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Análisis y reflexión sobre modelos teóricos del proceso salud-enfermedad

Cadernos de Saúde Pública (Impact Factor: 0.98). 01/1992; 8(3). DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X1992000300005

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    ABSTRACT: RESUMEN El método epidemiológico es considerado la forma estándar de estudiar los problemas de salud pública. Debido a la complejidad de los problemas sa-nitarios, en las últimas décadas algunos autores llamaron al uso de métodos cualitativos. En este ensayo se muestra que el uso complementario de mé-todos cuantitativos y cualitativos es conservador y limitado, por lo que se sugiere que la salud pública requiere utilizar diversas aproximaciones epis-temológicas, y no solo conjugar métodos cuantitativos y cualitativos. El caso de los plaguicidas y los efectos en la salud humana es usado como ejemplo para mostrar los aportes y limitaciones de diferentes modelos teóricos en salud pública (sanitarista, biomédico, epidemiológico clásico, higienista-pre-ventivo, ecologista, epidemiológico social, económico, material-histórico y neoconservador), así como para poner en evidencia la necesidad de usar diferentes aproximaciones epistemológicas. Se concluye que una aproxima-ción integradora permitirá que la salud pública sea más pluralista y demo-crática. Palabras Clave: Investigación cualitativa, conocimiento, salud pública, pla-guicida (fuente: DeCS, BIREME).
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    ABSTRACT: Although there are few scientific studies on the environment in the Brazilian public health literature, there are indications of recent growth in this theme in research and graduate programs in Brazil, thus tending to consolidate the scientific output in this area. The objective of this study was to contribute to the understanding and characterization of this theme in public health, offering backing for establishing research focused on sustainability of the environment and health. We identified and analyzed the research output on the environment in the most important Brazilian scientific journals in public health (1992-2002), using as the reference Chapter 35 of Agenda 21 (science for sustainability). The results showed: research output highly concentrated in the more affluent Southeast region of the country; predominance of the biological concept of health and the biophysical concept of environment; prevalence of diagnoses versus the search for solutions; and few studies involving stakeholders' participation.
    Preview · Article · May 2005 · Cadernos de Saúde Pública
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    ABSTRACT: Suggesting that epidemiology should be employed as the standard means of studying public health problems. Some authors have called for the use of qualitative research methods during the last few decades due to the complexity of sanitary problems. The complementary use of quantitative and qualitative methods is conservative and limited, which is why it is suggested that public health should use diverse epistemological approaches and not just conjugate quantitative and qualitative methods. The case of pesticides and their effect on human health is used as an example to show different theoretical models' contribution towards and limitations on public health (i.e. sanitary, biomedical, classical epidemiological, hygienist-preventative, ecological, social-epidemiological, economic, material-historical and neoconservative) as well as expressing the need to use different epistemological approaches. An integrated approach will lead to more pluralist and democratic public health.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2005 · Revista de salud publica (Bogota, Colombia)
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