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Feeding behavior of leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

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The feeding behavior of adult leaf beetles (41 species from 18 genera and 8 subfamilies) was studied for the first time. Beetles of the genera Chrysolina, Chrysomela, Cryptocephalus, Galeruca, Gastrophysa, Labidostomis, Leptinotarsa, Timarcha, and Cassida stigmatica gnaw a leaf from the edge, whereas the representatives of Donacia, Galerucella, Lema, Lilioceris, Oulema, Phyllobrotica, Plagiodera, Zeugophora, Hypocassida, and most species of Cassida gnaw the leaf plane. In addition, adults of Lilioceris merdigera and Donacia clavipes feed on young leaves rolled into a tube. New host plants are reported for the first time: Hyoscyamus niger for the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle and Naumburgia thyrsiflora for Galerucella grisescens.
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ISSN 0013-8738, Entomological Review, 2010, Vol. 90, No. 1, pp. 1–10. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2010.
Original Russian Text © A.O. Bieńkowski, 2009, published in Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 2009, Vol. 88, No. 12, pp. 1471–1480.
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Feeding Behavior of Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)
A. O. Bieńkowski
Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119071 Russia
e-mail: bienkowski@yandex.ru
Received October 20, 2008
Abstract—The feeding behavior of adult leaf beetles (41 species from 18 genera and 8 subfamilies) was studied
for the first time. Beetles of the genera Chrysolina, Chrysomela, Cryptocephalus, Galeruca, Gastrophysa, Labi-
dostomis, Leptinotarsa, Timarcha, and Cassida stigmatica gnaw a leaf from the edge, whereas the representatives
of Donacia, Galerucella, Lema, Lilioceris, Oulema, Phyllobrotica, Plagiodera, Zeugophora, Hypocassida, and
most species of Cassida gnaw the leaf plane. In addition, adults of Lilioceris merdigera and Donacia clavipes feed
on young leaves rolled into a tube. New host plants are reported for the first time: Hyoscyamus niger for the larvae
of the Colorado potato beetle and Naumburgia thyrsiflora for Galerucella grisescens.
DOI: 10.1134/S001387381001001X
The behavior of leaf beetles is now actively studied,
with special attention being focused on some aspects
related to reproduction, such as mating behavior, ag-
gressive behavior of males, parental care, and defen-
sive behavior of the larvae (Medvedev and Pavlov,
1985, 1987; Jolivet, 1988; Vasconcellos-Neto and
Jolivet, 1994; Bieńkowski, 1999; Jolivet, 1999; Kon-
stantinov, 2002, 2004). At the same time, the behavior
of beetles feeding on leaves has not been studied yet.
There are extensive data on the food plants of leaf
beetles, summarized in a number of reviews (Jolivet
and Petitpierre, 1976; Medvedev and Dang Thi Dap,
1982; Jolivet et al., 1986; Medvedev and Roginskaya,
1988; Bourdonné and Doguet, 1991; Buzzi, 1994;
Jolivet and Hawkeswood, 1995; Biondi, 1996; Kimoto
and Takizawa, 1997). Most species of this group are
oligophagous insects adapted to feeding on plants of
one particular family (Medvedev and Roginskaya,
1988). The association with a specific food plant af-
fects the distribution, time of flight, oviposition, and
other aspects of the leaf-beetle biology.
Beetles of different species gnaw leaves in different
manners. This is evident even from the characteristic
patterns of damaged leaves that have been described
for a number of species (Böving, 1910; Bogdanov-
Kat’kov, 1919, 1920; Goecke, 1935; Medvedev and
Roginskaya, 1988; Dubeshko and Medvedev, 1989;
Savkovskii, 1990).
This communication presents the results of observa-
tion of adult leaf beetles of 41 species, 18 genera,
and 8 subfamilies, feeding on leaves. The process of
feeding on flowers will be described in a separate pa-
per.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The material was collected in various regions of
European Russia (Mordovia, Moscow, Murmansk,
Saratov, and Yaroslavl provinces) and in Krasnodar
Territory. In the experiments, the beetles were placed
in cages and offered the leaves of the plants from
which they had been collected. The feeding beetles
were observed using the binocular microscope. These
experiments were supplemented with observations of
feeding in the nature. The samples of damaged leaves
were preserved as exsiccatae. The following elements
were used to describe the movement of the beetle’s
head during feeding: tilting the head to the right or to
the left in the horizontal plane (Fig. 1a), moving the
head up or down in the sagittal plane (Fig. 1b), and
rotating the head to the right (Fig. 1c) or to the left
(Fig. 1d) in the transverse vertical plane.
RESULTS
We have observed several different manners of
feeding of leaf beetles. Below they are provisionally
subdivided into three groups: (1) feeding on the leaf
margin, (2) feeding on the leaf surface, (3) feeding on
leaves rolled in tubes.
Feeding on the Leaf Margin
(a) The feeding beetle is positioned on the leaf
surface. Chrysomela vigintipunctata (Scopoli) (Mor-
dovia, on the grey willow Salix cinerea) (Fig. 2, 1).
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The beetle sits on the upper or lower leaf surface near
its margin, with the fore and mid tibiae (or only tarsi)
grasping the leaf from the opposite side. Having posi-
tioned itself with the right side facing the leaf margin,
the beetle moves its head down and at the same time
rotates it by a small angle to the right, so that the left
mandible becomes positioned above the leaf plane,
and the right one below it. If the beetle sits with its left
side facing the leaf margin, it rotates its head to the
left so that the left mandible becomes positioned under
the leaf plane, and the right one above it. The beetle
gnaws coarse reach-through holes of irregular shape,
with only the largest veins left intact.
(b) The feeding beetle is positioned on the leaf
margin. Chrysolina herbacea (Duftschmid) (Mor-
dovia, on the field mint Mentha arvensis). The beetle
grasps the leaf with all its tarsi while raising itself
above the margin so that the thorax and abdomen do
not touch the leaf. It gradually moves its head down,
performing a series of bites, then moves its head up
and performs another series. In between the series of
bites, the beetle advances towards the damaged area.
Chrysolina fastuosa (Scopoli) (Mordovia, on the
motherwort Leonurus quinquelobatus). The behavior
is identical to that of Ch. herbacea.
Chrysolina geminata (Paykull) (Yaroslavl Prov., on
St. John’s wort Hypericum sp.). The behavior is iden-
tical to that of Ch. herbacea. The feeding beetle is
positioned with its head towards the leaf apex, since it
gets onto the leaf from the stem.
Chrysolina aurichalcea (Gebler in Mannerheim)
(Moscow Prov., on the common wormwood Artemisia
vulgaris). The behavior is identical to that of Ch. her-
bacea. Having completed a series of bites, the beetle
moves forward, raises its head, and starts a new series
from the intact leaf margin or from the previously
made incision, deepening it.
Chrysolina varians (Schaller) (Moscow Prov., on
St. John’s wort Hypericum sp.) (Fig. 3, 1). The behav-
ior is identical to that of Ch. herbacea. Having com-
pleted a series of bites, the beetle moves forward,
raises its head, and starts a new series from the intact
leaf margin or stays in place, deepening the incision to
the midrib.
Chrysolina sturmi (Westhoff) (Mordovia, on the
ground ivy Glechoma hederacea). The behavior is
identical to that of Ch. herbacea. During a series of
bites, the beetle stays in place or moves backwards,
and advances after the series has been completed.
Chrysolina polita (Linnaeus) (Moscow Prov., Mor-
dovia, Krasnodar Terr., on the gypsywort Lycopus
europaeus). The behavior is identical to that of
Ch. herbacea. The beetle gnaws on the lateral out-
growth of the leaf, starting from its tip or side margin.
Fig. 1. Movements of the head of a leaf beetle (by the example of Lilioceris merdigera) during feeding: tilting to the right or to the left in
the horizontal plane (a), moving up or down in the sagittal plane (b), rotation to the right (c) and to the left (d) relative to the longitudinal
body axis.
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Fig. 2. Feeding of leaf beetles: Chrysomela vigintipunctata (1), Galerucella grisescens (2), Phyllobrotica quadrimaculata (3), and Lilio-
ceris merdigera (4). The black arrow shows the movements of the head during a single series of bites; the white arrow shows the move-
ments of the beetle between the series of bites.
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Fig. 3. Feeding of leaf beetles (1–4): Chrysolina varians (1), Cryptocephalus moraei (2), Cassida stigmatica (3), and Gastrophysa poly-
g
oni (4); the leaf of Sagittaria sagittifolia damaged by Donacia dentata (5) and the leaf of Phragmites australis damaged by D. clavipes
(6). For explanation of the black and white arrows, see Fig. 2.
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Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Saratov Prov., on
the black henbane Hyoscyamus niger). The behavior is
identical to that of Ch. herbacea. The beetle sits on the
margin of a horizontal leaf, hanging slightly over. All
the fore and mid tarsi grasp the leaf, one of the hind
tarsi rests on the leaf margin while the other is posi-
tioned on the leaf surface. The black henbane is re-
ported here for the first time as a food plant for the
larvae of the Colorado potato beetle (L. decemlineata).
The adults and larvae feeding on henbane were
observed in Saratov Prov. (D’yakovka Village, ruderal
vegetation near a farm) and in Bashkortostan (Ir-
gizly Village, the Irgizla River valley); the fact of
feeding on this plant was confirmed by observations in
cages.
Chrysomela populi Linnaeus (Moscow Prov., on the
aspen Populus tremula). The behavior is identical to
that of Ch. rysolina herbacea.
Chrysomela tremula Fabricius (Moscow Prov., on
the balsam poplar Populus balsamifera). The behavior
is identical to that of Ch. herbacea. The beetle slightly
hangs over to one side, with all the tarsi grasping the
leaf.
Gastrophysa polygoni (Linnaeus) (Moscow Prov.,
Saratov Prov., on the prostrate knotweed Polygonum
aviculare) (Fig. 3, 4). The behavior is identical to that
of Ch. rysolina herbacea. Starting a series of bites, the
beetle first gnaws the intact portion of the leaf margin
near the place where the preceding series started; then
it continues gnawing on the previously damaged mar-
gin, moving its head down and deepening the incision.
Timarcha hummeli Faldermann (Krasnodar Terr.,
on the Persian ivy Hedera colchica). The behavior is
identical to that of Ch. herbacea. The beetle sits on the
leaf margin, hanging slightly over to one side.
Galeruca tanaceti (Linnaeus) (Mordovia, on the
thistle Cirsium sp.). The behavior is identical to that of
Ch. herbacea. The beetle sits on the margin of an erect
leaf with its head directed towards the leaf apex, hang-
ing slightly over to one side; the fore and mid tarsi
grasp the leaf, while the tarsi of both hind legs rest on
the same side of the leaf surface.
Cryptocephalus moraei (Linnaeus) (Moscow Prov.,
on St. John’s wort Hypericum sp.) (Fig. 3, 2). The
behavior is identical to that of Ch. herbacea. The ab-
domen may touch the leaf margin.
Cryptocephalus bipunctatus (Linnaeus) (Krasnodar
Terr., on the European dewberry Rubus caesius and
red raspberry R. idaeus). The behavior is identical to
that of Ch. herbacea.
Labidostomis lepida Lefevre (Mordovia, on the grey
willow Salix cinerea). Although insects of both sexes
were collected, feeding behavior was observed only in
the females. The beetle moves its head down in a se-
ries of bites, then moves its head up and starts a new
series.
Cassida stigmatica Suffrian (Moscow Prov., on the
common tansy Tanacetum vulgare) (Fig. 3, 3). The
beetle is positioned on the leaf margin grasping it with
all the tarsi, with its head protruded maximally from
the prothorax and raised. Other details of feeding be-
havior are identical to those of Ch. herbacea.
Feeding on the Leaf Surface
The beetle performs symmetrical, usually alternat-
ing series of bites to the right and to the left of the
longitudinal body axis. In most species, individual
incisions merge into a single hole that usually does not
reach the leaf margin. The description below refers to
one of the two series of bites (right or left).
Donacia bicolora Zschach (Moscow Prov., on the
branched bur-reed Sparganium erectum) (Fig. 4, 2).
The beetle sits on the upper or lower surface of the
leaf raised above the water. It moves its head down in
the sagittal plane until its mandibles become perpen-
dicular to the leaf surface and at the same time tilts it
to the left and rotates it slightly to the left relative to
the longitudinal axis. The gnawing starts as the head is
shifted from the left to the right. Having made an inci-
sion 1.5–3 mm long, the beetle rotates its head to the
right relative to the longitudinal axis, advances slightly
forward, and continues gnawing the leaf, this time
from the right to the left. It gnaws a small hole first
and then enlarges it lengthwise and sidewise. During
feeding the beetle advances slowly onto the damaged
area. The incision is only part-through, from several
millimeters to 2 cm long and 1–3 mm wide, with rough
margins. It runs along the leaf, not crossing any veins.
Donacia aquatica (Linnaeus) (Moscow Prov., on
the narrowleaf bur-reed Sparganium angustifolium).
The behavior is identical to that of D. bicolora. The
incisions are made on floating leaves, always on the
upper surface.
Donacia cinerea Herbst (Moscow Prov., on the
broadleaf cattail Typha latifolia). The behavior is iden-
tical to that of D. bicolora. The incisions are made on
both sides of the leaves raised above the water.
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6
Fig. 4. Feeding of leaf beetles: Oulema erichsonii (1), Donacia bicolora (2), and Cassida rubiginosa (3–4), observed from the upper lea
f
side (3) and from the lower leaf side, through the incision (4). Left (a) and right (b) mandibles. For explanation of the
b
lack and white
arrows, see Fig. 2.
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Donacia clavipes Fabricius (Moscow Prov., on the
common reed Phragmites australis). The behavior is
identical to that of D. bicolora. The incisions are made
on both sides of the leaves raised above the water.
Donacia crassipes Fabricius (Moscow Prov., on the
white water-lily Nymphaea candida and yellow pond-
lily Nuphar lutea). The beetle sits on the upper surface
of the floating leaf. It moves its head down and gnaws
separate holes 0.5–0.75 mm long and 1.5 mm wide in
the pulp. In experiments with captive beetles, the leaf
was after some time covered with such small holes
arranged without any specific pattern.
Donacia dentata Hoppe (Moscow Prov., on the ar-
rowhead Sagittaria sagittifolia and European water
plantain Alisma plantago-aquatica). The beetle sits on
the upper surface of leaves raised above the water. The
behavior is identical to that of D. crassipes, except
that individual small holes form characteristic undu-
late tracks (Fig. 3, 5). The presence of D. dentata in
a water body can be easily detected by such traces.
Donacia marginata Hoppe (Moscow Prov., on the
branched bur-reed Sparganium erectum). The behavior
is identical to that of D. bicolora. The incision is posi-
tioned along the leaf but may deviate from the longitu-
dinal direction and cross some veins.
Donacia semicuprea Panzer (Moscow Prov., on the
reed mannagrass Glyceria maxima). The behavior is
identical to that of D. bicolora. The incisions are made
on both sides of leaves raised above the water.
Donacia sparganii Ahrens (Moscow Prov., on the
narrowleaf bur-reed Sparganium angustifolium). The
behavior is identical to that of D. bicolora. The inci-
sions are made on floating leaves, always on the upper
surface.
Donacia versicolorea (Brahm) (Moscow Prov., on
the floating pondweed Potamogeton natans). The be-
havior is identical to that of D. bicolora. The incisions
(often through) occur on the upper surface of floating
leaves.
Donacia vulgaris Zschach (Moscow Prov., on the
narrowleaf bur-reed S. angustifolium and the broadleaf
cattail Typha latifolia). The behavior is identical to
that of D. bicolora. The incision is positioned along
the leaf but may deviate from the longitudinal direc-
tion and cross some veins; on floating leaves of S.
angustifolium it is always located on the upper sur-
face, and on the raised leaves of T. latifolia, on both
surfaces.
Galerucella grisescens (Joannis) (Mordovia, on the
tufted loosestrife Naumburgia thyrsiflora) (Fig. 2, 2).
The beetle rotates its head by a small angle to the right
and performs a series of bites gradually turning the
head and pronotum to the left in the horizontal plane;
then the head and pronotum are turned to the right and
the head is rotated by a small angle to the left relative
to its initial position, after which another series of
bites is performed. The mandibles grasp the leaf from
both sides. The beetle raises itself slightly on its legs
over the leaf surface and gradually advances to the
through incision, its legs widely spread and its tarsi
resting on the sides of the incision. The tufted loose-
strife is reported here for the first time as a food plant
for the adults of G. grisescens. The pupae of this spe-
cies were collected from this plant in the nature, and
the beetles emerging from them were observed to feed
on the leaves.
Phyllobrotica quadrimaculata (Linnaeus) (Mor-
dovia, on the marsh skullcap Scutellaria galericulata)
(Fig. 2, 3). The beetle sits on the upper surface of the
leaf and does not raise itself on its legs during feeding;
other behavioral traits are identical to those of
Galerucella grisescens, described above.
Lema cyanella (Linnaeus) (Krasnodar Terr., on the
thistle Cirsium sp.). The behavior is identical to that of
Galerucella grisescens. The incision is rounded or
oval, 1–3 mm wide, only part-through, with the epi-
dermis of the opposite leaf surface remaining intact.
During feeding, one mandible is positioned on the leaf
surface while the other sinks into the pulp.
Lilioceris merdigera (Linnaeus) (Moscow Prov., on
the lily of the valley Convallaria majalis (Fig. 2, 4).
The beetle sits on the upper leaf surface parallel to its
longitudinal axis. Its head rotates by 45° to the right,
and its pronotum, also to the right but by a smaller
angle. A series of several bites is performed as the
head is tilted to the left in the horizontal plane. The
mandibles grasp the leaf from both sides (the left one
from above and the right one from below). After the
series is complete, the head and pronotum are rotated
to a different direction and the feeding is resumed. The
fore and mid legs sometimes provide a somewhat
springy support for the body: it is pressed to the leaf as
the mandibles converge, and raised from it as they are
brought apart. In between the series of bites the beetle
advances onto the incision. The incision is large,
through, sometimes damaging all the veins except the
main arcuate ones.
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8
Oulema erichsonii (Suffrian) (Moscow Prov., on
grasses (Poaceae)) (Fig. 4, 1). The beetle moves its
head down in the sagittal plane and tilts it by 90° in
the horizontal plane relative to the longitudinal body
axis. After a series of several rapid bites, it tilts its
head by 90° in the opposing direction and continues
feeding. The beetle advances onto the incision simul-
taneously with gnawing. The incision is shaped as
a long and narrow, mostly complete groove between
the parallel veins.
Zeugophora flavicollis (Marsham) (Moscow Prov.,
on the balsam poplar P. balsamifera). Sitting on the
upper leaf surface, the beetle moves its head down in
the sagittal plane and gnaws the leaf pulp, leaving
even the finest veins intact. It gradually advances in
the process of feeding. The incision is only part-
through.
Plagiodera versicolora (Laicharting) (Mordovia, on
the grey willow Salix cinerea). The incision is
through, not extending to the leaf margin. Its shape is
different on the young and old leaves. The incisions on
young leaves are large and irregular, with only the
midrib and large lateral veins remaining intact. On
older leaves the beetle gnaws only the pulp, leaving
even the finest veins intact.
Cassida viridis Linnaeus (Mordovia, on the gypsy-
wort Lycopus europaeus). The beetle moves its head
up in the sagittal plane so that the mandibles become
perpendicular to the leaf surface, after which the head
is rotated to the right and at the same time tilted to the
right in the horizontal plane. A series of bites is per-
formed as the head is tilted to the left in the horizontal
plane. When a series is complete, the beetle rotates its
head to the left, tilting it to the left in the horizontal
plane, and starts a new series of bites during which the
head is tilted to the right. The mandibles grasp the leaf
from both sides (as in Fig. 4, 4). The legs and body
remain static during gnawing. The beetle advances
slowly between the series of bites as the incision is
enlarged. The incisions are through, rounded, 3–5 mm
wide.
Cassida denticollis Suffrian (Moscow Prov., on the
common tansy Tanacetum vulgare). The behavior is
identical to that of C. viridis. The pronotum of a feed-
ing beetle is slightly raised in the sagittal plane, allow-
ing the head to be positioned perpendicular to the leaf.
The incisions are through, oval (3 × 5 mm) or irregu-
lar-shaped, and may extend to the leaf margin.
Cassida rubiginosa Müller (Moscow Prov., on the
thistle Cirsium sp.) (Fig. 4, 3, 4). The behavior is iden-
tical to that of C. viridis. The incisions are either
through or part-through, with the epidermis of the
opposing leaf surface remaining intact even in case of
extensive damage. Both variants of incision could be
observed in the same individual feeding on the same
leaf. The pronotum tilts slightly up and down during
each bite. The thorax, abdomen, and all legs remain
static during the series of bites.
Cassida vibex Linnaeus (Moscow Prov., on the this-
tle Cirsium sp.). The behavior is identical to that of
C. viridis.
Hypocassida subferruginea (Schrank) (Krasnodar
Terr., on the bindweed Convolvulus sp.). The behavior
is identical to that of C. viridis. The incisions are
rounded or oval, 2–4 mm wide, or larger and irregu-
larly shaped, usually not reaching the leaf margin.
Feeding on the Leaf Rolled into a Tube
The adults of Lilioceris merdigera (Moscow Prov.,
on the lily of the valley Convallaria majalis; Mur-
mansk Prov., on the May lily Maianthemum bifolium)
and Donacia clavipes (Moscow Prov., on the common
reed Phragmites australis) (Fig. 3, 6) feed on young,
still unexpanded leaves at the beginning of the warm
season. The beetle gnaws a deep hole through several
layers of the rolled leaf; later, with the leaf expanded,
the trace of a single feeding act appears as a row of
holes arranged perpendicular to the longitudinal leaf
axis.
DISCUSSION
The leaf beetles can be subdivided into three types
according to the position of their mouthparts: progna-
thous, hypognathous, and opistognathous (Medvedev
and Roginskaya, 1988), with the mandibles directed
forwards, downwards, and down-backwards, respecti-
vely. The above characteristics refer to the resting po-
sition of the mandibles. During feeding, however, the
mouthparts are brought to the most convenient posi-
tion for gnawing, namely perpendicular to the leaf sur-
face. To assume this position, the representatives of
the subfamilies Donaciinae and Criocerinae (the prog-
nathous type) move the head down (Figs. 2, 4; 4, 1, 2),
whereas the species of the subfamily Cassidinae (the
opistognathous type), on the contrary, raise the head
up (Figs. 3, 3; 4, 3). In other words, the head of these
leaf beetles becomes functionally hypognathous.
FEEDING BEHAVIOR OF LEAF BEETLES
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9
The manner of feeding is related to the shape of the
leaf, the venation pattern, and the size and proportions
of the beetle body. Feeding on the leaf surface is pos-
sible for the beetles whose head is sufficiently mov-
able in the horizontal plane. This mode of feeding is
typical of all the studied representatives of Donacii-
nae, Criocerinae, and Zeugophorinae. Beetles of the
subfamily Cassidinae also have quite movable heads,
allowing them to gnaw through the leaf while resting
on its surface.
Some of the species considered above feed by mar-
ginal gnawing even though the beetles are positioned
on the surface during feeding: the head is partly sunk
into the perforation and assumes the position with the
mandibles grasping the leaf from both sides, so that
the leaf plane almost coincides with the sagittal plane
of the head. This mode of feeding is observed in large
species (Chrysomela, Galerucella, Phyllobrotica,
Lilioceris, Oulema, and Cassida), whereas such
a small beetle as Zeugophora flavicollis can only gnaw
through the epidermis on one side of the leaf and con-
sume the pulp. On the other hand, some reed beetles of
the genus Donacia, including large forms with motile
heads, are also characterized by part-through incisions
(Fig. 4, 2).
In many representatives of the subfamily Chrysome-
linae the head is sunk into the prothorax and can only
move up and down in the sagittal plane. The only
mode of feeding open to such forms is gnawing on the
leaf margin (Fig. 3, 1, 4). The adults of most of the
species studied position themselves directly on the leaf
margin during feeding (Fig. 3, 1, 4). The beetles Chry-
somela vigintipunctata, on the contrary, sit on the leaf
surface at the margin (Fig. 2. 1), which may be related
to their body shape: they have a wide body and short
legs preventing them from keeping on the margin.
Some of the observed individuals of Ch. fastuosa and
Ch. polita tried gnawing the leaf from the surface.
However, since these beetles could not tilt their heads
to the right or left in the horizontal plane or rotate
them along the longitudinal axis, they could not feed
in this way and soon moved onto the leaf margin.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the modes of
feeding of leaf beetles and the corresponding damage
patterns are quite diverse and in many cases species-
specific. Further studies of these aspects, together with
obtaining new data on their food plants, will be essen-
tial both for taxonomy and phylogeny of leaf beetles
and for identification of agricultural and forest pests.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author expresses his sincere gratitude to the
staff of the biological stations of Mordovian State
University and the Saratov branch of Institute of Ecol-
ogy and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences for
the possibility of conducting this research and help
during the study.
REFERENCES
1. Bieńkowski, A.O., “Mating Behavior in Donaciinae
(Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae),” in Advances in Chry-
somelidae Biology (Backhuys Publ., Leiden, 1999),
Vol. 1, pp. 411–420.
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... The maxillary lobes (galea and lacinia) bear dense terminal tufts of long setae that participate in pollen collection. At the same time, in Cryptocephalus lateralis, C. sericeus, C. solivagus (Fig. 2, 5, 6), C. violaceus, Diabrotica virgifera, Galerucella nymphaeae (Fig. 2, 7, 8), (I-III are 10-day intervals within each month) May June July August September Phenological events III I II III I II III I II III I (2); Syneta adamsi (3,4), inner side of right mandible (3) and maxilla (4); Cryptocephalus solivagus (5,6), outer side of left mandible (5) and maxilla (6); Galerucella nymphaeae (7,8), inner side of left mandible (7) and maxilla (8). (3); D. clavipes (4,5), inner side of right mandible (4), maxilla (5), and outer view of the cutting edge of right mandible (6); Plateumaris discolor (7,8), inner side of right mandible (7) and maxilla (8). ...
... At the same time, in Cryptocephalus lateralis, C. sericeus, C. solivagus (Fig. 2, 5, 6), C. violaceus, Diabrotica virgifera, Galerucella nymphaeae (Fig. 2, 7, 8), (I-III are 10-day intervals within each month) May June July August September Phenological events III I II III I II III I II III I (2); Syneta adamsi (3,4), inner side of right mandible (3) and maxilla (4); Cryptocephalus solivagus (5,6), outer side of left mandible (5) and maxilla (6); Galerucella nymphaeae (7,8), inner side of left mandible (7) and maxilla (8). (3); D. clavipes (4,5), inner side of right mandible (4), maxilla (5), and outer view of the cutting edge of right mandible (6); Plateumaris discolor (7,8), inner side of right mandible (7) and maxilla (8). ...
... At the same time, in Cryptocephalus lateralis, C. sericeus, C. solivagus (Fig. 2, 5, 6), C. violaceus, Diabrotica virgifera, Galerucella nymphaeae (Fig. 2, 7, 8), (I-III are 10-day intervals within each month) May June July August September Phenological events III I II III I II III I II III I (2); Syneta adamsi (3,4), inner side of right mandible (3) and maxilla (4); Cryptocephalus solivagus (5,6), outer side of left mandible (5) and maxilla (6); Galerucella nymphaeae (7,8), inner side of left mandible (7) and maxilla (8). (3); D. clavipes (4,5), inner side of right mandible (4), maxilla (5), and outer view of the cutting edge of right mandible (6); Plateumaris discolor (7,8), inner side of right mandible (7) and maxilla (8). ...
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... The typical symptoms of both adults and larvae on the host plant caused by cereal leaf beetle are thin and long lines, where initially the epidermis of the leaf has been peeled. Under uncontrolled circumstances, these damages can aggravate in several cases even when the majority part of photosynthetic surfaces could also impair (Bieńkowski, 2010). A field of cereals looks weathered and chloritized, but is never completely destroyed. ...
... The indication of this research was to visualize and gain parameters of the physiological effects regarding key metabolic pathways, such as photosynthesis and lipid oxidation affected by a biotic stressor, O. melanopus. Firstly, the tissue structure disruption was determined and analyzed by pixel distinction, and the damage was objectively determined as it was done several times before (Bieńkowski, 2010;Philips et al., 2011). After 6 days of O. melanopus infestation, there was tissue loss that was manifested in the decrease of chlorophyll content, which was indicated by the SPAD index and increased fresh/dry ratio values. ...
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... Most species of the leaf beetles are oligophagous, adapted to feeding on plants of a certain family (Medvedev & Roginskaya 1988, Bieńkowski 2010. The association with a specific food plant af-fects the distribution, time of flight, oviposition and other aspects of the leaf-beetle biology (Bieńkowski 2010). ...
... Most species of the leaf beetles are oligophagous, adapted to feeding on plants of a certain family (Medvedev & Roginskaya 1988, Bieńkowski 2010. The association with a specific food plant af-fects the distribution, time of flight, oviposition and other aspects of the leaf-beetle biology (Bieńkowski 2010). We have found this species in open deciduous forests, at altitudes between 55 and 720 m a.s.l., attached to the habitats of Fritillaria pontica Wahlenb (Liliacecae). ...
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This study presents the first records of the leaf-eating beetle Lilioceris faldermanni (Coleoptera: Chryso-melidae: Criocerinae) in Bulgaria. The species was found from five localities in southern Bulgaria, situated in the Western Rhodope Mts., Sakar Mts. and Southern Black Sea coast. A new host plant, Fritillaria pontica Wahlenb (Liliaceae), was recorded.
... As a group, the leaf beetles show strong associations with their host plants (Mitter et al. 1991;Ambruster 1992;Jolivet & Hawkeswood 1995) and respond to factors such as the quality of the environment and habitat heterogeneity (structure of the habitat and vegetable composition) (Teles et al. 2019). Chrysomelidae are mainly phytophagous, feeding primarily on leaves (Bieńkowski 2010) but also fruits (Janzen & Nishida 2016), roots (Pokon et al. 2005) seeds (Johnson 1983, Romero-Nápoles et al. 1996, flowers (Bienkowski 2010) herbaceous stalks and shrubs (Teles et al. 2019). ...
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Chrysomelidae constitutes one of the most abundant and diverse groups of Coleoptera. As well as any other group of insects, leaf beetles respond to factors such as habitat heterogeneity. For this reason, the modification of forest structure and composition has a direct impact on the leaf beetle communities and alters their diversity. Leaf beetle species abundance, richness, and community structure were characterized and compared between three different habitat types (Late Secondary Forest, Coffee-Growing Zone, Disturbed Forest) in a forest remnant of the San Lorenzo Protector Tropical Rainforest, Panama. Samples were collected every two weeks, using three Malaise traps in each habitat over one year, from October 2015 to October 2016. In total, 72 samples (24 per trap) which contained 347 individuals of leaf beetles were collected. These were identified to 77 species, 55 genera, in 7 subfamilies of Chrysomelidae. The greatest insect abundance and species richness occurred in the Late Secondary Forest. The differences among the three habitat types on the distribution of leaf beetle assemblages is likely to correspond to the structural characteristics 9 of those habitats and complexity and affect leaf beetle's richness and abundance associated. However, further studies are required to determine the causes of differences in species composition among each sites.
... The incision is only part-through, from several millimeters to 2 cm long and 1-3 mm wide, with rough margins. It runs along the leaf, not crossing any veins (Bieńkowski, 2010) (Plates IV, VII 6). ...
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... However, it is also exposed to many insect pests, including the cereal leaf beetle (CLB, Oulema melanopus, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). Both the beetles and the larvae of this pest damage leaves of various cereals (oats, barley, rye, corn), but their favorite plant host is wheat (Bieńkowski 2010). Larvae are considered as the most damaging stage of CLB (Groll and Wetzel 1984), their feeding can lead to significant yield and quality reduction and thus to considerable economic losses (Dimitrijević et al. 2001). ...
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Plants and insects have been coexisting for more than 350 million years. During this time, both have evolved many strategies to successfully exploit or respond to reciprocal adaptation and defense reactions. Plants tend to minimize the damage caused by pest feeding, while pests tend to manipulate plant response by suppressing plant defense mechanisms or developing strategies to overcome plant defense systems. Plants recognize insect pests by the wounding that they cause and elicitors present in pest oral secretions (saliva and/or regurgitant). These elicitors or insect-associated microorganisms can modulate plant response to the benefit of their insect hosts. In this article, we have undertaken an analysis of gene expression in serine and cysteine proteinase inhibitors (SerPI and CysPI, respectively) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants exposed to cereal leaf beetle (CLB, Oulema melanopus, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) larvae feeding, and the impact of microbes associated with CLB on the expression levels of these genes. Using three wheat varieties and antibiotic-treated and untreated CLB larvae, we found that SerPI plays a more important role than CysPIs in plant defense against CLB larvae. Additionally, higher levels of SerPI gene expression were observed in systemic leaves in comparison to the wounded leaves (local response). Each of the tested wheat varieties reacted in a specific way to the particular treatment. Moreover, the presence of microbial components associated with insects influenced plant response to CLB larvae feeding.
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The physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a multipurpose and oil-producing shrub of Central and South American origin. Since the 15th century, this shrub has existed across tropical regions. Despite its presumed resistance to herbivores, reports show that arthropod herbivores infest it. However, no comprehensive account of arthropod herbivores, which consume the physic nut, exists. Here, we conducted a literature review that provides a comprehensive account of arthropod herbivores of the physic nut. Based on the co-evolutionary hypothesis, we expected to find a higher herbivore of species richness and a larger proportion of native herbivores within the native range than elsewhere. As physic nut is a well-defended plant chemically, we expected to find evidence for highest herbivory levels in plant parts that are the least defended. By the literatures review, we compiled 78 arthropod herbivores representing nine orders and from 31 families that feed on physic nut across the globe. As expected, the highest numbers of herbivores (34 species) were documented within the native range of the J. curcas and the lowest species number (21 species) in Africa. Of the 34 species in Central and South America, 94% were of native origin. Nine species were found feeding on J. curcas on more than one continent. Origins of 49% of species were from the native range of J. curcas. The highest percentage (54%) of species belonged to Hemiptera. With regard to feeding guilds, 59% of the herbivores belonged to sucking and 41% to chewing species. Forty-one per cent of species were flower or fruit feeders, and 36% foliage feeders. We conclude that J. curcas is, despite its toxicity, vulnerable to herbivory, mainly to foliage, flower and fruit feeders.
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Protective behavior of 25 background species of leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were studied in the conditions of the Samara Region during 1974-2014. Strategy of protective behavior is focused on conservation, enhancement and resettlement of a type in space. It includes 2 blocks of different and difficult reactions. There is passive protection, presented by 25 types of reactions and active protection, presented by more than 45 types of motive implications. Passive reactions do not demand an additional expenditure of efforts and energy. They are presented, mainly, by immobile posture of masking, concealment and others. On the contrary, active protection isnt possible without expense of additional efforts. In addition, active protection is more difficult, and also includes a series from several protective reactions, it is more effective. It is related to behavior of imago and larvas protection. Protective behavior can be individual and group. Protective behavior is closely bound to other functional behavioral blocks. There is trophism, communication and reproduction. Leaf beetles have a system of innate morphological, anatomic and physiological adaptations allowing them to experience many negative impacts of the environment.
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Host plants of several Chrysomelinae belonging to the genera Chrysolina, Oreina, Phaedon, Gonioctena, Phyllocharis, Potaninia and others from the Holarctis and the Tropics are briefly reviewed here. The double selection of the Oreina is also discussed.
Chapter
Cycloalexy is defined as the resting position adopted by some insect larvae, both diurnally and nocturnally. They form a tight circle where either the heads or ends of the abdomen are juxtaposed at the periphery, with the remaining larvae at the centre of the circle. Coordinated movements such as the adoption of threatening postures, regurgitation, exsanguination and biting are used to repel predators or parasitoids (Vasconcellos-Neto & Jolivet, 1988b; Jolivet, 1989; Jolivet et al., 1990) (Fig. 1).
Chapter
The Neotropical Cassidinae belong to Section 5. Cryptostoma, after Jolivet (1978), which includes two subfamilies: Hispinae and Cassidinae.