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Effects of sour cherry juice on blood glucose and some cardiovascular risk factors improvements in diabetic women : A pilot study

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Abstract

Purpose – Some studies on anthocyanins have revealed their antioxidant activity and beneficial effects for diabetes control and reducing the risk of coronary heart diseases. It has been found that sour cherries contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess insulin‐releasing stimulatory properties on pancreatic β‐cells in vitro. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether concentrated sour cherry juice (CSCJ) beneficially alters serum glucose and some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes type 2 subjects. Design/methodology/approach – In this quasi‐experimental study, 19 diabetic women with FBS ≥ 110 mg/dl were recruited from patients referred to the Diabetes Clinic of Shariati Hospital. Subjects were asked to consume 40 g of CSCJ daily for 6 weeks. Before the onset of the study (week 0) and after 6 weeks, weight and blood pressure measurements were done and fasting blood samples were drawn. FBS, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and blood lipid profiles were measured. In addition, a 24‐hour food record was taken from all of the individuals in both stages. The Wilcoxon signed test was used for statistical analysis. Findings – After six weeks' consumption of CSCJ, significant reductions in body weight (p < 0.01), blood pressure and HbA1c (p < 0.05) was seen. Total cholesterol and LDL‐C decreased significantly in a sub‐group of patients (n = 12) with LDL‐C ≥ 100 mg/dl as well. Originality/value – Based on the results of this study, consuming 40 g/day of CSCJ decreases body weight, blood pressure and HbA1c in diabetes type 2 women after 6 weeks and improves blood lipids in diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia.

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... Observations in humans have been more equivocal, with tart cherry supplementation showing no effect on blood pressure and blood-based cardio-metabolic markers in healthy participants (Lynn et al. 2014). More favourable findings have been reported in studies (Ataie-Jafari et al. 2008;Keane et al. 2016a, b;Martin et al. 2010) examining 'at risk' or diseased patients with tart cherry juice, indicating amelioration of cardio-metabolic function. ...
... Rationale for the present study is based on previous work demonstrating the benefits of anthocyanin supplementation on fat oxidation rates during exercise (Cook et al. 2015(Cook et al. , 2017 and the positive results regarding the effects of tart cherry supplementation against cardio-metabolic dysfunction in rodents (Seymour et al. , 2008 and humans (Ataie-Jafari et al. 2008;Keane et al. 2016a, b;Martin et al. 2010). However, to date, no research has explored the cardio-metabolic responses to tart cherry supplementation and exercise in tandem; thus healthy participants were recruited to assess for any adverse effects prior to investigating responses in clinical populations. ...
... Given the variability in study design and supplementation strategy in the present and previous studies (Ataie-Jafari et al. 2008;Kelley et al. 2006;Lynn et al. 2014;Martin et al. 2010) it is possible to conclude that the length of supplementation, volume and concentration of juice are unlikely to be factors responsible for the equivocal results regarding lipids after cherry consumption. Rather, the initial physiological status of participants is thought to be more influential regarding the efficacy of a cherry intervention. ...
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Montmorency tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) are rich in anthocyanins, compounds capable of augmenting fat oxidation and regulating metabolic dysfunction. The present study examined whether Montmorency tart cherry juice (MTCJ) supplementation could augment fat oxidation rates at rest and during FATMAX exercise, thus improve cardio-metabolic health. Eleven, healthy participants consumed MTCJ or placebo (PLA) twice daily, in a randomised, counterbalanced order for 20 days. Participants cycled at FATMAX for 1-h pre-, mid- (10 days) and post-supplementation whilst substrate oxidation rates were measured. Before exercise anthropometrics and resting metabolic rate were measured. Blood pressure, serum triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, total antioxidant status (TAS) and glucose were measured immediately before and after exercise. No significant differences between conditions or interactions were observed for any functional and blood-based cardio-metabolic markers or fat oxidation during exercise or rest (P > 0.05). Pre-exercise TAS (P = 0.036) and HDL (P = 0.001) were significantly reduced from mid- to post-supplementation with MTCJ only. Twenty days’ MTCJ supplementation had no effect on fat oxidation; therefore, it is unnecessary for individuals in this participant cohort to consume MTCJ with exercise to improve cardio-metabolic biomarkers.
... The present study showed MTCJ significantly reduced fasting glucose by 9% (− 0.51 mmol L −1 ) after 6-days consumption, highlighting the potential efficacy of tart cherries to improve glycaemic function in insulin resistant individuals. Similarly, Ataie-Jafari et al. [27] reported an 8% (− 0.7 mmol.L −1 ) reduction in fasting glucose and reduced HbA 1c after 6 weeks tart cherry concentrate consumption in individuals with T2D. This study, therefore, suggests shortterm supplementation may be as effective, but more practical and economically viable than prolonged supplementation strategies. ...
... This study suggests MTCJ may improve aspects of the lipid profile in individuals with MetS. The significant reduction in total cholesterol found in the present study agrees with findings from Ataie-Jafari et al. [27], but similar responses were not observed in other studies providing tart cherries [28,29], although a trend for lower concentrations was observed in MetS adults [30]. The reduction in total cholesterol with MTCJ may be explained by lower LDL fractions after 6-days supplementation. ...
... The reduction in total cholesterol with MTCJ may be explained by lower LDL fractions after 6-days supplementation. Similarly, reductions in LDL were reported in subjects with elevated baseline LDL after tart cherry juice consumption [27,29]; aligning with findings from other human trials supplementing anthocyaninrich interventions that hyperlipidaemia is a prerequisite to observe improvements [31]. Clinically, LDL responses after 6-days MTCJ consumption may correspond to an 8% relative risk reduction of major vascular events [32]. ...
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PurposeMetabolic Syndrome (MetS) augments the incidence of cardiovascular disease by two-fold and type II diabetes mellitus by five-fold. Montmorency tart cherries are rich in phytochemicals shown to improve biomarkers related to cardio-metabolic health in humans. This study aimed to examine cardio-metabolic responses after 7-days Montmorency tart cherry juice (MTCJ) supplementation and also acute on short-term supplementation responses to a single bolus, in humans with MetS.Methods In a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 12 participants with MetS (50 ± 10 years; 6M/6F), consumed MTCJ or placebo (PLA) for 7 days. Blood-based and functional cardio-metabolic biomarkers were measured pre- and post-supplementation, and acute responses measured pre-bolus and up to 5 h post-bolus on the 7th day.Results24-h ambulatory systolic (P = 0.016), diastolic (P = 0.009) blood pressure and mean arterial pressure (P = 0.041) were significantly lower after 7-days MTCJ supplementation compared to PLA. Glucose (P = 0.038), total cholesterol (P = 0.036), LDL (P = 0.023) concentrations, total cholesterol:HDL ratio (P = 0.004) and respiratory exchange ratio values (P = 0.009) were significantly lower after 6-days MTCJ consumption compared to PLA.Conclusions This study revealed for the first time in humans that MTCJ significantly improved 24-h BP, fasting glucose, total cholesterol and total cholesterol:HDL ratio, and also lowered resting respiratory exchange ratio compared to a control group. Responses demonstrated clinically relevant improvements on aspects of cardio-metabolic function, emphasising the potential efficacy of MTCJ in preventing further cardio-metabolic dysregulation in participants with MetS. Registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03619941).
... Risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease ↓ HbA1C in diabetic women [59]; no change in fasting glucose or insulin [23,45,51] in healthy subjects; ↓VLDL & TG/HDL ratio in obese [52] but no change in VLDL, LDL, HDL, TG, lipoprotein particle size and number in healthy [23,42,45]. ↓ SBP [51,54,60,61]; ↓ both SBP and DBP [59,62]; No change in either SBP or DBP [42]. ...
... Risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease ↓ HbA1C in diabetic women [59]; no change in fasting glucose or insulin [23,45,51] in healthy subjects; ↓VLDL & TG/HDL ratio in obese [52] but no change in VLDL, LDL, HDL, TG, lipoprotein particle size and number in healthy [23,42,45]. ↓ SBP [51,54,60,61]; ↓ both SBP and DBP [59,62]; No change in either SBP or DBP [42]. ↓ ENRAGE, EN-1, PAI-1 [51] Arthritis and associated risk factors ↓ gout attacks [63,64]; ↓ Osteoarthritis [55]; ↓ plasma uric acid [40,52,63] Sleep Total 4 studies. ...
... Supplementation with cherries or cherry products did not alter fasting or randomly sampled blood glucose and fasting insulin in healthy study participants [23,45]. In a study with diabetic women, concentrated tart cherry juice at 40 mL/day (anthocyanins 720 mg/day) for 6 weeks significantly decreased hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) when compared with the levels before the supplementation; fasting blood glucose (FBG) was also decreased by 8% but did not attain significance [59]. Although this study did not include a control group, these findings are consistent with those found in animal and in vitro studies. ...
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Increased oxidative stress contributes to development and progression of several human chronic inflammatory diseases. Cherries are a rich source of polyphenols and vitamin C which have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Our aim is to summarize results from human studies regarding health benefits of both sweet and tart cherries, including products made from them (juice, powder, concentrate, capsules); all referred to as cherries here. We found 29 (tart 20, sweet 7, unspecified 2) published human studies which examined health benefits of consuming cherries. Most of these studies were less than 2 weeks of duration (range 5 h to 3 months) and served the equivalent of 45 to 270 cherries/day (anthocyanins 55–720 mg/day) in single or split doses. Two-thirds of these studies were randomized and placebo controlled. Consumption of cherries decreased markers for oxidative stress in 8/10 studies; inflammation in 11/16; exercise-induced muscle soreness and loss of strength in 8/9; blood pressure in 5/7; arthritis in 5/5, and improved sleep in 4/4. Cherries also decreased hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein (TG/HDL) in diabetic women, and VLDL and TG/HDL in obese participants. These results suggest that consumption of sweet or tart cherries can promote health by preventing or decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation.
... Life-style changes together with several well-recognized risk factors including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and obesity, as well as dietary habits, are potentially modifiable to prevent chronic diseases like cardiovascular disease, diabetes and etc. [1,2]. Accumulating evidence from clinical trials and prospective studies suggest that the consumption of several foods and beverages is associated with a reduction of aforementioned risk factors for chronic diseases. ...
... Anthocyanins are widely distributed active chemicals with antioxidant properties that can protect us against chronic disease such as diabetes, cancers, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. There are several studies that investigated the beneficial effect of sour cherry juice and berries on blood glucose and body weight [1,2]. It seems that anthocyanins can inhibit the expression of enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis [5]. ...
... The cited references of the retrieved articles were checked to find any potential eligible studies; consequently we found 3 other related articles through this searching backward for references cited in those articles after screening for title and abstract, 4602 articles were excluded and 25 papers were retrieved for full text review. Out of 25 retrieved papers, eight articles were excluded due to lack of information, quasi-experimental design or not having control group [1,3], without sufficient data [15e18] or overlapped by chosen studies [19,20]. Finally 19 studies were included in our meta-analysis. ...
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Background: Several studies have shown effects of anthocyanin on blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profile in different conditions, but the results of these studies are controversial. We summarized evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of anthocyanin supplementation on cardio-metabolic biomarkers in adults. Methods: The literature searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE for published studies in English was performed up to August 2017. Results were summarized as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Effect sizes of eligible studies were pooled using random-effects models (the DerSimonian-Laird estimator). Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated by the Cochrane Q test. Results: Of 5370 papers, 19 RCTs met inclusion criteria. There was no significant effect of anthocyanin supplementation on weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP). Our results indicated that anthocyanin supplementation had no significant effects on HbA1c (MD: -0.32; 95% CI = -0.64, 0.00; p = 0.050) with no heterogeneity (I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.966, no significant heterogeneity), however anthocyanin supplementation had significant effect on HOMA-IR (MD: -0.21; 95% CI = -0.36, -0.07; p = 0.004) (I2 = 37.9%, p = 0.200, no significant heterogeneity) in adults. Intake of anthocyanin had no significant effects on FBS (MD: 0.25; 95% CI = -5.70, 6.21; p = 0.933) and serum insulin (MD: 0.09; 95% CI = -0.92, 1.11; p = 0.860) with high heterogeneity for these variables (p = 0.000, and I2 = 83.5%) and (p = 0.098, and I2 = 52.4%), respectively. Anthocyanin supplementation had significant effects on total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) for more than 300 mg/day intervention for more than 12 weeks. The dose and duration of supplementation were the potential sources of heterogeneity among most of the trials. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that supplementation with anthocyanin have beneficial effect on HOMA-IR in adults.
... 19,20 So far there is little evidence on humans. 21,22 Based on the results of previous studies, tart cherries and their bioactive components have been shown to improve cardiovascular performance. [19][20][21][22] Despite this evidence, the ability of tart cherries to impact cardiovascular risk factors has not yet been investigated in older adults. ...
... 21,22 Based on the results of previous studies, tart cherries and their bioactive components have been shown to improve cardiovascular performance. [19][20][21][22] Despite this evidence, the ability of tart cherries to impact cardiovascular risk factors has not yet been investigated in older adults. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the ability of tart cherry juice consumption to reduce CVD risk factors by assessing lipid profiles, BP, glucose, insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in older adults. ...
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Hypertension and dyslipidemia are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Common treatments for high blood pressure (BP) and dyslipidemia include medications, but there is question as to whether natural sources may be adequate to reduce CVD risk factors. We examined the effects of tart cherry juice on lipid profiles, BP, glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in older adults. In this randomized-controlled clinical trial, 17 men and 20 women between the ages of 65–80 years were randomly assigned to consume 480 ml of tart cherry juice or control drink daily for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for energy and sugar content. Outcome variables were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks of tart cherry juice or control drink. Systolic BP and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) exhibited treatment × time interaction effects. At the end of the study, participants in the tart cherry group had lower levels of LDL cholesterol (difference of −20.6 with P = 0.001) and total cholesterol (difference of −19.11 with P = 0.01), and higher levels of glucose (difference of 7.94 with P = 0.001), triglycerides (difference of 6.66 with P = 0.01) and BMI (difference of 1.06 with P = 0.02) than in the control group. Neither tart cherry juice nor control significantly altered body weight, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diastolic BP, insulin and HOMA-IR. Our findings show that tart cherry juice can lower the levels of systolic BP and LDL cholesterol. However, larger and longer follow-up studies are needed to further assess cardio-protective effects of tart cherry juice.
... Additionally, Martin, Bopp, Neupane, and Vega-Lopez (2010) demonstrated significant reductions in serum triglycerides, triglyceride/HDL ratio and VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) concentrations after 4 weeks tart cherry juice (230 mL·day −1 ) supplementation in participants with central adiposity and dyslipidaemia. Moreover, Ataie-Jafari, Hosseini, Karimi, and Pajouhi (2008) reported 6 weeks concentrated sour cherry juice (40 g·day −1 ) supplementation improved glycated haemoglobin (HbA1 c ), in T2D females, along with total cholesterol and LDL (lowdensity lipoprotein) in those participants with hyperlipidaemia. ...
... Centred around the pharmacokinetics of MTC parent anthocyanins and their metabolites, this study aimed to explore the short-term responses to acute supplementation of MTCJ and MTCC on cardiac haemodynamics, arterial stiffness by pulse wave analysis (PWA), substrate metabolism and various blood-based cardio-metabolic biomarkers in humans with MetS. Given that these subjects present at least three or more risk factors resulting in a holistic state of cardio-metabolic dysregulation, it was hypothesised that both MTC interventions would induce favourable responses on diagnostic cardio-metabolic markers, in particular glucose, lipids and SBP, based on previous human studies with tart cherry supplementation (Ataie-Jafari et al., 2008;Keane, George et al., 2016;Martin et al., 2010). Furthermore, it was hypothesised that MTCC would be more effective than MTCJ or placebo in mediating these benefits, as the bioavailability of anthocyanins and their metabolites were anticipated to be superior. ...
Article
This study compared acute supplementation of Montmorency tart cherries in capsule (MTCC) and juice (MTCJ) forms in MetS humans, as potential prophylactic interventions against cardio-metabolic diseases. In an acute, single-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, crossover trial, eleven participants with MetS (49 ± 12 years; 6M/5F), consumed one bolus of MTCC, MTCJ or placebo (PLA) on different occasions. Blood-based and functional cardio-metabolic biomarkers were measured pre-bolus and up to 5 h post-bolus. MTCJ significantly reduced systolic blood pressure compared to PLA at 2-h post-bolus (P = 0.018). Insulin was significantly lower with MTCC (P = 0.016) and MTCJ (P = 0.028) than PLA at 1-h and 3-h post-bolus, respectively. No significant differences between MTCC and MTCJ were seen. This study demonstrated for the first time that MTCC could reduce insulin concentrations in humans. Importantly, MTCJ induced a clinically relevant reduction in systolic blood pressure and also lowered insulin compared to PLA, in MetS humans.
... [80] Ataie-Jafari et al. (2008) reported that 40 g per day sour cherry (180 mg anthocyanins per 100 g fruit) consumption for 6 weeks reduced body weight, blood pressure, and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) in T2D women, and reduced blood lipids in diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia. [81] The subjects with overweight and obesity that consumed black soybean rich in anthocyanins for 8 weeks had lower visceral fat and plasma lipid profile than placebo. [82] In another study, supplementing anthocyanin from Moro red orange juice (400 mg per diet) for 12 weeks significantly reduced body weight, BMI, hip and waist circumference in overweight healthy people. ...
... Pre-post analysis • Body weight, blood pressure, HbA1c, blood lipids [81] Black soybean Two capsules, 2.5 g per day 8 weeks ...
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Obesity is a complex disease and a major public health epidemic. Chronic, low‐grade inflammation is a common underlying feature of obesity and associated metabolic diseases; adipose tissue is a major contributor to this systemic inflammation. Evidence shows that obesity‐associated inflammation may originate from gut dysfunction, including changes in intestinal bacteria or microbiome profiles. Increasingly, food and plant bioactive compounds with antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory properties have been proposed to ameliorate obesity‐associated inflammation. Among these, we are interested in the health‐promoting effects of anthocyanin‐rich foods. Specifically, this review summarizes the reported benefits of anthocyanins in obesity‐associated inflammation, and underlying molecular mechanisms, including the role of gut microbiome and cell signaling pathways regulated by anthocyanins both in vivo and in vitro. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... The most appreciated cherry should be large and sweet, with a dark-red color [18], a diameter between 28-30 mm [19], free of cracks, and with a perfectly round shape [20]. The two types that are generally preferred by consumers are the wild or sweet cherry (Prunus avium Linnaeus (L.)), and the tart or sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) [21]. Both are seasonal fruits and have their harvest period in Europe between May and July [22], and are extremely nutritious, although they differ in the relative amounts of bioac-tive compounds [5]. ...
... Tart cherries displayed more efficiency than sweet cherries because they have higher phenolic content, which increases their antioxidant activity [143,144]. In addition, 19 diabetic women who consumed tart cherry juice, daily, for 6 weeks also showed better body weight, low glucose and blood pressure, and reduced levels of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), a protein associated to blood glucose stability [21]. Additionally, Cao et al. reported that aqueous extracts of sweet cherries fractioned into an anthocyanin-rich fraction, hydroxycinnamic acid-rich fraction, and flavonolrich fraction at concentrations of 25 µg/mL promote HepG2 glucose consumption in HepG2 cells. ...
Article
Abstract: Background: Sweet cherries are one of the most appreciated fruits worldwide as well as one of the great sources of several active substances, as phytochemical compounds (carotenoids, serotonin, melatonin and phenolic compounds) as well as in nutritive compounds (sugars and organic acids). Accumulating research demonstrate that their supplementation in our daily diet can contradict oxidative stress, mitigating or even attenuating chronic diseases, as cancerous processes, antiinflammatory-related disorders, diabetes, and neurological and cardiovascular pathologies. Therefore, the aims of this review are to present an overview on the effects of sweet cherries as health promotors, giving emphasis to the health benefits of their bioactive compounds, particularly their antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-neurodegeneration, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular effects. Methods: Research and online content about sweet cherry fruits is reviewed. The information available has been read several times to avoid inconsistencies. In addition, according what we read, original figures were done and added to facilitate understanding and to enrich the paper. Results: In this review, a total of 202 original reports were used. In respect to health benefits, it is possible to confirm by several studies that, in fact, the consumption of sweet cherries has positive impacts in human health, owing to their wealthy and vast constitution, particularly in phenolic compounds, vitamins and carotenoids whose health properties were already documented. Conclusion: The findings of this review support the evidence that sweet cherries can be applied in pharmaceutical and food formulations, since they are able to diminish free radical species and proinflammatory markers, preventing and/ or ameliorating oxidative-stress disorders.
... Therefore, while early intervention in at-risk individuals (such as those in the current study) remains a research priority in reversing or reducing the disease risk trajectory preventing CVD, it is plausible that improvements following MC intake in these individuals might require more longitudinal observations. Those with pathological conditions might benefit more from MC supplementation due to the systemic pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative state associated with these [62]. Likewise, those with hypertension or other cardiovascular dysfunctions might benefit more. ...
... Due to the low number of adverse events, good compliance levels reported, and no effect on quality-of-life indices, it is reasonable to suggest that cherry juice is a safe and tolerable intervention, although future studies should consider dietary modification to accommodate for the increase in Kcal from the juice. This study has several strengths such that it was successfully blinded, sufficiently powered, of a longer-term duration, and well-controlled, compared to other studies of a similar nature [11,14,15,62,71]. However, there are other limitations that warrant discussion. ...
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Background: Tart Montmorency cherries (MC) have been shown to be rich in anthocyanins and other phytochemicals known to have anti-inflammatory properties and influence pathways that might improve cardiometabolic health. However, there is limited evidence for the longer-term use of tart cherries on these indices. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of MC concentrate on cardiometabolic health indices following a 3-month supplementation period. Methods: Fifty middle-aged adults (34 males and 16 females; mean ± SD age: 48 ± 6 years and BMI: 27.6 ± 3.7 kg/m2) completed a randomised, placebo-controlled parallel study in which they either received MC or an isocaloric placebo. Participants drank 30 mL of their allocated treatment twice per day for 3 months. Vascular function (blood pressure [BP], heart rate [HR], pulse wave velocity and analysis [PWV/A], and flow mediated dilation [FMD]) as well as indices of metabolic health (insulin, glucose, lipid profiles, and high sensitivity C reactive protein) were measured following an overnight fast before and after the 3 months. Results: No effect of the intervention between the groups was observed for vascular function or metabolic health variables following the intervention (p > 0.05). However, MC concentrate was shown to be safe and well-tolerated and, importantly, did not have any deleterious effects on these outcomes. In conclusion, MC has no influence on cardiometabolic indices in middle-aged adults.
... The most appreciated cherry should be large and sweet, with a dark-red color [18], a diameter between 28-30 mm [19], free of cracks, and with a perfectly round shape [20]. The two types that are generally preferred by consumers are the wild or sweet cherry (Prunus avium Linnaeus (L.)), and the tart or sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) [21]. Both are seasonal fruits and have their harvest period in Europe between May and July [22], and are extremely nutritious, although they differ in the relative amounts of bioac-tive compounds [5]. ...
... Tart cherries displayed more efficiency than sweet cherries because they have higher phenolic content, which increases their antioxidant activity [143,144]. In addition, 19 diabetic women who consumed tart cherry juice, daily, for 6 weeks also showed better body weight, low glucose and blood pressure, and reduced levels of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), a protein associated to blood glucose stability [21]. Additionally, Cao et al. reported that aqueous extracts of sweet cherries fractioned into an anthocyanin-rich fraction, hydroxycinnamic acid-rich fraction, and flavonolrich fraction at concentrations of 25 µg/mL promote HepG2 glucose consumption in HepG2 cells. ...
... Similarly, investigating in vivo antioxidant efficacy, lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory properties of sour cherry juices, Šarić et al. (2009) showed that consumption of sour cherry juice increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity but lowered LPO. Moreover, anthocyanins of sour cherries could reduce the risks for type-II diabetes (Ataie-Jafari, Hosseini, Karimi, & Pajouhi, 2008) and colon cancer (Kang, Seeram, Nair, & Bourquin, 2003). ...
... Similar to our findings, several RCTs [28,31,32] using anthocyanin extracts or other polyphenols also reported a significant reduction in HbA1c, but not in fasting glucose and insulin resistance. The reduction in HbA1c was not accompanied by changes in insulin sensitivity, which could imply that the effects on serum glucose may be through insulin-independent pathways. ...
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Objective: In vitro and animal studies suggest that purified anthocyanins have favorable effects on metabolic profiles, but clinical trials have reported inconsistent findings. Furthermore, no study has been specifically conducted among individuals with prediabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether purified anthocyanins could improve cardiometabolic risk factors in Chinese adults with early untreated hyperglycemia. Research Design and Methods: This was a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 160 participants aged 40–75 years with prediabetes or early untreated diabetes were randomly allocated to receive either purified anthocyanins (320 mg/day, n = 80) or placebo (n = 80) of identical appearance. A three-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed, and cardiometabolic biomarkers (glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting and postprandial glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and lipids) were measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Results: A total of 138 subjects completed the protocol. Compared with placebo, purified anthocyanins moderately reduced HbA1c (−0.14%, 95% CI: −0.23~−0.04%; p = 0.005), low-density lipoprotein-c (LDL-c) (−0.2 mmol/L, 95% CI: −0.38~−0.01, p = 0.04), apolipoprotein A-1 (apo A1) (0.09 g/L, 95% CI: 0.02~0.17; p = 0.02), and apolipoprotein B (apo B) (−0.07 g/L, 95% CI: −0.13~−0.01; p = 0.01) according to intention-to-treat analysis. Subgroup analyses suggested that purified anthocyanins were more effective at improving glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and lipids among patients with elevated metabolic markers. Conclusions: The 12-week randomized controlled trials (RCT) in Chinese adults with prediabetes or early untreated diabetes indicated that purified anthocyanins favorably affected glycemic control and lipid profile. Future studies of a longer duration that explore the dose-response relationship among patients with cardiometabolic disorders are needed to confirm our findings.
... Sour cherry contains high levels of anthocyanins that possess insulin-releasing stimulatory properties on pancreatic β-cells in vitro using quasi experimental study on 19 diabetic women for 6 weeks. The sour cherry anthocyanins reported to decrease body weight, blood pressure and HbA1c in diabetes type 2 women after 6 weeks and improve blood lipids in diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia [114]. ...
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Diet is an essential factor affecting the development of and risk for diabetes mellitus. In search of preventative and therapeutic strategies, it is to be considering the potential role of certain foods and their bioactive compounds to prevent the pathogenesis associated with metabolic diseases. Human consumption of anthocyanins is among the highest of all flavonoids. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the consumption of anthocyanins lowers the risk of diabetes and diabetic complications. Anthocyanins are important natural bioactive pigments responsible for red to blue colour of fruits, leaves, seeds, stems and flowers, which are present in a variety of plant species particularly in berries and cherries. A large number of bioactive anthocyanins, such as cyanidin, malvidin, delphinidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, petunidin and their metabolites have shown multiple biological activities with apparent effects on glucose absorption, glucose uptake, insulin secretion and sensitivity, on the enzymes involved in glucose metabolism, gene expressions, inflammatory mediators, glucose transporters in progression of diabetes and associated complications, such as diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and diabetic vascular diseases. The versatility of the anthocyanins provides a promising approach for diabetes management than synthetic drugs. Here we summarize effect of several anthocyanins on many in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies and also reveals the mechanisms which could prevent or reverse the underlying mechanisms of diabetic pathologies including promotion of antioxidant, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities.
... Nevertheless, the finding of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the efficacy of cherries on blood lipids and glycemia are controversial. While some have shown favorable effects on glycemic markers or lipid profile (Ataie-Jafari et al., 2008;Chai et al., 2018;Desai et al., 2021), others could not replicate such findings (Desai et al., 2018;Johnson et al., 2020;D. S. Kelley et al., 2013;D. ...
Article
Background Cherry fruit (Prunus spp.) has gained growing attention in cardiometabolic health mainly due to its bioactive compounds, including anthocyanins and phenolic acids. However, the effectiveness of cherries on makers of cardiovascular health has been controversial yet. The present report aimed to summarize the effect of cherry consumption on glycemic markers and lipid profile in adults. Methods Four databases were searched up to June 2021. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of tart or sweet cherries on glycemic markers (fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR) and serum lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) were included in the meta-analysis. Results Seven RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis revealed that cherry had no significant effects on glycemic markers or lipid profile. Although, in subgroup analysis, cherry significantly decreased serum total cholesterol in subjects with a mean body mass index (BMI) ranging between 25 and 29.9 kg/m² (WMD: 14.40 mg/dl, 95% CI: 27.33, - 1.48), and serum triglycerides in those with mean BMI ≥30 kg/m² (WMD: 17.65 mg/dl, 95% CI: 24.70, - 10.59). Conclusion Overall, this meta-analysis showed no significant effects of cherry consumption on glycemic markers and lipid profile.
... All varieties of sour cherries and its products are rich in phenolic substances which include pigments, anthocyanins, powerful antioxidants that are giving them a characteristic dark red colour (Ferretti et al., 2010;Kirakosyan et al., 2009;Kirakosyan et al., 2010). Juice, in addition to fruits and vegetables, as regards the adoption of nutrient substances, can be regarded as foods that promote health benefits (Veres et al., 2006;Ataie-Jafari et al., 2008;Bak et al., 2010). In certain circumstances, some bioactive components can be better absorbed from the juices than from plant fibers (Netzel et al., (2002)by Lampe et al., (2006. ...
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Sour cherry is a valuable raw material for production of juice, due to its aroma, but also because of its rich pigments, anthocyanins, powerful antioxidants that are giving the characteristic dark red colour, which together contribute to sensory attributes of juice. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of three genotypes of sour cherry (Maraska, Schattenmorelle and Domaća Oblačinska) and maceration (with or without stone) on the physical - chemical parameters of juice (soluble dry matter, total acidity, sweetness index and pH value) as well as sensory properties and content of anthocyanins and total phenols of sour cherry nectar. The results showed a statistically significant effect of genotype and maceration, on the physical and chemical features of juice. This is also confirmed by sensory evaluation where the highest overall score was received by nectar of Schattenmorelle genotype, while nectars without the addition of stone in general obtained the highest overall ratings. Compared with other genotypes, nectar produced from genotype Schattenmorelle had an extremely high content of anthocyanins (230.08 mg/L) whereas the stone had a negative effect on the anthocyanins content in nectar. Nectar produced from genotype Schattenmorelle had a statistically highest content of phenolic compounds (0.968 g/L), and maceration had has significantly influenced their content in nectar.
... Prunus cerasus has some health benefits, including: decrease body weight and blood cholesterol of diabetic patients [13], antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects [14]- [16], control the sleep-wake-cycle [10], reducing muscle pain [17] and prevent from symptoms of muscle damages [18]. ...
Article
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Cornelian cherry and Prunus cerasus with red pigments possess precious source of flavonoids and phenolic acids which have various applications in treatment of various health problems. This study is conducted to compare different methods of extraction (shaking incubator, soxhelet, ul-trasonic) were applied in order to identify the best method which shows the highest rate of anti-oxidant capacity by DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods and total phe-nolic compounds via Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, p-coumaric acid content of fruits were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). As a result, cornelian cherry with 1313.13 mg/Kg average TPC score exhibits higher total phenolic content than Prunus cerasus with 1270 mg/Kg. It's notice worthy that there was a slight difference among antioxidant activity in two fruits. Consequently, DPPH revealed nearly stronger antioxidant activity for Prunus cerasus while cornelian cherry had a little more potent antioxidant activity according to FRAP Test. p-coumaric acid content was almost twice in Prunus cerasus (10.8 mg/ml) than cornelian cherry (5.6 mg/ml). In addition, both shaking incubator and ultrasonic extraction procedures were more efficient than soxhelet in two fruits.
... There are some studies that sour cherry phytochemicals may have an effect on cholesterol levels in the bloodstream and organs. In a study with diabetic women patients for six weeks, intake of concentrated SCJ decreased total and LDLcholesterol significantly, while increased HDL-cholesterol slightly (Ataie-Jafari et al., 2008). However, Frank et al. (2002) reported that ACY and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (found abundantly in sour cherry) did not reduce cholesterol level in the serum. ...
Article
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Sour (tart) cherry is an industrial fruit where a considerable amount of by-products remain after processing. Sour cherry by-products consist of pomace (skin and flesh) and seeds (pit, stone) which remain after the fruit juice and IQF processes. Sour cherry pomace is characterized with a high content of phenolic compounds and the seed constitutes a high oil yield with beneficial effects on human health because of their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. There has been a great interest in sour cherry by-products due to the increasing production rate of sour cherry worldwide and the increasing efforts on seeking bioactive compounds from natural sources as functional food. Thus, there have been a number of studies regarding the sour cherry pomace and sour cherry seed, especially in the last five years. The present review summarizes the chemical, biological, functional, and technological properties of the sour cherry pomace and sour cherry seed with their current and potential applications.
... Recently, many studies have investigated the UA contents of some plants and fruits including. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that UA has biological functions including hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-HIV, antimicrobial, anti-obesity, and anti-malarial activity (Cimanga et al., 2006;Ataie-Jafari et al., 2008;Jesus et al., 2015). Furthermore, it was found out that UA had marked anti-tumor effects and exhibited cytotoxic activity towards many cancer cell lines (Kim et al., 2011;Gai et al., 2016). ...
... All varieties of sour cherries and its products are rich in phenolic substances which include pigments, anthocyanins, powerful antioxidants that are giving them a characteristic dark red colour (Ferretti et al., 2010;Kirakosyan et al., 2009;Kirakosyan et al., 2010). Juice, in addition to fruits and vegetables, as regards the adoption of nutrient substances, can be regarded as foods that promote health benefits (Veres et al., 2006;Ataie-Jafari et al., 2008;Bak et al., 2010). In certain circumstances, some bioactive components can be better absorbed from the juices than from plant fibers (Netzel et al., (2002)by Lampe et al., (2006. ...
Data
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Sour cherry is a valuable raw material for production of juice, due to its aroma, but also because of its rich pigments, anthocyanins, powerful antioxidants that are giving the characteristic dark red colour, which together contribute to sensory attributes of juice. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of three genotypes of sour cherry (Maraska, Schattenmorelle and Domaća Oblačinska) and maceration (with or without stone) on the physical - chemical parameters of juice (soluble dry matter, total acidity, sweetness index and pH value) as well as sensory properties and content of anthocyanins and total phenols of sour cherry nectar. The results showed a statistically significant effect of genotype and maceration, on the physical and chemical features of juice. This is also confirmed by sensory evaluation where the highest overall score was received by nectar of Schattenmorelle genotype, while nectars without the addition of stone in general obtained the highest overall ratings. Compared with other genotypes, nectar produced from genotype Schattenmorelle had an extremely high content of anthocyanins (230.08 mg/L) whereas the stone had a negative effect on the anthocyanins content in nectar. Nectar produced from genotype Schattenmorelle had a statistically highest content of phenolic compounds (0.968 g/L), and maceration had has significantly influenced their content in nectar.
... There is ample evidence that tart cherry consumption exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties in vivo and in vitro [7,[31][32][33][34]. There is also growing evidence that tart cherries exert cardioprotective effects [31,32,[35][36][37][38][39]. Our recently published 12 weeks randomized controlled trial demonstrated that tart cherry juice can lower systolic BP and LDL cholesterol in older adults [40]. ...
Article
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Inflammation and oxidative stress are important factors in the development of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The findings of our previous study suggest that 12 weeks consumption of tart cherry juice lowers the levels of systolic blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in older adults. The present study investigated the effects of tart cherry juice on blood biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In this randomized-controlled clinical trial, a total of 37 men and women between the ages of 65–80 were randomly assigned to consume 480 mL of tart cherry juice or control drink daily for 12 weeks. Several blood biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks intervention. After the 12 weeks intervention, tart cherry juice significantly increased the plasma levels of DNA repair activity of 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (p < 0.0001) and lowered (p = 0.03) the mean c-reactive protein (CRP) level compared to the control group. There was a significant group effect observed for plasma CRP (p = 0.03) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (p = 0.03), and a borderline significant group effect observed for plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) (p = 0.07). Within group analysis showed that the plasma levels of CRP, MDA, and OxLDL decreased numerically by 25%, 3%, and 11%, respectively after 12 weeks of tart cherry juice consumption compared with corresponding baseline values. The present study suggests that the ability of tart cherry juice to reduce systolic BP and LDL cholesterol, in part, may be due to its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Larger and longer follow-up studies are needed to confirm these findings.
... The juice also improved blood lipids in diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia. The anthocyanin content of the juice was deemed responsible for these physiological effects (glycemic control, blood pressure and cholesterol reduction) (Ataie-Jafari, Hosseini, Karimi, & Pajouhi, 2008). However, 'Bing' sweet cherries did not affect blood lipids or insulin levels in healthy men and women (Kelley, Rasooly, Jacob, Kader, & Mackey, 2006). ...
... In mice, supplementing the diet with sour cherry material led to fewer and smaller caecal adenomas (Kang, Seeram, Nair, & Bourquin, 2003). In a study investigating the dietary factors for improving the health of diabetic patients, consumption of sour cherry juice has been reported to decrease body weight, reduce blood pressure and improve blood lipid profiles (Ataie-Jafari, Hosseini, Karimi, & Pajouhi, 2008). ...
Article
Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.), has gained growing interest in recent years due to the envisaged health benefits associated with a regular intake of anthocyanins and related polyphenolic compounds. Turkish sour cherries are widely consumed as processed products and are renowned for their high juice quality. However, the phytochemistry of anthocyanins and other flavonoids in processed sour cherry products is still unclear. In the present study, we aim to investigate the effects of processing sour cherry fresh fruit to the final juice product on the content of anthocyanins and other related polyphenols. 'Kutahya', a local sour cherry cultivar, was processed to juice at laboratory scale using 5 different batches. The changes in moisture content, sugar content (qualitative and quantitative), procyanidin content and vitamin C content during processing were analysed. Furthermore, LC-QTOFMS/ MS based metabolomics and HPLC analyses were performed for the identification and quantification of individual anthocyanins and related polyphenols. Comparisons of processing samples based on either wet-weight or dry-weight were complicated by evaporation steps and addition of sucrose syrup. Studies on procyanidin content showed that the mash heating, mash pressing and first pasteurization of raw juice steps resulted in an increase in procyanidins, while final juice samples were found to have significantly lower procyanidin contents on a dryweight basis. The procyanidin profile was found to be dominated by short-chain polymers with an average chain-length of 2 monomer units. The major anthocyanin compound was cyanidin 3-(2G-glucosylrutinoside) followed by cyanidin 3-rutinoside which all showed an increase in content after the mash pressing step and a decrease on processing to final juice.
... In addition, sour cherry anthocyanins have been reported to play an important role in the 422 Chapter 12 HealtH-Promoting PersPectives of fruit-Based functional energy Beverages inhibition of other inflammation-related diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. Ataie-Jafari et al. (2008) determined that concentrated sour cherry juice consumption with intake of 40 g/day for 6 weeks led to a decreased body weight, reduced blood pressure, and reduced hemoglobin A1c (long-term representative of blood glucose) in type 2 diabetic women and improved blood lipids in diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia, which was linked to the substantial content of anthocyanins. ...
... Of the seven studies providing high doses of ACN (>500 mg/day), four studies found a significant effect on blood pressure [38,40,49,67], while the other three studies did not find any significant effect [63,80,81]. In contrast, a significant blood pressure-lowering effect was detected by three studies providing low doses of ACN (<100 mg/day) [56,71,79]. ...
Article
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Dietary intake of anthocyanins (ACNs) is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart disease. While the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering effects of ACN consumption have been consistently reported, their effect(s) on blood pressure regulation is less consistent and results from human studies are mixed. The objective of this review is attempting to identify potential patterns which may explain the variability in results related to blood pressure. To do so, we review 66 human intervention trials testing the effects on blood pressure of purified ACN or ACN-rich extracts, or whole berries, berry juices, powders, purees and whole phenolic extracts, from berries that are rich in ACN and have ACNs as predominant bioactives. Several factors appear to be involved on the mixed results reported. In particular, the baseline characteristics of the population in terms of blood pressure and total flavonoid intake, the dose and duration of the intervention, the differential effects of individual ACN and their synergistic effects with other phytochemicals, the ACN content and bioavailability from the food matrix, and individual differences in ACN absorption and metabolism related to genotype and microbiota enterotypes.
... [48] Consumption of 40 g/day of concentrated sour cherry juice decreases body weight, blood pressure, and HbA1c after 6 weeks in type 2 diabetes women and improves blood lipids in diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia. [49] Antimicrobial activities Tart cherries (P. cerasus L.) were tested on fungus and bacterial growth. ...
Article
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Prunus cerasus Linn. Rosaceae is a medicinal plant that has been widely used Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicine (USM). This plant especially the fruits are used in urinary system to cure number of diseases such as urinary tract infection, nephrolithiasis, cystolithiasis, and dysuria in the USM. Since this was an important medicinal plant since long, and therefore, scientists were also curious to prove the pharmacological actions. Hence many scientific investigations have been carried out to authenticate/know the phytochemical constituents and pharmacological actions. The aim of this review is to collect the data about its medicinal uses described in USM which has been in use since long. Moreover, its phytochemical and pharmacological studies which have been done in different parts of the world are also compiled. As per Unani literature, the fruit of this plant has been in use since ancient various diseases such as 'Usr al-Bawl (Dysuria), Qarha-e-Alate Baol, Hasah-al-kulya (Nephrolithiasis), and Hasah-al-Mathana (Cystolithiasis) and per recent investigations, various parts of this plant is proved to be useful in diabetes, cardiac diseases, and skin diseases.
... So, this juice or the fruit could be suitable in diabetic diet. 25 Eugenia jambolana (Family Myrtaceae) is also known as Syzygium jambolanum and Syzygium cumini. It is an evergreen beautiful tropical tree, native to India, Pakistan and Indonesia. ...
Article
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Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder with altered carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism characterized by increased fasting and post-prandial blood sugar levels resulting from either insulin insufficiency or insulin dysfunction. There are many herbal remedies suggested for diabetes and diabetic complications. Fruits and vegetables are an important part of the human diet and a major source of biologically active substances such as vitamins and secondary metabolites. As per the studies on diabetic patients, health practitioners prefer including more amount of fibre rich fruits in their diet. These fruits with low sugar concentration help in controlling blood sugar level to a maximum extent. Moreover, intake of fibre rich fruits helps in maintaining cholesterol level which in turn normalizes the metabolic rate of the body. This review gives an insight to the logical use of fruits like Prunus cerasus, Eugenia jambolana, Actinidia deliciosa, Psidium guajava L, Punica granatum and Persea Americana with scientific evidence in diabetes patients.
... However, anthocyanins have been the centre of attention regarding antidiabetic properties. These specific compounds are suggested to reduce blood glucose, glucosuria and glycated haemoglobin (Hb A1c), prevent free radical production, increase insulin secretion and improve insulin resistance (Sancho and Pastore 2012;Ataie-Jafari et al. 2008). Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites of higher plants, water-soluble poly-hydroxy and methoxy poly-glycosides derived from 2-phenylbenzopyrylium (flavylium cation), and are known for providing the blue, red and purple colours of these fruits (Sancho and Pastore 2012). ...
Chapter
Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) are amongst the most consumed and appreciated fruits worldwide, and are an excellent source of phytochemicals (melatonin, serotonin, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, including flavonoids and anthocyanins) and nutritive substances (organic acids and sugars). The concentrations of these compounds can vary between different sweet cherry cultivars and in different plant parts thereof. Recently, this fruit has gained more popularity, as there are many scientific studies that evaluate the effects of sweet cherries as health promoters, emphasizing the health benefits of their bioactive compounds, particularly in what concerns their antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-neurodegenerative and cardiovascular effects, among others. This chapter will focus on the description of the composition of these fruits, the main factors that influence their profile of bioactive compounds, the different analytical tools to determine the composition, health benefits associated to their consumption, as well as on the recent findings about their potential therapeutic properties. Keywords: Prunus avium L., nutrients, bioactive compounds, analytical methods, bioactivity, health benefits
... However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the effects of ACN consumption on insulin resistance. Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantly altered after six weeks of supplementation with tart cherry juice in diabetic women-suggesting that weight reduction and increased insulin sensitivity may be attainable through supplementation with ACN-rich juices [49]. In contrast, a 2019 study in 28 healthy participants supplementing with tart montmorency cherry for four weeks did not alter HOMA-IR or IL-6 [50]. ...
Article
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Consumption of anthocyanins (ACNs), due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, has been proposed for the prevention and treatment of several different diseases and conditions. ACNs are recognized as one of the leading nutraceuticals for prolonging health benefits through the attenuation of oxidative stress, and inflammatory or age-related diseases. Increased consumption of ACNs has the potential to attenuate the damage ensuing from oxidative stress, inflammation, enhance cardiometabolic health, and delay symptoms in predisposed neuropathology. A myriad of evidence supports ACN consumption as complementary or standalone treatment strategies for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), neurodegenerative diseases, as well as, more recently, for the modulation of gut bacteria and bone metabolism. While these findings indicate the beneficial effects of ACN consumption, their food sources differ vastly in ACN composition and thus potentially in their physiological effects. Consumption of foods high in ACNs can be recommended for their potential beneficial health effects due to their relatively easy and accessible addition to the everyday diet.
... Research evaluating the effect of cherries on blood lipid levels in humans is quite limited and the characteristics of the studied population are highly variable between studies, making it difficult to directly compare study outcomes. Ataie-Jafari et al. 100 conducted a pilot study to determine the effect of tart cherry juice on the blood lipid profiles of 19 women diagnosed with type-2 diabetes. For a period of 6 weeks, subjects consumed 40 g (or 3 tbsp) of concentrated tart cherry juice daily. ...
Chapter
Fruit and vegetables have been consistently identified in epidemiological studies as key components of dietary patterns associated with cardiovascular health-protective effects. The vascular protective effects of fruits have been largely ascribed to their content in polyphenols. Current limited evidence from randomized controlled trials together with experimental data on vascular bioactivity suggests that fruits containing relatively high levels of anthocyanins, flavonols and procyanidins, such as berries, grapes and pomegranate are effective at reducing cardiovascular risk, particularly with respect to anti-hypertensive effects, improvement in endothelial function and inhibition of platelet aggregation. Citrus and apples, fruits rich in flavanones and hydroxycinnamic acids/flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, respectively, were reported to have a moderate impact on blood pressure, endothelial and platelet functions and to exhibit hypolipidemic effects. Future long-term well-controlled intervention studies with purified polyphenols are required to determine to what extent there is a causal link between a specific fruit polyphenol compound and a lower risk of cardiovascular disease.
... 11 Antioxidant activity of anthocyanin is associated with a variety of health benefits including inflammation, cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. 12 Recent studies have shown that reproductive processes may be influenced by hypothalamic-pituitarygonadal axis via scavenging free radicals. [13][14][15] However, interest in antioxidant has recently been intensified because of their possible effect on egg quality, fertilization, and pregnancy rates. ...
Article
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Purpose: Cumulus cells have a critical role in normal oocyte development and fertilization. Prunus cerasus is an anthocyanin rich berry and performs strong antioxidant activity. The present study set to determine if Prunus cerasus can affect expression of HAS2 (hyaluronan synthase 2) and progesterone receptor in Cumulus cells and its consequences outcome of the in vitro fertilization. Methods: 60 female and 15 male adult mice were used for mating and IVF (in vitro fertilization). Prunus cerasus extraction was added to the diet of female mice for 30 days. Ovulation induction and oocytes collection were done as routine. The cumulus cells were dissected apart, and the expression of progesterone receptor and HAS2 was detected using RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction). Fertilization rate was evaluated by IVF. All data were analyzed using t-test. Results: Data was showed that expression of progesterone receptor and HAS2 in cumulus cells of mice that received prunus cerasus increased. Moreover, oocyte fertilization rate also increased significantly. Conclusion: Prunus cerasus as an antioxidant natural can become an important medication for improving oocyte quality and opening new opportunities for infertility treatment. It is concluded that Prunus cerasus consumption could improve fertility rate by increasing progesterone receptor and HAS2 activity in cumulus cells.
Article
Several reports have indicated a positive correlation between the consumption of anthocyanins (ACN) and biomarkers relating to the improvement of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the results from in vitro studies often do not translate into clinical evidence. Potential causes of these discrepancies are experimental conditions that lack physiological relevancy; extensive degradation of these compounds in vivo due to changes in pH and metabolism; and a short residence time in the absorption window in relation to the absorption rate. Here, gastroretentive systems (GRS) are proposed as a strategy to overcome the limitations in ACN delivery and to reduce the existing bench-to-subject gap. This review summarizes recent literature on the use of ACN for the management and control of T2D, followed by GRS platforms to promote a sustained release of ACN for increased health benefits.
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The variability of biochemical components in fruits is relatively high, due to the many varieties of each species, applied technology and not least due to environmental conditions. A lower incidence of degenerative diseases (such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers) is associated with a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. Most recent research has focused on the biochemical variability. This study aimed to establish the chemical composition, the total antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in some cherry species. Content of total phenols and total antioxidant capacity from cherries was estimated by spectrophotometric methods. Cherry fruit contain several antioxidants and polyphenols that possess many biological activities, such as antineoplastic and antiinflammatory properties.
Thesis
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Anthocyanins (ACNs) can be related to positive health benefits and are naturally present in many fruits. Haskap berries (Lonicera caerulea L.) have been traditionally associated with therapeutic properties, and as they are particularly rich source of ACNs, have the potential to develop into value-added products that are designed to maximize health benefits. In this thesis, a novel strategy to modulate the release of ACNs is proposed. This approach seeks to increase ACN retention in the stomach by designing a controlled delivery system to modulate the overall release and absorption of ACNs in the body, and reduce degradation due to intestinal pH or metabolism. Firstly, a theoretical physiologically-based, multi-compartmental pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model is developed to describe the fate of ACNs in vivo, where the role of the stomach and small intestine is recognized. Then, based on the evidence from recent literature, a strategy using gastroretentive systems as a platform for delivery of ACNs for therapeutic use (with type 2 diabetes as a model of degenerative disease) is proposed. Two novel gastroretentive systems (floating microspheres and an in situ gelling raft) were developed for oral delivery of ACNs. Firstly, parameters for ultrasound- assisted extraction of ACNs from haskap berries were studied using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). For the microspheres, ACN-rich extract was incorporated into non- floating calcium-alginate microparticles formed by extrusion/gelation method and optimized by RSM. Then the procedure was modified to incorporate calcium carbonate for gas generation to produce floating beads, where increasing the carbonate/alginate weight ratio from 0 to 3:4 resulted in different degrees of floatability, larger particles, higher encapsulation efficiency, and lower ACN release. The in situ gelling raft system with ACN-rich extract demonstrated suitable gelling and release characteristics. In both cases, the release of ACNs from the system was modulated where diffusion was the dominant mechanism. The raft system demonstrated a more sustained release of ACNs over time than the microspheres, and is recommended over the microspheres, due to simpler processing requirements and ease for scale-up. Thus, the in situ gelling system is recommended for further development.
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Several reports have indicated a positive correlation between the consumption of anthocyanins (ACN) and biomarkers relating to the improvement of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the results from in vitro studies often do not translate into clinical evidence. Potential causes of these discrepancies are experimental conditions that lack physiological relevancy; extensive degradation of these compounds in vivo due to changes in pH and metabolism; and a short residence time in the absorption window in relation to the absorption rate. Here, gastroretentive systems (GRS) are proposed as a strategy to overcome the limitations in ACN delivery and to reduce the existing bench-to-subject gap. This review summarizes recent literature on the use of ACN for the management and control of T2D, followed by GRS platforms to promote a sustained release of ACN for increased health benefits.
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Anthocyanins, a flavonoid class of polyphenols, are water soluble dark colored natural pigments found in fruits and vegetables. Owing to their wide distribution in plant materials, dietary consumption of anthocyanins is high compared to other flavonoids. Anthocyanins, due to their multifaceted medicinal properties are the active components in many herbal folk medicines. As in vitro and in vivo results, animal models, and clinical trials in various cell lines suggest, anthocyanins possess antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiulcer, and preventive activities against cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, anthocyanins exhibit chemotherapeutic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective activities. In the diet, anthocyanins are absorbed in the stomach and intestinal cells and rapidly detected in the plasma. These promising properties of anthocyanins may well provide health benefits against chronic diseases.
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Scope: The aim was to compare the effect of an anthocyanin-rich extract from purple corn pericarp (PCW) and pure anthocyanins on adipogenesis, inflammation and insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes on basal and inflammatory conditions. Methods and results: Preadipocytes (3T3-L1) were treated during differentiation with or without PCW. Differentiated adipocytes were treated either individually or in combination with tumor necrosis factor TNF-α and PCW, or pure C3G, Pg3G, P3G. PCW reduced preadipocyte differentiation (IC50 = 0.4 mg/mL). PCW and pure anthocyanins including C3G reduced fatty acid synthase enzymatic activity. PCW reduced TNF-α-dependent inflammatory status increasing adiponectin (39%), and decreasing leptin (-79%). PCW and C3G increased glucose uptake and reduced reactive oxygen species generation in insulin resistant adipocytes. An increase in phosphorylation was observed in AKT, IKK, and MEK, and a decrease in IRS and mTOR activating the insulin receptor-associated pathway. PCW (7.5-fold) and C3G (6.3-fold) enhanced GLUT4 membrane translocation compared to insulin resistant adipocytes. Conclusion: Anthocyanins from colored corn prevented adipocyte differentiation, lipid accumulation and reduced PPAR-γ transcriptional activity on adipocytes in basal conditions. Ameliorated TNF-α-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in adipocytes via activation of insulin signaling and enhanced GLUT4 translocation suggesting a reduce hyperglycemia associated with the metabolic syndrome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Adhesion is the most important factor in product loss in the spray drying of syrups and juices. The main solution to reduce adhesion is using drying aids. The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of maltodextrin (MD) and gum Arabic (GA) as drying aids, and pectin and whey protein concentrate (WPC) as complementary drying aid on the powder production yield, physical, functional and microstructural properties of spray dried apple juice concentrate. The studied variables and composition of the carriers were used. The inlet air temperature, atomizer rotational speed, feed flow rate, feed temperature and atomizer pressure were kept constant at 160°C, 18000 rpm, 15 ml/min, 25±1˚C and 4.2±0.1bar, respectively. The results of powder production yield indicated that WPC was more effective than pectin as complementary drying aid. The bulk and tapped density of powders significantly decreased with an increase in WPC ratio (p<0.05). Moisture content, solubility, wettability, hygroscopicity and color parameters of the powders were also influenced by the carriers` type and their combinations. The microstructure of spray dried powders showed various particle sizes with spherical and irregular shapes (with shrinkages and dents on the surface). Taking into account all the parameters, 10% WPC in combination with MD was used which showed the best results in the economic production of powder with the highest yield (60.85%) and appropriate physical, flowability and functionality properties.
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Background The Mediterranean diet is a healthy eating pattern that protects against the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a metabolic disease characterized by elevated blood sugar levels due to pancreatic beta-cell functional impairment and insulin resistance in various tissues. Inspired by the ancient communities this diet emphasizes eating primarily plant-based foods, including vegetables, legumes, fruits, cereals, and nuts. Importantly, virgin olive oil is used as the principal source of fat. Red meat is consumed in low amounts while wine and fish are consumed moderately. Objective Here, we review the most beneficial components of the Mediterranean Diet and tentative mechanisms of action for prevention and/or management of T2DM, based on research conducted within the last decade. Methods The references over last five years have been reviewed and they have been selected properly according to inclusion/ exclusion criteria. Results Several bioactive diet components were evaluated to prevent inflammation and cytokine-induced oxidative damage, reduce glucose concentration, carbohydrate absorption and increase insulin sensitivity and related gene expression. Conclusion The adherence to a healthy lifestyle, including diet, exercise and habits remains the best approach for the prevention of diabetes as well as frequent check-ups and education. Though diabetes has a strong genetic component, in recent years many reports strongly point to the critical role of lifestyle specific epigenetic modifications in the development of T2DM. It remains to be established how different components of the Mediterranean Diet interact and influence the epigenetic landscape to prevent or treat the disease.
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Menopause, which occurs following a declined ovarian activity and reduced estrogen levels, can lead to long‐term changes in lipid and glycemic profiles and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) is rich in phytochemicals and antioxidants, which appears to be useful in reducing the postmenopausal complications. This interventional, double‐blinded, randomized clinical trial carried out on 84 menopaused women aged 45–60 years old. They were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group received three capsules of 300 mg of Cornus mas extract (CME), and control group received three capsules of 300 mg of starch powder per day for 8 weeks. Then, BMI, waist circumference, glycemic indices, lipid profile, serum apoproteinase, apoprotein B100, fibrinogen, and leptin were measured. The dietary intakes were evaluated using 24‐hr dietary recall questionnaire. The consumption of CME in comparison with the control group resulted in a significant reduction in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, LDL to HDL ratio, total cholesterol to HDL ratio, and fibrinogen. There was also a significant increase in HDL and ApoA1 levels in the treatment group. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in BMI, waist circumference, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance index after 8 weeks of using CME. Summing up the results, it can be concluded that CME can have possible effects on decreasing BMI, waist circumference, and improving some aspects of lipid profile and glycemic indices in postmenopausal women.
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In this study, the effect of different carriers including maltodextrin (MD), gum arabic (GA) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) and their combination on the production yield, moisture content, bulk and tapped density, solubility, wettability, flowability indexes (Hausner ratio, compressibility, angle of repose), hygroscopicity and deliquescence process, color index and microstructure of spray dried sour cherry juice concentrate was investigated. The results showed increased powder production yield with a mixture of MD and GA (40:10 weight ratio). Use of 5% WPC in combination with the GA and MD increased powder production yield from 45.66 to 55.66% and 42.23 to 52.86%, respectively. Bulk density, tapped density, solubility and wettability significantly decreased with increasing concentration of WPC. Also, the use of 30% WPC in combination with the MD or GA increased particle size substantially. The surface morphology of the particles (with a smooth, shrunk and dented surfaces) was affected by feed composition.
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This study was carried out to evaluate fruit quality of five sweet cherry cultivars grown in Morocco, namely, Burlat, Van, Cerisette, Napoleon and Coeur de pigeon. Significant differences (p˂0.05) were observed across the five cultivars in fruit weight (5.24–8.72 g), geometric mean diameter (14.22–16.36 mm), pH (3.48–4.12), soluble solid content (17.70–24.50 °Brix), total phenolics (426.44–485.69 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight (fw)), total proanthocyanidins (51.17–131.20 mg CE/100 g fw) and total anthocyanins (194.53–267.67 mg cya-3-glu/100 g fw). The antioxidant activity was evaluated by three assays. The values were 11.96–21.04, 16.48–63.96 and 9.62–15.65 mmol TE/g for DPPH scavenging test, FRAP and ABTS, respectively. Volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified in sweet cherry fruit using solid-phase microextraction in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Nine volatile compounds (benzaldehyde, nonanal, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, γ-terpinene, β-pinene, limonene, linalool and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol) were detected in all sweet cherry cultivars. Aldehydes compounds were the most abundant in sweet cherry aroma, followed by terpenes and esters. Correlation between all parameters showed varying trends.
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The antioxidant characteristics associated with the cherry fruit components that mainly involve polyphenolic compounds like flavonoids and anthocyanins have resulted in an increase in its global production and consumption. This chapter provides a comprehensive summary related to cherry fruit, cherry fruit juices, seeds, and cherry fruit by-products and the health benefits thereof. The bioactive compounds in cherry and its by-products provide immense biological properties which have the potential preventive health benefits with respect to oxidative stress, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammatory disorders, and arthritis.
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Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds, diverse in chemical structure and characteristics, found ubiquitously in plants. Therefore, flavonoids are part of the human diet. Over 4,000 different flavonoids have been identified within the major flavonoid classes which include flavonols, flavones, flavanones, catechins, anthocyanidins, isoflavones, dihydroflavonols, and chalcones. Flavonoids are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals and are excreted either unchanged or as flavonoid metabolites in the urine and feces. Flavonoids are potent antioxidants, free radical scavengers, and metal chelators and inhibit lipid peroxidation. The structural requirements for the antioxidant and free radical scavenging functions of flavonoids include a hydroxyl group in carbon position three, a double bond between carbon positions two and three, a carbonyl group in carbon position four, and polyhydroxylation of the A and B aromatic rings. Epidemiological studies show an inverse correlation between dietary flavonoid intake and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) which is explained in part by the inhibition of low density lipoprotein oxidation and reduced platelet aggregability. Dietary intake of flavonoids range between 23 mg/day estimated in The Netherlands and 170 mg/day estimated in the USA. Major dietary sources of flavonoids determined from studies and analyses conducted in The Netherlands include tea, onions, apples, and red wine. More research is needed for further elucidation of the mechanisms of flavonoid absorption, metabolism, biochemical action, and association with CHD.
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A bioassay-guided purification of the methanolic extract of Withania somnifera fruits yielded novel withanamides A–I (1–9) and withanolides (10–13). Among the withanolides, compound 10 is novel. The structures of these compounds were determined by using FABMS, HRFABMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectral and chemical methods. The withanamides possess novel chemical structures and consisted of serotonin, glucose and long-chain hydroxyl fatty acid moieties. The stereochemistry of the hydroxyl group in the long-chain fatty acid moiety in compound 1 was determined by the modified Mosher's ester method. Compounds 1–13 were tested for their ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation in a model system using large unilamellar vesicles. Withanamides 1–5 and 9 inhibited lipid peroxidation by 98, 93, 79, 94, 81 and 86%, respectively, at 1 μg/mL. However, compounds 6–8 inhibited the lipid peroxidation by 85, 82 and 90%, respectively, at 0.5 μg/mL. Withanolides 10–13 were also tested and only compound 12 inhibited the lipid peroxidation by 82% at 10 μg/mL. To evaluate the structure activity relationships of withanamides A–I, compounds 14–16 were purchased and their lipid peroxidation activity determined as in the case of compounds 1–9. Commercial antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), were also tested in this assay at 1 μg/mL and showed 80, 81 and 85% of inhibition, respectively. Our results suggest that the potent antioxidant activity exhibited by novel withanamides is probably due to the hydroxylated long-chain acyl group. This is the first report of withanamides, unique serotonin conjugates, from W. somnifera fruits.
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Twenty healthy males were divided into two groups: 10 subjects were supplemented for 2 weeks with 400 ml of red wine (11% alcohol) per day and the other 10 subjects were given 400 ml of white wine (11% alcohol) per day for a similar period. Blood samples were drawn prior to wine supplementation, after 1 week and at the end of the study. No significant effects were found on plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine, bilirubin, creatine kinase, amylase, blood cell counts, platelet counts and platelet aggregation. Both red- and white-wine supplementation resulted in a transient minor reduction in plasma glucose concentration and in a minor elevation in blood coagulation properties such as prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time. Red (but not white) wine resulted in an 11 and 26% increment in plasma triglyceride concentrations after 1 and 2 weeks of supplementation, respectively. Plasma cholesterol, as well as very-low- and low-density-lipoprotein levels did not change during the 2 weeks of red- or white-wine supplementation. The most impressive effect of red-wine intake was a significant (p < 0.01) increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and in plasma apolipoprotein A-I concentrations by up to 26 and 12%, respectively. These effects were not observed after the intake of white wine. We conclude that the major effect of red-wine supplementation (about 40 g of alcohol per day for a period of 2 weeks) was a significant increase in plasma HDL concentration which may contribute to the reduced risk for cardiovascular diseases observed in red-wine drinkers.
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High blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure of greater than 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of greater than 90 mmHg affects millions of people throughout the world. A number of studies have shown that consumption of fruit, vegetables, wine and tea may protect against stroke, for which hypertension is the major risk factor. Flavonoid compounds, including flavonols, flavones and isoflavones, represent an important source of antioxidants in the diet. Flavonoid intake has been inversely associated with mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke. We hypothesize that individuals with hypertension have lower circulating flavonoid levels. Increased consumption of flavonoid-rich foods may decrease rates of hypertension. Lowering blood pressure through increased dietary consumption of dietary antioxidants may decrease the rate of end-organ damage that is secondary to hypertension.
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alpha-Glucosidase (AGH) inhibitory study by natural anthocyanin extracts was done. As the result of a free AGH assay system, 12 anthocyanin extracts were found to have a potent AGH inhibitory activity; in particular, Pharbitis nil (SOA) extract showed the strongest maltase inhibitory activity, with an IC(50) value of 0.35 mg/mL, as great as that of Ipomoea batatas (YGM) extract (IC(50) = 0.36 mg/mL). Interestingly, neither extract inhibited the sucrase activity at all. For the immobilized assay system, which may reflect the pharmacokinetics of AGH at the small intestine, SOA and YGM extracts gave more potent maltase inhibitory activities than those of the free AGH assay, with IC(50) values of 0.17 and 0.26 mg/mL, respectively. Both extracts also inhibited alpha-amylase action, indicating that anthocyanins would have a potential function to suppress the increase in postprandial glucose level from starch.
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In the work an effect of anthocyanins of red wine type Cabernet on the course and intensity of symptoms of the experimental diabetes in the rats has been examined. The estimation of the course of experimental diabetes was based on: determination of sugar concentration in urine and blood serum, determination of concentration of the unsaturated fatty acids peroxidation in urine and blood serum, also on the change of body mass during the experiment. The examination was carried out on 80, weighing 200-250 g, rats. They lived in the animal quarters with a stable temperature and humidity being fed with standard fodder (Murigan) with water supply in ever quantity. The rats were divided into the following four group: I--control group, II--group of animals receiving intraperitoneal streptozotocin in concentration 70 mg/kg m.c., III--group of animals receiving intragastric 10 mg/kg m.c. of natural anthocyanin dye of red wine type Cabernet, IV--group of animals receiving intraperitoneal 70 mg/kg m.c. of streptozotocin and simultaneously receiving intragastric 1 mg/kg m.c. of natural anthocyanin dye. An essential increase of glucose concentration in urine was found in the rats after streptozotocin injection. A simultaneous daily administration of anthocyanins obtained from red wine type Cabernet and streptozotocin substantially decreased sugar concentration in urine and blood serum. Those anthocyanins also inhibited loss of body mass caused by the former injection of streptozotocin. Simultaneously antocyan pigment was stated to considerably prevent generation of free oxygen radicals. The decrease of peroxidation of lipids, the measure of which was lowering of the concentration of the products of unsaturated fatty acids oxidation in urine and blood serum was also observed.
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Anthocyanins, which are used as a food coloring, are widely distributed in human diets, suggesting that we ingest large amounts of anthocyanins from plant-based foods. Mice were fed control, cyanidin 3-glucoside-rich purple corn color (PCC), high fat (HF) or HF + PCC diet for 12 wk. Dietary PCC significantly suppressed the HF diet-induced increase in body weight gain, and white and brown adipose tissue weights. Feeding the HF diet markedly induced hypertrophy of the adipocytes in the epididymal white adipose tissue compared with the control group. In contrast, the induction did not occur in the HF + PCC group. The HF diet induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia. These perturbations were completely normalized in rats fed HF + PCC. An increase in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA level occurred in the HF group and was normalized by dietary PCC. These results suggest that dietary PCC may ameliorate HF diet-induced insulin resistance in mice. PCC suppressed the mRNA levels of enzymes involved in fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis and lowered the sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 mRNA level in white adipose tissue. These down-regulations may contribute to triacylglycerol accumulation in white adipose tissue. Our findings provide a biochemical and nutritional basis for the use of PCC or anthocyanins as a functional food factor that may have benefits for the prevention of obesity and diabetes.
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Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in maintaining blood pressure homeostasis and vascular integrity. Natural dietary flavoniods are thought to protect against cardiovascular diseases by acting as antioxidants and vasodilatants. This study examined the effect of cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G), a typical anthocyanin pigment, on eNOS expression. Treatment of bovine artery endothelial cells (BAECs) with Cy3G for 8 hours of enhanced eNOS protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner was determined by Western blot analysis. Longer incubation (12, 16, and 24 hours) of BAECs with 0.1 micromol/L of Cy3G caused a further increase in eNOS expression, and subsequently Cy3G also significantly increased nitric oxide output 2-fold (24 hours). Furthermore, Cy3G stimulated the phosphorylation of Src and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in a time-dependent manner. An Src kinase inhibitor, pp2, and MEK inhibitor, PD98059, blocked the ERK1/2 phosphorylation and eNOS expression. Transfection with dominant-negative Src cDNA also inhibited the eNOS expression stimulated by Cy3G. In addition, stimulation with Cy3G for 30 minutes resulted in a phosphorylation of Sp1 that was blocked by PD98059. Cy3G enhanced the binding activity of the transcription factor Sp1 to the GC box in the proximal eNOS promoter of BAECs, as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The present study demonstrated that Cy3G induced eNOS expression and escalated NO production via an Src-ERK1/2-Sp1 signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cells. Increased eNOS expression may help to ameliorate endothelial dysfunction, harmonize blood pressure, and prevent atherosclerosis as long-term beneficial effects of flavoniods.
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This study assessed the effect of concentrated pomegranate juice (CPJ) consumption on lipid profiles of type II diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia (cholesterol >/= 5.2 mmol/L or triacylglycerol >/= 2.3 mmol/L). In this quasi-experimental study 22 otherwise healthy diabetic patients, 14 women (63.6%) and eight men (36.4%), were recruited from among patients referred to the Iranian Diabetes Society. The patients were followed for 8 weeks to establish a baseline for normal dietary intake before beginning the CPJ intervention. During the pre-study period a 24-hour food recall and food records (recording flavonoid-rich foods) were completed every 10 days. At the end of the eighth week, anthropometric and biochemical assessments were done. Thereafter the patients consumed 40 g/day of CPJ for 8 weeks, during which time dietary assessment was continued. After completing the study, anthropometric and blood indices were again evaluated. The Wilcoxon signed test was used for statistical analysis. A value of P <.05 was considered significant. Mean (+/-SD) age, weight, and duration of diabetes were 52.5 +/- 5.2 years, 71.5 +/- 10.3 kg, and 7.9 +/- 6.6 years, respectively. After consumption of CPJ, significant reductions were seen in total cholesterol (P <.006), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (P <.006), LDL-cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (P <.001), and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol (P <.001). But, there were no significant changes in serum triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Anthropometric indices, physical activity, kind and doses of oral hypoglycemic agents, and the intakes of nutrients and flavonoid-rich foods showed no change during the CPJ consumption period. It is concluded that CPJ consumption may modify heart disease risk factors in hyperlipidemic patients, and its inclusion therefore in their diets may be beneficial.
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The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet substantially lowers blood pressure and reduces blood lipid levels. The DASH diet menus were designed to reach beneficial levels of fiber, potassium, magnesium, and calcium, and therefore contain more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains relative to the control menus, and consequently more phytochemicals. Using the US Department of Agriculture food composition databases, the polyphenol, carotenoid, and phytosterol contents of the diets used in the DASH study were estimated. When compared with the control diet, the DASH diet is higher in flavonols, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein+zeaxanthin, and phytosterols. Flavone levels are similar, whereas isoflavones are present in a small amount in the DASH diet. The roles of these compounds in disease risk reduction are becoming recognized. It therefore is possible that the health benefits of the DASH diet are partially attributable to the phytochemicals and might extend beyond cardiovascular disease risk reduction.
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Anthocyanins are responsible for a variety of bright colors including red, blue, and purple in fruits, vegetables, and flowers and are consumed as dietary polyphenols. Anthocyanin-containing fruits are implicated in a decrease in coronary heart disease and are used in antidiabetic preparations. In the present study, we have determined the ability of anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glucoside (1), delphinidin-3-glucoside (2), cyanidin-3-galactoside (3), and pelargonidin-3-galactoside (4), and anthocyanidins, cyanidin (5), delphinidin (6), pelargonidin (7), malvidin (8), and petunidin (9), to stimulate insulin secretion from rodent pancreatic beta-cells (INS-1 832/13) in vitro. The compounds were tested in the presence of 4 and 10 mM glucose concentrations. Our results indicated that 1 and 2 were the most effective insulin secretagogues among the anthocyanins and anthocyanidins tested at 4 and 10 mM glucose concentrations. Pelargonidin-3-galactoside is one of the major anthocyanins, and its aglycone, pelargonidin, caused a 1.4-fold increase in insulin secretion at 4 mM glucose concentration. The rest of the anthocyanins and anthocyanidins tested in our assay had only marginal effects on insulin at 4 and 10 mM glucose concentrations.
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Interventional studies have shown that increased intake of fruit and vegetables reduces blood pressure (BP). However, the contribution of specific dietary components has not been evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine, in patients with stage I hypertension, the antihypertensive effect of juice of the so-called sweetie fruit (a hybrid between grapefruit and pummelo) with and without high flavonoid content. A double-blind, cross-over study was conducted in 12 patients. Each patient received alternately high-flavonoid (HF) sweetie juice and low-flavonoid (LF) sweetie juice, each for a 5-week period. The LF sweetie juice had 25% of naringin and 30% of narirutin content compared with the original HF sweetie juice. The HF sweetie juice was more effective than LF sweetie juice in reducing diastolic blood pressure (P = .04). Systolic blood pressure declined in both groups; however there was no significant difference between subjects given HF sweetie versus those given LF sweetie juice. In this study HF sweetie juice was shown to have a significant beneficial effect in reducing diastolic blood pressure, compared with the effect observed with LF sweetie juice, in patients with stage I hypertension. These data suggest that the active ingredients associated with the antihypertensive effect of sweetie juice are the flavonoids naringin and narirutin.
Article
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in the impairment of nitric oxide-mediated vascular functions and overall pathogenesis associated with cardiovascular disease. Plant pigment anthocyanins are exceptionally potent oxygen radical scavengers that produce beneficial effects in diseases outside the cardiovascular system. We examined for the first time the potential coronary vasoactive and vasoprotective properties of three anthocyanin enhanced extracts prepared from chokeberry (Ck), bilberry (B), or elderberry (E). Coronary arterial rings were isolated from 64 pigs and incubated in sterile tissue culture media overnight for use in one of four separate in vitro isometric force recording studies. Ck and B, but not E, produced dose- and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. (%maximal relaxation at 5 mg total anthocyanins per liter: Ck = 68 +/- 11, B = 59 +/- 10). Coronary vascular tone, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation to A23187, and vasorelaxation to DEA NONOate were not affected by exposure of rings to any extract at 0.05 mg total anthocyanins per liter for 5 or 30 min. Ck extract at 0.05 mg total anthocyanins per liter showed the greatest protection against loss of A23187 relaxation following exposure to ROS from pyrogallol (Ck, % maximal relaxation and -logED50 to A23187, respectively, means +/- SE: Ck alone, 93 +/- 5%, 7.91 +/- 0.1; pyrogallol alone, 76 +/- 7%, 7.46 +/- 0.06; pyrogallol + Ck, 98 +/- 1%, 7.82 +/- 0.06; control: 99 +/- 1%, 7.86 +/- 0.07; P < 0.05 control vs. pyrogallol alone). Neither the extracts nor pyrogallol affected responses to DEA NONOate. Thus anthocyanin-enhanced extracts produce endothelium-dependent relaxation in porcine coronary arteries. Extract concentrations too low to directly alter coronary vascular tone protect coronary arteries from ROS without altering vasorelaxation to endogenous or exogenous NO. These results suggest that such extracts could have significant beneficial effects in vascular disease.
Article
Much attention has been focused on food that may be beneficial in preventing diet-induced body fat accumulation and possibly reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease. Cornelian cherries (Cornus mas) are used in the preparation of beverages in Europe and also to treat diabetes-related disorders in Asia. In this study, the most abundant bioactive compounds in C. mas fruits, the anthocyanins and ursolic acid, were purified, and their ability to ameliorate obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet was evaluated. Mice were initially fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks and then switched to a high-fat diet containing anthocyanins (1 g/kg of high-fat diet) and ursolic acid (500 mg/kg of high-fat diet) for an additional 8 weeks. The high-fat diet induced glucose intolerance, and this was prevented by anthocyanins and ursolic acid. The anthocyanin-treated mice showed a 24% decrease in weight gain. These mice also showed decreased lipid accumulation in the liver, including a significant decrease in liver triacylglycerol concentration. Anthocyanin and ursolic acid treated mice exhibited extremely elevated insulin levels. Both treatments, however, showed preserved islet architecture and insulin staining. Overall, these data suggest that anthocyanins and ursolic acid purified from C. mas fruits have biological activities that improve certain metabolic parameters associated with diets high in saturated fats and obesity.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • J.B Buse
  • K.S Polonsky
  • C.F. Burant
Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine
  • K.B Fauci
  • H.L. Jameson
Type 2 diabetes mellitus'', in Williams Textbook of EndocrinologyFlavonoids-chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects and dietary source
  • J B Buse
  • K S Polonsky
  • C F Burant
Buse, J.B., Polonsky, K.S. and Burant, C.F. (2003), ''Type 2 diabetes mellitus'', in Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, Vol. II, Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 1429. Cook, N.C. and Samman, S. (1996), ''Flavonoids-chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects and dietary source'', Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Vol. 7, pp. 66-76.