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Power Through the Algorithm? Participatory Web Cultures and the Technological Unconscious

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Abstract

The movement toward what is often described as Web 2.0 is usually understood as a large-scale shift toward a participatory and collaborative version of the web, where users are able to get involved and create content. As things stand we have so far had little opportunity to explore how new forms of power play out in this context of apparent ‘empowerment’ and ‘democratization’. This article suggests that this is a pressing issue that requires urgent attention. To begin to open up this topic this article situates Web 2.0 in the context of the broader transformations that are occurring in new media by drawing on the work of a number of leading writers who, in various ways, consider the implications of software ‘sinking’ into and ‘sorting’ aspects of our everyday lives. The article begins with this broader literature before exploring in detail Scott Lash’s notion of ‘post-hegemonic power’ and more specifically his concept of ‘power through the algorithm’. The piece concludes by discussing how this relates to work on Web 2.0 and how this work might be developed in the future.

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... Powerful machine learning applications and AI technologies increasingly filter, order and, ultimately, constitute everyday consumer experiences, as a sort of 'technological unconscious' (Beer 2009). While digital technologies and the access-based economy have once been heralded by promises of technology-enabled consumer empowerment, democratization, or the triumph of 'collective intelligence', such visions are turning out to be deceptively misleading in today's world. ...
... Hence, we can argue that the learning algorithms ubiquitously embedded in platform-based feedback loops are to be seen neither as tools through which marketers' control is inexorably exerted on passive users, nor as technologies empowering consumers by humbly serving their needs and desires. By theorizing algorithms as 'generative' technologies (Beer 2009) that transform consumer culture through the active 'articulation' of consumption and production within digitalized markets (du Gay et al. 1997), we develop a framework for unpacking the recursive techno-social assemblages of digital platforms. ...
... In fact, one of the main activities of algorithmic systems is the classification and ranking of datafied manifestations of human culture (Beer 2017;. Their 'similarity' or 'relevance' are ordinarily assessed computationally, and the results of the calculus contribute to the algorithmic constitution of consumer imaginaries (Beer 2009). This happens all the time with recommendation systems, which establish an affinity between products and customers, thus implicitly prescribing and, ultimately, 'manufacturing' predictable lifestyle behaviors (Zwick and Denegri-Knott 2009;Beer 2013, 97;Mackenzie 2018;Hallinan and Striphas 2016). ...
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This article conceptualizes algorithmic consumer culture, and offers a framework that sheds new light on two previously conflicting theorizations: that (1) digitalization tends to liquefy consumer culture and thus acts primarily as an empowering force, and that (2) digitalized marketing and big data surveillance practices tend to deprive consumers of all autonomy. By drawing on critical social theories of algorithms and AI, we define and historicize the now ubiquitous algorithmic mediation of consumption, and then illustrate how the opacity, authority, non-neutrality, and recursivity of automated systems affect consumer culture at the individual, collective, and market level. We propose conceptualizing ‘algorithmic articulation’ as a dialectical techno-social process that allows us to enhance our understanding of platform-based marketer control and consumer resistance. Key implications and future avenues for exploring algorithmic consumer culture are discussed.
... Moreover, this new practice coincides with the 'era of big data', wherein we mine PII, scrape it, process it, and consume it, in great quantity, for a multitude of reasons (Brown et al., 2011). Yet, the scale and efficiency of all this far outpaces the consciousness of most of the individuals engaging with these new technologies (Beer, 2009;Balebako et al., 2013). ...
... The aim is to provide an abstraction of the methods of PII exchange to illustrate an increasing veracity of PII extracted, coupled with an increased passiveness in the disclosure. Moreover, this section explains how these milestones occur in a manner that disadvantages the individual because the exchange contains much asymmetric information in favour of organisations (Acquisti, 2004b;Vila et al., 2003), resulting in methods that are increasingly outside the user's understanding (Beer, 2009;Preuveneers and Joosen, 2015), all while users continue to misplace confidence regarding the risk of over-exposure (Solove, 2007). ...
... In essence, the move to behavioural biometrics is services attempting to overcome technical frailties by extracting more personal identifiers. The subsequent concern raised by privacy researchers is that this threatens an individual's information self-determinism, because users are decreasingly aware of what identifiers have been exchanged and that this exchange is in effect a direct trade-off between privacy and security (Beer, 2009;Cavoukian, 2008;Lash, 2007). Therefore, despite recognition of the enhanced security and usability, the boundaries that people rely on to maintain comfortable levels of privacy start to blur as authentication methods can trend towards methods that, at their heart, enable covert and continued surveillance. ...
Thesis
Personally identifying information (PII) are complex resources. Each item of PII, e.g., a fingerprint, holds a confidence-based utility that fuels identity assurance, i.e., processing fingerprints towards a desired confidence that a person is whom they claim. Each time we use an item of PII however, for identity assurance or otherwise, we inadvertently expose it to misuse. Exposure thus accumulates to deplete the confidence that may be extracted for subsequent identity assurance uses. Therefore, in terms of identity assurance, PII exhibit some of the properties of a commons, wherein resources are accessible to all, and whereby individual actions can affect the group. In this depiction of identity assurance, there is an underlying usage dilemma surrounding PII. This dilemma arises because coaxed by the affordance of the modern Web, PII of increasing veracity is being digitally exchanged, processed, and stored in ever-increasing volumes and varieties. Towards a novel sense of identity assurance as a commons-esque system, this work combines empirical and agent-based simulation methods to investigate PII exchange between individuals and organisations. First, by repurposing Elo’s (1979) ranking algorithm, I produce a unique user-centric measure of PII’s personal utility by ranking identifiers based on the quantification of (N =125) users’ willingness to disclose. These results also incorporate inter-contextual differences with a design spanning social, commercial and state-based contexts. Second, I qualitatively analyse 23 one-to-one semi-structured interviews regarding disclosure decisions. From this, I identify six super-ordinate classes of heuristics that users rely upon during disclosures: prominence, network, reliability, accordance, narrative, and modality, along with a seventh non-heuristics class; trade. Third, I combine my empirical results with theory to produce a dual-system decision model of users exchanging PII with organisations. Finally, I explore the dynamics of PII exchange via an agent-based simulation of my model that serves to illustrate the potential effect of interventions such as educating users or increasing competition. I show that our onus on disclosure self-management threatens the future efficacy of identity assurance methods.
... Algorithms cogovern what can be found (e.g., algorithmic searches), what is anticipated (e.g., algorithmic forecasts), consumed (e.g., algorithmic recommendations) and seen (e.g., algorithmic filtering), and whether it is considered relevant (e.g., algorithmic scoring) . They thereby contribute to the constitution and mediation of our lives (Beer, 2009). The use of only vaguely defined terms like algorithmic decision-making can be misleading regarding the assessment of social consequences of different kinds of algorithmic governance. ...
... AS applications are seamlessly integrated into the routines of everyday life through domestication (Silverstone, 1994)-the capacity and the process of appropriation-which renders them invisible. Algorithms operate at the level of the 'technological unconscious' (Thrift, 2005) in widely unseen and unknown ways (Beer, 2009). Consequently, the study of algorithms aims to reveal the technological unconscious and to understand how AS applications co-govern everyday online and offline activities. ...
... In light of these studies, worries about the lack of independence and awareness of the subject's decision-making in the algorithmic age do not seem unfounded (Beer, 2009;Berry, 2014: 11;Slavin, 2011). As Beer (2017) puts it, 'there is a sense of a need to explore how algorithms make choices or how they provide information that informs and shapes choice' (p. ...
... 5). From this perspective, algorithmic systems constitute a kind of 'unconscious' that influences deliberation, interpretation and action beyond the selfawareness of subjects and collectives (Beer, 2009). These concerns suggest that algorithmic systems put pressure on notions of autonomy as reflective and informed processes of self-definition, decision-making and evaluation of options (cf. ...
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This article reorients research on agentic engagements with algorithms from the perspective of autonomy. We separate two horizons of algorithmic relations – the instrumental and the intimate – and analyse how they shape different dimensions of autonomous agency. Against the instrumental horizon, algorithmic systems are technical procedures ordering social life at a distance and using rules that can only partly be known. Autonomy is activated as reflective and informed choice and the ability to enact one’s goals and values amid technological constraints. Meanwhile, the intimate horizon highlights affective aspects of autonomy in relation to algorithmic systems as they creep ever closer to our minds and bodies. Here, quests for autonomy arise from disturbance and comfort in a position of vulnerability. We argue that the dimensions of autonomy guide us towards issues of specific ethical and political importance, given that autonomy is never merely a theoretical concern, but also a public value.
... David Beer (2009) argued that with the Web 2.0, software became ubiquitous and participatory, which gave algorithms "the capacity to shape social and cultural formations and impact directly on individual lives". An example of the increasing power of algorithms in everyday life is Google's suite of search and ranking algorithms, which influence the information users have access to and in turn may impact what they judge to be true (Introna and Nissenbaum, 2000). ...
... I argue that for many, using Bitcoin was an act of resistance against institutions they felt had failed them. Beer (2009) argued that "algorithms are carving out new complex digital divides that emerge in unforeseen and often unnoticed ways in the lives of individual agents" and that it will be difficult to identify and research the ways in which people resist these algorithms. However, in a reversal of Beer's concern, in this section I explore the ways in which algorithms can explicitly and visibly act as resistance to institutions. ...
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In this paper, I propose a new concept for understanding the role of algorithms in daily life: algorithmic authority. Algorithmic authority is the legitimate power of algorithms to direct human action and to impact which information is considered true. I use this concept to examine the culture of users of Bitcoin, a crypto-currency and payment platform. Through Bitcoin, I explore what it means to trust in algorithmic authority. My study of the Bitcoin community utilizes interview and survey data. I found that Bitcoin users prefer algorithmic authority to the authority of conventional institutions which they see as untrustworthy. However, I argue that Bitcoin users do not have blind faith in algorithms; rather, they acknowledge the need for mediating algorithmic authority with human judgment. I examine the tension between members of the Bitcoin community who would prefer to integrate Bitcoin with existing institutions and those who would prefer to resist integration.
... Jenkins (2009) 4 defines Web 2.0 as "an online participatory culture", and 5 label it as "wisdom web". Beer (2009) 6 thinks that "Web 2.0 increases user involvement". A digital repository is an online space where digital contents and assets are stored, organised, searched, and retrieved for preservation and use. ...
... Jenkins (2009) 4 defines Web 2.0 as "an online participatory culture", and 5 label it as "wisdom web". Beer (2009) 6 thinks that "Web 2.0 increases user involvement". A digital repository is an online space where digital contents and assets are stored, organised, searched, and retrieved for preservation and use. ...
Article
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The primary purpose of the present study is to find out the adoption of Web 2.0 tools in social science repositories of Asian countries. Open access repositories were selected from OpenDOAR in the year 2021. Later, websites of all repositories were manually checked to identify the existence of Web 2.0 tools. The results revealed that Japan has established the maximum number of open access digital repositories in Asia, followed by Indonesia, Turkey, India, and China. The study shows that out of the total 101 social science institutional repositories found in these top five Asian countries, only 92 repositories were operational, and the rest weren't accessible. From the operational repositories, 31.60 per cent (30) were Web 2.0 enabled, and 69.40 per cent (62) hadn't incorporated Web 2.0 in their repositories. The highest number of Web 2.0 enabled repositories was found in Turkey, followed by Indonesia and China. Japan has the highest number of OA repositories but lags behind Turkey, Indonesia, and China in Web 2.0 enabled repositories. The least number of Web 2.0 enabled repositories were found in India among these countries. RSS feeds and Atom were the most used Web 2.0 tools in these institutional repositories.
... The profound repercussions of digital technologies have been attested in similar contexts too, for example within human relationships with personal computers (PCs) (Turkle, 1984), with regard to the effects of commercial data harvesting practices on labor markets (Thrift, 2005), identity perception and production through algorithms (Cheney-Lippold, 2011), or the emersion of "cultures of circulation" (Mackenzie, 2005) that unfold a constitutive formative effect revealing "the enactment of the social through data in the context of everyday life" when one tries to "decipher some of the ways in which data feeds back into popular culture" (Beer & Burrows, 2013, p. 56) up to a "new new media ontology" suggested by Scott Lash (2007) to capture new ways and forms by which information actively shapes lifestyles and environments (Beer, 2009). "The 'stuff' that makes up the social and urban fabric has changed -it is no longer just about emergent properties that derive from a complex of social associations and interactions. ...
... Programmability, as the logics of computers, is a part of every aspect of life: from politics and economy to metaphors we use to make sense of our world (Chun, 2011). Software and programming is increasingly understood in terms of algorithms today (Beer, 2009;Galloway, 2006) that translate the incoming data sets into a decision-making basis for their users. Algorithms are on the one side created by developers and coders and in turn shape the(ir) beliefs of which data is important to produce knowledge about algorithmic identities. ...
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This work focuses on the actor perspective and elaborates the relations to the self and the applied technology in self-tracking (ST), expanding critical studies. Based on ethnographic material with ST informants and four years of autoethnography by the author, two complementary but also individually occurring modes of self-relations were synthesized. Interwoven in a duality a co-existence and ambiguity of self-care and self-control, which appear as two sides of the same coin, emerge. The self-control relation is characterized by increased awareness and complexity-reducing information about oneself, motivation (often occurring as self-challenge), and considering algorithmic recommendations, which summa summarum facilitate orientation and decision making in daily life. However, the self-control relation can go astray on the downside into losing control over the control (and becoming compulsive and addictive) and over the data. The self-care relation entails placing oneself in the center of attention in a digital medium by increased self-thematization, archiving body diaries, and self-affirmation. Self-concepts are no longer primarily constructed, confirmed, or rejected by the social environment but also by applying digital technologies upon oneself. However, self-care can be undermined on the downside, such as self-doubt, self-deception (maybe narcissism), and self-distraction. Three different relations to ST technology in technologically mediated self-care and self-control were elaborated: technology as a means, a counterpart (partner, nanny, coach), and a promise of salvation. Here another dialectic becomes visible. In using ST devices, the relationship of the users to technology seems to intensify, with the technology being able to perform a partner-like or even superior role. Finally, the often-assumed self-optimization in ST emerges as harmonizing and balancing life-maintenance tasks.
... Secondly, there has been the technological unconscious. The first to use the term technological unconscious to refer to social networking sites is David Beer (2009). He refers to the invisible operations of site algorithms, claiming that it "is likely that we will find that these algorithms are carving out new complex digital divides that emerge in unforeseen and often unnoticed ways in the lives of individual agents" (Beer, 2009: 999). ...
Article
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The paper focuses on Facebook's shaping of communication regarding the European migrant crisis in the Czech Republic. Topological spaces in communication with entanglements of inclusion and exclusion were produced by practicing the communication, with the mutual influence of two kinds of the collective unconscious, the technological and the Orientalist unconscious. The paper is based on a participant observation of Czech-language Facebook groups and pages where discussions about the European migrant crisis proliferated. Due to the technological unconscious, algorithm-induced “filter-bubbles” helped to separate discussions of different opinions about migration so people with anti-immigration attitudes could be building European free-thinking people identities who distrust mainstream media, and people with pro-migration attitudes were excluded and considered trustful “sheeple”. Due to the Orientalist unconscious, European free-thinking people identities were strengthened by the sharing of ideas about uncivilized, irrational, and barbaric imaginative spaces of migrants' origin, which were entirely Other to Europe.
... Such assemblages are constructed when teachers use commercial apps and platforms connected to the cloud in and around the classroom, and as such remains only a caricature of the human teacher. Although, it has an impact, as behavior can be modulated by altering what is shown to users online (Borgesius 2016), and prescriptive analytics can nudge behavioral change (Beer 2009) based on the algorithmic identity. Furthermore, each dataset used to construct the algorithmic identity can act as a proxy for a bevy of seemingly unrelated information. ...
Article
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The introduction of digital platforms in K-12 Education has seen the identity of the teacher shift with the roles of technology in teaching and learning. Commercial Platforms, Learning Designers, and Employers are increasingly using data collected in the classroom to profile teachers via measurable outcomes. These algorithmically measured outcomes embed new identities for the teacher in classrooms. As a result, ubiquitous learning moves away from how commercial platforms may be used to support learning outcomes, and toward how teacher data is used to support the development of algorithmically measured outcomes. Drawing on interdisciplinary research, three lenses to explore the changing identity of the teacher are presented via a theoretical discussion paper: a Learning Analytics lens, a Media and Communications lens, and an Educational lens. Underpinned by Postdigital theory, the lenses are used to introduce a postdigital teacher identities praxis that explores the role of technologies in educational systems. Acknowledging and celebrating that these lenses are valid in specific contexts, in this paper, I argue that postdigital teacher identities is indeed a liberating praxis. It is by recognizing the implications of technologies in education associated with re-conceptualized forms of teacher identity that we may explore human values and technology more deeply.
... Gegenwärtige Forschungen zur digitalen Welt setzen sich eher damit auseinander, wie Datenströme und soziale Netzwerke Identitäten und soziale Praktiken strukturieren (Lash 2002(Lash , 2007 und wie intransparente technische Netzwerke neue Formen der Machtausübung und Wissbarmachung des Sozialen hervorbringen (Bauman und Lyon 2013;Castells 1996Castells , 2001. Dabei steht gerade nicht die Perspektive des vernetzten Ego Agens im Fokus -wie im lebenswelttheoretischen Ansatz -, sondern neue Strukturbedingungen des Sozialen (Beer 2009) und die Entstehung von Überwachungs-und Sichtbarkeitsregimen (Gitleman 2013;Haggerty und Ericson 2000). ...
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Dieser Beitrag möchte eine Re-Lektüre der sozialwissenschaftlichen Phänomenologie von Alfred Schütz in räumlich-leiblicher Hinsicht vorschlagen, um diesen bislang wenig bearbeiteten Aspekt seiner Sozialtheorie zu beleuchten. Dadurch soll sich für sozialräumlich interessierte Disziplinen wie die Soziologie, Geographie oder Ethnologie die Möglichkeit ergeben, den Aspekt des Leiblichen stärker bei der Erklärung sozialräumlicher Wirklichkeiten und Wirksamkeiten zu berücksichtigen, um eine Forschungslücke zu adressieren. Es soll darum gehen, das Potential der phänomenologisch orientierten Sozialwissenschaften mit ihren in der Regel hermeneutisch-rekonstruktiven Verfahren für die zeitgenössisch diskutierten Aspekte des spatial turns zu verdeutlichen. Die in der Debatte bislang kaum vorkommenden leiblichen Erfahrungsdimensionen für die Analyse räumlicher Wirklichkeiten sollen dadurch in den Fokus geraten, um einen Beitrag im Sinne einer ‚Universalsprache‘ des Sozialen in Bezug auf das Räumliche zu leisten. Damit soll die anthropologische Dimension der Räumlichkeit in das Zentrum der Erkenntnis rücken.
... However, many brand communities are facing such problems as insufficient knowledge contribution. The current Web 3.0 era emphasizes two-way interactions between consumers and brands (Beer, 2009;Irani et al., 2017), focuses heavily on the value created by online members (Quinton, 2013) and encourages participants to create their content (Hollebeek et al., 2014). To exploit and leverage the value of community users in the long term, companies consequently must pay close attention to users' knowledge-sharing behavior. ...
Purpose Users' knowledge sharing provides valuable resources for brand community participants and is, therefore, critical for the viability of virtual brand communities. Drawing from both self-determination theory (SDT) and psychological ownership theory, the paper aims to investigate the impact of fulfillment of three basic psychological needs on brand users' knowledge-sharing behavior and examines psychological ownership as a mediator. Design/methodology/approach Survey data consisting of 316 valid responses were collected from users of Huawei Pollen Club Community. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the reliability and validity of measures, and hierarchical linear regression and bootstrapping were used to test all hypotheses. Findings Fulfillment of the need for autonomy, relatedness and competence in a virtual brand community boosts users' psychological ownership and has a positive influence on their knowledge-sharing behavior. Furthermore, psychological ownership partially mediates the relationships between the fulfillment of psychological needs and knowledge-sharing behavior. In addition, the authors found that when users participate in more offline brand activities, the positive impact of the fulfillment of the need for relatedness on psychological ownership is strengthened, while the positive impact of the fulfillment of the need for autonomy on psychological ownership is weakened. Originality/value The paper contributes to the existing literature by exploring the relationships between fulfilling users' three basic psychological needs and their knowledge-sharing behavior through the mediating role of psychological ownership. The authors also provide insight into how offline brand activities interact with the fulfillment of psychological needs in virtual brand communities.
... Because of the pervasiveness and domination of Information and communication technologies, we are progressively inhibiting new forms of "intelligent devices" (Beer, 2009;Abbas et al., 2014;Friess, 2016;Akyildiz et al., 2020). From cellphones to local vicinity, through public administration to green infrastructure, as well as from the individuals to the public, everything has become more "intelligent" as a result of digital connection and information and communications technologies. ...
Conference Paper
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In our country, activities are carried out under the title of zoning studies in order to make an area suitable for holistic living standards. There is a hierarchy in the formation of zoning plans from the upper scale of the country development plans to the lower scale, which are the implementation zoning plans. Along with this hierarchy, in the 1/1000 zoning plans, especially the people living in a region, housing, shopping, social activity, etc. zoning islands are determined within the zoning boundaries determined to meet the needs. Zoning islands can have different building regulations, precedent or building heights. There are possible building regulations within the zoning boundaries, where there may be different types of sitting areas, such as split, block and adjacent basis. Contiguous zoning island shape, on the other hand, is to give a diameter by applying only the rear drawing distance of the relevant parcel, without drawing the front and side garden distances in general. However, when there is a window-like situation in the architectural project of some neighboring parcels, the side and front draw distance can be applied to other parcels. The process of granting construction permits to the existing zoning parcels in the zoning islands, whose identities are determined by this building regulation, is the zoning scale. Zoning diameters, planned areas are given within the framework of type zoning regulations and plan notes. The zoning diameter is given according to the precedent, height and building order of the island. Distance method, on the other hand, is the process of creating the right residential area with the drawing rules of convex shapes, such as square or rectangular, according to the geometric condition of the parcel, in order to be able to give construction permits to the clean zoning parcels in the relevant zoning islands. In our study, it has been tried to show how the settlement areas at the base can be given, which building order, which precedent and how to apply the process to the convex parcels with the distance approach.
... Some algorithms, like the one underlying the "people you may know button" on LinkedIn, automatically suggest social relations on the basis of inferred data. The power of algorithms, as David Beer contends, lies in their programmability: programmers steer user experiences, content, and user relations via platforms [25]. ...
Article
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Influencers have established themselves as key allies for brands by cultivating a powerful public image to promote them. In the case of Instamoms, these collaborations can offer moms a means of achieving economic stability while allowing them to stay at home and fulfill their role as mothers. In a country like Mexico, where the gender gap in the labor market remains a contentious issue, digital work represents an opportunity for women. The similarity between the organic content and commercial content created by these profiles has strengthened the presence of hybrid advertising. This means of advertising has not spelled the end for the original content, and audiences may struggle to spot ads if sponsorship is not disclosed properly. It is important for consumers to be able to identify ads so their persuasion knowledge can be activated. This article examines the commercial messages and types of disclosure used by Mexican Instamoms to inform their followers of the commercial nature of their collaborations. The types of disclosure are analyzed based on language, location, and type of text. After a content analysis of 10,135 stories and more than 330 posts, 40% and 47% of the sample, respectively, was identified as advertising content. The analysis revealed that less than 5% of the Instamoms sponsored content was tagged as such and that sponsorship disclosure does not form part of the usual protocol for influencer-brand collaborations in a country where no legislation is yet in place and the sector is making little effort to control these practices.
... Rather, they are contained, coopted, and exploited by new forms of capitalist control that are enabled by the Net's universalizing, integrative, and radically inclusive infrastructure. Concerns over hegemony, subalternity, and liminality are replaced by the focus on a protocological, posthegemonic mode of control (Galloway, 2004; see also Beer, 2009;Deleuze, 1992;Lash, 2007), to which cultural difference remains inconsequential due to ubiquitous infrastructural integration, datafication, and algorithmic power. The latter can incorporate any way of life by working from within its object, which it transposes to the abstract language of data and modulates through feedback loops. ...
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Discussions of digital and smart infrastructures have often assumed ubiquitous, global connectivity and data-driven governance in ways that made the concept of liminality seem redundant. Contesting such narratives, this Special Section features provocative discussions about frictions, interstices, and excesses involving blockchains/trains, smart cities, electronic waste, food rescue logistics, stacks, leaky Internet blackouts, and humanitarian “data signal trafficking.” The introduction provides a conceptual framework inspired by Simondon. It contends that digital infrastructures touch on something external that they do not fully control and therefore spur tensions and paradoxes of integration/disruption and convergence/excess. What I call the “infrastructural politics of liminality” unpacks such tensions and paradoxes by construing three axes, labeled “incorporation,” “territorialization,” and “signification” respectively. Accordingly, this section explores infrastructural world-making by mapping digital–material connections running “via Asia” that touch ground in Asia but that also produce its spaces, borders, and global extensions.
... Like any other technology, the blockchain offers various ways to imagine alternative models of politics and society. The model of algorithmic governance inscribed in blockchain borrows core terms from political philosophy and offers ways to materialize inspirations from oftencontradictory political theories (Beer, 2009). ...
... Much research has already been conducted into the social power and politics of algorithms (Beer, 2009(Beer, , 2017Cheney-Lippold, 2016;Gillespie, 2014;Kotliar, 2020;Willson, 2017). From a computational perspective, algorithms are fundamentally calculative procedures employed in computer software to process input data in order to generate target outputs (Kitchin, 2017). ...
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This article examines ways in which people are seen, recognised, and made to matter by social media platforms. Drawing on Louise Amoore’s notion of ‘regimes of recognition’, I argue that social media platforms can be conceptualised as increasingly powerful arbiters of recognisability, determining the conditions of possibility of how people are seen and come to matter. Through an analysis of Twitter’s saliency detection algorithm, which automatically crops images uploaded to the platform, the article highlights how social media platforms participate in producing novel modes of recognisability, that is, conditions by which people are rendered visible and invisible within or by the platform. Moreover, the article highlights how regimes of recognition on algorithmic media shape people’s parameters of attention and perception more generally through what I call the automatic production of ‘consistent’ lines of sight. Ultimately, the article seeks to highlight how the notion of recognition is increasingly arbitrated in and through algorithmic media and how this is fraught with political issues and tension. As such, there is an ongoing need to critically examine the power of social media to render people visible and invisible.
... Decisões características do gestor, como alocação de recursos, avaliação de trabalhadores e prestadores de serviços, recompensa, entre outras são cada vez mais atribuem aos algoritmos (Bader & Kaiser, 2019;Beer, 2009;Curchod et al., 2020;Kellogg et al., 2020). Essa situação é naturalizada e comemorada quando observada pela lente funcionalista de quem governa a organização (Bourne, 2019;Gunaratne et al., 2018), mas resulta em sentimentos relacionados à manipulação, incompreensão, insegurança, vigilância, desempoderamento, estresse e exploração nos trabalhadores (Kellogg et al., 2020;Elmholdt et al., 2020;Morozov, 2018;Pasquale, 2015;Petriglieri et al., 2019). ...
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O objetivo desse artigo teórico é apresentar a temática da algocracia e seus contornos sobuma lente crítica, especialmente no que tange a utilização dos algoritmos pelasorganizações, especialmente na mediação da gestão do trabalho. Esse sistema é pautadona busca por eficiência, e legitimado pelas novas tecnologias de informação e comunicação,afetando relações de trabalho e estruturas organizacionais, seus aspectos culturais,econômicos, sociais e políticos. Para tanto, observamos esse modelo de gestão poralgoritmos pela lente dos estudos críticos de gestão. Argumentamos que o contextoneoliberal camufla as disparidades entre organizações e trabalhadores, ao legitimar aideologia da flexibilidade, e usando os algoritmos para capturar dados, processá-los e, emseguida, decidir sobre as atividades e avaliações dos trabalhadores.
... Advances in information technologies such as data mining methods and algorithmic techniques along with the attempts to analyze big data 3 have transformed the whole market landscape including the media industry. Whether an enthusiastic (Bollier 2010;Kitchin 2014;Manovich 2013;Lohr 2015; Mayer-Schönberger and Cukier 2013) or a critical approach (Andrejevic 2012;Beer 2009;Couldry 2017;Couldry and Mejia 2019;Mager 2012) is adopted, it is obvious that data technologies have changed the way many businesses operate. The repercussions of these data-oriented developments in the advertising and marketing world are also remarkable. ...
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Industry advocates argue that the focus of advertising production has shifted from the creativity of practitioners to consumer analytics and the potential advantages of big data. Although a little empirical research offers valuable insights about the changing role of advertising practitioners, it lacks a critical perspective to situate it in a broader social context. On the other hand, digital labor and branding literature over-concentrate on user labor and neglect the role of practitioners in advertising production. By deploying the concept of immaterial labor, this article reevaluates the findings of mainstream marketing-advertising literature within the context of post-Fordist labor. This article aims to create a resonance between theories of immaterial labor and advertising literature and to call for further empirical research from a labor perspective. It argues that advertising practitioners put more strategical, relational and communicative powers into work to manage a data-oriented market. Keywords: Advertising Practitioners, Immaterial Labour, Big Data, Media Work, Autonomist Marxism
... Indeed, the rapidly evolving internet space (or spaces) comes with new possibilities, but also new limitations. Beer (2009), Goldberg (2011 and Ellison & Hardey (2014) have pointed out that the virtual sphere is not a force for democratic change, citizen participation in political decision making, as it was hoped to be. Unexpectedly, the social media technology was used for revolutionary success in Egypt (cf. ...
... Brands in counter-democracy will have to decide which political consumer groups they must infuriate and lose, in order to win others. Although Scholz and Weijo (2016) suggest this infuriation could be managed by the market actors through the enabling of discussions, the literature on algorithmic power (e.g., Beer, 2009) would hold this unlikely. Instead, the brands will be necessarily stigmatized by large groups at the market, but onanistically chosen by others, and polar sides have to be performed. ...
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At the beginning of the millennium, consumer culture researchers predicted that people would increasingly demand that marketplace actors subscribe to contemporary ethics of liberal democracy. Although their prediction indeed came true, they did not foresee that an algorithm-powered media ecosystem in combination with growing authoritarian movements would soon come to fuel an increasingly polarized political landscape and challenge the very fundament of liberal democracy per se. In this macroscopic, conceptual article, I discuss three assumption-challenging logics—counter-democratic consumer culture, de-dialectical algorithmic manipulation, and growing illiberal consumer resistance—according to which the market increasingly monetizes the conflicts accompanying this polarization and, thereby, reinforces it. I call this new logic a conflict market and illustrate it through three, historically situated and currently conflicting, consumer ideoscapes—the neoblue, the neogreen, and the neobrown—between which consumers engage in marketized conflicts, not in a de-politicizing way, but in an increasingly un-politicizing, de-dialectical, and polarizing way. At the technologically manipulated conflict market, the role of marketers is to monetize politically sensitive topics by creating conflict, knowingly renouncing large groups of consumers, and giving fodder to the political extremes.
... Moreover, algorithms may draw on historical data shaped by long histories of inequality and discrimination, and thus algorithms are often considered to be biased (Barocas and Selbst, 2016). This also increases problems with inherent opacity. ...
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The use of big data is often portrayed both in the media and by practitioners as an opportunity, an increase in efficiency or an opportunity to better control certain processes in society. Data, especially big data, is often referred to as something mystical in these contexts. At the same time, there are always (data) experts behind the analysis based on big data, who play a major role in shaping and researching today's digital society. The aim of the dissertation "Big data imaginaries of data pioneers: changed data relations and challenges to agency" The aim of my thesis was to analyze how are the dominant big data imaginaries actualized and elaborated amongst data pioneers, how has this affected the scholarly practices and challenged the individual and collective agency. To achieve this goal, I interviewed the Estonian data experts, collected data by using a systematic review method as well as representative population survey data. The results of the dissertation show that big data is mostly seen by data experts as a valuable resource that provides tools to improve governance through better and more efficient decision-making. Moreover, it is seen to provide an opportunity to better understand social processes and study human behavior. Data in the imagination of experts is also increasingly seen as commodity or capital, which is a significant competitive advantage for both private and public sector organizations. This thesis also brings out several barriers in relation to using and researching big data like the access to data, insufficient skills and knowledge to gather or analyze (big) data, lack of unified standards needed for sharing data between different parties, legal restrictions usually posed to protect the data subjects’ rights, technological affordances as well as changed data relations
... The importance of context for perceptions of fairness is central to the fields of science and technology studies (STS) and critical algorithm studies, which articulate the heterogeneous influence of algorithms in society [e.g. 7,10,38,84,86,124]. ...
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This paper reports on empirical work conducted to study perceptions of unfair treatment caused by automated computational systems. While the pervasiveness of algorithmic bias has been widely acknowledged, and perceptions of fairness are commonly studied in Human Computer Interaction, there is a lack of research on how unfair treatment by automated computational systems is experienced by users from disadvantaged and marginalised backgrounds. There is a need for more diversification in terms of the investigated users, domains, and tasks, and regarding the strategies that users employ to reduce harm. To unpack these issues, we ran a prescreened survey of 663 participants, oversampling those with at-risk characteristics. We collected occurrences and types of conflicts regarding unfair and discriminatory treatment and systems, as well as the actions taken towards resolving these situations. Drawing on intersectional research, we combine qualitative and quantitative approaches in order to highlight the nuances around power and privilege in the perceptions of automated computational systems. Among our participants, we discuss experiences of computational essentialism, attribute-based exclusion, and expected harm. We derive suggestions to address these perceptions of unfairness as they occur.
... Bernstein et al. (2013) found that a majority of social media users dramatically underestimated their audiences with a median guess of just 27% of the true audience size. Social media audiences also include artificial intelligence, such as the algorithms that sort and distribute content on these sites (Bucher, 2017;Beer, 2009). Algorithms determine who will be shown each post, and which connections and topics will be most visible while using the technology (Rader & Gray, 2015). ...
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The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore how academics in the United States described their social media self-presentations (SMSPs) in the context of imagined surveillance. Moral Reasoning Theory drove two RQs: (1) How do academics describe construction of SMSPs in the context of imagined surveillance? (2) How do academics describe the influence of imagined surveillance on their personal SMSPs? 106 academics from across the U.S. were recruited by convenience sampling from two scholarly associations. Data were collected from closed-/open-ended questionnaires (n=102) and semi-structured interviews (n=20). Data analysis applied a six-phased Reflexive Thematic Analysis procedure of inductive coding to generate five themes and 14 subthemes. Academics described SMSP construction as negotiating (1) promises and perils of in/visibility, including (a) unspoken rules, (b) overlapping identities, (c) social support, and (d) personal opinion-sharing, which was profoundly shaped by (2) the rise of cancel culture, or an (a) enforced ideology, (b) activist subgroup, and (c) pressure to signal support. Imagined surveillance influenced SMSPs toward (3) protection over participation by (a) withdrawal from social media, viewing (b) tenure as insufficient, and (c) safe social media strategies; (4) trepidation while teaching due to (a) classroom recording prompted (b) strategic instruction; and (5) resistance and rebellion to (a) push back on cancel culture with a (b) duty to speak out. This study advanced understanding of social media surveillance as a normalizing force on speech and behavior. Findings may be applied to policy and practice regarding social media use in education and other professional settings.
... Es el resultado de la consolidación de un capitalismo informacional en el que la información ha adquirido un peso sin precedentes en el modo en que influye, afecta y modela nuestros estilos de vida (Lash, 2007). La idea de economía de plataformas en sí es un concepto genérico, comúnmente utilizado junto con otros también muy populares (gig economy, economía colaborativa, etc.) que agrupa, en realidad, numerosas prácticas mercantiles y no mercantiles incrustadas en los soportes tecnológicos proporcionados por el desarrollo de la llamada web 2.0 (Beer, 2009;Acquier, Daudigeos y Pinkse, 2017). En todo caso, su manifestación más característica ha sido la del dominio comercial de grandes compañías vinculadas al desarrollo de aplicaciones que conectan empresas y consumidores en internet. ...
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La economía de las plataformas o gig economy, además de suponer una auténtica revolución en los mercados, está generando un impacto muy controvertido sobre las condiciones de empleo en muchos sectores, con la proliferación de nuevos trabajos precarios. Sin embargo, no podemos entender esta metamorfosis del trabajo prestando atención únicamente a la esfera de la producción y las estrategias de gestión de las empresas, sino que debemos fijar nuestra mirada en otros aspectos. Uno de ellos, esencial pero generalmente menos explorado en los análisis sobre esta nueva economía, es el del consumo. No hay gig economy sin la emergencia de formas de consumo y estilos de vida muy concretos, vinculados a la digitalización y el uso extendido de los algoritmos como nueva estrategia de segmentación de mercados. En esta contribución, nuestro objetivo es el de ofrecer una reflexión sobre la importancia que el espacio del consumo tiene en la construcción de este modelo económico de las plataformas, discutiendo sus implicaciones y mostrando su vínculo, muchas veces oculto, con el tipo de empleo que se genera.
... In addition to elaborating on the nature of algorithmic conspirituality, and whom it impacts and how, future work is needed to investigate its impacts. A central concern among those who study the interrelationship between humans and algorithms is the degree to which algorithms shape beliefs, behaviors, relationships, ideologies, and opportunities (Beer, 2009;Bucher, 2018;Burrell & Fourcade, 2021;Just & Latzer, 2017). On social media, previous work has particularly highlighted concerns about the potential for algorithms to expose users to harmful content-for example, pro-eating-disorder (Herrick, Hallward, & Duncan, 2020), self-harm (Arendt, Scherr, & Romer, 2019), extremist (Massanari, 2017;Murthy, 2021), and misinformation (Vosoughi, Roy, & Aral, 2018) content. ...
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In this article, we introduce the concept of algorithmic conspirituality to capture occasions when people find personal, often revelatory connections to content algorithmically recommended to them on social media and explain these connections as a kind of algorithmically mediated cosmic intervention. The phenomenon emerges from three particular developments: an epistemological shift that has positioned algorithms as important tools for self-knowledge; the sublime quality that algorithms have acquired, which primes users to imagine them as providential; and the rise of conspirituality (a portmanteau of conspiracy and spirituality). In conceptualizing algorithmic conspirituality, we particularly focus on TikTok, where the platform’s For You Page algorithm shapes users’ experience to an even greater degree than other platforms. We illustrate the concept through three example TikTok videos and conclude with a discussion and recommendations on future research agendas using algorithmic conspirituality.
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Ausgehend von der Überzeugung, dass die Lebenswelttheorie von Alfred Schütz ein spezifisches theoretisches Potential für eine phänomenologisch-soziologische Analyse der digitalen Welt aufweist, wird in einer „Parallelaktion“ die technisch-technologische Konstruktion der digitalen Welt untersucht. Kontrastiv dazu wird die subjektive Konstitution der digitalen Welt ausgehend von Bewusstseinsleistungen reflektiert, wobei insgesamt die Frage nach einer „Durchdringung der Lebenswelt durch die digitale Welt“ im Vordergrund steht. Von besonderer Relevanz ist dabei die Ergänzung bzw. Erweiterung der pragmatischen Alltags- und Wirkwelt durch die digitale Welt. Die digital ergänzte Lebenswelt wird insbesondere hinsichtlich der Frage nach der Undinglichkeit des Digitalen, im Hinblick auf die Konzepte Imagination, Animation und Simulation sowie durch die Fokussierung auf die Dimension Macht untersucht.
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"Senza Valore", a cura di Luigi Maria Sicca, Davide Borrelli, Domenico Napolitano, Napoli, Editoriale Scientifica, 2021. Con scritti di: Alberto Abruzzese, Angelo Baccelloni, Davide Borrelli, Giovanni Costa, Gerarda Fattoruso, Andrea Fumagalli, Daniele Garritano, Anna Giannetti, Daniele Goldoni, Carlo Grassi, Domenico Napolitano, Mario Nicodemi, Maria Grazia Olivieri, Enzo Rullani, Luigi Maria Sicca, Massimo Squillante, Marialuisa Stazio, Marcello Traiola, Luca Zan Prefazione di Eugenio Mazzarella Dalla quarta di copertina: Senza valore raccoglie quindici saggi. Senza valore ha un preciso filo conduttore: evidenziare quanto piatto possa essere leggere e scrivere sulle due sole dimensioni di un piano cartesiano. Accettato, rigettato. Magari solo un poco sanzionato o emendato. Oggettivo, comunque pre e post soggettivo. Validato. Peraltro in anonimato. Formalmente ineccepibile, garbato. Senza valore è un caleidoscopio: una risposta ai vigenti sistemi di governo. Quelli che misurano scienza recente o millenaria conoscenza. Altre non sono impossibili a priori. Senza valore tiene dentro la comunità accademica idee potenzialmente escluse. Il che - sovente - è fonte di valore aggiunto. Una carta da calare. Perché ciò che è (o appare) senza affare può invece essere pregiato e inestimabile. Senza valore, appunto o anche, semplicemente wertlos. Perché in queste pagine è possibile sfogliare senso, curiosità e prospettiva: dove il sapere conta, eccome. Ma non si conta o sconta. Perché standardizzare e burocratizzare è spesso un disservizio. Onta. Una corsa a premi e punti. Avarizia o bulimia; no di certo buona economia. Perché occorre una sana ecologia della ricerca: mezzi e fini in relazione, costruzione, "messa in atto" con sapienza. Sguardo lungo, largo e alto. Se ne consiglia la lettura a chi nutra dubbi sull'ideologia del merito: per funzionare ha bisogno di piegare antiche qualità a un'epistemologia fatta a griglie, stelle, soglie, fasce e strisce. Se ne sconsiglia la lettura a chi non abbia tempo e voglia di giocare. Esercizio terapeutico: rimbalzo empatico anziché antipatico tra autore e referee. Davvero pari. Non schiavi, non sovrani.
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Günümüzde verinin etkili bir biçimde işlenmesini sağlayan teknolojiler birer değer yaratma ve karar destek enstrümanı haline gelmiştir. Algoritmaların büyük veriyi bilgiye, dolayısıyla kinetik toplumsal ve ekonomik bir güce, dönüştürmesi tekno-optimist bir bakış açısıyla övgü görüyor olsa da bireyi ve toplumu çok boyutlu bir şekilde etkilemektedir. Çünkü algoritmalarda toplumun ve geliştiricilerin değerlerinin yansımalarına rastlamak mümkündür. Bu bağlamda algoritmik yanlılıklar çeşitli toplumsal sorunların ortaya çıkmasına zemin yaratmaktadır. Algoritmaların etkin kullanıldığı platformlarda ortaya çıkan filtre baloncukları bilgi akış sürecinde ve toplumsal gruplar arasında bilgi boşlukları yaratabilmekte, bireylerin düşüncelerini ifade etme ve bilgi alma sınırlarını çizmede etkin bir rol oynamaktadır. Algoritma temelli kararlar dezavantajlı gruplar üzerinde veya cinsiyete dayalı ayrımcılığa sebep olabilmektedir. Algoritmalar performans değerlendirme sistemlerinin veya etkili gözetim araçlarının yaratılmasına imkan tanımaktadır. Algoritmik sistemlerin mevcudiyetinin hukuktan insan kaynakları yönetimine uzanan geniş bir spektrumda olduğu göz önünde bulundurulduğunda toplum üzerinde yaratabileceği etkinin potansiyeli daha net anlaşılmaktadır. Bu derleme kitap algoritmaların farklı alanlardaki kullanımlarının yaratabileceği toplumsal etkiyi eleştirel bir perspektiften okumayı amaç edinmiştir. Bu bağlamda algoritmaların ve algoritmik yanlılıkların potansiyel etkilerini farklı bağlamlarda değerlendiren tartışmaların yanı sıra bu etkileri en aza indirmek noktasında çözüm önerilerinin geliştirilmesi hedeflenmiştir.
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This paper addresses the relationship between digital technology and dis/organization by theorizing and analyzing digital data infrastructures as partial connections. Much literature attends to the ordering and controlling organizational powers of digital data infrastructures. We propose to expand existing discussions by also exploring their disorganizing aspects. Drawing on Marilyn Strathern, we conceptualize digital data infrastructures as partial connections that both connect and disconnect, with the implication of simultaneously ordering and disordering the social relations implicated by digital data infrastructures. With a case study of a national wellbeing survey used in Danish education governance, we illustrate this point, showing how connective and commensurable powers of digital infrastructures not only (re-)organize social relations through their datafication but also disorganize the infrastructural imperative of connectivity in unanticipated ways. This leads us to argue that dis/organization is integral to the powerful ordering capacities of digital data infrastructures.
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Zusammenfassung Die Systemtheorie positioniert sich in prominenter Weise als eine Sozial- und Gesellschaftstheorie, die sich aufgrund ihrer kybernetischen Denkfiguren und Begriffe besonders dazu eignet, die Digitalisierung der Gesellschaft soziologisch zu deuten. Angesichts dieses Anspruchs reflektiert dieser Beitrag die Bedingungen und Grenzen einer systemtheoretischen Beschreibung digitaler Sozialität. Selbst- und Fremdzuschreibungen der Systemtheorie als Theorie digitaler Sozialität rekapitulierend, betreibt er dazu eine Beobachtung zweiter Ordnung jenes kybernetischen Blicks, der Sozialität generell in funktional-formaler Weise als Prozess der Informationsverarbeitung versteht und Mensch und Computer damit gleichsam symmetrisiert. Es wird herausgearbeitet, dass die Systemtheorie zwar in der Tat gut geeignet ist, eine bereits digital konstituierte Sozialität zu beschreiben, ihr jedoch die Hervorbringung der Unterscheidung von Digitalem und Analogem gerade aufgrund ihrer kybernetisch-digitalen Theorieanlage latent entgleitet. Dies, so die Argumentation, manifestiert sich in einem blinden Fleck der Systemtheorie mit Blick auf Prozesse der Digitalisie rung . Zur Bearbeitung dieser Leerstelle schlägt der Beitrag vor, Interfaces als soziotechnische Scharniere, die Analoges in Digitales übersetzen, soziologisch zu fokussieren. Denn erst diese Schnittstellen, so die These, ermöglichen einerseits die Symmetrisierung sämtlicher Entitäten im Register der Digitalität und machen andererseits das nicht-übersetzbare oder -übersetzungswürdige Analoge als „Rest“ des Digitalen intelligibel. Eine Sozialtheorie der Digitalisierung ist mithin angehalten zu rekonstruieren, wie eine Gesellschaft ihre analoge Umwelt laufend digital markiert, verarbeitet und schließlich vergisst.
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As our social worlds increasingly shift online, many of the technologies people encounter are mediated by algorithms. Algorithms have become deeply embedded into people's online lives, often working to tailor and personalize their routine encounters with the world. How does one domesticate, or make one's own, an algorithmic system? One of the goals as people adopt new technologies is to weave them into their everyday routines, establishing a pattern of use in order to make that technology their own. In this paper we focus on people's experiences domesticating the short-form video sharing application, TikTok. Through an interview study with 16 LGBTQ+ TikTok users, we explore how people's routine experiences with TikTok's For You Page algorithm influence and inform their domestication process. We first highlight people's motivations for adopting TikTok and the challenges they encounter in this initial acquisition phase of domestication. After adopting the platform, we discuss the challenges people experience across the final three phases of domestication: objectification, incorporation, and conversion. We find that though they enjoy TikTok, our participants feel that they are never fully able to domesticate TikTok. As they are never able to fully control their digital selves, and thus integrate it into their routine lives, TikTok is in constant misalignment with their personal moral economy. We discuss the implications of domesticating algorithmic systems, examining the questions of whose values shape the moral economy created by and through people's uses of algorithmic systems, and the impact of nostalgia on the domestication process.
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Platforms are fulfilling functions previously considered within the jurisdictions of media outlets, such as news distribution, advertising, or editorial judgment. This article proposes strengthening the vocabulary of scholarship on news organizations and platforms by taking material agency seriously. It animates sociomateriality as a suitable conceptual framework to dissect human and nonhuman agency in editorial judgment and presents future research with ontological paths for considering their relationship. When platforms are accused of bias or partisanship, this pinpoints the importance of perceptions of who is in charge of editorial judgment. This article suggests that by utilizing a sociomateriality framework to disentangle the interplay of the human and the algorithmic, editorial judgment surfaces as a seminal similarity between media and platforms. The ancillary concept of commensurability serves as an analytical heuristic to render such comparisons possible. This is illustrated by two exemplifications of the sociomateriality framework: The cases of Facebook Trending Topics, and of Twitter Moments.
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This chapter investigates the hashtag battle #BlackLivesMatter vs. #AllLivesMatter and considers its ability to promote cyber race. It assesses the implications of constructing racial boundaries within the online space, its impact on identity politics and the viability for cyberspace to exist as a post-racial epoch in the digital age. This study takes an affordance and architectural approach to its analysis of BLM and ALM, incorporating a thematic analysis of the hashtags on Twitter. The research uses a theoretical underpinning of framing theory to analyze tweets from the ALM and BLM twitter timelines. It demonstrates that the hashtag battle, although, configured, and framed by the mainstream media as one that encapsulates a race war of Black vs. White, that actually, findings reveal that the battle consists of the tension and friction between mainstream media frames and what is termed digitized frames.
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MRI findings are essential to diagnose the severity of ligament tears in knee injuries in footballers. By using Magnetic Imaging Resonance we can accurately make diagnose and can determine the extent of damage to tissues and ligaments by grading them according to injuries. Objective: The main objective of this study is to determine the MRI findings in patients of knee injuries in football players. MethodS: A multicenter descriptive study conducted at University of Lahore Teaching hospital and National hospital during 4 months period. All symptomatic football players of both genders and age ranging from 16-40 year are included in this study. Our calculated sample size is 80. 1.5T MRI machine used for scans. All images were Proton density and T2 weighted images. Results: This study includes 80 footballers complaining knee pain. Mean age of all subjects was 31.4 +, - 5.7 year. Among 80 patients who had knee injuries, 56 patients (70%) had ACL injuries, 14 patients (17.5%) had PCL injuries, 14 patients (17.5%) had LCL injuries, 8 patients (10%) had MCL injuries, 24 patients (30%) had LM injuries, and 31 patients (38.8%) had MM injuries. Conclusion: MRI is useful imaging modality for the detection of soft tissue injuries most commonly sports injuries. It gives more accurate and detailed information of ligaments and muscle tears than any other modalities. In our study most common injuries that are detected by MRI are ACL tear, bucket handle tear of medial meniscus and MCL injuries. PCL injuries are less common than ACL injuries.
Article
Drawing from social learning theory and the mobile advertising literature on key performance indicators (KPIs), two experiments examined the influence of peer users' conversion in mobile social commerce. Experiment 1 (N = 211, between-subjects [high vs. low number of “sold items”]) tested the effects of peer users' conversion, operationalized as the number of “sold items” in the seller's profile, on the seller-and-profile-related outcomes. The main effect of peer users' conversion was found such that high conversion induced greater cognitive and affective appraisals, higher seller credibility, a more positive profile attitude, greater perceived entrepreneurial talent of the seller, and stronger social commerce conversion intentions. The mediating effect of social learning (mainly affective appraisal) was found. Experiment 2 (N = 348, 2 [high vs. low number of “sold items”] x 2 [high vs. low “followers”] between-subjects factorial design) showed the interaction effects of the number of “sold items” (seller's sales performance) and the number of “followers” (seller's relationship performance) on cognitive and affective appraisals, seller credibility, and profile attitude. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that peer users' conversion exerts a positive impact on the outcome variables through cognitive and affective appraisals when the number of followers is high but not when it is low.
Article
In this paper, I approach platform governance through algorithmic folklore, consisting of beliefs and narratives about moderation systems that are passed on informally and can exist in tension with official accounts. More specifically, I analyse user discussions on ‘shadow banning’, a controversial, potentially non-existing form of content moderation on popular social media platforms. I argue that discursive mobilisations of the term can act as a methodological entry point to studying the shifting grounds and emerging logics of algorithmic governance, not necessarily in terms of the actual practices themselves, but in terms of its experiential dimension that, in turn, indicates broader modalities and relationalities of control. Based on my analysis of the user discussions, I argue that the constitutive logics of social media platforms increasingly seem to run counter to the values of good governance, such as clarity and stability of norms, and consistency of enforcement. This is reflected in how users struggle, desperately, to form expectations about system operation and police themselves according to perceived rules, yet are left in a state of dependency and frustration, unable to take hold of their digital futures.
Article
Purpose Digital markets are increasingly constructed by an interplay between (non)human market actors, i.e. through algorithms, but, simultaneously, fragmented through platformization. This study aims to explore how interactional dynamics between (non)human market actors co-codify markets through expressive and networked content across social media platforms. Design/methodology/approach This study applies digital methods as cross-platform analysis to analyze two data sets retrieved from YouTube and Instagram using the keywords “sustainable fashion” and #sustainablefashion, respectively. Findings The study shows how interactional dynamics between (non)human market actors, co-codify markets across two social media platforms, i.e. YouTube and Instagram. The authors introduce the notion of sticky market webs of connection, illustrating how these dynamics foster cross-platform market codification through relations of exteriority. Research limitations/implications Research implications highlight the necessity to account for all involved entities, including digital infrastructure in digital markets and the methodological potential of cross-platform analyses. Practical implications Practical implications highlight considerations managers should take into account when designing market communication for digital markets composed of (non)human market actors. Social implications Social implications highlight the possible effects of (non)human market co-codification on markets and consumer culture, and corresponding countermeasures. Originality/value This study contributes to an increased understanding of digital market dynamics by illuminating interdependent market co-codification dynamics between (non)human market actors, and how these dynamics (de)territorialize digital market assemblages through relations of exteriority across platforms.
Article
In an evolution from the methodology now widely accepted by historians of photojournalism—namely to focus on the photograph as printed on the magazine page, and on its dissemination—I call for the need to pay attention instead to the large swathes of unpublished images that remain marginalised in the narrative of photojournalism history. My focus in this article is on press photographs of the First Persian Gulf War (1990-91) that had escaped the public’s view at the time but were later supposedly “rediscovered.” Taking as a case study a 2003 issue of The Guardian weekend magazine G2 titled “The Unseen Gulf War,” I argue that, despite claims that the selected photographs were exclusive content, the issue actually plays mainly on familiarity, and brings to a wider audience images that had already achieved various degrees of public existence. I then draw a parallel between this media endeavour and the academic research approach, parsing through a variety of methodological obstacles and relevant theoretical considerations, ultimately to demonstrate that the way we approach the history of photojournalism has an impact on how we tell history itself.
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This chapter examines the literature on digital inequalities as they pertain to big data. It provides a background on older work that explains the digital divide. The chapter highlights the causes and consequences of unequal access to, and usage of, Internet‐connected technologies, outlining concerns that are not dissimilar to those levied against big data. It reviews recent work that extends the digital divide framework to big data. In this emerging body of literature, most authors present varied ethical critiques of big data, while others explain how personal engagement with one's data can be a source of agency and empowerment. The chapter argues that the big data divide creates new analytical lines in which to investigate digital inequalities and the big data phenomenon itself. The literature reveals at least five new consequential axes of investigation, identity, actionable knowledge, visibility, agency, and global development.
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Gigantes da tecnologia, como Google e Facebook, estão entre as principais plataformas que buscam via algoritmos dimensionar atitudes de indivíduos conectados e, posteriormente, oferecer conteúdos de relevância para um consumo personalizado. Os efeitos da pós-verdade, das fake news e dos algoritmos do Facebook têm sido fontes de questionamentos desde a eleição presidencial dos Estados Unidos, em 2016. No Brasil de 2018, além do avanço do populismo de direita radical e do aumento da polarização política, os efeitos desse trinômio foram sentidos. Esta pesquisa parte do pressuposto de que o modelo de poder e exclusão formado pelos filtros algorítmicos fomentou as reconfigurações da espiral do silêncio, teoria elaborada por Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann (2010), durante o período eleitoral e após a eleição de 2018. O objeto de estudo consiste as implicações das mediações algorítmicas no que diz respeito à opinião pública e à recepção de notícias por integrantes de igrejas evangélicas neopentecostais e por professores sindicalizados da rede pública que residem em Curitiba (PR). O objetivo geral é compreender de que forma as mediações algorítmicas interferem na mediação e na recepção de notícias por integrantes da Igreja Universal do Reino de Deus e do Sindicato dos Trabalhadores em Educação Pública do Paraná (APP-Sindicato). O objeto empírico é marcado por entrevistas em profundidade com 16 participantes – oito de cada dimensão analisada. A pesquisa também conta com objetivos específicos, definidos por: a) discutir as transformações no jornalismo e na opinião pública a partir da perspectiva dos filtros algorítmicos; b) analisar as reconfigurações da espiral do silêncio e da opinião pública a partir das mediações algorítmicas e do contexto das eleições de 2018; c) identificar as implicações nas mediações e recepção nas esferas analisadas após o período eleitoral; d) verificar se o cenário de polarização política aliado ao consumo nas redes sociais impulsiona o silenciamento; e e) compreender quais os efeitos dos filtros e da efemeridade das plataformas digitais na formação da memória social. Os procedimentos metodológicos organizam-se em três etapas: 1) realização de levantamento bibliográfico e articulação com o contexto político social brasileiro; 2) aplicação de questionário socioeconômico estruturado para definição dos sujeitos participantes das entrevistas; 3) verificação da recepção de matriz sociocultural mediante aplicação de roteiro semiestruturado de entrevista em profundidade. Os resultados indicam, entre outros fatores, que a espiral do silêncio se manifesta especialmente por meio do silenciamento de acontecimentos de interesse público ocasionado pelas mediações algorítmicas. Mais do que simplesmente apontar respostas sobre mediação e recepção no contexto das plataformas digitais, a pesquisa procura trazer contribuições para pensar sobre o papel das dimensões estruturantes na formação de leitores de conteúdos noticiosos a partir do Mapa do Sistema de Mediações Algorítmicas.
Chapter
In this chapter, we discuss algorithmic writing futures with specific focus on analytics and artificial intelligence (see Table 3.1). We examine the impact on writing futures in terms of algorithmic control and algorithmic culture and how our teaching, writing, cognition, and behavior is being steered by learning management systems. We emphasize the need for transparency for proprietary “black box” decision-making systems and that the TPC community will often be on the frontline tasked with recognizing, reporting, and/or ameliorating bias in teams with developers, AI nonhuman agents, and an array of public or private entities that are starting to classify these types of issues. This will form another analytical skill in the collaborative relationship between writers, adjacent professionals, and AI actors. We conclude with detail on how AI might assist in recognizing, ameliorating, and addressing civic challenges. Here we include content about several relevant international endeavors to establish principles, practices, and standards for ethical AI, many of which reference communication practices.
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Through a series of interrelated developments, software is imbuing everyday objects with capacities that allow them to do additional and new types of work. On the one hand, objects are remade and recast through interconnecting circuits of software that make them machine readable. On the other, objects are gaining calculative capacities and awareness of their environment that allow them to conduct their own work, with only intermittent human oversight, as part of diverse actant networks. In the first part of the paper we examine the relationship between objects and software in detail, constructing a taxonomy of new types of coded objects. In the second part we explore how the technicity of different kinds of coded objects is mobilised to transduce space by considering the various ways in which coded objects are reshaping home life in different domestic spaces.
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This introduction surveys a number of problems for contemporary cultural theory, which arise from the transformations in culture that have been produced by developments ranging from the globalization of third wave capitalism to the emergence of tele-technologies. It summarizes arguments presented by Lash, Thoburn, Johnson, Terranova and Venn, as well as a number of reflections on the state of cultural studies outside Euro-America, to present alternative genealogies of cultural studies and open up new sites for theoretical elaboration.
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This article posits a ???mutual fit??? between consumer culture and the task posed to individuals under conditions of modernity: to produce for themselves the continuity no longer provided by society. It therefore explores the new forms of consumption formed from a shift from the functionality of needs to the diffuse plasticity and volatility of desire, arguing that this principle of instability has become functional to a modernity that seems to conjure stability out of an entire lack of solidity.
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There has been a well-documented `cultural turn' in social theory. This takes two forms: the `epistemological' case in which culture is seen as universally constitutive of social relations and identities; and the `historical' case in which culture is seen as playing an unprecedented role in constituting social relations and identities in contemporary society. In this paper I take it that both cases overlap in studies of contemporary society and that the stronger case is justified. I argue that a model of cultural politics is necessary to fully develop the impetus of the `cultural turn' away from structural determinism, and that relations between the state and society should no longer be taken as the central focus of political sociology. I propose that the understanding of politics developed by Foucault in his later work on power and domination can provide the basis of a `cultural turn' in political sociology. Finally, I offer some suggestions about how those working in the field of political sociology are already beginning to develop the theme of cultural politics - albeit without naming it as such - and how this might be extended.
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The cyborg that Donna Haraway appropriated in ‘Manifesto for Cyborgs’ as a metaphor for political action and theoretical inquiry has ceased to have the potency it did 20 years ago. While Haraway has turned from a central focus on technoculture to companion species, much important cultural work remains to be done, especially in networked and programmable media. Problems with the cyborg as a metaphor include the implication that the liberal humanist subject, however problematized by its hybridization with cybernetic mechanism, continues as a singular entity operating with localized agency. In a word, the cyborg is not networked enough to encompass the emergent possibilities associated with the Internet and the world-wide web and other phenomena of the contemporary digital era. Instead I propose the idea of the cognisphere. As operational concept and suggestive metaphor, the cognisphere recognizes that networked and programmable media are not only more pervasive than ever before in human history but also more cognitively powerful. It is closely associated with what many researchers regard as a major insight: the idea that the physical world is fundamentally computational. While these scientists regard computation as a physical process, the cultural critic is apt to see it as an over-determined metaphor. The binary choice between seeing the computational universe as a literal description of the physical world and reading it as an over-determined metaphor misses a crucial aspect of contemporary cultural dynamics: the interaction between means and metaphor, technology and cultural presupposition. Taking this dynamic into account leads to a more complete understanding summed up in the aphorism, ‘What we make and what (we think) we are co-evolve together.’
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This paper is a response to Paul Taylor's review article of the book Critique of Information. The book's main thesis is that critique in the information age must be immanent critique. Taylor reproaches this for neglecting the necessity of a transcendental for critique. The response accepts this criticism. However, it rejects Taylor's aporetic notion of critique. Instead, a dialectical notion of critique is proposed. Like all dialectics this informational dialectic is one of materiality and idea. The major difference in the information age, however, is that there is a tendency for the material and the ideal to fuse in information itself. Thus the critique of information, it is argued, is a sort of immanent dialectic. This notion of critique is illustrated with reference to media art and metadata. Throughout there is an engagement with Taylor of the political implications of such critique.
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In this paper we outline a critique of ‘decorative sociology’ as a trend in contemporary sociology where ‘culture’ has eclipsed the ‘social’ and where literary interpretation has marginalized sociological methods. By the term ‘decorative sociology’ we mean a branch of modernist aesthetics which is devoted to a politicized, textual reading of society and culture. Although we acknowledge slippage between the textual and material levels of cultural analysis, notably in the output of the Birmingham School, we propose that the intellectual roots of cultural studies inevitably mean that the textual level is pre-eminent. In emphasizing the aesthetic dimension we seek to challenge the political self-image of decorative sociology as a contribution to political intervention. We argue that while the cultural turn has contributed to revising approaches to the relationships between identity and power, race and class, ideology and representation, it has done so chiefly at an aesthetic level. Following Davies (1993), we submit that the greatest achievement of the cultural turn has been to teach students to ‘read politically’. The effect of this upon concrete political action is an empirical question. Without wishing to minimize the political importance of cultural studies, our hypothesis is that, what might be called the ‘aestheticization of life’ has not translated fully into the politicization of culture. We argue that an adequate cultural sociology would have to be driven by an empirical research agenda, embrace an historical and comparative framework, and have a genuinely sociological focus, that is, a focus on the changing balance of power in Western capitalism. We reject the attempt to submerge the social in the cultural and outline the development of an alternative, integrated perspective on body, self and society. We conclude by briefly commenting on three sociological contributions to the comparative and historical study of cultural institutions which approximate this research agenda: Norbert Elias, Pierre Bourdieu and Richard Sennett.
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This article examines some of the implications for the sociological analysis of social class of the migration of geodemographic classifications of various sorts into software systems designed to ‘sort out’ people and places. It begins by offering an overview of the history and development of geodemographic classifications. It then argues that such classifications are increasingly becoming embedded in ‘soft-ware sorting’ procedures of various sorts, which in turn leads to the prospect of ‘automated spatiality’ becoming a common feature of the contemporary constitution of social class.
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The treatment in what follows of the politics of hegemony is not per se one of Gramsci, or Laclau or of Stuart Hall's earlier work. At stake is something that encompasses a more general regime of power that will be developed throughout the length of this: what might be called 'extensive politics'. What I will try to show is that such extensive power or such an extensive politics is being progressively displaced by a politics of intensity. I will trace the shift from hegemony or extensive politics to such an intensive politics in terms of: 1) a transition to an ontological regime of power, from a regime that in important respects is 'epistemological', 2) a shift in power from the hegemonic mode of 'power over' to an intensive notion of power from within (including domination from within) and power as generative force, 3) a shift from power and politics in terms of normativity to a regime of power much more based in what can be understood as a 'facticity'. This points to a general transition from norm to fact in politics. From hegemonic norm to what we will see are intensive facts. The fourth section will look at this shift through a change from an extensive (and hegemonic) regime of representation to an intensive regime of communications.
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This paper was the first initiative to try to define Web2.0 and understand its implications for the next generation of software, looking at both design patterns and business modes. Web 2.0 is the network as platform, spanning all connected devices; Web 2.0 applications are those that make the most of the intrinsic advantages of that platform: delivering software as a continually-updated service that gets better the more people use it, consuming and remixing data from multiple sources, including individual users, while providing their own data and services in a form that allows remixing by others, creating network effects through an "architecture of participation," and going beyond the page metaphor of Web 1.0 to deliver rich user experiences.
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This paper introduces the idea of Web 2.0 to a sociological audience as a key example of a process of cultural digitization that is moving faster than our ability to analyse it. It offers a definition, a schematic overview and a typology of the notion as part of a commitment to a renewal of description in sociology. It provides examples of wikis, folksonomies, mashups and social networking sites and, where possible and by way of illustration, examines instances where sociology and sociologists are featured. The paper then identifies three possible agendas for the development of a viable sociology of Web 2.0: the changing relations between the production and consumption of internet content; the mainstreaming of private information posted to the public domain; and, the emergence of a new rhetoric of \'democratisation\'. The paper concludes by discussing some of the ways in which we can engage with these new web applications and go about developing sociological understandings of the new online cultures as they become increasingly significant in the mundane routines of everyday life.
Niche Envy: Marketing Discrimination in the Digital Age Social Tools for Business Use: Web 2.0 and the New Participatory Culture, London, 21–22 FebruaryFacebook SeeksCultural Studies and its Futures: Introduction', Theory
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http://blogs.zdnet.com/SAAS/?p=68 DAVID BEER is Lecturer in Sociology in the Department of Sociology at the University of York, UK. He has research interests in popular culture, social informatics and social theory. His publications include New Media
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Taxis and GPS Surveillance', Thinking AllowedThe Software-sorted City: Rethinking the " Digital Divide
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Shaping Things Various (n.d.) The Social Software Weblog, URL (consulted Knowing Capitalism
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Bauman, Z. (2007) Consuming Life. Cambridge: Polity. BBC (n.d.) 'Editorial Guidelines in Full: User Generated Content Online', BBC website, URL (consulted November 2007): http://www.bbc.co.uk/guidelines/ editorialguidelines/edguide/interacting/gamesusergenera.shtml Beer, D. and R. Burrows (2007) 'Sociology and, of and in Web 2.0: Some Initial Considerations', Sociological Research Online 12(5), URL (consulted October 2007): http://www.socresonline.org.uk/12/5/17.html boyd, D.M. and N.B. Ellison (2007) 'Social Network Sites: Definition, History and Scholarship', Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13(1): 210–30.
How to Make 80 Million Friends and Influence People', The Observer Review
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The Cult of the Amateur: How Today's Internet Is Killing Our Culture and Assaulting Our Economy
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Keen, A. (2007a) The Cult of the Amateur: How Today's Internet Is Killing Our Culture and Assaulting Our Economy. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
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Taxis and GPS Surveillance', Thinking Allowed
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Van Duyn, A. (2007) 'Facebook Seeks " Holy Grail " of Advertising', Financial Times, 7 November, URL (consulted November 2007): http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/ 923f1b2c-8cd6-11dc-b887-0000779fd2ac.html?nclick_check=1
Sociology and, of and in Web 2.0: Some Initial ConsiderationsSocial Network Sites: Definition, History and Scholarship
BBC (n.d.) 'Editorial Guidelines in Full: User Generated Content Online', BBC website, URL (consulted November 2007): http://www.bbc.co.uk/guidelines/ editorialguidelines/edguide/interacting/gamesusergenera.shtml Beer, D. and R. Burrows (2007) 'Sociology and, of and in Web 2.0: Some Initial Considerations', Sociological Research Online 12(5), URL (consulted October 2007): http://www.socresonline.org.uk/12/5/17.html boyd, D.M. and N.B. Ellison (2007) 'Social Network Sites: Definition, History and Scholarship', Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13(1): 210–30.
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Social Tools for Business Use: Web 2.0 and the New Participatory Culture
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Unicom (2007) Social Tools for Business Use: Web 2.0 and the New Participatory Culture, London, 21-22 February.
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