRY et al. 1998;NICHOLS et al. 1997;SIMS & WOLF 1994 ). Im Folgenden sollen die bisher gewonnen Erkenntnisse über die Anreicherung von Nährund Schadstoffen in mit Geflügelmist gedüngten Böden sowie ihre Auswirkungen auf Bodeneigenschaften und Gewässer anhand der neueren Literatur ausführlicher dargestellt werden. ...
... In verschiedenen Arbeiten aus den USA wird neuerdings eine Befrachtung der Gewässer mit natürlichen Hormonen, wie insbesondere 17β-Estradiol, durch die Aufbringung von Wirtschaftsdüngern problematisiert (SHORE et al. 1995;NICHOLS et al. 1997). Geflügelmist enthält dieses Hormon in einer Größenordnung von ca. ...
... 14 mg kg -1 bei jungen Broiler bis zu 533 mg kg -1 bei Legehennen (SHORE et al. 1993). Analysen des Abflußwassers von mit Broilermist gedüngtem Grünland belegen, daß bei hohen Aufbringungsraten (5-7 t ha -1 TM) 17β-Estradiol mit dem Sickerwasser ausgetragen werden kann, im vorliegenden Fall wurden Konzentrationen von 0,8-1,3 mg l -1 festgestellt (NICHOLS et al. 1997). Die Umweltwirkung dieses Hormons besteht in einer hormonellen Beeinflussung aquatischer Lebewesen, insbesondere der Geschlechtsumkehr bei Fischen und einer damit verbundenen Verschiebung der Geschlechterverteilung. ...
Article
Full-text available
In Germany, broiler production is practiced almost exclusively in conventional production systems with a couple of tenthousands up to more than twohundredthousand birds per production unit. In the last few years, however, alternative/ecological production systems have gained increasing importatrice. So far, research has been done on the environmental impact of this conventional production type only. In view of the recent discussion about the environmental impacts of animal production in general it appears to be necessary to attempt a complexe scientific comparison of the environmental relevance of the different production systems practiced today. The aim of this paper is to summarize available information regarding the environmental consequences of broiler production. Based on this overview, the following important environmental impact categories should be considered when comparing the different production systems: impact on soils (eutrophication and acidification, nutrient regime/soil fertility and increase of heavy metals in the soil); impact on surface and ground waters (nitrate pollution and eutrophication); impact on air quality (concentration of ammonia inside and around the production unit) and climate (concentration and emissions of greenhouse gases); resource depletion (mineral and energetic resources); toxicity for man and environment (use of antibiotics and other feed additives, concentration and emission of ammonia, dust and endotoxins, nitrate pollution of ground water, use of herbicides for feed production).
... Aus umweltökologischer Sicht werden hier vor allem die Verschmutzung des Grundwassers mit Nitrat sowie die Eutrophierung von Oberflächengewässern mit Stickstoff und Phosphat diskutiert. Wie neuere Untersuchungen in den USA gezeigt haben, birgt der Einsatz größerer Mengen von Geflügelmist als Wirtschaftsdünger über längere Zeiträume außerdem das Risiko einer Anreicherung von Schwermetallen, Pathogenen, Hormonen sowie in der Mast eingesetzten Medikamenten und Futterzusatzstoffen in den Böden (MOORE et al. 1998;KIN-GERY et al. 1994;MCMURRY et al. 1998;NICHOLS et al. 1997;SIMS & WOLF 1994 ). Im Folgenden sollen die bisher gewonnen Erkenntnisse über die Anreicherung von Nährund Schadstoffen in mit Geflügelmist gedüngten Böden sowie ihre Auswirkungen auf Bodeneigenschaften und Gewässer anhand der neueren Literatur ausführlicher dargestellt werden. ...
... In verschiedenen Arbeiten aus den USA wird neuerdings eine Befrachtung der Gewässer mit natürlichen Hormonen, wie insbesondere 17β-Estradiol, durch die Aufbringung von Wirtschaftsdüngern problematisiert (SHORE et al. 1995;NICHOLS et al. 1997). Geflügelmist enthält dieses Hormon in einer Größenordnung von ca. ...
... 14 mg kg -1 bei jungen Broiler bis zu 533 mg kg -1 bei Legehennen (SHORE et al. 1993). Analysen des Abflußwassers von mit Broilermist gedüngtem Grünland belegen, daß bei hohen Aufbringungsraten (5-7 t ha -1 TM) 17β-Estradiol mit dem Sickerwasser ausgetragen werden kann, im vorliegenden Fall wurden Konzentrationen von 0,8-1,3 mg l -1 festgestellt (NICHOLS et al. 1997). Die Umweltwirkung dieses Hormons besteht in einer hormonellen Beeinflussung aquatischer Lebewesen, insbesondere der Geschlechtsumkehr bei Fischen und einer damit verbundenen Verschiebung der Geschlechterverteilung. ...
... ng/g T on a dry weight basis with concentrations varying according to gender, maturity, and reproductive status (i.e., broilers vs. laying hens) [Nichols et al., 1997;1998;Shore et al., 1995]. Because poultry litter is so high in E2, the vertebrate estrogen responsible for development of the female reproductive tract and secondary sex characteristics, these processes may be negatively impacted in resident fish (and other aquatic biota) exposed to exogenous E2 in runoff from litter-amended fields. ...
... Peninsula [Shore et al., 1995] and elsewhere [Nichols et al., 1997;1998;Finlay-Moore et al., 2000;Herman and Mills, 2003] have investigated the transport of E2 and/or T from poultry litter into surface and ground waters following application to fields and pastures. Shore et al. [1995] reported concentrations of 14 to 20 ng E2/L in a farm pond receiving runoff from poultry litter-amended agricultural fields. ...
... Second, poultry litter from numerous Delmarva sources consistently has higher levels of E2 than T [Yonkos et al., unpublished research]. Third, studies of poultry litterassociated steroids in natural waters consistently report E2 at biologically relevant levels [Finlay-Moore et al., 2000;Herman and Mills, 2003;Nichols et al., 1997;1998]. And fourth, sensitive biomarkers of endocrine disruption are better developed for detecting estrogenic effects then androgenic effects [Gillesby and Zacharewski, 1998;Kime, 1999]. ...
... animal wastes (e.g., Monk et al., 1975;Knight, 1980), estrogen emissions from concentrated animal agricultural operations may be environmentally significant. Several investigators have examined losses of 17b-estradiol from land-applied poultry litter (Shore et al., 1995;Nichols et al., 1997, Nichols et al., 1998Finlay-Moore et al., 2000), yet little is known about the fate of estrogens in dairy waste (Shore et al., 1993). In particular, published data on estrogen concentrations in dairy wastewater and reports specifying dairy waste treatment methods to reduce environmental estrogen loads are lacking. ...
... For example, municipal wastewater treatment plants typically remove 50%-90% of total estrogen Ternes et al., 1999a;Baronti et al., 2000;Layton et al., 2000). While investigators have started to address these issues for poultryexcreted estrogens (Shore et al., 1995;Nichols et al., 1997, Nichols et al., 1998Finlay-Moore et al., 2000), the fate of estrogen from dairy wastes is poorly documented. The environmental significance of these fluxes needs to be determined, and, if needed, management practices established to keep these fluxes at ecologically acceptable levels. ...
... Immunoassays specific for 17b-estradiol were the assays of choice in recent work measuring estrogen contamination in animal waste run-off experiments, presumably due to their specificity, sensitivity, low-cost and speed (Nichols et al., 1997;Bushee et al., 1998;Finlay-Moore et al., 2000). These immunoassays were initially developed for quantification of 17b-estradiol in tissue culture media, human saliva, urine, and serum. ...
Article
Full-text available
Manure-borne estrogens are increasingly recognized as a potential ecological hazard. However, sample-handling protocols for these compounds are not clearly delineated in the literature, nor are comparisons between assays for estrogens. A study was conducted to explore the degradation of estrogen in separated dairy manure waste solids (press cake), using three popular assay types. Estrogens were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), gas-chromatography mass-spectroscopy (GC-MS) and a recombinant yeast estrogen reporter assay. As measured by GC-MS, background estrone concentrations were approximately 100 ppb, while 17α-estradiol concentrations were one-third of the estrone concentration, and 17β-estradiol concentrations were below the detection limit (10 ppb). In contrast, background 17β-estradiol concentrations as measured by ELISA were 53 ppb. In press cake samples spiked with 17β-estradiol, ELISA and GC-MS 17β-estradiol concentrations from all experiments were well correlated (r2 = 0.93), although the ELISA values were higher than the GC-MS values. The yeast estrogen assay was also highly correlated with GC-MS results (r2 = 0.94). The rates of total estrogen removal in press cake samples spiked with 500 ppb 17β-estradiol and incubated over a range of 5-50°C were characterized by a 1st-order decay constant (k). The k values increased with temperature and ranged from 0.029 d-1 to 0.12 d-1. Rate constants observed in unspiked press cake samples agreed with the values derived from the spiked samples. Over a 7-dperiod, acidification of samples (pH < 2) and storage at 5°C reduced 17β-estradiol losses to 15% and total estrogen losses to 17%, whereas unacidified samples lost 90% of 17β-estradiol and 40% of total estrogen. The results of this study strongly suggest the need for acidification and cold storage of environmental samples being tested for estrogens. In this study, no single assay met all the desirable criteria of speed, sensitivity (<1 ppb), and detection of both 17β-estradiol and estrone. Therefore, the use of multiple assays for the detection of environmental estrogens is warranted.
... The production of high concentrations of ammonia in poultry house adversely affects farm workers (Donham, 2000) [8] . High concentrations of ammonia in poultry house reduce bird body weights (Kleven and Glisson, 1997;Moore et al., 1999) [10] . Gain to feed ratio depress at high ammonia volatilization in poultry house (Beker et al., 2004) [3] . ...
... Moore et al. (1995Moore et al. ( , 1996 [12,13] , which showed alum amendments to poultry litter could reduce NH3 volatilization losses by as much as 99% compared with untreated litter. Subsequent work done by Moore et al. (1999) showed that alum applications to poultry litter resulted in significant improvements in broiler performance, due to lower ammonia levels in the production facility. The emphasis on studies quantifying emissions is primarily a response to impending regulations on animal production facilities. ...
Article
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of alum as litter amendment on broiler performance. Broiler chicks were raised 1 to 42 days of age. A total 200 chicks were randomly assigned in four groups comprising of 50 each. The birds were raised on different concentrations of alum treated rice hulls. Overall performance index was significantly higher in T3 followed by T2, T1 and control groups. Litter pH of control group was significantly higher than treatments groups. Lowest pH was observed in T2 group which was non significant within T1 & T3. Moisture % of group T3 were statistically significant from group T2 and group T1. Moisture % was significantly lowest in T3 followed by T2, T1 and control Group. Nitrogen % of litter material of different groups were statistically significant among other groups. N % in litter was significantly highest in T3 followed by T2, T1 & control group.
... Compared with raw litter and reduced tillage, no-tillage and pelletized litter treatments yielded much lower exports and concentrations of estrogens, indicating that pelletized litter and no-tillage could be used as best management practices to reduce estrogen exports from agricultural fields. 23 Testosterone (6−19 ng L −1 ) and βE2 (19−389 ng L −1 ) were observed in runoff following poultry litter application depending on tillage conditions, 24 whereas another study detected βE2 (6−66 ng L −1 ) in groundwater adjacent to fields amended with poultry litter and cattle manure. 25 Nichols et al. 24 demonstrated that field-applied poultry litter can contribute βE2 to runoff, and amending poultry litter with alum reduced mean βE2 concentrations. ...
... In these studies, runoff concentration appeared strongly dependent on the litter application rate and frequency. 24,25 Mansell et al. 10 investigated soil and runoff concentrations in simulated rainfall experiments from steer feedlots. Whereas only three of the six hormones they measured were detected in fresh manure, all six were detected in surficial soil after two weeks. ...
Article
The presence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in municipal biosolids in the U.S. has received considerable attention by the public and scientific community over the last several years. Of particular concern is whether the presence of EDCs in biosolids results in significant risks to public health and the environment upon land application of the biosolids. Recent research has shown a high mobility of certain hormones in land applied biosolids. These hormones have the ability to be transported from the soils to waterways. The occurrence, impact and control of numerous other groups of contaminants known generically as compounds of potential concern (CPCs), contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), as well as various other terms and acronyms, are a subject of ongoing discussion and study among professional organizations serving the engineering and sciences communities. While the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has evaluated the risks associated with dioxins present in biosolids-amended soils, to date, no other microconstituents, particularly those of emerging concern, have been subjected to complete risk assessments with respect to the land application of municipal biosolids. In wildlife, the evidence for endocrine disruption is based primarily on studies of aquatic species. For instance, reported effects of endocrine disruption in fishes include high hormone levels, altered sex ratios, intersexuality, and reduced fertility and fecundity. Additionally, recent research has found that very small doses of testosterone on female fish can masculinize and inhibit reproduction. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the research performed by Dr. Borch and Colorado State University concerning the mobility of hormones contained in land applied municipal biosolids and available treatment technologies to reduce the levels.
... Significant concentrations of estrogens and androgens have been reported in ponds or streams receiving runoff from fields fertilized with chicken litter (Hanselman et al., 2003;Nichols et al., 1997). In fact, depending on application rate, concentrations in runoff have been measured as high as 1280 ng/l (Nichols et al., 1997). ...
... Significant concentrations of estrogens and androgens have been reported in ponds or streams receiving runoff from fields fertilized with chicken litter (Hanselman et al., 2003;Nichols et al., 1997). In fact, depending on application rate, concentrations in runoff have been measured as high as 1280 ng/l (Nichols et al., 1997). ...
... Despite the known threats of hormones to the aquatic ecosystem, the processes affecting hormone fate and transport are not well characterized, especially under field conditions. The vast majority of studies conducted on the fate and transport of hormones have been conducted in controlled laboratory settings or on small research plots using rainfall simulators to generate surface runoff [e.g., 12,[13][14][15]. Only a few studies have been conducted on "working farms" (i.e., farms that operate for profit rather than research purposes) under natural rainfall conditions [16][17][18][19]. ...
... The mass fluxes of E2 and E1 exported from the tile drain were generated as a convolution interval of the masses released from the vadose zone to tile drain as: where φ mp (t)MF sz, E2 (t) and φ mp (t)MF sz, E1 (t) are the hormone inputs to the tile drain from the vadose zone, and f mp is the instantaneous unit hydrograph for macropore flow: (15) and t mp is the recession rate constant for macropore flow (value given in Table 1). ...
... When manure is land applied, some portion of excreted hormones may enter water systems through runoff or leaching (Nichols et al., 1997;Finlay-Moore et al., 2000;Dyer et al., 2001;Jenkins et al., 2006). All the hormones discussed above are at least partially degraded following land application of manure, to less active metabolites or all the way to CO 2 . ...
... One of the first reports that raised concern about hormones from animal agriculture was with land application of broiler litter (Nichols et al., 1997). The 17β-estradiol concentrations in surface runoff increased with increasing application rate, reaching a maximum of 1280 ng l −1 at an application rate of 7.05 t litter ha −1 . ...
Chapter
Most environmental concerns associated with livestock farms focus on nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) that impair the health of aquatic systems or on pathogens that may lead to food- or water-borne disease. In recent years, however, other potential contaminants are becoming of concern. Hormones (oestrogens, androgens, progesterone and various synthetic hormones) contained in livestock manure have generated wide interest because of their endocrine disrupting effects (Lange et al., 2002; Hanselman et al., 2003; Lorenzen et al., 2004). Similarly, the extensive use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are cause for increasing concern. Livestock operations are often cited as a reservoir for resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (Chee-Sanford et al., 2001; Smith et al., 2004; Sawant et al., 2007; McKinney et al., 2010), and antibiotic use has implications for both animal and human health. This chapter will focus on these emerging contaminants in livestock manure.
... Estrogens in land-applied manure are stable and can eventually reach aquatic environments through surface runoff. For instance, Nichols et al. (1997) found that 17b-estradiol (b-E2) persisted for 7 d under field conditions and that simulated storm events occurring immediately after field application of poultry litter produced significantly higher b-E2 in poultry litter amended runoff compared with the control. ...
Article
Full-text available
Application of animal manure on agricultural lands is one of the main sources of estrogen contamination in the environment. Poultry and cow manure contain free and conjugated forms of the natural estrogens (e.g., estrone [E1] and estradiol [E2]) that can enter surface waters during runoff events. Estrone has been identified as the major form of estrogen in the environment; therefore, this study is focused on the evaluation of the degree of mineralization and fate of E1 in a simulated poultry litter and cow manure runoff water. A time-course study was conducted using simulated runoff water that consisted of 0.5 mg cow manure or poultry litter dissolved in 1 L of water spiked with radiolabeled E1 (C-E1). Samples were analyzed for estrogen concentrations at Day 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. In the poultry litter simulated runoff water, E1 was biotransformed to 17β-estrone-3-sulfate (E1-3S) but was eventually mineralized to CO; a total E1 mineralization of 92.2% occurred after 7 d of aerobic incubation. In contrast, the concentrations of E1 and other forms of endogenous estrogens detected in the cow manure simulated runoff water, such as E1-3S, 17α-estradiol (α-E2), and 17β-estradiol (β-E2), remained relatively constant and persisted over the 7 d of aerobic incubation. Results of this study demonstrate the differences in the fate of estrone in the simulated poultry litter and cow manure runoff water, highlighting the ability of the endogenous microbial community from poultry litter to mineralize estrogens to CO.
... This suggests that degradation or sorption of estrogens occurred in the riparian zone, including microbial and fungal degradation, sorption to soil particles, and photolysis (Jurgens et al., 2002;Powers and Angel, 2008). These results are consistent with estradiol retention between 58 (narrow buffer) and 94% (wide buffer) observed in grassed buffer strips depending on buffer width (6.1, 12.2, and 18.3 m) by Nichols et al. (1997). ...
Article
Riparian zones have been used for water quality management with respect to NO 3⁻ in subsurface flow and total P (TP), sediments, and pesticides in overland flow for decades. Only recently has the fate and transport of soluble reactive P (SRP), Hg, emerging contaminants, and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes (N 2 O, CO 2 , and CH 4 ) been examined in riparian zones. Overall, riparian zones are efficient at reducing emerging contaminants in subsurface flow and only function as hot spots of methylmercury production in the landscape when dominated by Hg-rich wet organic soils. However, riparian zones do not provide consistent benefits with respect to SRP removal or GHG emissions. Although most existing riparian models almost exclusively focus on NO 3⁻ removal, recent developments in riparian models demonstrate the potential for using easily accessible digital environmental datasets to simulate and scale up riparian functions beyond NO 3⁻ removal to include SRP, TP, and GHG dynamics. To further inform integrated watershed management efforts, more research should be conducted on how various practices, including stream restoration, subsurface drainage, two-stage ditches, beaver dam analogues, denitrification bioreactors and permeable reactive barriers, artificial wetlands, and short-rotation forestry crops affect riparian water and air quality functions. Riparian zone benefits should be discussed not only with respect to water and air quality, but also in terms of recreation, habitat for wildlife, and other ecosystem services. More research is needed to fully address potential water quality or air quality tradeoffs associated with riparian zone management in a multicontaminant–multiuse landscape context. Copyright © American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.
... In addition to endogenous sex steroids found in manure as a natural physiological excretion process, over 90% of cattle in U.S. CAFOs receive steroid hormone treatment (implant or via feeding) for growth promotion [90]. The majority of the contaminated manure is used as fertilizer, without treatment, and surface runoff is likely to transport hormones from cropland to surface water [91,92]. Mansell and colleagues reported the presence of 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, testosterone, and progesterone (ranging from 5 to 250 ng L −1 ) in runoff from feedlot surfaces during a rainfall simulation after the animals were removed from the pens [93]. ...
Article
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The number and amount of man-made chemicals present in the aquatic environment has increased considerably over the past 50 years. Among these contaminants, endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) represent a significant proportion. This family of compounds interferes with normal hormonal processes through multiple molecular pathways. They represent a potential risk for human and wildlife as they are suspected to be involved in the development of diseases including, but not limited to, reprotoxicity, metabolic disorders, and cancers. More precisely, several studies have suggested that the increase of breast cancers in industrialized countries is linked to exposure to EDCs, particularly estrogen-like compounds. Estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) are the two main transducers of estrogen action and therefore important targets for these estrogen-like endocrine disrupters. More than 70% of human breast cancers are ERα-positive and estrogen-dependent, and their development and growth are not only influenced by endogenous estrogens but also likely by environmental estrogen-like endocrine disrupters. It is, therefore, of major importance to characterize the potential estrogenic activity from contaminated surface water and identify the molecules responsible for the hormonal effects. This information will help us understand how environmental contaminants can potentially impact the development of breast cancer and allow us to fix a maximal limit to the concentration of estrogen-like compounds that should be found in the environment. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of emerging estrogen-like compounds in the environment, sum up studies demonstrating their direct or indirect interactions with ERs, and link their presence to the development of breast cancer. Finally, we emphasize the use of in vitro and in vivo methods based on the zebrafish model to identify and characterize environmental estrogens.
... While municipal wastewater treatment plants have been found to be relatively efficient at removing estrogens from the waste streams (Chen and Hu, 2010;D' Ascenzo et al., 2003;Gomes et al., 2009), 90% of the total estrogens found in the environment are estimated to be the result of animal agriculture (Lange et al., 2002;Maier et al., 2000). Livestock wastes have been associated with estrogen detections in runoff waters from fields receiving their manures (Bushee et al., 1998;Finlay-Moore et al., 2000;Nichols et al., 1998;Nichols et al., 1997), subsurface waters near livestock production facilities (Arnon et al., 2008;Fine et al., 2003;Kolodziej et al., 2004;Peterson et al., 2000;Wicks et al., 2004;Zhao et al., 2010), and surface and subsurface waters at the watershed level (Barber et al., 2000;Kolpin et al., 2002;Peterson et al., 2005). Wildlife can also contribute significant amounts of estrogenic activity, affecting surface waters similar to livestock (Shappell, 2006). ...
Article
17β-Estradiol (E2), a natural, endocrine-disrupting, steroid hormone, is excreted by all vertebrates and can enter the environment from domestic animal and wildlife wastes. Multiple field studies using livestock manures as E2 sources suggest significant background concentrations of E2 (e.g., wildlife sources, hydrolysis of E2 conjugates, previous inputs). To accurately understand field fate and transport processes of E2, it is necessary to address the issue of background detections. In this study, two fluorinated and three brominated surrogate compounds of E2 were synthesized and compared to native E2 using soil/water batch experiments and for estrogenic activity. Analytical difficulties presented by the two fluorinated congeners deemed these compounds to be unsuitable surrogates of E2, and further assessment was abandoned. However, the brominated congeners proved promising, with log( Koc) values that fell within the range previously reported for E2. Batch studies yielded similar relative aqueous concentrations and linear sorption isotherms across time for E2 and 2-bromo-17β-estradiol; however, the relative aqueous concentrations and linear sorption isotherms of 4-bromo-17β-estradiol and 2,4-dibromo-17β-estradiol were different from E2 but similar to one another. All three brominated congeners possessed estrogenic activity by E-Screen assay, albeit three orders of magnitude less than native E2, putatively due to steric interference introduced by the large bromine atom on the phenolic ring, the group that mediates interaction with the estrogen receptor. The data suggest that 2-bromo-17β-estradiol may serve as a suitable surrogate for E2 in planned field scale tracer studies designed to distinguish between antecedent and de novo inputs. © American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA.
... A significant portion of this manure (if not all) is applied to agricultural fields as a source of fertilizer. Therefore, surface runoff from manure amended fields can potentially transport hormones from cropland to surface water resources [9,10]. ...
Article
Runoff generated from livestock manure amended row crop fields is one of the major pathways of hormone transport to the aquatic environment. The study determined the effects of manure handling, tillage methods, and rainfall timing on the occurrence and transport of steroid hormones in runoff from the row crop field. Stockpiled and composted manure from hormone treated and untreated animals was applied to test plots and subjected to two rainfall simulation events 30 days apart. During the two rainfall simulation events, detection of any steroid hormone or metabolites was identified in 8% − 86% of runoff samples from any tillage and manure treatment. The most commonly detected hormones were 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol, testosterone, and α-zearalenol at concentrations ranging up to 100–200 ng/ L. Considering the maximum detected concentrations in runoff, no more than 10% of the applied hormone can be transported through the dissolved phase of runoff. Results from the study indicate that hormones can persist in soils receiving livestock manure over an extended period of time and the dissolved phase of hormone in runoff is not the preferred pathway of transport from the manure applied fields irrespective of tillage treatments and timing of rainfall.
... It is worthwhile to mention here that there are many reports of presence of testicular oocytes in various fishes exposed to sewage effluents [40][41][42]. Agricultural runoff, human waste water effluent and industrial sources can also introduce estrogenic compounds into the aquatic environment [43][44][45]. Sperm necrosis observed in the present study may also be attributed to the presence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the effluents [46]. Environmental estrogens can mimic natural estrogens which may lead to potential sexual dysfunction. ...
Article
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Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) Page 1723 City garbage and municipal Wastes causing Physiological stress in Testis and Sperm of the fish, Channa gachua in a North East Indian Hill Stream Eva Mary Pala1 & Sudip Dey2,* 1 Department of Zoology, Shillong College, Shillong-793003, Meghalaya, India. 2 Electron Microscopy Divisions, SAIF, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong-793022, Meghalaya, India. Abstract: The hill stream Umkhrah, located in Shillong, a North East Indian city is being constantly polluted by city garbage and municipal wastes for the last few years. Water quality analyses of the contaminated hill stream revealed fluctuation in pH, low to high range of free carbon –di- oxide, low level of dissolved oxygen, and relatively high level of total suspended solids (TSS). Histo-pathology of testes of fish inhabiting the polluted stream revealed the occurrence of inter- and intra-tubular vacuoles with necrotic and distorted spermatogonia along with reduction in sperm number. Inflammation of spermatogonia and hemorrhage were observed at certain locations. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of short sperm tail with deformed and enlarged sperm-head. Transmission electron microscopy of sperms exhibited head with detached plasma membrane, presence of vacuole in between the mitochondria, degeneration of flagellum of the sperm, membrane dilation in nucleus and abnormal shapes of nuclei. Abnormalities observed in the testes and sperm of fish inhabiting the contaminated hill stream and their possible impacts on male reproductive physiology of the fish have been discussed in the light of available literature.
... Oestrogens are a serious problem in sewage sludge and E2 (17 ß-estradiol); EE2 (synthetic 17 α-ethinylestradiol); BPA (bisphenol A); OP (4-tert octylphenol); DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane); 4-NP (4-n-nonylphenol); VTG (vitellogenin) effluents as well as in animal wastes. Field experiments with poultry litter applied to pasture demonstrated its contribution to 17 ß-estradiol in run-off and showed that this hormone can persist for at least 7 days under field conditions (Nichols et al. 1997) ECDs are critical environmental pollutants with more or less unknown consequences for ecosystems, animals and humans. Typical sewage effluents and sewage sludge contain many thousands of chemicals, not all of them already identified. ...
Chapter
As well as fertilizer benefits, reutilization of phosphor (P) from secondary sources and recycling materials such as sewage sludge, farmyard manures, composts , biogas residues or meat and bone meal products on agricultural soils bears the great risk of contaminating farm sites with organic xenobiotics. Contamination of groundwater , surface and drinking water as well as of aquatic sediments and soils with pharmaceuticals has been reported (Hamscher et al. in Analytical Chemistry 74:1509–1518, 2002; Hirsch et al. in Science of the Total Environment 225:109–118, 1999; Kümmerer in Pharmaceuticals in the environment. Sources, fate, effects and risks. Springer, Heidelberg, 2001b; Ternes in Water Research 32:3245–3260, 1998). According to available data, biodegradation is more the exception than the rule, which is one reason for the widespread occurrence of these compounds in the environment (Kümmerer in Chemosphere 45:957–969, 2001a). Antibiotics and disinfectants are especially designed to have a strong impact on microorganisms, making environmental effects very likely to occur. Therefore it is necessary to consider possible risks of using secondary raw materials containing such xenobiotics despite their advantages as a fertilizer or source of organic material. For many organic contaminants no environmental risk assessment (ERA) is available. For veterinary drugs, a note of guidance on ERA was issued in January 1998 but hardly any eco-toxicological data are available for products approved before 1998 (Baguer et al. in Chemosphere 40:751–757, 2000; EU in EMEA/CVMP/055/96. EMEA, London, 1996) or for human therapeutics. For many pharmaceuticals as well as organic chemicals their environmental effects are quite unknown, particularly any interactions. New technologies enabling the detection of traces of organic xenobiotics and their metabolites even in critical matrices (slurry, sewage sludge) are partly responsible for the higher awareness of possible risks. Environmental tests on the effects of xenobiotics are still rare and have only been performed in the last decade and mainly for aquatic organisms. It is the aim of this chapter to give an overview of the different classes of organic contamination that are relevant in organic P fertilizers. Moreover technical solutions to decrease or minimize the risk of soil contaminations by using organic P fertilizers are discussed and the different recycling materials are evaluated with respect to their environmental risks. It is not possible to address all different organic compounds and their impact on the environment in one chapter because of the sheer number of compounds and metabolites. The focus was put on the input of pharmaceutical contamination into agriculture because sewage sludge and farmyard manures are important organic P fertilizers, which can contain high amounts of pharmaceuticals. But even so this field is too large to cover the whole spectrum taking into account that in Germany alone 50,000 drugs are registered for human use, containing more than 3000 different active compounds (Kümmerer in Pharmaceuticals in the environment. Sources, fate, effects and risks. Springer, Heidelberg, 2001b). In order to illustrate the general problems arising from field application of environmentally relevant substances, two main classes of contaminants were discussed in detail: antibiotics and substances with an endocrine potential . For more detailed information several extensive review articles and books are available covering the different aspects of pharmaceutical drugs in the environment, their occurrence and behavior in the environment, their chemical characteristics, and their impact on soil organisms, plant growth and aquatic life (Boxall et al. in Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology 180:1–91, 2004; Halling-Sørensen et al. in Chemosphere 36:357–393, 1998; Kümmerer in Pharmaceuticals in the environment. Sources, fate, effects and risks. Springer, Heidelberg, 2001b; Kumar et al. in Advances in Agronomy 87:1–54, 2005a; Sarmah et al. in Chemosphere 65:725–759, 2006). Pathogens, another important possible organic contamination of secondary P fertilizers, were also not addressed in detail, as the topic is comprehensive enough to fill books on its own (e.g. Bowman in Manure pathogens: manure management, regulations, and water quality protection. WEF Press, United States, 2009).
... Animal waste serves as both a point and non-point source of both E2 and E1 to surface water (Shore et al. 1993(Shore et al. , 1995. The presence of E2 has been documented in overland flow from pastures (Dutta et al. 2012;Nichols et al. 1997;Shore et al. 1995), within lagoons holding wastewater from concentrated animal feeding operations (Hutchins et al. 2007), and in soils underlying lagoons (Duncan et al. 2015). Within agriculture, constructed wetland systems have been employed as a bio-filtration system to treat farm wastewater (DeBusk and DeBusk 2001). ...
Article
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Hormones, 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1), have been reported in surface water. Effluent from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) serves as a major point source as humans excrete E2 and E1 in urine and feces. WWTPs are not designed to remove the hormones, and elevated concentrations of E1 and E2 have been observed in treated eff luent. Recently, WWTPs have been incorporating wetlands as a tertiary treatment. The project objective was to investigate the reduction of E2 and E1 in treated wastewaters subjected to a tertiary treatment composed of a coupled wetland and ground water flow through system. E2 and E1 were measured in the treated effluent entering the wetland, the wetland waters, and in the ground water downgradient of the wetlands. Treated effluent had the highest mean concentrations of E2, 32 ng/L, and E1, 76 ng/L. Wetland waters had slightly lower concentrations of 27 ng/L for E2 and 55 ng/L for E1. Measurable concentrations of E2 were observed only once in five of the 13 wells at a maximum concentration of 18 ng/L, while E1 was observed only in two wells. Higher concentrations of both E2 and E1 were measured in the treated effluent than in the wetlands, indicating that the wetlands are serving as a sink for E2 and E1. The absences of E2 and E1 within the ground water indicate that both are being effectively removed within the groundwater system.
... Significant reductions in propane use (Worley et al., 1999;Moore et al., 2000) and electricity usage were also reported from houses with alum-treated litter. Furthermore, alum additions to litter have been found to increase the litter N content Shreve et al., 1995;Tomlinson et al., 2008); decrease pathogens levels in poultry litter and on broiler carcasses (Line, 2002;Line and Bailey, 2006;Rothrock et al., 2008); decrease soluble organic C in litter (Moore and Miller, 1994); decrease soluble P levels in litter and P runoff from fields receiving poultry litter Shreve et al., 1995); and decrease levels of heavy metals, dissolved C, and estrogen in runoff water when litter is used as fertilizer (Moore et al., 1998;Nichols et al., 1997). ...
Article
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Alum [Al(SO4) ·14HO] addition to poultry litter has been shown to reduce ammonia (NH) concentrations in poultry houses; however, its effects on greenhouse gas (GHG; NO, CH, and CO) emissions is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of alum additions on (i) in-house NH and GHG concentrations, (ii) NH and GHG emissions, and (iii) litter chemical properties. Two identical broiler houses located in northwest Arkansas were used for this study: one house was a control and the other was treated with alum between each flock of birds. Ventilation rates were coupled with in-house NH and GHG measurements to determine emission rates. Overall, alum additions significantly reduced the daily average in-house NH concentration by 42% (8.9 vs. 15.4 μL L), and the overall NH emission rate was reduced by 47% (7.2 vs. 13.4 kg d house). The average cumulative NH emission for the three flocks was 330 kg house flock for the alum-treated house and 617 kg house flock for the control. Concentrations and emissions of nitrous oxide (NO) and methane (CH) from the alum-treated house were not significantly different than the untreated house. However, carbon dioxide (CO) emissions were significantly higher from the untreated house than the alum-treated house. Alum also significantly increased litter N content and reduced the C/N ratio. These results indicate that the addition of alum to poultry litter is not only an effective management practice for reducing in-house NH concentrations and emissions but also significantly reduces CO emissions from poultry facilities.
... We believe that Al sequesters ionophores by flocculating it together with DOC. Similarly, DeLaune and Moore (2013) and Nichols et al. (1997) also attributed lower hormone (17b-estradiol) concentrations in runoff to flocculation of DOC from alum-treated plots. ...
Article
Polyether ionophores, monensin, and salinomycin are commonly used as antiparasitic drugs in broiler production and may be present in broiler litter (bird excreta plus bedding material). Long-term application of broiler litter to pastures may lead to ionophore contamination of surface waters. Because polyether ionophores break down at low pH, we hypothesized that decreasing litter pH with an acidic material such as aluminum sulfate (alum) would reduce ionophore losses to runoff (i.e., monensin and salinomycin concentrations, loads, or amounts lost). We quantified ionophore loss to runoff in response to (i) addition of alum to broiler litter and (ii) length of time between litter application and the first simulated rainfall event. The factorial experiment consisted of unamended (~pH 9) vs. alumamended litters (~pH 6), each combined with simulated rainfall at 0, 2, or 4 wk after litter application. Runoff from alum-amended broiler litter had 33% lower monensin concentration (p < 0.01), 57% lower monensin load (p < 0.01), 48% lower salinomycin concentration (p < 0.01), and 66% lower salinomycin load (p < 0.01) than runoff from unamended broiler litter when averaged across all events of rainfall. Ionophore losses to runoff were also less when rainfall was delayed for 2 or 4 wk after litter application relative to applying rainfall immediately after litter application. While the weather is difficult to predict, our data suggest that ionophore losses in runoff can be reduced if broiler litter applications are made to maximize dry time after application. © 2015 American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.
... In runoff from soils amended with manure [15][16][17] or in WWTP biosolids [3,18], E2, EE2, ZAL, and TBA have all been detected. To limit the effects on wildlife in agriculturally impacted surface waters, it is essential that the residual steroids in runoff be rendered inactive, and this is especially true for EDCs that undergo dark conversion back to the parent in receiving waters [13]. ...
Article
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Hormonally active compounds may move with agricultural runoff from fields with applied manure and biosolids into surface waters where they pose a threat to human and environmental health. Riparian zone plants could remove hormonally active compounds from agricultural runoff. Therefore, sorption to roots, uptake, translocation, and transformation of three estrogens (17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, and zeranol) and one androgen (trenbolone acetate) commonly found in animal manure or biosolids were assessed by hydroponically-grown hybrid poplar, Populus deltoides x nigra, DN-34, widely used in riparian buffer strips. Results clearly showed that these hormones were rapidly removed from 2 mg L(-1) hydroponic solutions by more than 97% after 10 days of exposure to full poplar plants or live excised poplars (cut-stem, no leaves). Removals by sorption to dead poplar roots that had been autoclaved were significantly less, 71-84%. Major transformation products (estrone and estriol for estradiol, zearalanone for zeranol, and 17β-trenbolone from trenbolone acetate) were detected in the root tissues of all three poplar treatments. Root concentrations of metabolites peaked after 1 to 5 days and then decreased in full and live excised poplars by further transformation. Metabolite concentrations were less in dead poplar treatments and only slowly increased without further transformation. Taken together, these findings show that poplars may be effective in controlling the movement of hormonally active compounds from agricultural fields and avoiding runoff to streams. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Biswas et al. (2013) provided a status report on the issues surrounding the use of steroid hormones to produce beef cattle, and they summarized studies designed to determine the environmental fate of steroid hormones. Nichols et al. (1997) evaluated the effect of broiler litter application rate on estradiol concentration in surface runoff and found that concentrations of estradiol in runoff increased with litter application rate. In a follow-up study, Nichols et al. (1998) evaluated the efficacy of grass buffer strip length in reducing the transport of estradiol in runoff from tall fescue plots amended with poultry litter. ...
Article
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Beef feedlot manure distributed to row crop production areas is a potential surface water contaminant source of the steroid hormones commonly used in beef cattle production. This article reports on research conducted at the University of Nebraska Haskell Agricultural Laboratory near Concord, Nebraska, in July 2009. Manure, collected from beef feedlot pens, was stockpiled for ten months prior to application to a row crop field. Previous research identified that the detection frequency of steroid hormones in beef manure varies greatly. Thus, a surrogate (17α-ethynylestradiol, EE2) was applied at a rate of 75 g ha-1 to ensure detectable concentrations in surface runoff samples. EE2 was applied directly to beef cattle manure and to bare soil. The EE2 and manure were either incorporated using a single disk treatment (T) or left on the soil surface in a no-till practice (NT). A rainfall simulation experiment was conducted 24 h after manure and EE2 incorporation using a factorial design consisting of tillage, manure, and EE2 treatments. Runoff samples were collected at 5 min intervals during a 30 min runoff period for each plot. Results indicated 96% less EE2 mass transport from disk-tilled plots compared to no-till. The greatest loss of EE2 was 156 and 6 mg ha-1 from no-till and disked plots, respectively. Results of this study showed that a single-pass disk tillage treatment can limit the overland transport of steroid hormones from crop production areas. teroid hormones in surface water have become an environmental and public health concern, as they can disrupt normal endocrine function during critical
... Previous studies of steroid hormones in runoff from agricultural fields have focused on transport from fields fertilized with chicken litter. Shore et al. (1995), Nichols et al. (1997), Finlay-Moore et al. (2000 determined the concentration of estrogens and androgens in agricultural runoff at various application rate and rainfall intensity in different parts of U.S. Some of the recent studies on soils fertilized with chicken litter show the effects of different litter types, rainfall condition (natural or artificial) and tillage practices on detection of different natural estrogens and androgens (Haggard et al., 2005;Jenkins et al., 2008Jenkins et al., & 2009Dutta et al., 2010). Few studies have investigated transport of hormones used in beef cattle production. ...
Conference Paper
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Hormones are essential to the function and propagation of almost all organisms, yet the environmental fate of hormones is not well understood. Because these substances are so common in nature, the question is not whether they will be found, but rather at what concentrations and in what form (biologically active or inactive) will they be found. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of manure handling and application strategies on artificial hormone losses in runoff through the use of simulated rainfall. In 2008, rainfall simulations were conducted at the Haskell Agricultural Laboratory near Concord, NE (Latitude: 42o 23’ 33.6” N; Longitude: 96o 57’ 18.0” W). The soil at the site is of the Nora silty clay loam family. Field slope was approximately 8% and no-till practices and a corn-soybean rotation had been employed for the previous 7 years. The field study consisted of 3 replications of a check (no manure, no tillage); 2 animal treatments (w/hormones, w/o hormones); 2 manure handling practices (stockpile and compost); and two incorporation methods (moldboard plow+disk and disk). Simulated rainfall was applied within 24-hours of manure application and runoff samples were collected at five minute intervals beginning at runoff initiation. Analyses of runoff samples were conducted using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results of the study showed sporadic infrequent detection of very low concentrations artificial hormones among treatments with no distinct pattern. More samples were detected with treated composted manure plots compared to stockpile manure; on the other hand, moldboard plow with disk incorporation detected more samples compared to the other two methods. The mass transport and flow weighted concentrations varied within the range of 1635 µg/ha and 9.75 ng/L for melengestrol acetate to 10.73 µg/ha and 0.14 ng/L for 17a-trenbolone respectively among the treatments. It can be concluded that low levels of artificial hormones and some metabolites were detected in runoff samples after land application and, may be transported to nearby surface water sources.
... A simulated rain and runoff study on pasture amended with poultry litter by Nichols et al. (1997) revealed that in the first storm runoff concentrations of E2 increased from 1.28 g/L to 198 g/L as application of poultry litter increased. Moreover, during a second storm event E2 was still detected seven days later (losses were 66%-69% less than the first runoff event). ...
... Steroids used for growth promotion can be metabolized to less biologically active forms prior to excretion or can be excreted as parent compounds. Excreted steroids potentially enter the surrounding environment via effluent or surface runoff [4][5][6][7][8][9][10], land applications of manure [11][12][13][14][15][16][17], or particulate matter generated from pen surfaces [18,19] and land application. Synthetic and endogenous steroids can act as endocrine-disrupting compounds among nontarget receptors after introduction to environmental systems. ...
Article
Exogenous growth promoters have been used in United States beef cattle production for over 50 years. The environmental fate and transport of steroid growth promoters suggest potential for endocrine disrupting effects among ecological receptors; however, the initial excretion of steroid metabolites from cattle administered growth promoters has not been well characterized. To better characterize excretion of trenbolone acetate and estrogen metabolites, steers were assigned to one of the following treatment groups: control, given no implant, or treatment, administered a combination implant (200 mg trenbolone acetate; 40 mg estradiol). Blood, urine, and fecal samples were collected over the course of 112 days following implantation. Samples were extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for trenbolone acetate and estrogen metabolites. In both urine and feces, 17á-trenbolone and 17á-estradiol were the predominant metabolites following implantation. Mean concentrations of 17á-trenbolone and 17á-estradiol in feces of implanted steers were 5.9 ± 0.37 ng/g and 2.7 ± 0.22 ng/g, respectively. A best-fit model is presented to predict 17átrenbolone and 17á-estradiol excretion from steers receiving implants. The present study provides the first characterization of both trenbolone and estrogen metabolites in excreta from implanted cattle and will help provide estimates of steroid production from feedyards in the United States. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC
... These decreased metal concentrations were associated with decreased soluble organic carbon concentrations found in runoff collected from treatments receiving ATPL. Similarly, Nichols et al. (1997) found that applications of ATPL resulted in 42% lower concentrations of 17β-estradiol, an estrogen hormone, compared to NPL when applied on an equal dry weight basis. ...
... [15][16] The potential movement of estrogens from agricultural land to surface water by runoff has particularly raised concerns. [17][18][19] For example, increased vitellogenin synthesis has been observed in male rainbow trout exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations as low as 0.1 and 1.0 ng L ¡1 of EE2 and E2, respectively. [20] The antibiotics triclosan, tetracycline and penicillin have been shown to reduce E1 and E2 mineralization in liquid swine manure and soils. ...
Article
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Natural steroid estrogens (e.g., 17 β-estradiol, E2), synthetic steroid estrogens (e.g., 17 α-ethinylestradiol, EE2) and pharmaceutical antibiotics (e.g., ciprofloxacin) are chemicals detected in biosolids and sewage sludges because they partition into the solids fraction during the wastewater treatment process. This research utilized a three-way factorial design (six media × two estrogens × three antibiotic treatments) to quantify cumulative E2 and EE2 mineralization over 133 d (MAX) in a range of sewage sludge and biosolid samples in the presence (4 and 40 mg kg−1) and absence of ciprofloxacin. The same three-way factorial design was utilized to quantify the impact of the six media, E2 or EE2, and ciprofloxacin on cumulative soil respiration over 133 d (RESP). Minimal ciprofloxacin mineralization was observed (2 in the presence of E2 and from 69.55 to 893.95 mg CO2 in the presence of EE2. The sorption-limited bioavailability of EE2, which is inherently resistant to biodegradation due to chemical structure, as MAX and Freundlich sorption coefficients (Kf) were negatively correlated. As such, the Kf values of EE2 were largest in composted biosolids in which EE2 was particularly resistant to microbial degradation as the MAX of EE2 was f values of E2 because some steps in the E2 transformation process have been found to occur in the sorbed phase. The MAX of E2 was significantly greater in the biosolid and composted biosolid media than in any other media, whereas the MAX of E2 decreased in the following order: secondary sewage sludge > primary sewage sludge > biosolid = composted biosolid. This suggests that sewage sludges in municipal lagoons and pre-treatment holding lagoons are a more favorable media for mineralization of EE2, whereas biosolids in post-treatment storage lagoons are a more favorable media for the mineralization of E2. The presence of ciprofloxacin will have no impact on the potential E2 or EE2 mineralization rates in these cases.
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During the recent past, the poultry sector has shown immense adaptations to meet the ever-increasing demand for safe meat and eggs. However, this growth has been accompanied by structural changes within the industry which has led to the emergence of various environmental and public health concerns ranging from water, air, and soil pollution to ecological imbalances, biodiversity losses, and occupational health and safety hazards. This paper analyses the environmental and human health impacts of intensive poultry production and various technical strategies to mitigate these issues.
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The highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N2) outbreak in the Midwestern United States (US) in 2015 was historic due to the number of birds and poultry operations impacted and the corresponding economic loss to the poultry industry and was the largest animal health emergency in US history. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), with the assistance of several state and federal agencies, aided the response to the outbreak by developing a study to determine the extent of virus transport in the environment. The study goals were to: develop the appropriate sampling methods and protocols for measuring avian influenza virus (AIV) in groundwater, provide the first baseline data on AIV and outbreak- and poultry-related contaminant occurrence and movement into groundwater, and document climatological factors that may have affected both survival and transport of AIV to groundwater during the months of the 2015 outbreak. While site selection was expedient, there were often delays in sample response times due to both relationship building between agencies, groups, and producers and logistical time constraints. This study's design and sampling process highlights the unpredictable nature of disease outbreaks and the corresponding difficulty in environmental sampling of such events. The lessons learned, including field protocols and approaches, can be used to improve future research on AIV in the environment.
Article
Poultry manure contains free and conjugated forms of the natural estrogens 17β-estradiol and estrone, which can be transported to receiving waters via runoff when land-applied. Previous studies have demonstrated estrogens in runoff from poultry manure-amended fields but have not tracked changes in estrogenicity within this water over time. Microbial conversion of conjugated estrogens (a major portion of water-extractable estrogens) to parent forms may result in temporary increases in estrogenicity in natural water bodies. The present study created 80-L batches of simulated poultry manure runoff, which were investigated over 10 d for estrogenicity by bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen assay and fathead minnow () vitellogenin induction model. The efficacy of different compost conditions (in-vessel aeration ± turning, and piling) on reduction/elimination of aqueously extractable estrogens in poultry manure was also investigated. Results indicate 3- to 10-fold increases in estrogenicity in various poultry manure mixtures during 10-d observations. Estrogenicity returned to low levels in postcompost treatments but remained elevated in the precompost treatment. Aerated compost resulted in >75% reductions in initial, peak, and 10-d mean estrogenicity in aqueous mixtures (0.3, 0.8, and 0.5 ng 17β-estradiol equivalents [EEQ] L, respectively) compared with the precompost mixture (1.4, 4.8, and 2.1 ng EEQ L, respectively). Estrogenicity was significantly higher in the aqueous extract from the piled treatment than the aerated treatment, and 10-d exposure of male fish to the piled treatment resulted in statistically significant vitellogenin induction. Collectively, our results suggest a need to investigate estrogenicity in surface waters for several days after receiving manure-influenced runoff.
Article
Stereoisomers of estradiol (E2) or trenbolone (TB) can occur together in the environment receiving human or livestock wastes. However, the effect of their co-occurrence on persistence has not been well elucidated. A sandy sediment and a silt loam sediment were used to establish microcosms with α- and β-isomers of E2 or TB spiked individually and together. Sediments were sampled periodically and analyzed for E2 and TB isomers and their biotransformation products using derivatization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that stereoselective biotransformation was significant for E2 in both sediments and TB in the sandy sediment with β-isomers decaying more rapidly than α-isomers. In the sandy sediment containing limited natural organic carbon and nutrients, co-occurrence of both isomers of either E2 or TB decreased the dissipation rates. In the silt loam sediment with abundant organic matter and nutrients, the decay rates of both isomers were not changed in the presence of the other isomer. Estrone (E1) and trendione (TD) were detected as primary metabolites of E2 and TB isomers, respectively. The formation and decay profiles of E1 were similar in both sediments with 92–100% of E2 transformed to E1. The profiles of TD were different across sediments with ~100% of TB transformed to TD except in the sandy sediment where 51–60% of 17α-TB was converted to TD. These results indicate that the biotransformation processes of steroid hormone are stereoselective in sediment and co-occurrence of stereoisomers can prolong steroid persistence and thus pose greater environmental risk.
Article
Treating poultry litter with alum has been shown to lower ammonia (NH) emissions and phosphorus (P) runoff losses. Two long-term studies were conducted to assess the effects of alum-treated poultry litter on P availability, leaching, and runoff under pasture conditions. From 1995 to 2015, litter was applied annually in a paired watershed study comparing alum-treated and untreated litter and in a small plot study comparing 13 treatments (an unfertilized control, four rates of alum-treated litter, four rates of untreated litter, and four rates of NHNO). In the paired watershed study, total P loads in runoff were 231% higher from pasture receiving untreated litter (1.96 kg P ha) than from that receiving alum-treated litter (0.85 kg P ha). In both studies, alum-treated litter resulted in significantly higher Mehlich III P (M3-P) and lower water-extractable P at the soil surface, reflecting greater retention of applied P and lesser availability of that P to runoff or leaching. In soils fertilized with alum-treated litter, M3-P was much higher when analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectrometry than by colorimetry, possibly due to the formation of aluminum phytate. Indeed, alum-treated poultry litter leached less P over the 20-yr study: M3-P at 10 to 50 cm was 266% greater in plots fertilized with untreated litter (331 kg M3-P ha) than with alum-treated litter (124 kg M3-P ha). This research provides compelling evidence that treating poultry litter with alum provides short-term and long-term benefits to P conservation and water quality.
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Phosphorus (P) is generally considered to be the limiting nutrient for eutrophication in lakes and rivers. Phosphorus runoff from soils fertilized with animal manures, such as poultry manure, can be relatively high even when moderate application rates are used. Recent research has indicated that treating poultry manure with aluminum sulfate (alum) can reduce phosphorus runoff and decrease ammonia volatilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of alum applications to poultry manure on (1) ammonia volatilization rates from manure, (2) atmospheric ammonia levels in poultry houses, (3) poultry performance (weight gains, feed conversion, etc.), (4) energy use, and (5) P runoff from small watersheds. Two farms in NW Arkansas, USA, were utilized for this study. Alum was applied at a rate of 1816 kg house−1 in half of the houses at each farm after each flock of birds and incorporated into the manure. The other houses were controls. Ammonia volatilization rates were reduced by 97% with alum applications for the first four weeks of each growout. Birds grown on alum-treated manure were significantly heavier and had better feed conversion that birds grown in control houses. Energy use was also lower in alum-treated houses due to reduced ventilation requirements to remove ammonia (NH3). An economic analysis indicated that this best management practice was very cost-effective, with a benefit/ cost ratio of 1.96. Phosphorus runoff from normal and alum-treated poultry manure was evaluated from field-sized plots (1 acre each) for 3 years. Phosphorus concentrations in runoff water from alum-treated manure were 75% lower than normal manure. These results indicate that treating poultry manure with alum is a cost-effective best management practice that reduces nonpoint source P runoff.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on mammals and precocial birds to examine the basic mechanisms regulating the development of the brain, behavior, and reproductive organs. This is done in the context of a discussion of findings relating the consequences of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) exposure during critical life stages in differentiation of the brain, behavior, and reproductive organs in birds and mammals. The emphasis in mammals is on research with laboratory animals and wildlife, and in birds, both experimental studies and research with wildlife are reviewed. The process of sexual differentiation takes many forms in vertebrate species. Despite variations in timing and the specific mechanisms involved in this process, all species appear to use steroid hormones as signals for the appropriate differentiation of tissues that distinguish males and females. Because steroid hormones are a critical element in the process of sexual differentiation, exposure to exogenous steroids or EDCs that mimic, antagonize, or interfere with these hormonal signals at sensitive developmental stages in the life cycle is likely to impact subsequent reproductive and neuroendocrine functions.
Article
This study demonstrated the efficiency of the soil trench system for removal of EDCs, CODCr, phosphorous and nitrogen contaminants in rural sewage and the effectiveness in controlling the non-point source agricultural pollution. Attenuation of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) including three natural (Estrone (E1), estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3)) and two artificially synthesized (17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and biphenyl-A (BPA)) chemicals were evaluated in soil trench systems along with a rural domestic sewage in the basin area of Erhai Lake. The results showed that concentrations of natural estrogens were higher than those of synthetic EE2 and BPA for the sixteen sampling sites. The sum of E1 and E2 accounted for 87.1%-99.2% of the total amount of natural estrogen. The removal rates of the soil trench system for Natural estrogen, EE2 and BPA were 1.42-168.21, 0.64 and 3.48 mg/(m2·a), while the amount of natural estrogens remaining in the soil accounted for approximately 4.3%, 6.3% and 3.8% of the initial influent amounts of E1, E2 and E3, respectively. In general, soil trench system can effectively remove natural estrogens (70.3%), EE2 (63.6%) and BPA (77.8%). Meanwhile, removals of CODCr (69.8%), TP (88.7%), TN (57.2%) and NH3-N (88.7%) were also observed during system operation.
Article
The widespread use of chemicals for agriculture, industry, medicine, recreation, and residential purposes has dramatically increased the chemical exposure of vertebrates. Chemicals, especially certain pesticides, herbicides, and endocrine-active phytochemicals, have demonstrated biological actions on the endocrine system with subsequent effects on reproductive, thyroidal, metabolic, and immunological functions in vertebrates. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which mimic endogenous hormones, are creating an emerging issue for avian species. These EDCs act on hormone-sensitive neural systems, organs, and tissues, often with deleterious toxicological effects that ultimately affect individual fitness and health as a result of damage at the genetic, molecular, cellular, and system levels. Characterizing the effects of these varied EDCs and establishing reliable indices of exposure that relate to potential risk to avian populations is challenging. Unique aspects of avian biology including sexual differentiation, lifetime reproductive strategies, migration with varied exposure, mechanisms of actions, and diverse lifespans of birds exacerbate the complexity of assessing EDC effects in birds.
Article
Two identically designed trials were conducted in separate years at the University of Nebraska Haskell Agricultural Laboratory, Concord, Neb., using 192 crossbred heifers (96/trial). Within a trial, heifers were assigned randomly to 2 groups (3 pens/group): 1) treatment (TRT) animals were administered synthetic hormones via subcutaneous implants (Ralgro and Revalor-H) and fed Melengesterol Acetate (MGA), or 2) control (CON) animals with no synthetic hormone provided. Gains and feed conversions were 18.8 and 7.5% better, respectively, for TRT, while CON had 16.7% greater choice and prime carcasses. In runoff samples, progesterone was greater for CON. With the exception of androsterone, average hormonal concentrations in pen surface samples were less than 11 ng/g and concentrations of all compounds were not different across treatments. Results indicate that low levels of both natural and synthetic hormones are found on the feedlot surface and in runoff from feedlot pens.
Article
A competitive real-time (RT) immuno-polymerase chain reaction (iPCR) (RT-iPCR) assay was developed for the sensitive quantification of 17β-estradiol in water. Using a universal iPCR method and polyclonal antibodies, 17β-estradiol was accurately quantified at concentrations ranging from 1 pg mL(-1) to 10 µg mL(-1). The RT-iPCR assay's limit of detection was 0.7 pg mL(-1). The RT-iPCR assay provided an 800-fold increase in sensitivity as well as an expanded working range compared with the corresponding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Assay cross-reactivity to estrone and estriol, two structurally related estrogens, was below 8%. Water samples spiked with 17β-estradiol were analyzed by RT-iPCR to determine the assay's potential as a rapid screen for the monitoring of manure-borne estrogens in the environment. The assay showed recoveries of 82, 102 and 103% for Milli-Q, tap, and irrigation water, respectively, without requiring sample extraction or concentration prior to analysis.
Article
Runoff from the swine manure-treated plots was three times that observed for the control and poultry litter-treated plots at the 50 mm/h rainfall intensity. Curve number for the plots receiving swine manure was 15% greater than that for the control and poultry litter-treated plots. The short-term differences in hydrologic characteristics of the swine manure-treated plots may be attributed to the addition of water via the liquid manure and to soil surface sealing by fine manure particles. Additional work was performed to determine whether the application of the manures affected the hydrologic parameters for longer (4 to 14 days) drying intervals between application and first simulated storm. The results indicated that when the manures were applied at 218 kg nitrogen/ha, hydrologic parameters for the manure-treated plots were no different from those for untreated plots for drying intervals of four days or greater. -from Authors