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The tea and its cosmetic application

  • Dr Seidel foundation Warsaw Poland
  • Higher School of Engineering and Health

Abstract and Figures

The growing interest in the green tea application is caused by its various, very often beneficial in-fluence on human body. According to the manufacturing process the green tea is the richest kind of tea in catechins. It has been documented that compounds contained in this plant display beneficial influence on human skin, hence the wide application of green tea as a raw material in cosmetology. The green tea displays antioxidant and astringent activity as well as influences the microvessel sy-stem. All of these features make it very common ingredient of anti-age formulations and products influencing microvessel system. The scientists still work on the evaluation of new methods that could increase our knowledge about green tea and enable to find new applications for it. Riassunto Il crescente interesse dimostrato dall'utilizzazione sempre più frequente del tè verde è dovuto alle sue benefiche influenze nei confronti del corpo umano. In dipendenza dei processi produttivi il tè verde rappresenta la fonte più ricca di catechine. È stato così ampiamente documentato come la presenza di questi antiossidanti svolga un ruolo bene-fico nei confronti della cute umana. Da qui l'ampio uso del tè verde come materia prima nel settore della cosmesi. I suoi attivi svolgono infatti attività antiossidante e vasoattiva influenzando così anche il microcir-colo cutaneo. È per tutti questi motivi che gli studiosi continuano ad incrementare le conoscenze di questa diffusa bevanda cercando di trovare nuove applicazioni all'uso del tè verde.
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J. Appl. Cosmetol. 21, 117-127 (July/September 2003)
Jacek Arct
, Barbara Bielenda
, Anna Oborska
,Katarzyna Pytkowska
Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Poland
Bielenda Herbal Co., Poland
Academy of Cosmetics and Health Care, Warsaw, Poland
Received: February 2003
Key words: Key words: Tea, Camellia sinensis; Plant extracts; Catechins
The growing interest in the green tea application is caused by its various, very often beneficial in-
fluence on human body. According to the manufacturing process the green tea is the richest kind of
tea in catechins. It has been documented that compounds contained in this plant display beneficial
influence on human skin, hence the wide application of green tea as a raw material in cosmetology.
The green tea displays antioxidant and astringent activity as well as influences the microvessel sy-
stem. All of these features make it very common ingredient of anti-age formulations and products
influencing microvessel system. The scientists still work on the evaluation of new methods that
could increase our knowledge about green tea and enable to find new applications for it.
Il crescente interesse dimostrato dall’utilizzazione sempre più frequente del tè verde è dovuto alle
sue benefiche influenze nei confronti del corpo umano.
In dipendenza dei processi produttivi il tè verde rappresenta la fonte più ricca di catechine.
È stato così ampiamente documentato come la presenza di questi antiossidanti svolga un ruolo bene-
fico nei confronti della cute umana.
Da qui l’ampio uso del tè verde come materia prima nel settore della cosmesi.
I suoi attivi svolgono infatti attività antiossidante e vasoattiva influenzando così anche il microcir-
colo cutaneo.
È per tutti questi motivi che gli studiosi continuano ad incrementare le conoscenze di questa diffusa
bevanda cercando di trovare nuove applicazioni all’uso del tè verde.
4 art_THE TEA AND ITS COS ARCT 16-07-2003 15:38 Pagina 117
The tea is one of the most consumed beverages
in the world and it has been popular for over
4000 years. Its popularity is attributed to the
sensory properties and potential health benefits.
The tea was first introduced into European
countries from China by Portuguese and Dutch
explorers [1]. Bulk spectrum of biologically ac-
tive substances present in this plant caused it
wide application in cosmetology. At the present
time, one of the most important trends in mo-
dern cosmetology is application of active sub-
stances of natural origin. Raw materials of plant
origin possess wide spectrum of multidimensio-
nal activity and can assure many beneficial pro-
perties to the cosmetic product. The cosmeto-
logy is interested in plants used for many years
in traditional medicine as well as looks for com-
pletely new raw materials.
Various kinds of teas are produced mainly from
the same plant species named Camellia sinensis.
However, the word “tea” is very often applied
also for other plants that can be used in prepara-
tion of hot beverages from leaves, flowers or
flowers. Thus, the name “tea” is used also very
often for rooibos tea (the beverage obtained
from South African plant Aspalathus linearis) or
honey-bush tea (Cyclopia intermedia). The tea
belongs to plants used by a man for many years
for different aims, also in cosmetic purposes.
The leaves of Cammelia sinensis are very rich
source of anti-radical substances what reasoned
in a wide application of this plant in anti-age
According to the manufacturing process four
different kinds of tea are distinguished – black,
Oolong, green and white. The classification of
the tea depends on the degree of fermentation:
fully fermented black tea, partially fermented
Ollong tea, unfermented green tea and unfer-
mented white tea manufactured from buds.
To produce the green tea, the leaves of Camellia
sinensis are harvested and subjected to withe-
ring. After this process leaves are steamed or
panfried and than rolled, shaped and dried. Stea-
ming at 95-1000C for 30-45 seconds aims at
inhibiting enzymes, which are responsible for
fermentation, hence the green tea belongs to un-
fermented teas. This method is used mainly in
Japan, Chinese method is based mainly on roa-
The fermentation process does not require mi-
crobiological activities. The main difference
between manufacturing of green and black tea is
the additional step in the case of black tea: the
leaves are bruised and crushed what induces the
process of fermentation [2]. The substances re-
sponsible for this process are oxidizing enzymes
contained in tea leaves – mainly polyphenol
oxidase. In the presence of polyphenol oxidase
catechins present in high level in green tea are
converted into theaflavins, thearubigins and
other complex polyphenols which are characte-
ristic for fermented teas [3]. The degree of fer-
mentation is responsible for biological proper-
ties, taste and aroma of the tea. Carotenoids and
unsaturated acids are recognized as the influen-
tial precursors for aroma. It is documented that
enzymatic oxidation of linolenic and linoleic
acids can result in production of the unsaturated
aliphatic compounds that are responsible for the
tea aroma. Simple indicator of the fermentation
degree can be changes of colour in the tea lea-
Chemical composition of the tea depends on age
The tea and its cosmetic application
4 art_THE TEA AND ITS COS ARCT 16-07-2003 15:38 Pagina 118
of leaves, season, climate in which the tea was
growing as well as on the fermentation degree
and variety of the tea shrub [4,5].
The chemical composition of tea leaves has
been widely investigated. The main group of
chemical substances characteristic for the tea
are polyphenols [6]. The level of these substan-
ces in the leaves can reach 25-35 % of dry wei-
ght [7]. The very characteristic group of
polyphenols are catechins (flavan-3-ols) belon-
ging to the group of flavanols. One of the most
significant catechins are: (-)-epigallocatechin
gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-
)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate
(ECG) and (+)-catechin. [8]. The general for-
mula and full content of catechins detected in
tea leaves has been introduced in the table be-
J. Arct, B. Bielenda, A. Oborska, K. Pytkowska
Table I
Catechin’s present in tea leaves.
The tea leaves contain many different catechins
but it is worth noticing that the level of these
substances is different in each kind of tea. The
studies have proven that the highest level of (-)-
epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) and (-)epigallo-
catechin (EGC) can be detected in green tea [9].
4 art_THE TEA AND ITS COS ARCT 16-07-2003 15:38 Pagina 119
The studies introduced in the literature reports
on relatively low concentration of (-)-epigallo-
catechin, (-) –epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epica-
techin and (-)-epicatechin gallate in black tea.
This situation is the reason of polyphenol oxida-
se activity that causes condensation of cate-
chins into theaflavins, thearubigins and other
substances. The concentration of caffeine is the
lowest in Oolong tea.
The tea leaves contain also other flavonoids be-
longing to the group of flavonols – quercetin,
myricetin and kaempferol as well as glycosides
of these compounds. It has been documented
that the level of myricetin, quercetin and
kaempferol is particularly high in green tea Sen-
cha [10]. The content of flavonols in different
kinds of tea has been introduced at the Figure 2.
The tea and its cosmetic application
Fig. 1 The contents of individual catechins, gallic acid and caffeine in teas (mg/g tea)
Fig. 2 Content of flavonols in different teas (g/Kg of dry leaves)0
4 art_THE TEA AND ITS COS ARCT 16-07-2003 15:38 Pagina 120
As it has been presented at the diagram, the
quantity of myricetin and kaempferol is the
lowest in black Ceylon tea. It is worth noticing
that contents of two green teas – Sencha and
Zhejijang differ from each other.
Other substances, very characteristic for fully
fermented teas are theaflavins, thearubigins,
theaflavinic acid and proanthocyanidin poly-
mers formed by oxidation of polyphenols du-
ring processing [11]. The structure of theaflavin
has been introduced below
The tea contains also many diverse amino-acids
but one of them – theanine is very specific to
the tea plant, accounting for 50% of all amino-
acids. Other common amino-acids are arginine
and aminobutyric acid. The tea contains also
purine alkaloids such as caffeine and theobro-
mine as well as phenolic acids – gallic, caffeic
and p-cumaric acid [11].
Chlorophyll, carotenoids and lipids are not
major constituents of the tea plant but they play
an important role in the plant biochemistry [12].
It is worth mentioning that tea leaves contain
many different minerals [13]. The comparison
of minerals’ level in black, Oolong and green
teas has been introduced in the table II.
Fig. 3 Theaflavin
J. Arct, B. Bielenda, A. Oborska, K. Pytkowska
Analyzing the table presented above one can
notice that the highest content of sodium, ma-
gnesium and zinc can be observed in black tea.
Red, Oolong tea contains high level of potas-
sium and calcium. The highest quantity of iron
has been determined in green tea.
Other important constituents of the tea plant are
vitamins presented in the Table III.
Tab II
Minerals in different kinds of tea (expressed in ppm).
4 art_THE TEA AND ITS COS ARCT 16-07-2003 15:38 Pagina 121
The tea and its cosmetic application
It is worth noticing that different green teas –
Gyokuro and Sencha display not the same profi-
le of vitamin’s quantity. Sencha contains more
than two times of vitamin C comparing to
Gyokuro but the highest level of vitamin A can
be determined in Gyokuro. Black tea seems to
be the poorest in vitamins except for quite high
quantity of niacin [14].
Generally, it can be also observed that green tea
contains more chlorophyll and organic acids but
black tea possesses more products of polyphe-
nolic oxidation such as theaflavins and thearubi-
gins. The comparison of poyphenols present in
green and black tea has been introduced in the
Table IV.
The content of vitamins in different kinds of tea
Tab IV
Phenolic components of green and black teas (% dry solids)
4 art_THE TEA AND ITS COS ARCT 16-07-2003 15:38 Pagina 122
As it has been shown above the green tea con-
tains much more catechins than the black. Black
tea is very reach in theaflavins and thearubigins
that are formed in the oxidation process of cate-
High content of catechins and gallic acid, di-
splaying strong radical scavenging activity
makes the green tea priceless ingredient for the
cosmetic industry. Free radical occurring in the
environment can trigger chain reactions, which
cause damage of biological structures, including
skin. Mechanism of free radical scavenging by
EGC has been introduced below:
J. Arct, B. Bielenda, A. Oborska, K. Pytkowska
The antioxidant activity of the green tea cate-
chins is the result of their molecular structure –
the presence of at least five hydroxyl groups in
the molecule assures strong antioxidant activity
to the polyphenolic substance. The every deci-
ding factor is the presence of two hydroxyl
groups in the ring B, situated in ortho position.
It has been documented, that antiradical activity
of esters of gallic acid and catechins is higher
than activity of catechins, tocopherol and other
gallates [15]. The antioxidant activity of green
tea catechins has been studied in vitro on eryth-
rocytes by Ramarathnam and Osawa [16]. The
inhibiting effect of catechin on the oxidation
process of polyunsaturated fatty acids contained
in erythrocytes has been determined.
Fig. 4 Mechanism of free radical scavenging by ECG
4 art_THE TEA AND ITS COS ARCT 16-07-2003 15:38 Pagina 123
According to the Figure 5 the highest antioxi-
dant activities display EGCG and ECG. It has
been also documented that the activity of natu-
ral mixture of green tea catechins is higher than
activity of each substance determined separately
The antiradical activity of green tea catechins
was studied by the determination of catechin
concentration that can decrease the level of free
radicals by 50 % [17].
The tea and its cosmetic application
Tab V
Concentration of catechins that can decrease level of O2- and HO* free radicals by 50 %.
Fig. 5 The antioxidant activity of different green tea catechins
comparing to the lack of the antioxidant (first column) and vitamin E
– activity has been expressed in % of oxidized lipids.
4 art_THE TEA AND ITS COS ARCT 16-07-2003 15:38 Pagina 124
J. Arct, B. Bielenda, A. Oborska, K. Pytkowska
The table V shows that the most effective sub-
stance against O2- and HO* free radicals is (-
)-epicatechin. (-)-Epicatechin gallate effectively
decreases the concentration of O2- but seems to
be insufficient against HO* radical.
It is known that polyphenols can hamper the li-
pid oxidation process by chelation of metals that
catalyse free radical reactions and by influen-
cing activity of enzymes.
It has been proven that green tea polyphenols
can also influence the absorption of UV B ra-
diation by the skin. One of substances contained
in green tea - (-)-epigallocatechin gallate can
inhibit the activity of enzyme that decomposes
urocanic acid, which is the natural protection of
the skin against UV B [18]. The results of re-
search concerning protection of the skin from
UV radiation have been introduced last time by
Kattiyar and Elmets [19].
Other feature of the green tea extract that can be
useful from the cosmetological point of view is
its astringent activity. The tea contains tannins
that are polyphenolic compounds being able to
create strong hydrogen bonds with proteins and
other compounds containing nitrogen and oxy-
gen. This group of substances can contain hy-
drolyzing tannins (e.g. gallic acid and its deriva-
tives) and condensed tannins (e.g. olygomeric
proanthocyanidins). The presence of these com-
pounds assures astringent activity to the green
It is widely known that green tea polyphenols
can influence microvessel system and microcir-
culation [20]. Mechanism of this activity is mul-
tidirectional. By inhibition of thromboxane
synthesis polyphenols display antiagregation ac-
tivity. The antiradical activity of these substan-
ces allows them for protection of prostacyclines.
It had been also documented that green tea
polyphenols, influencing the activity of recep-
tors can cause the increase in the microvessel
elasticity. The scientists have proven that tea
polyphenols can protect vitamin C from oxida-
tion. It is known that vitamin C is necessary for
the collagen synthesis, which is the very impor-
tant compound for the skin condition.
All of the features reported above make the
green tea plant and its extracts very important
raw material for cosmetic industry.
4 art_THE TEA AND ITS COS ARCT 16-07-2003 15:38 Pagina 125
The tea and its cosmetic application
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4 art_THE TEA AND ITS COS ARCT 16-07-2003 15:38 Pagina 126
J. Arct, B. Bielenda, A. Oborska, K. Pytkowska
Author Address:
Dr. Jacek Arct
Warsaw University of Technology
Faculty of Chemistry
Noakowskiego 3
01-664 Warsaw, Poland
4 art_THE TEA AND ITS COS ARCT 16-07-2003 15:38 Pagina 127
... Epidemiological studies have shown that drinking green tea is beneficial to people's health by the prevention of cancer 17 , anti-atherosclerosis 18 , anti-inflammatory 19 , antibacterial 20 , anti-angiogenisis 21 , antiviral 22 , neuroprotective activities 23 . Instead of drinking, green tea plant and its extract are very important raw material for cosmetic industry 24 . Again, some researchers have focused on the incorporation of green tea extract into food, such as bread 25 , biscuits 26 . ...
Full-text available
Background: The kidneys are a pair of essential excretory organs. It can be damaged by poisonous effects of chemicals, toxins, prolonged and uncontrolled use of drugs. Green tea is a popular choice of beverage being increasingly used in recent times which may have nephroprotective effect. Objectives: To observe the nephroprotective effect of green tea against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in Long Evans male rats. Methods: This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College (SSMC), Dhaka from 1st July 2019 to 30th June 2020. A total number of thirty (30) apparently healthy Long Evans male rats, 90-120 days old, weighing between 150-200 g were taken for the study. After acclimatization for 14 days, they were divided into two groups, control group (Group A) and experimental group (Group B- green tea pretreated and gentamicin treated group). Control group was subdivided into group A1 (baseline control group) and group A2 (gentamicin treated control group). Each of this group was consisted of ten rats. All the rats received basal diet and baseline control group also received normal saline (1 ml/kg/day) for 28 days. Experimental group received ethanolic extract of green tea orally (300 mg/kg/day) for 28 days. Gentamicin treated control group and experimental group also received injection gentamicin intraperitoneally (80 mg/kg/day) for last 3 days (26th to 28th days) of the study period. All the rats were sacrificed on 29th day. After sacrifice blood (from heart) and kidney samples were collected. Serum levels of creatinine, urea and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), renal contents of malondialdehyde (MDA)and histopathology of kidney were done by using standard laboratory method to compare nephrotoxicity among experimental and control group. Statistical analysis was done by using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) for windows version 22. Data were presented as mean±SD. One way ANOVA test, post hoc-Bonferroni test, paired‘t’ test and Fisher’s Exact test were done to compare the data as applicable. p value ≤ 0.05 was considered as level of significance. Results: The mean serum creatinine, urea, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels and mean malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in kidney were significantly lower in green tea pretreated and gentamicin treated group than those of gentamicin treated control group but the levels were significantly higher in comparison to those of baseline control group. Moreover, abnormal histological findings of kidney was observed in 30% of rats in green tea pretreated and gentamicin treated experimental group but the abnormality was 100% and 0% in gentamicin treated and baseline control group of rats respectively. Conclusion: The present study reveals that green tea has nephroprotective effect against gentamicin induced kidney damage in Long Evans male rats.
... Moreover, it was seen that during tissue injury, excessive production of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) causes the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids through lipooxygenases/cyclooxygenase (LOX/COX) pathway. In this notion, PCs have been found to interrupt the substrate and enzyme reaction by disrupting the hydrogen bonding present between arachidonic acid and phospholipase A2 [54]. Interestingly, it has been evaluated in the human intestinal epithelium (in vitro model) that PCs possess anti-inflammatory property via regulating the upregulation/downregulation of NF-κB or Nrf-2 [55,56]. ...
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Phenolic compounds, the bioactive phytochemicals, are abundantly found in a huge variety of food items, including fruits, vegetables, cereals, legumes, and herbs. Phenolic compounds are often called phenols, phenolics, and polyphenols. They are secondary metabolites of plants and are considered an integral part of both animal and human diet. Natural phenolic compounds have acquired increasing attention in the last few years because of their countless health-related therapeutic interventions. Biological activities of phenolic compounds include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-hypertensive are found to play their role in neuroprotection. All of these above mentioned properties of different phenolic compounds play a critical and central role in preventing the progression of neurodegenerative, neurological disorders and brain injuries. A list of phenolic compounds including resveratrol, quercetin, rutin, curcumin, baiclein, luteolin, and (-) Epigallocatechin-3-gallateon have been discussed in detail in the context of their neuroprotective action. The present chapter describes a brief and comprehensive overview of the physiological activities of phenolic compounds along with their potential neuroprotective approach.
... In this regard, it has been reported that catechins provide beneficial effects on skin health and protection against ultraviolet (UV) radiation and pollution due to their scavenging free radical activity and reduced degradation of extracellular matrix components [34]. Additionally, these compounds promote collagen synthesis and inhibit matrix metalloproteinase enzyme production [35]. A study has shown that epicatechin attenuates the oxidative damage in dermal fibroblasts caused by UVA radiation and suggests that epicatechin protects against deleterious effects of sunlight [36]. ...
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Methylxanthines and polyphenols from cocoa byproducts should be considered for their application in the development of functional ingredients for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations. Different cocoa byproducts were analyzed for their chemical contents, and skincare properties were measured by antioxidant assays and anti-skin aging activity. Musty cocoa beans (MC) and second-quality cocoa beans (SQ) extracts showed the highest polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacities. In the collagenase and elastase inhibition study, the highest effect was observed for the SQ extract with 86 inhibition and 36% inhibition, respectively. Among cocoa byproducts, the contents of catechin and epicatechin were higher in the SQ extract, with 18.15 mg/100 g of sample and 229.8 mg/100 g of sample, respectively. Cocoa bean shells (BS) constitute the main byproduct due to their methylxanthine content (1085 mg of theobromine and 267 mg of caffeine/100 g of sample). Using BS, various influencing factors in the extraction process were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM), before scaling up separations. The extraction process developed under optimized conditions allows us to obtain almost 2 g/min and 0.2 g/min of total methylxanthines and epicatechin, respectively. In this way, this work contributes to the sustainability and valorization of the cocoa production chain.
... Catechins provide several health advantages by scavenging free radicals and retarding extracellular matrix degradation induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and pollution (Shi et al. 2016). Catechins also directly affect the skin by activating collagen synthesis and inhibiting the production of matrix metalloproteinase enzymes (Arct et al. 2003). Because of the hydroxyl in the gallate group, EGCG and ECG are highly effective free-radical scavengers compared with many other standard anti-oxidants, such as ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and trolox (Gulati et al. 2009;Matsubara et al. 2013;Kim et al. 2018). ...
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Background Catechins, which are polyphenol compounds found in many plants and are an important component of tea leaves, are strong anti-oxidants. Research Many studies seek to enhance the effects of catechins on the human body and boost their protective power against UV radiation. There are many examples of the positive anti-microbial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergenic, and anti-cancer effects of catechins. Catechins increase the penetration and absorption of healthy functional foods and bio cosmetics into the body and the skin, thus improving their utility. High value-added anti-oxidant substances have been extracted from food and plant sludge, and experiments have shown that catechins are safe when applied to the human body. The stability of catechins is very important for their absorption into the human body and the effectiveness of their anti-oxidant properties. Conclusion Continued research on the strong anti-oxidant effects of catechins is expected to result in many advances in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries.
... For the moment only a few review publications undertake the topic, however, the majority of them were published more than a decade ago. Due to this fact the authors found it necessary to prepare a more up-to-date manuscript that includes the information that have been spread in recent years, in the times of a constant and significant growth of the cosmetic industry [2][3][4]. Some of the above mentioned previously published references were also focused on the treatment of specific skin diseases only and represent rather dermatology than cosmetic applications [5,6], or they described the activity of specific tea ingredients, e.g., caffeine [7] than the extracts per se. Therefore the aim of the present review is to collect the reports on the properties of the tea plant, its extracts and preparations in cosmetology: for skin care products and for the treatment of selected dermatological diseases. ...
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Studies on the cosmetic applications of plant extracts are increasingly appearing in the scientific literature, which is due to the growing popularity of skincare products around the world. In the light of the observed changes, a return to natural treatment and skincare with cosmetics free of harmful substances or toxic preservatives is visible. Currently, tea extracts, due to their rich composition and various biological actions, play an important role among the dietary supplements and cosmetics. This review is intended to collect the reports on the properties of the tea plant, its extracts and preparations in cosmetology: for skin care products and for the treatment of selected dermatological diseases. Particular attention is paid to its antioxidant, anti-hyaluronidase, anti-inflammatory, slimming, hair-strengthening, photoprotective and sealing blood vessels properties.
... The acid is then transformed by either the cyclooxygenase or the lipoxygenase pathway. Polyphenols inhibit both reactions, generally by blocking substrate binding to the enzyme through the interruption of the hydrogen bonding system or through chelation ions in the active site of the enzyme [80,83]. ...
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Traditionally, tea, a beverage made from the processed leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, and herbal infusions have been primarily consumed for their pleasant taste. Nowadays, they are also consumed because they contain nutraceutical compounds, such as polyphenols. Grapes and grape/wine sub-products such as non-fermented/semi-fermented or fermented grapes, skins, and seeds are a rich source of health-promoting compounds, presenting a great potential for the development of new beverages. Therefore, these grape/wine sub-products are used in the beverage sector for the preparation of infusions, tisanes, and decoctions. Besides polyphenols, fermented grapes, skins, and seeds, usually discarded as waste, are enriched with other health-promoting/nutraceutical compounds, such as melatonin, glutathione, and trehalose, among others, which are produced by yeasts during alcoholic fermentation. In this review, we summarize the benefits of drinking herbal infusions and discuss the potential application of some grapevine fermentation waste products in the production of healthy beverages that we can call grape infusions.
... Either the cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase pathway is used to transform the released arachidonic acid. Polyphenols may be responsible in inhibition of both reactions, most frequently due to the interruption of substrate binding to the enzyme by disrupting the hydrogen bonding system or due to ions chelated in the active center of the enzyme (Arct et al. 2003). ...
Plants are the primary sources for most of the food items for all organisms. Human beings have also used plants for purposes other than food, for example, for making tools and houses as well as medicine. Most of the civilizations have a rich history of traditional medicine based on plant extracts or preparations. In last few centuries, the active compounds from plants have been isolated and characterized. These active compounds belong to class of molecules called as secondary metabolites which are further divided into several subclasses: alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, and terpenes. Polyphenols are a large group of secondary metabolites in plants. They are widely distributed among the plant species and are found in vegetables, fruits, and beans for tea and coffee. The common examples of polyphenols are flavonoids, phenolic acids, and lignans. There are many biological and pharmacological activities attributed to the phenolic acids. They have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective properties. With the emergence of diabetes as major metabolic disorder, there has been a search for natural compounds. In last two decades, there are many reports which have suggested the role of phenolic acids in the prevention of glycation-mediated secondary complications of diabetes. This chapter deals with the recent advances in the field of phenolic acids and their application in the treatment of disorders like diabetes and neurodegeneration.
Aging is inevitable; however, bioactives are naturally present in several plants and their products have been reported to provide remarkable protection against age-induced complications and enhance healthspan as well as lifespan due to their potent health promontory effects. Tea catechins are flavonoids, occurring largely in tea plants (Camellia sinensis). An array of studies has reported that catechins possess strong anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, cognition improving, and coronary vascular impairments preventive effects. The present chapter describes the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of tea catechins involved in the prevention of aging and age-related pathological events to explore the possibility of developing plant-origin drugs to promote healthy aging.
Tea, a worldwide popular beverage rich in polyphenols, contributes to the prevention of many diseases and thus is beneficial to human health. Tea is a product through processing the fresh leaves picked from the plant Camellia sinensis (C. sinensis, genus Camellia section Thea). To date, systematic studies have been conducted on the phytochemicals from more than 20 tea varieties and related tea products, resulting in the structural determination of over 400 constituents viz. different types of polyphenols, purines, and their derivatives, mono to tetra-terpenoids, and minor other phytomolecules. These various tea phytochemicals contribute to the anti-oxidative effects, anti-diabetes, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, blood lipid reduction, neuroprotection, anti-Alzheimer's disease, hepatoprotection, and anti-microbial activities, etc. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), the significant human pathogens, could cause nosocomial and community-acquired infections, which is also responsible for various infectious diseases from mild to severe life-threatening conditions, such as bacteremia (bloodstream infection), endocarditis (heart valves infection), pneumonia, and meningitis (brain infection), leading to 2% clinical disease in of all patient admissions. The multidrug resistance (MDR) and antibiotics losing efficacy, esp. in methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) urge for novel antimicrobial agents. The MRSA strains are resistant to the entire class of β-lactam antibiotics and limit effective treatment, leading to still spread of staphylococcal infections. MRSA also exhibits resistance to cephalosporins, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and glycopeptides (teicoplanine and vancomycin), leading to resistant strains-glycopeptide resistant strain (GRSA) and glycopeptide intermediate (GISA) S. aureus. In this review, chemical constituents responsible for the anti-MRSA activity of tea are explored.
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Cosmetics are applied on skin to enhance the personality, beauty, colour, complexity, tone, texture etc. Maintaining a healthy skin is important for a healthy body. Skin is a protective covering and an attractive feature of the body for both men and women. It forms an important part of personal appearance. There are various cosmetic preparations available in the market like creams, lotions, oils, soaps, gels, moisturizers, etc. These cosmetic can be applied on the skin to enhance beauty and protect the skin from different skin disorders like acne, blackheads, age spots, skin rashes, skin allergy etc. There are also other preparations which include anti-ageing creams, skin whitening agents, gels etc. for protecting the skin from UV radiations, sunscreen lotions and moisturizing creams to protect the skin from different climatic conditions. In the present scenario most of the cosmetics products are adulterated. There are various other cosmetic preparations in the market which are of spurious quality which may produce some side effects like skin rashes, skin allergic reactions and may lead to skin diseases. In this paper we have reviewed different medicinal plants used as cosmetics and these preparations can be used safely without side effects on the skin. In this article a special emphasis has been given to herbal cosmetics because herbals are a part of our life and their uses are increasing day by day all over the world. Scientists are still working on the evaluation of new methods that could increase our knowledge and enable to find new applications for it.
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Literature on the influence of withering on maceration, fermentation and drying and on black tea quality is reviewed. The importance of including the handling of the leaf in the field and during transportation as an integral part of withering is stressed. The influence of physical and chemical changes in the green leaf, during withering, on the quality of black teas is discussed. Withering practices vary with climate, producing region, the type of manufacturing process and demands by the markets. Mechanised withering may improve quality by reduced handling of the leaf. The influence of plucking standards on withering and the effect of withering on the storage of tea are discussed.
Kombucha is a refreshing beverage obtained by the fermentation of sugared tea with a symbiotic culture of acetic bacteria and fungi, consumed for its beneficial effects on human health. Research conducted in Russia at the beginning of the century and testimony indicate that Kombucha can improve resistance against cancer, prevent cardiovascular diseases, promote digestive functions, stimulate the immune system, reduce inflammatory problems, and can have many other benefits. In this paper, we report on studies that shed more light on the properties of some constituents of Kombucha. The intensive research about the effects of tea on health provide a good starting point and are summarized to get a better understanding of the complex mechanisms that could be implicated in the physiological activity of both beverages.
Green tea polyphenols (GTP) from Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze are the major water soluble components in tea liquor. The GTP extraction yield was determined using different extraction times from 10 to 60 min at 70°C, and also at different temperatures from 50°C to 100°C, keeping the extraction time constant. The composition of the GTP (catechins) from samples of different origins was determined by RP–HPLC, measuring the absorbance at 280 nm. The calibration curves of the catechins were linear between 5 ng and 2 μg, and their C.V. values for the quantitation were less than 4.0% for four replicates using four different sets of each type. The total epicatechin derivatives (EPD) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from Azorean green tea, accounted for 74.5 and 47.9% (w/w) of the total GTP, respectively, and were compared with that from tea samples of different origins. The EGCG:caffeine ratio in Azorean green tea was fourfold higher as compared with others, which suggested a good source of a chemopreventive agent. The aroma composition of different green tea samples was compared using the SPME/GC headspace methodology.
This paper describes a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model developed to simulate airflow, heat transfer and enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols during black tea fermentation. The airflow through the packed bed of macerated tealeaves is modelled by the porous-medium flow equation. Spatial distribution of temperature within the packed bed of tealeaf is obtained by solving the heat transfer equation that incorporates the source heat of enzymatic oxidation and convective heat of airflow. Spatial distributions of polyphenolic compounds involved in enzymatic oxidation of tea fermentation are then predicted using species equations. The rates of depletion of reactants and formation of products of polyphenols are modelled by source/sink terms of the species equations with the rates of reactions related to the temperature. Solutions of the species equations then provide the basis for the calculation of source heat generated by the oxidative reactions. Some preliminary results are presented. The aim is to demonstrate that the CFD model provides a valuable tool to examine the effect of process conditions on the complex reaction kinetics and pathways that are responsible for the formation of polyphenolic compounds during tea fermentation. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
 The antioxidant activity and the total phenolics content of various tea extracts were analysed. Green and black tea were brewed from 0.5 min up to 10 min under different brewing conditions (stirring the extract, chopping the tea leaves before brewing). For measuring the antioxidant activity, the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) test and the low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation test were used. In all cases the antioxidant activity as well as the content of the phenolics increased with the brewing time. In black tea (brewed without stirring or chopping), the total phenolics increased from 33.8 mg/100 ml after 0.5 min up to 68.4 mg/100 ml after 10 min brewing time. Stirring during brewing led to higher phenolic yields in the extract. Thus, phenolics in stirred black tea ranged from 44.5 mg/100 ml (0.5 min) to 96.7 mg/100 ml (10 min). Chopping the tea leaves resulted in the highest content of phenolics. Antioxidant activity was well correlated with the corresponding total phenolics content. The results of the LDL oxidation test varied more than those of the TEAC test.
Tea flavonols are potent antioxidants and make up 2–3% of the water-soluble solids from tea leaves. In this paper, the conditions necessary for hydrolysing and analysing flavonols in tea leaves and tea infusions are optimised and an isocratic elution system for the determination of the hydrolysed flavonols by high-performance liquid chromotography is presented. Aqueous ethanol was selected as the best solution for hydrolysing flavonoids in tea leaves. The contents of flavonols on a dry weight base in green tea leaves ranged from 0.83–1.59, 1.79–4.05, and 1.56–3.31 g/kg, and in black tea leaves from 0.24–0.52, 1.04–3.03, and 1.72–2.31 g/kg for myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol, respectively. It was observed that the particle size of ground tea leaves significantly influenced the yield of flavonols. The contents of flavonols in different green tea infusions are given.
The current study was aimed at the recovery of valuable bioactive components of green tea extracts (group of catechins) left over in industrial tea waste. The extraction and purification of green tea extracts (caffeine, (−)-epicatechin (EC), (+)-catechin (+C), (−)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECg)) by use of 99.5%-ethanol and edible oils (oleic acid (OA) and sunflower oil (SFO)) were determined respectively. The solubility results were compared with the data obtained by the stability test after storing the samples for 14 days.
The three main categories of tea: green, black and oolong, result from different processing procedures. In recent years tea has attracted more and more attention because of reported health benefits, in particularly as an antioxidant, but also as an anticarcinogenic and antiarteriosclerotic agent. It is generally believed that flavonoids are mainly responsible for these actions. Tea is now consumed throughout the world not just as a popular beverage, but, because its extracts have been prepared in a variety of physical forms, for example, strong infusions, soft extracts and powders, it is now widely available in a range of food, beverage, and toiletry and cosmetic products.
Tea is the most popular beverage, consumed by over two thirds of the world's population. Tea is processed differently in different parts of the world to give green (20%), black (78%) or oolong tea (2%). Green tea is consumed mostly in Japan and China. The antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities of green tea are extensively examined. The chemical components of green and black tea are polyphenols, which include EC, ECG, EGC, EGCG and TFs. This article reviews the epidemiological and experimental studies on the antimutagenicity and anticarcinogenicity of tea extracts and tea polyphenols. In Japan, an epidemiological study showed an inverse relationship between habitual green tea drinking and the standardized mortality rates for cancer. Some cohort studies on Chanoyu (Japanese tea ceremony) women teachers also showed that their mortality ratio including deaths caused by malignant neoplasms were surprisingly low. The antimutagenic activity against various mutagens of tea extracts and polyphenols including ECG and EGCG has been demonstrated in microbial systems (Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli), mammalian cell systems and in vivo animal tests. The anticarcinogenic activity of tea phenols has been shown in experimental animals such as rats and mice, in transplantable tumors, carcinogen-induced tumors in digestive organs, mammary glands, hepatocarcinomas, lung cancers, skin tumors, leukemia, tumor promotion and metastasis. The mechanisms of antimutagenesis and anticarcinogenesis of tea polyphenols suggest that the inhibition of tumors may be due to both extracellular and intracellular mechanisms including the modulation of metabolism, blocking or suppression, modulation of DNA replication and repair effects, promotion, inhibition of invasion and metastasis, and induction of novel mechanisms.
Volatile components in unfermented green tea, semi-fermented Oolong tea and fully fermented black tea were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For differentiating, three tea categories based on their volatile components, unsupervised and supervised pattern recognition techniques were applied to the resulting GC data. Three distinct clusters each corresponding to green tea, Oolong tea and black tea were observed in the dendrogram and the principal component (PC) score plot. However, a subcluster of Oolong tea was observed in the vicinity of black tea cluster in both the dendrogram and the PC plot. The first and second PC corresponded to the fermentation products and aroma components originally contained in tea leaves, respectively. Both the partial least squares (PLS) analysis and linear discriminant analysis correctly differentiated tea samples into the three categories. (E)-2-Hexenal, the major fermentation product from unsaturated fatty acids, was the most efficient for the discrimination. Although three teas are produced from the same plant species, pattern recognition clarified the existence of the apparent quality difference among their volatile component profiles.