Conference Paper

Preliminary study of transdermal permeation of magnesium cream formulations across skin

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the passive permeation across human skin of magnesium (Mg) from pharmaceutical grade Mg chloride (MgCl2) formulated in cream to that of pharmaceutical grade MgCl2 in solution. Material and methods: The permeation was performed using human cadaver skin (Pelfreez, USA). The skin was soaked in the receptor medium (phosphate buffer saline 7.4) to equilibrate and then cut into appropriate size for the study. The transdermal Diffusion Cell Drive Console (Logan System FDC-6) was used to study the permeation. The transdermal permeation efficiency of Mg from MgCl2 cream I and MgCl2cream II was studied across skin compared to positive control MgCl2 solution and negative control phosphate buffer solution. The cream or MgCl2 solution equivalent to 2.76 mg of Mg were applied per 2.52 cm2 of skin and mounted on diffusion cell. Samples were collected after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 24 h and analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy at 285 nm. The experiments were performed in triplicates. The results were analyzed using unpaired t-test. Results: The cumulative Mg permeation from Mg cream I, Mg cream II, MgCl2 solution, and phosphate buffer across human skin after 24 h were found to be 29.79 ± 13.92, 24.53 ± 9.98, 6.18 ± 1.36, and 5.62 ± 1.83 μg/2.52 cm2 respectively. Both creams showed statistically significant (p<0.05) Mg permeation compared with the two control solutions; Mg cream I showed greater Mg permeation than Mg cream II, but the difference was not statistically significant. The MgCl2 solution showed a similar result to that of phosphate buffer. Conclusion: A formulated Mg cream was able to successfully deliver the Mg of pharmaceutical grade MgCl2 across human skin. Transdermal Mg may play an important role treating symptoms of sub-optimal Mg status. However, further in vitro and animal studies are warranted to establish the efficacy of formulations.

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... Transdermal magnesium may play an important role treating symptoms of sub-optimal magnesium status. However, further in vitro and animal studies are warranted to establish the efficacy of formulations [21]. ...
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In the following review, we evaluated the current literature and evidence-based data on transdermal magnesium application and show that the propagation of transdermal magnesium is scientifically unsupported. The importance of magnesium and the positive effects of magnesium supplementation are extensively documented in magnesium deficiency, e.g., cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The effectiveness of oral magnesium supplementation for the treatment of magnesium deficiency has been studied in detail. However, the proven and well-documented oral magnesium supplementation has become questioned in the recent years through intensive marketing for its transdermal application (e.g., magnesium-containing sprays, magnesium flakes, and magnesium salt baths). In both, specialist and lay press as well as on the internet, there are increasing numbers of articles claiming the effectiveness and superiority of transdermal magnesium over an oral application. It is claimed that the transdermal absorption of magnesium in comparison to oral application is more effective due to better absorption and fewer side effects as it bypasses the gastrointestinal tract.
Magnesium is an important element that has essential roles in the regulation of cell growth, division, and differentiation. Mounting evidence in the literature suggests an association between hypomagnesemia and all-cause mortality. In addition, epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that a diet poor in magnesium increases the risk of developing cancer, highlighting its importance in the field of hematology and oncology. In solid malignancies, hypomagnesemia at diagnosis portends a worse prognosis. However, little is known about prognosis in patients with hypomagnesemia and blood cancers in general; lymphoma more specifically. Hypomagnesemia has been associated with a higher viral load of the Epstein Barr virus, a virus associated with a multitude of hematologic malignancies. The role of magnesium in the immune system has been further elucidated in studies of patients with a rare primary immunodeficiency known as XMEN disease (X-linked immunodeficiency with Magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and Neoplasia disease). These patients have a mutation in the MAGT1 gene, which codes for a magnesium transporter. The mutation leads to impaired T cell activation and an increased risk of developing hematologic malignancies. In this review we discuss the relevance of magnesium as an electrolyte, current measurement techniques, and the known data related to cause and prognosis of blood cancers. The goal is to use these data to stimulate additional high-quality and well powered studies to further investigate the role of magnesium in preventing cancer and improving outcomes of patients with malignancy and concomitant magnesium deficiency.
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