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Cultural Diversity, Motivation, and Differentiation

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Abstract

The cultural experiences of students significantly impact how they respond to classroom experiences. Classrooms are likely to be more effective in developing the capacity of students from a broad range of backgrounds if teachers understand how culture can shape learning and how teachers can develop classrooms that tap into the intrinsic motivation of culturally diverse learners. This article proposes key principles and provides examples for developing classrooms that are motivating for diverse learners.
Margery B. Ginsberg
Cultural Diversity, Motivation,
and Differentiation
The cultural experiences of students significantly
impact how they respond to classroom experi-
ences. Classrooms are likely to be more effective
in developing the capacity of students from a
broad range of backgrounds if teachers under-
stand how culture can shape learning and how
teachers can develop classrooms that tap into the
intrinsic motivation of culturally diverse learners.
This article proposes key principles and provides
examples for developing classrooms that are moti-
vating for diverse learners.
M
OTIVATION IS A CONCEPT that is intended to
explain one of life’s most elusive ques
-
tions: Why do we do what we do? Implicit in seek
-
ing to answer this question is the intention that ed
-
ucators might better understand motivation to
encourage student learning. Conventional wisdom
indicates that motivated students will surpass un-
motivated students in learning and performance.
Knowledge about motivation can give all students
a better chance to learn.
This article discusses motivation as it relates to
student learning within culturally diverse class-
rooms. Defining motivation as the natural human
capacity to direct energy in the pursuit of a goal,
an undergirding assumption is that human beings
are purposeful. We direct our energy through at
-
tention, concentration, and imagination to make
sense of our world.
Defining learning as a naturally active and nor
-
mally volitional process of constructing meaning
from experience and information (Lambert &
McCombs, 1998), this article addresses how
teachers can more consistently support motiva
-
tion to learn among all students. There is substan
-
tial evidence that motivation is consistently and
positively related to educational achievement.
Uguroglu and Walberg (1979) found 232 correla
-
tions of motivation and academic learning re
-
ported in 40 studies, and 98% of the correlations
were positive.
This article proposes that awareness of and re
-
spect for cultural diversity influences motivation.
Culture can be defined as the webs of significance
we spin as human beings: Who we are and how we
218
THEORY INTO PRACTICE, 44(3), 218–225
Margery B. Ginsberg is a member of the Faculty in the
Educational Leadership and Policy Studies program at
the University of Washington-Seattle.
Requests for reprints can be sent to Margery B.
Ginsberg, Educational Leadership and Policy Studies,
University of Washington-Seattle, L4L Program, Box
53600, EDLPS Room M204, Seattle, WA 98195.
E-mail: margery@edlink.com or ginsbm@u.washing
-
ton.edu
interact with the world is an intriguing intersection
of language, values, beliefs, and behaviors that
pervade every aspect of a person’s life, while con
-
tinually changing and evolving. Culture is not is
an isolated, mechanical aspect of life that can be
used to explain phenomena in the classroom or
that can be learned as a series of facts, physical el
-
ements, or exotic characteristics (Ovando & Col
-
lier, 1985). Across cultural groups, all students are
motivated, even when they are not motivated to
learn what a teacher has to offer. Determination to
find ways to encourage motivation is fundamental
to equity in teaching and learning, and is a core
virtue of educators who successfully differentiate
instruction (Tomlinson & Allan, 2000).
Ultimately, this article suggests a theory and a
set of practices that can help educators develop a
clear and cohesive focus on intrinsically motivat
-
ing instruction for all students. A continuous con-
versation about the motivational conditions that
engage the hearts and minds of diverse students is
essential to transformational notions about differ-
entiated instruction, curriculum, assessment, advi-
sory relationships, scheduling options, gover-
nance, and family and community partnerships.
Such dialogue is also a vital component of a plu-
ralistic democracy, a democracy that, as Barack
Obama (Drash & Osier, 2004) has said:
is the true genius of America, a faith in the simple
dreams, an insistence on small miracles. That we can
say what we think, write what we think, without
hearing a sudden knock on the door. That we can
have an idea and start our own business without pay
-
ing a bribe. That we can participate in the political
process without fear of retribution.
Constitutionally, “we” means “we.
An Interdisciplinary Lens That
Encourages Motivation
As important as motivation is to student learn
-
ing, scholars differ on their assumptions about
motivation, in part because it is something that can
neither be directly observed nor precisely mea
-
sured. Generally, motivation researchers examine
the signs, behavior, words, and stories of people
for indications of interest, effort, perseverance,
and completion (Ginsberg & Wlodkowski, 2000).
However, depending on our own ethnic and cul
-
tural background, the behaviors we associate with
different attributes can vary significantly.
One approach to transforming instructional
plans into more motivating and culturally respon
-
sive plans is the Motivational Framework for Cul
-
turally Responsive Teaching (Ginsberg &
Wlodkowski, 2000). This framework integrates
vital constructs of motivation from many disci
-
plines. These include philosophy, sociology, the
study of spiritual ideology, economics, linguistics,
anthropology, political science, and a host of other
disciplines, including the field of education. What
has been missing in instructional theory is an ecol
-
ogy that synthesizes concepts from the various
disciplines to inform a comprehensive under-
standing of motivation. An interdisciplinary un-
derstanding of intrinsic motivation provides that
synthesis. A central tenet of this conceptual frame-
work is that to support the motivation of all learn-
ers, it is necessary to address essential knowledge
and skills within a culturally responsive, and in-
trinsically motivating, pedagogy.
A challenge for all educators grappling with
culturally responsive instructional practice is to
negotiate the tension between within-group varia-
tion and whole-group stereotypes. The influence
of language, beliefs, values, and behaviors per
-
vades every aspect of our lives. At the same time,
assumptions about entire groups of people can
verge on that which is, at best, misleading. The
motivational framework demystifies the role of
culture in teaching and learning, without prescrib
-
ing lists of learning preferences and teaching ap
-
proaches for entire student groups. As Paley
(1990) wrote, “We can be known only in the un
-
folding of our unique stories within the context of
everyday events” (p. XII).
This, of course, is easier said than done. Just
from the perspective of emotions, one person
working at a task feels joy and continues. Another
person, working at the same task, feels angry and
quits. And, although another person may experi
-
ence frustration in this situation, she or he perse
-
veres with increased determination. To a large ex
-
219
Ginsberg Cultural Diversity, Motivation, and Differentiation
tent, the response that a person has to a learning
activity reflects his or her ethnic or cultural back
-
ground (Kitayama & Markus, 1994). In fact, so
-
cial scientists today regard the cognitive processes
as inherently cultural (Rogoff & Chavajay, 1995).
For all people, language, ethnic and racial history,
experience with political and economic oppres
-
sion, sense of opportunity, values, and perceptions
converge in the response to teaching and learning.
Designing Lessons That Support
Student Motivation
For teachers, especially those in high poverty
communities, designing lessons that help elicit
students’ stories, opinions, values, and interests as
a catalyst for learning is fundamental to encourag
-
ing intrinsic motivation across student groups.
Surveys from 25,000 students and teachers across
all grade and age levels suggest a strong positive
relationship between students’ perceptions of
teachers who honor their voice and indicators of
motivation and achievement (McCombs, 2003).
Nonetheless, teachers inevitably face the reality
that the very notion of student voice may vary
across cultural groups. Icebreakers that press stu-
dents for personal information are an example of
this phenomenon. Intended to create a sense of
community among classmates, they often pressure
students for a kind of self-disclosure that many
learners reserve for trusted friends and family.
Even these kinds of simple, well-intentioned ges
-
tures to address the basic human needs of belong
-
ing and self-determination can contribute to dis
-
comfort, lack of trust, or outright alienation. An
ongoing challenge for educators is to respect di
-
verse values and orientations while working with
students to create learning experiences in which
all students can comfortably engage.
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation
Basic to well-intentioned mistakes, ideological
confusion, and deep-rooted historical inequalities
is an extrinsic orientation to motivation that domi
-
nates school culture with the carrot/stick as its
fundamental metaphor. However, extrinsic moti
-
vation can fuse with intrinsic motivation, as in in
-
stances where a reward carries personally and cul
-
turally valued information. An Olympic gold
medal is a good example of this phenomenon. But
schools tend to over-rely on standard rewards and
punishments as a way of motivating students.
With an extrinsic perspective on motivation,
the focus of learning is on prizes, grades, test
scores, vocations, colleges, and so forth. When
students do not respond to these incentives or
sanctions, a sociopathological view of under
-
achievement tends to prevail, that is, the notion
that something is wrong with the student. Stu
-
dents are likely to be described as lacking ambi
-
tion, initiative, or self-direction. For many stu
-
dents, however, the connection between effort
and extrinsic reward is neither obvious nor desir-
able as a primary reason for learning. According
to some scholars, students may have adopted an
attitude of inevitable hopelessness, furthered by
their association of learning in schools with the
historic behavior of privilege and oppression
(Fordham & Ogbu, 1986). Regardless, the reli-
ance on rewards or sanctions to keep students fo-
cused on vacuous learning opportunities is, for
many students, not appealing, valued, or morally
compelling.
Threats and bribes may yield temporary re
-
sults. Students are likely to take the most cursory
approach to accomplishing an academic goal
where the grade is more important than the learn
-
ing itself. Certainly this is an experience to which
everyone can all relate. Who has never crammed
for a test? Days afterwards, it is nearly impossible
to recall what one may have once “memorized.
Speaking the language of life-long and substantive
learning, but relying on an extrinsic approach to
teaching and learning, are contradicting purposes.
Deep cognitive learning occurs when students are
fully engaged in a relevant and challenging experi
-
ence (Sternberg, 2004).
Intrinsic motivation can be defined as participa
-
tion in learning experiences that, even in the ab
-
sence of extrinsic rewards or sanctions, are of inter
-
est and value to students. These primary sources of
220
Differentiated Instruction
motivation reside in all people, across all ethnic and
culturalgroups.Whenpeoplecanseethatwhatthey
are learning makes sense and is important accord
-
ing to their values and perspectives, their motiva
-
tion emerges. Like a cork rising through water,
intrinsic motivation surfaces because the environ
-
ment elicits it. What is culturally and emotionally
significant to a person evokes intrinsic motivation
(Wlodkowski & Ginsberg, 1995).
Instructional Plans as
Motivational Plans
Every instructional plan ought to be mo
-
tivationally conceived from beginning to end.
Most lesson plans, however, do not adequately ad
-
dress ethnic and cultural diversity. In some
schools, teachers try to do this independently, re-
lying on curriculum guides, intuition, and sponta-
neous decision-making, much of which is limited
by a teacher’s experiences and beliefs. Difficulties
are most apparent when student motivation seems
low or diminishing. Insufficient or inconsistently
applied approaches to learning are as great a threat
to differentiated learning opportunities as for
whole group instruction. As Csikszentmihalyi
(1997) stated: “It is how we choose what we do,
and how we approach it, that will determine
whether the sum of our days adds up to a formless
blur, or to something resembling a work of art”
(p. 13). Without a sufficiently complex and cohe
-
sive focus in lesson design and implementation, it
is tempting to believe that we can improve in
-
struction with a single strategy or theory. This sort
of thinking is tantamount to what has become
known as the “flavor of the month” in school
improvement.
A Motivational Framework for
Culturally Responsive Teaching
To recap, the motivational framework for cul
-
turally responsive teaching is built on principles
and structures that tend to be meaningful within
and across cultures. The purpose of the motiva
-
tional framework is to unify teaching practices
that elicit the intrinsic motivation of all learners so
that educators can consistently design learning ex
-
periences that matter to and support the success of
all students. As a synthesis of literature and expe
-
rience, it seeks to be broad enough to accommo
-
date the range of ethnic and cultural diversity
found in most schools. It also integrates the variety
of assumptions addressed in many disciplines
educational, economic, social, and psychological.
In terms of everyday instruction, it seeks to ex
-
plain how to create compelling and democratic
learning experiences that honor the diverse per
-
spectives, values, and talents that students bring to
the classroom.
Four Conditions of a Motivational
Framework
The motivational framework in Figure 1 repre-
sents four basic conditions (attributes in a learning
environment), that work together to support stu-
dents’ natural interest in learning: establishing in-
clusion, developing a positive attitude, enhancing
meaning, and engendering competence.
Establishing inclusion refers to principles and
practices that contribute to a learning environment
in which students and teachers feel respected by
and connected to one another. Developing a posi
-
tive attitude refers to principles and practices that
contribute to, through personal and cultural rele
-
vance and through choice, a favorable disposition
toward learning. Enhancing meaning refers to
challenging and engaging learning. This condition
expands and strengthens learning in ways that
matter to students and builds their identities as val
-
ued civic participants. Engendering competence
refers to principles and practices that help students
to be effective at what they value, authentically
identifying what they know and can do, and link
-
ing them to a hopeful future.
The four conditions simultaneously interact to
encourage and support intrinsic motivation within
and across student groups. No one teaching strat
-
egy will consistently engage all learners, but a rep
-
221
Ginsberg Cultural Diversity, Motivation, and Differentiation
ertoire of unrelated strategies can be equally
ineffective.
Although the motivational framework for cul-
turally responsive teaching includes new teaching
strategies for each condition (Ginsberg & Wlod-
kowski, 2000), it also serves as a template for rec-
ognizing existing strengths in educational practice
and providing clues to develop those strengths. In
this way, it is respectful of the work that educators
are already doing, and it encourages classroom
teachers to apply principles of motivation for all
students with constancy.
As an adult educator who regularly partici
-
pates in K–12 lesson studies, designing, teach
-
ing, and then encouraging a critique from my
practitioner colleagues, I know that it is nearly
impossible to ever get it right. In fact, one of the
wondrous aspects of our profession is that we
work with human beings, none of whom can be
reduced to a pedagogical checklist. But a cohe
-
sive framework that identifies strengths and gen
-
erates clues for more motivationally effective
teaching can contribute to a level of personal re
-
sponsibility among educators that is optimistic
and informative.
The four motivational conditions of the frame-
work can be framed as essential questions that
teachers and students simultaneously create or en-
hance. They are:
Establishing inclusion—How do we create or
affirm a learning atmosphere in which we feel re-
spected by and connected to one another? (Best to
plan for the beginning of the lesson.)
Developing attitude—How do we create or af
-
firm a favorable disposition toward learning
through personal relevance and choice? (Best to
plan for the beginning of the lesson.)
Enhancing meaning—How do we create en
-
gaging and challenging learning experiences that
include student perspectives and values? (Best to
plan throughout the lesson.)
Engendering competence—How do we create
or affirm an understanding that students have ef
-
fectively learned something they value and per
-
ceive as authentic to their real world? (Best to plan
for the ending of the lesson, but with clear criteria
for success understood and agreed to at the start of
the lesson.)
The following learning experience at a large,
high poverty urban middle school exemplifies a
222
Differentiated Instruction
Figure 1 The motivational framework for culturally responsive teaching.
way to use the motivational framework to com
-
pose an instructional plan. The lesson was devel
-
oped by Terri McLaughlin, a district math coach,
and Belinda Rendon, a middle school math
teacher in Houston, Texas. It is adapted from
Ginsberg (2004).
The goal of the two educators was to review the
metric and the customary system of measurement.
In modeling the lesson for Belinda, Terri first put
up a life-size picture of the 7 foot, 4 inch Houston
Rocket’s basketball player from China, Yao Ming
(developing a positive attitude). Next, Terri facili
-
tated carousel movement around the room with
teams of students working on different questions
posted on newsprint to help recall what they al
-
ready know (developing a positive attitude); car
-
ousel questions included: What do you know
about the metric system of measurement? What do
you know about the customary system of mea-
surement? List some examples of things that mea-
sure about one centimeter.
Students rotated around the room responding
to each question—one question per piece of
newsprint (establishing inclusion). Next, Terri
asked students to share in small groups ways
they can convert inches to centimeters (enhanc-
ing meaning and engendering competence). She
then asked students to estimate, calculate, and
compare their own height in centimeters and
inches (enhancing meaning). Terri then asked
students to compare their calculations with the
basketball player Yao Ming (enhancing mean
-
ing), putting students’ calculations on an over
-
head transparency to look for patterns (enhanc
-
ing meaning). Next, she asked students how well
they estimated their own height in centimeters
and inches (engendering competence). Finally,
she asked them for their estimation strategies
(enhancing meaning). Before leaving the room,
each student wrote one of their strategies on the
back ofa3×5 card. On the other side, students
wrote something that surprised them from the
lesson (engendering competence).
Increasingly, researchers view cognition as a
social activity that integrates the mind, the body,
the process of the activity, and the ingredients of
the setting in a complex interactive manner
(Lave, 1988). The conventional psychological
model of perceiving, thinking, and acting is a lin
-
ear process that may occur far less often than
previous theorists have imagined. Because the
four motivational conditions work in concert and
exert their influence on student learning in the
moment as well as over time, it can be helpful to
determine an entry point for lesson design and
develop the conditions in a way that makes sense
from there.
Following Four Students
Teaching rooted in intrinsic motivation presup
-
poses that lessons are designed in purposeful
ways. But to a large extent, the response that a per
-
son has to a learning activity reflects his or her cul
-
tural background, talents that have been nurtured,
peer group relations, and so forth; the response a
student has to a learning activity may not coincide
with that of the teacher. Nonetheless, it has its own
internal logic. Differentiating teaching and learn-
ing in ways that are motivating and equitable re-
quires knowing students well.
This means going beyond data. Most educators
have a tremendous amount of data—state test re-
sults, curriculum assessments, teacher-made as-
sessments, homework, self-assessments, grade
point averages, and teacher observations. It is one
thing to identify gaps, and quite another to imag
-
ine new approaches. It is through knowing stu
-
dents, families, and communities well that one can
continually polish the lens of equity.
Given the large numbers of students with
whom educators work, one way to improve in
-
struction is to focus on four students, preferably
from a background that is different than the educa
-
tor’s, to take knowledge deeper in ways that in
-
spire more motivationally-effective and cultur
-
ally-responsive teaching. It is wise to select two
students who are low performing, one near the
mean, and another who is high performing.
Cureton Elementary School in San Jose, CA,
uses this approach. In grade level teams, teachers
(a) identify data sources they already use, (b) de
-
velop a pacing calendar to clarify when they will
223
Ginsberg Cultural Diversity, Motivation, and Differentiation
have examined specific kinds of data and share
student work in grade level teams, noting accom
-
plishments as well as gaps, and (c) conduct
bimonthly 5-minute conferences with each of the
four children, maintaining a focus on each
child’s strengths. The form they use begins with
accomplishments. It also includes an opportunity
for the student to share something with the
teacher, ranging from something the student has
created to something the student would like to
say. As a conclusion, the student sets a goal or
goals for the coming week.
Adding to this approach, teachers at Oak Ridge
Elementary School in Sacramento, CA, regularly
visit students’ homes. The entire process has been
carefully planned, from contacting parents, arriv
-
ing with the gift of strong student work, and con
-
cluding with a family photograph, if it is comfort
-
able for the family. This also includes clearly
communicating the purpose of a visit and develop-
ing specific ways to identify the biases that educa-
tors, as cultural beings, may have. A home visit is
an opportunity to learn how a child experiences
comfort, curiosity, and learning in their home.
This contributes to continuous reflection and
imagination, and stimulates differentiation that
matters to a broad range of students.
Conclusion
Although human motivation does not always
follow an orderly path, teachers can plan ways to
encourage it throughout any learning experience.
In fact, due to motivation’s emotional base and nat
-
ural instability, it is judicious to painstakingly plan
the milieu and learning activities to enhance stu
-
dent motivation. For projects, self-directed learn
-
ing, and situational learning, as in the case of prob
-
lem posing, teachers may not be so bound to a
formal plan.
The learning environment provides a meaning
-
ful context for addressing and redressing the ways
bias occurs. The task of understanding, talking
about, and working against racism and its conse
-
quences may seem formidable. Having the cour
-
age to challenge oneself as a cultural being and an
adult learner can help one make a difference. For
educators who profess a profound concern for stu
-
dents, the first assumption must go beyond “all
students can learn” to “all students can learn in a
motivating way.
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Ginsberg Cultural Diversity, Motivation, and Differentiation
... According to Ginsberg (2005), the response individuals have to a learning activity refl ects their ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Hence, cognitive processes may be regarded as inherently cultural. ...
... However, these students also chose not to follow instructions from the teacher if they perceived they could get away with it, implying the PDI gap may be diminishing, similar to what was found by Ginsberg (2005). However, all of these students, regardless of their backgrounds, respected their parents and allowed them to play a big role in their lives and education. ...
Article
Purpose – The reason many Asian students fi nd student-centred learning challenging may be due to cultural factors present in every human interaction between individuals. This study attempts to determine the infl uence of these cultural factors on students’ awareness of how and why they learn. Method – A sample of 12 students enrolled in a two year diploma course in a Malaysian university was interviewed, using a semistructured interview protocol, on the students’ perceptions and experiences when learning. The results were analysed qualitatively using the interpretive approach. Findings – The results show that students rely on their teachers for information, implying a high power distance as well as low individualism, and are not inclined to explore on their own. These students readily approach their friends rather than teachers for help with their assignments. They also hold their parents’ opinions in high regard. Significance – The results of this study are important for teachers when implementing student-centred learning. It will be challenging for Malaysian students to respond well to this form of learning strategy as it requires a certain amount of independent learning as well as risk-taking behaviour which these students seem to lack.
... This research also used a questionnaire to obtain quantitative data to measure students' learning motivation and learning strategies, namely the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), developed by National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning, University of Michigan. 8 Data collection was done gradually. First, quantitative data in the form of secondary data of medical students' GPA in FM UHO were obtained, then second, the data about the types of selection of students when they registered to college. ...
... It suits the definition of extrinsic motivation, i.e. encouragement from outside the students themselves. 8,9 Extrinsic goal orientation or better known as extrinsic motivation is a stimulus encouragement from outside of an individual in learning. This motivation is still needed to boost students' passion. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The learning achievement of students in higher education is reflected in their grade point average (GPA). Selection types in student admission, learning motivation, and learning strategies are believed to influence the effective and efficient learning achievement, thus facilitating achieving the desired learning objectives. Medical students should have good behavior and learning styles that eventually can help to make lifelong learning. Students that can organize themselves to learning tend to use a good strategy in running the study. Learning motivation and learning strategies used by the learner will affect student results. This study aimed to compare the 3 types of selection in student admission to learning motivation, learning strategies and achievement of students of the Faculty of Medicine.Method: This was a quantitative study using a cross sectional design. The subjects were preclinical students at the Faculty of Medicine of Halu Oleo University, Kendari, consisting of 161 first-year students, 137 second year students, and 148 third year students. This study used a questionnaire ‘Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ)’ to measure learning motivation and learning strategies. The results of MSLQ and GPA were compared based on the type of student selection.Results: Within all categories of learning achievement, the highest scores were achieved by the students from selection of SBMPTN, followed by SNMPTN, then SLMPTN. Mean of extrinsic goal orientation of students with all types of student selection was high, whereas the lowest mean was learning self-confidence. Learning strategy with high score was repetition, and the lowest score was critical thinking in students with all types of student’s selection. There was a positive relationship between admission style, learning motivation, learning strategies and achievement of students.Conclusion: Students that were selected by SBMPTN have highest score of learning achievement, and the lowest score were students from SLMPTN. There was no significant different of motivation and learning strategy between all type of student selection.
... 17-18). Culturally relevant practices seek to establish inclusion of students, develop student attitudes, enhance students' meaning, and engender competence (Ginsberg 2005;Ladson-Billings 2014). ...
Chapter
The growing diversity of America's public schools has created pressure for universities and teacher preparation programs to develop strategies to aid novice teachers in meeting a variety of student needs. In addition to cultural and linguistic differences, special education teachers must also be prepared to meet the variety of academic, social, and emotional needs of students identified with disabilities. To accomplish this, studies investigating the potential of video based reflection to impact novice and preservice teachers' ability to implement pedagogical theory into practice have increased. This chapter examines the use of video as a tool to engage novice special education teachers' reflection on the implementation of culturally responsive pedagogy (CRP), differentiated instruction (DI), and universal design for learning (UDL).
Article
This study implemented differentiated instruction (DI) featuring tiered tasks and heterogeneous grouping tasks in three mixed-level English classes at a military institution in Taiwan, a setting that is small, admits students with varying English proficiency levels, and is culturally cohesive. The end-of-semester student survey and interview show that the students appreciated the opportunity to choose among various kinds of activities in accordance with their levels and benefitted from cooperative learning. The qualitative data also show evidence that their classroom behaviours were aligned with the militarized culture’s values of group solidarity, hierarchical teamwork, and competitive striving. The results support further study into how cultural orientation can be used in planning DI activities for a military or other similar settings.
Chapter
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have become one of the increasingly popular channels of learning. Any given MOOC attracts thousands of learners from all around the globe with diverse language, ethnic and cultural backgrounds. The diversity among MOOC learners is one of the unique characteristics that differentiates them from any given campus classroom. This poses a great challenge for instructional designers to create learning experiences that resonates with their diverse audience. This paper reports on the efforts of an instructional design team, towards creating culturally inclusive MOOCs. A design-based approach was applied to experiment, test and evaluate these efforts over the course of four MOOCs on the topic of Design Thinking. We applied in-depth qualitative interviews with international course participants, pre-and post-course surveys, and observations from these courses to gather insights into learners’ perspectives. The authors suggest a set of instructional strategies to consider while designing MOOCs to address the needs of learners from diverse cultural backgrounds. With the increasing uptake of MOOCs all around the globe, it is of utmost importance for MOOC designers to create learning experiences that are inclusive for their diverse learners.
Chapter
The growing diversity of America's public schools has created pressure for universities and teacher preparation programs to develop strategies to aid novice teachers in meeting a variety of student needs. In addition to cultural and linguistic differences, special education teachers must also be prepared to meet the variety of academic, social, and emotional needs of students identified with disabilities. To accomplish this, studies investigating the potential of video based reflection to impact novice and preservice teachers' ability to implement pedagogical theory into practice have increased. This chapter examines the use of video as a tool to engage novice special education teachers' reflection on the implementation of culturally responsive pedagogy (CRP), differentiated instruction (DI), and universal design for learning (UDL).
Thesis
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The research aimed to investigate the levels of self-efficacy and motivation, the professional attitudes, the annual performance evaluation, and the gaps between the reviews reflected in the annual performance evaluation of the education faculty during the academic year 2018-2019 and the continuing professional development activities provided during the academic year 2019-2020 of the 49 education faculty in one of the largest higher education institutions in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In addition, the researcher developed an effective teacher continuing professional development program for the education division based on the results. Descriptive method of research was utilized to determine the prevailing phenomena that exist amongst the variables. The researcher-adapted survey questionnaires on faculty profile, level of self-efficacy, level of motivation, professional attitudes, annual performance evaluation, and link between faculty’s areas for development and annual performance evaluation were administered to collect quantitative data. Descriptive statistics was utilized to analytically describe the faculty profile, education faculty level of self-efficacy, level of motivation, professional attitudes and annual performance evaluation during the Academic Year 2018-2019. Furthermore, inferential statistics, through t-test, ANOVA test, and Tukey’s HSD Test, supported the analysis of determining if there were significant differences between the participants’ level of self-efficacy, level of motivation, and professional attitudes when they are grouped according to their profile. Results revealed that teachers, in general, have high level of self-efficacy, very high level of motivation, very high positive attitudes, and exceeding expectations for teacher performance evaluation. However, data also revealed that there exist significant difference between the means scores of educations teachers’ levels of self-efficacy, motivation, professional attitudes and annual performance evaluation in regard to their years of experience and highest educational attainment. Lastly, result show that there exist gaps between the review reflected in the annual performance evaluation during the AY 2018-2019 and the CPD activities provided during the AY 2019-2020.
Article
Full-text available
The historical context for the development of the Learner-Centered Psychological Principles (LCPs) is summarized. This context includes a discussion of why the LCPs and their practices are particularly important in the current educational reform era. Implications for practice are provided, and the article concludes with how the LCPs can contribute to a national framework for the systemic redesign of K-20 education. The learner-centered framework provides validation for practices that achieve a balanced focus on both learning and learners. Research-validated principles establish a foundation for clarifying components of a positive learning environment at classroom and school levels that can increase the likelihood of more students experiencing success.
Article
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Declining levels of academic performance in science and mathematics, disciplinary and drug abuse problems, and increasing violence in America's schools have generated extensive national debate over the past 2 decades. In "How Students Learn: Reforming Schools Through Learner-Centered Education," leaders in the psychological and educational communities suggest that successful school reform must not only uphold standards but also must recognize students' differences and unique learning styles. The volume examines current research on how students learn and presents the theoretical perspectives and research findings of leading authors in educational psychology. The chapters reflect the work of these distinguished educators and psychologists in developing and articulating the psychological knowledge base that is most relevant to education. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
This book relates theory to practice with a framework, practices, & tools that respond to the question: How can primary and secondary educators consistently plan for and support student intrinsic motivation across diverse student groups? Written for both novice and experienced educators, teachers can adapt the strategies and tools to different content areas and grade levels. At the heart of the book is a Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching which helps teachers create instructional plans that are also motivational plans - and improve teaching over time. This book received Forward Review's 2015 IndieFab Book of the Year Award. A second book, Diversity and Motivation: Culturally Responsive Teaching in College (Ginsberg & Wlodkowski, 2009), applies the Motivational Framework to post-secondary instruction and received the Cyril O. Houle Award for Outstanding Adult Education Literature from the American Association of Adult and Continuing Education
Book
List of figures List of tables Preface 1. Introduction: psychology and anthropology I Part I. Theory in Practice: 2. Missionaries and cannibals (indoors) 3. Life after school 4. Psychology and anthropology II Part II. Practice in Theory: 5. Inside the supermarket (outdoors) and from the veranda 6. Out of trees of knowledge into fields for activity 7. Through the supermarket 8. Outdoors: a social anthropology of cognition in practice Notes References.
Article
To estimate the typical correlation between motivation and educational achievement, the correlations from a calibration sample of 22 studies and a validation sample of 18 studies were analyzed using analysis of variance and regression techniques. Motivation factors were restricted to general, academic, or mathematics self-concept, locus of control, and achievement motivation; achievement outcome measures included achievement and ability tests and grade point indices. For grades 1-12, 232 uncorrected observed correlations showed a mean of .338 indicating 11.4 percent of the variance accounted for in achievement by motivation. Eight variables in a regression model accounted for 39% of the variance in the magnitude of the correlations. Grade level emerged as the only significant student characteristic; motivation and achievement were more highly correlated in students in later grades.
Article
Discusses the author's techniques of incorporating storytelling and playwriting in the early childhood classroom. Includes responses to questions concerning her pioneering research on storytelling in the classroom. (RS)
Article
[This book] examines the increasing evidence that emotions are not prewired, internal processes, but are events that are influenced and shaped by one's social, cultural, and linguistic experiences. By integrating a diversity of scientific approaches, "Emotion and Culture: Empirical Studies of Mutual Influence" shows that culture penetrates deeply into the component process of emotion: cognitive, linguistic, and even physiological and neurochemical. This multidisciplinary volume contains contributions from international authorities in the fields of psychology, anthropology, and linguistics and deals with emotion as a social product; the relationships among emotion, language, and cognition; and emotion as a moral category and phenomenon. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
What is the connection between psychological theories of how students learn and educational practices involving how teachers teach? This chapter is concerned with the relation between cognition and instruction, with a special focus on what teachers need to know. Five topics are explored: (a) an historical review of the relation between psychology and education during the past 100 yrs, (b) a comparison of 3 views of learning and instruction that have dominated psychology and education during the past 100 yrs, (c) examples of some of the contributions of cognitive theory for instruction, (d) an analysis of the implications of cognitive theory for learner-centered schools, and (e) recommendations for what teachers need to know about cognitive theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article describes the transformation of research on cognition and culture from cross-cultural comparisons of psychological tasks to theory and research on people's thinking in sociocultural activities. The author's describe this transformation, not merely for those interested in this particular line of research but also because the study of cognition more generally seems to be struggling with some of the same issues that have been faced in the research on culture and cognition. An understanding of the shift in emphasis of research on culture and cognition can provide leadership to some of the issues more broadly facing the study of cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The authors review their previous explanation of black students' underachievement. They now suggest the importance of considering black people's expressive responses to their historical status and experience in America. Fictive kinship is proposed as a framework for understanding how a sense of collective identity enters into the process of schooling and affects academic achievement. The authors support their argument with ethnographic data from a high school in Washington, D.C., showing how the fear of being accused of acting white causes a social and psychological situation which diminishes black students' academic effort and thus leads to underachievement. Policy and programmatic implications are discussed.