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Solution-focused therapy is a strengths-based approach, emphasizing the resources people invariably possess and how these can be applied to the change process. A review was undertaken on the treatment outcome research involving solution-focused therapy to determine empirically its effectiveness. The review involved experimental or quasi-experimental designs conducted from 1985 to 2006 and was limited to published studies written in the English language. Subject, intervention and methodological information on studies were collected, as well as statistical information necessary to calculate effect sizes. After searching the literature, ten studies were located and described. No particular characteristics emerged regarding studies with high versus low effect sizes. Implications for research are advanced based on the review, especially related to social work practice.
Content may be subject to copyright.
© The Author 2007. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of
The British Association of Social Workers. All rights reserved.
British Journal of Social Work (2009) 39, 234–242
doi:10.1093/bjsw/bcm098
Advance Access publication September 14, 2007
A Review of the Research on
Solution-Focused Therapy
Jacqueline Corcoran and Vijayan Pillai
Dr. Jacqueline Corcoran is an associate professor at Virginia Commonwealth University School
of Social Work, where she teaches Direct Practice, Human Behavior, and Research. Her books
include Clinical Assessment and Diagnosis in Social Work Practice (Oxford, 2006, with Joseph
Walsh), Cognitive-Behavioral Methods for Social Workers: A Workbook (Allyn Bacon,
2006), Building Strengths and Skills: A Collaborative Approach to Working with Clients
(Oxford, 2004), Clinical Applications of Evidence-Based Family Interventions (Oxford,
2003), and Evidence-Based Social Work Practice with Families: A Lifespan Approach
(Springer, 2000).
Dr. Vijayan Pillai is director of the Ph.D, program in social work at the University of Texas-
Arlington. He obtained his PhD in Sociology from the University of Iowa, Iowa City, and MSW
from Indore School of Social Work, Indore. He has published several articles on the relation-
ship between women’s rights and reproductive health at a cross national level in developing
countries. He is currently working on a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of family planning
programs in developing countries in reducing fertility levels.
Correspondence to Jacqueline Corcoran, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of
Social Work, 6295 Edsall Road, Suite 210, Alexandria, VA 22312, USA. E-mail: jcorcora@
vcu.edu
Summary
Solution-focused therapy is a strengths-based approach, emphasizing the resources
people invariably possess and how these can be applied to the change process. A
review was undertaken on the treatment outcome research involving solution-focused
therapy to determine empirically its effectiveness. The review involved experimental or
quasi-experimental designs conducted from 1985 to 2006 and was limited to published
studies written in the English language. Subject, intervention and methodological
information on studies were collected, as well as statistical information necessary to
calculate effect sizes. After searching the literature, ten studies were located and
described. No particular characteristics emerged regarding studies with high versus low
effect sizes. Implications for research are advanced based on the review, especially
related to social work practice.
Keywords: solution-focused therapy, strengths-based, treatment outcome
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Review of the Research on Solution-Focused Therapy 235
Introduction
As the name suggests, solution-focused therapy emphasizes the strengths
people bring and how these can be applied to the change process. The assump-
tion is that individuals possess the necessary resources to resolve their own
problems. Proof of these resources is found by eliciting and exploring times at
which the problem does not exert its negative influence and/or at which the cli-
ent has coped successfully (de Shazer, 1994). Attention, rather than being
focused on the history of the problem, orients to a future without the problem.
Assessment is focused on helping people visualize how they would like their
lives to be, identifying times at which the solution (or part of it) has already
happened, and figuring out what is needed to make the solution happen and
keep it happening (de Shazer, 1994).
Solution-focused therapy has a number of compatibilities with social work.
Social work touts a strengths-based perspective and client collaboration. In
solution-focused therapy, clients are encouraged to find the solutions that fit
their own worldview (de Jong and Berg, 2001). The practitioner works collabora-
tively with the client to build client awareness of strengths, which are then mobi-
lized and applied to problem situations. Solution-focused and social work
practice also share a systemic view. The importance of context as an influence on
individual behaviour is emphasized rather than dysfunction within the individual.
Solution-focused therapy further discusses how small changes impact the system
in transactional ways (O’Hanlon and Weiner-Davis, 1989). Although solution
focused therapy is classified as a ‘therapy’ approach, it is actually applicable to
the wide range of settings and problems with which direct practice social workers
are involved, such as crisis intervention (Greene et al., 1996), child protective
services (Berg, 1994; Berg and Kelly, 2000; Corcoran, 1999; Corcoran and Franklin,
1998), and the school setting (Durrant, 1995; Murphy, 1997).
Treatment outcome research on solution-focused therapy is building slowly.
Some reasons have been advanced to explain the slow pace of empirical inves-
tigation for solution-focused therapy. First, the solution-focused view is that
intervention begins at the assessment stage. Most measures tend to be prob-
lem-focused in nature; therefore, an assessment period devoted to a problem
focus would detract from the strengths orientation of solution-focused therapy.
A second reason that may contribute to the lack of research on solution-
focused therapy involves its brief focus. An argument can be made that change
may not be apparent after only a few sessions as assessed by standardized mea-
sures. In addition, requiring people to attend a certain standard length of treat-
ment goes against the tenants of solution-focused therapy, which is that people
choose for themselves how long to keep coming, even if it is only one session.
Probably the major explanation for the lack of research involves the con-
structivist origins of solution-focused therapy. The constructivist viewpoint is
that knowledge about reality is constructed from social interactions (Berg and
de Jong, 1996). Sharing perceptions with others through language and engaging
in conversational dialogues is the medium by which reality is shaped (de
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236 Jacqueline Corcoran and Vijayan Pillai
Shazer, 1994). Thus, the solution-focused practitioner uses language and ques-
tioning to influence the way clients view their problems, the potential for solu-
tions and the expectancy for change (Berg and De Jong, 1996). These
constructivist origins do not fit within the positivist framework that gives rise to
quantitative procedures and treatment outcome studies.
In 2000, Gingerich and Eisengart conducted a review, categorizing the
fifteen studies they found according to their quality in terms of research design.
Five well controlled studies were identified, all of which showed positive out-
comes. Since that time, other studies have been conducted. At this point, a suf-
ficient knowledge base has accumulated so that we may again review the
effectiveness of solution-focused therapy.
Search criteria
Several criteria were involved in the search for studies, which covered 1985,
when solution-focused therapy began, to mid-2006. First, solution-focused
therapy was the focus of studies, demonstrated by authors citing the originators
of solution-focused therapy (Berg, de Shazer and colleagues) and describing
the use of solution-focused interventions, including the miracle question
(exception-finding), using idiosyncratic language (externalizing) and scaling
questions. Intervention periods varied, but, by definition, solution-focused
therapy is brief in nature. Interventions that used only aspects of solution-
focused therapy, combining them with other interventions, were excluded.
A major criterion of the review was that studies had experimental or quasi-
experimental designs. Single-subject, single-group post-test only and single-
group pre-test/post-test studies were excluded. Outcomes of studies necessarily
varied, depending on the problem and population being researched, but data
had to include client outcomes other than or in addition to client satisfaction.
Databases searched included psychINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, Medline/
Pubmed, Social Work Research Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, Sociolog-
ical Abstracts and the Cochrane and Campbell Libraries, using the terms solu-
tion-focused (oriented) therapy (intervention, treatment). Published studies
only were the focus. Experts in the area of solution-focused therapy, such as
Insoo Kim Berg (before her death), were contacted to identify unpublished
research and trials still under way, but no new studies were identified this way.
Finally, the references in reviews and primary studies were examined to iden-
tify new studies. Articles written in English were an exclusive emphasis.
Coding
Each study was coded by the principal investigator and one student from a team
of two trained masters in social work students, who were taking an advanced
research course. Discrepancies in coding were resolved by discussion.
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Review of the Research on Solution-Focused Therapy 237
In addition to statistical data necessary to compute an effect size, design,
subject and intervention-related variables were collected. Subject characteris-
tics included gender, socio-economic status, race of subjects, developmental
stage (youth, adults or elderly) and type of problem. Intervention characteris-
tics included length of the intervention, its modality of delivery and the field of
practice of service deliverers.
Methodological quality was rated along the following features (with point
allocations):
the type of group design with studies reporting randomization to different
treatment conditions and a control group being accorded the highest rating (5
points), followed by those involving randomization to a treatment and con-
trol group (4 points), randomization to a treatment and a comparison group
(3 points), non-randomization to a treatment and control group (2 points)
and nonrandomization to a treatment and comparison group (1 point);
whether follow-up was conducted (1 point);
whether at least 30 subjects completed treatment in each group (1 point);
whether measures were standardized (1 point).
There were a total of eight possible quality points.
Data analysis
To compute effect sizes, we used Hedges’s g, which is the difference between
two means (i.e. treatment and control) divided by the pooled standard devia-
tion, with an adjustment for sample size (Hedges and Olkin, 1985). For each
measure that was used in the studies, an effect size was computed. Also,
within each study, an average effect size was obtained from all the measures
together.
Results
Although hundreds of studies were screened, most were not included in the
study. The most common reason for exclusion was that published articles focused
on case studies or theoretical applications of solution-focused therapy to particu-
lar problems and populations, rather than involving empirical study. When treat-
ment outcome research was involved, studies were often excluded because they
were either single-subject designs or they were pre-test, post-test designs.
After screening of studies and inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied, ten
studies comprised the review. Tables 1 and 2 describe the intervention and
methodological characteristics of the ten studies. There were a variety of prob-
lem areas described in the studies and populations ranged from youth to the
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238 Jacqueline Corcoran and Vijayan Pillai
Table 1 Intervention characteristics
Study Problem area
Modality and average
number of sessions Type of practitioners
Cockburn et al.
(1997)
Orthopaedic
rehabilitation
Individual, six sessions Not stated
Corcoran
(2006)
Child behaviour problems Family, five sessions Masters social work
students
Eakes et al.
(1997)
Care-givers of individuals with
schizophrenia
Family, five sessions Psychiatric nurses
Ingersoll-Dayton
et al. (1999)
Family members and nurses
taught to manage behaviour
problems in elders in a
nursing home
Family, seven sessions Social work students
Lindforss and
Magnusson
(1997)
Criminal offending Individual, five sessions Family therapists
Littrell et al.
(1995)
Teens with school problems Individual, one session School counsellors
Rhee et al.
(2005)
Callers at a telephone
crisis hotline
Telephone psychother-
apy (average session
length not provided)
Majority social work
graduate students
Springer et al.
(2000)
Hispanic children of
incarcerated parents
Group, six sessions Licensed social
workers
Zimmerman
et al. (1996)
Parents who experience
adolescent–parent conflict
Group, six sessions Marriage and family
therapy graduate
students
Zimmerman
et al. (1997)
Marital problems Couples, groups,
six sessions
Marriage and family
therapy graduate
students
Table 2 Methodological characteristics and effect sizes for studies
Study Total N Design Quality rating
Cockburn et al. (1997) 48 Randomized treatment and comparison
groups (Solomon 4-group design)
4
Corcoran (2006) 83 Nonrandomized treatment and comparison
groups
5
Eakes et al. (1997) 10 Nonrandomized treatment and comparison
group
4
Ingersoll-Dayton et al.
(1999)
42 Randomized treatment and control group
w/seven-week follow-up for experimental
group
7
Lindforss and
Magnusson (1997)
59 Randomized treatment and control group
w/twelve and sixteen-month follow-up
after prison release
6
Littrell et al. (1995) 61 Nonrandomized treatment and comparison
group w/two and 6-week follow-up
3
Rhee et al. (2005) 55 Randomized treatment, comparison and
control groups
6
Springer et al. (2000) 10 Nonrandomized treatment and control group 3
Zimmerman et al.
(1996)
42 Randomized treatment and control groups 6
Zimmerman et al.
(1997)
72 Nonrandomized treatment and control
groups
5
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Review of the Research on Solution-Focused Therapy 239
elderly. Most of the studies (n = 6) had randomization to conditions. Five of the
studies compared solution-focused therapy to a no-treatment control group.
The other half of studies had a comparison group in which at least some inter-
vention was delivered (i.e. usual prison services, medication, regular nursing
home services). Only two of the ten studies provided follow-up data.
Modalities of treatment varied across studies and included individual, cou-
ples, group and family, as well as telephone-administered sessions. The mar-
riage and family and social work fields were most often represented by
providers. Students delivered treatment in five studies, and all the studies in
social work, except for one, involved students. Session length for those who
reported this information averaged 4.7 sessions. Quality rating averaged 4.9.
See Table 3 for the effect sizes ranked from highest to lowest. Using Cohen’s
(1977) standard for evaluating effect sizes (0.2 small, 0.5 moderate and above
0.8 strong), two studies had strong effect sizes (Cockburn et al., 1997; Rhee et al.,
Table 3 Effect sizes (sorted by largest effect size first)
Study
Measures (and whether
standardized)
Effect sizes for
each measure
at post-test
Overall
effect at
post-test
Overall
effect at
follow-up
Rhee et al. (2005) Beck Depression Inventory 1.957 3.027
(2) Beck Depression Visual Analogue
Scale
3.238
(3) Brief Symptom Inventory 5.344
(4) Satisfaction with Life Scale
(Standardized)
3.344
Cockburn et al. (1997) Family crisis-oriented personal
evaluation scales
1.870 0.820
Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness
Scale-Self Report
0.156
Return to work (standardized) 3.203
Zimmerman et al.
(1996)
Parenting Skills Inventory total score
Family Strength, total score
(standardized)
0.888
0.392
0.632
Springer et al. (2000) Hare Self-Esteem Scale
(standardized)
0.592
Lindforss and
Magnusson (1997)
Recidivism 0.388 0.388 0.776
Eakes et al. (1997) Family Environment Scale
(standardized)
0.335
Corcoran (2006) Connors Parent Rating Scale 0.255 0.178
Feelings, Attitudes and Behaviors
Scale for Children (standardized)
0.102
Littrell et al. (1995) Changes in students’ concerns 0.026 0.172 0.113
Goals attained 0.156
Intensity of students’ feelings
(non-standardized)
0.390
Ingersoll-Dayton
et al. (1999)
Modified version of Caretaker
Obstreperous-Behavior Rating
Assessment (non-standardized)
0.164 0.164
Zimmerman et al.
(1997)
Dyadic Adjustment Scale, total
score (standardized)
1.070 1.070
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240 Jacqueline Corcoran and Vijayan Pillai
2005), three had moderate effect sizes (Lindforss and Magnusson, 1997 at
follow-up; Springer et al., 2000; Zimmerman et al., 1996) and one had a small
effect size (Eakes et al., 1997). The remaining four studies had negligible effect
sizes (less than 0.2) according to Cohen’s (1977) criteria. However, according
to Lipsey (1998), an effect size of about 0.2 has practical significance in inter-
vention research. Five of the ten studies had effect sizes above this mark.
Discussion and implications for social work practice
and research
The most striking finding is that very little research has still been conducted on
solution-focused therapy. That only ten studies met the basic criteria of having
two groups with which to compare treatment response is remarkably low.
When examining the relationship between study features and effect sizes, it
was noted that the two highest average effect sizes were represented by studies
in which there was randomization to treatment and no-treatment conditions.
However, in the meta-analysis literature, it is usually well controlled studies
(i.e. randomization) that are associated with lower effect sizes. Additionally,
the top four highest effect sizes were from studies in which solution-focused
therapy was compared to a no-treatment control condition. This seems logical,
as intervention would be assumed to perform better than no intervention at all.
Other than this aspect, there was no consistency between the types of studies
that rated high versus low effect sizes.
The solution-focused research is difficult to synthesize because of the different
populations and problem areas that were examined. However, out of the ten stud-
ies examined here, four rated a moderate to high effect size and, in psychotherapy
outcome, even a small effect size might show an important result (Lipsey, 1998).
Therefore, about 50 per cent of the studies can be viewed as showing improve-
ment over alternative conditions or no-treatment control. It must be noted that
we included only published studied in our review; hence, these findings are con-
strained by the well known effects of publication bias, namely the tendency of
studies reporting null effects to be rejected for publication.
Aside from the compatibilities between social work and solution-focused
therapy, solution-focused therapy represents a cost-effective method because
of its short duration of services. Examining the research conducted by social
workers, a study with one of the highest effect sizes (Rhee et al., 2005) was
represented, but also some of the lowest effect sizes were within this group
(Corcoran, 2006; Ingersoll-Dayton et al., 1999). In future studies, it may be
important for social work professionals well versed in solution-focused
therapy to administer treatment and have their services evaluated, rather
than only students.
Overall, this study indicates that the effects of solution-focused therapy
are equivocal and more rigorously designed research needs to establish its
effectiveness. Therefore, practitioners should understand there is not a strong
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Review of the Research on Solution-Focused Therapy 241
evidence basis for solution-focused therapy at this point in time. As more
research is conducted with certain populations and outcomes (e.g. behaviour
problems with children), researchers will be able to combine results from stud-
ies using meta-analytic methods, providing more clarity about the strength of
solution-focused therapy in particular areas.
Other research recommendations involve the need for researchers to provide
basic information in studies (i.e. the background of treatment providers and the
number of sessions). As much as possible, randomization to treatment conditions
should be the standard. Future research should also ensure that follow-up data
are collected, so more can be known about the effects of treatment over time.
Accepted: July 2007
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... In addition to exploring previous solutions to the patient's problem, ST explores behaviors that create exceptions to the problem and, through a series of interventions, encourages patients to perform more of these behaviors. ST posits that each individual has the necessary resources to resolve the problem (17). This therapy has been found effective in reducing depression and perceived stress among patients with breast cancer (18). ...
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This dissertation aims to gain insight into the factors which influence the decision-making of professionals in child welfare and child protection and which could improve decision-making in cases of suspected or actual child maltreatment. Therefore, research was conducted on: 1) the effects of structured decision-making on the systematicity, transparency and inter-rater reliability of judgments and decisions; 2) the effects of the use of a risk assessment instrument on the inter-rater reliability and predictive validity of risk judgments; 3) the influence of reasoning of decision-makers on intervention recommendations, in addition to the influence of risk assessments, attitude and work experience of the decision-maker. Child maltreatment is a severe problem with long-term consequences for the children involved. It requires timely recognition and effective interventions, which are not easy for professionals. Previous research has repeatedly showed that professionals often disagree on judgments and decisions in child maltreatment cases, and have difficulty assessing the problems effectively and deciding on appropriate care. Literature review Chapter 2a presents a literature review of studies focused on methods which could support and optimize the decision-making process. It seems that only a few studies have been performed on the effectiveness of these methods. Four types appeared in the review: 1) methods for structured decision-making, 2) risk assessment instruments, 3) methods for shared decision-making with parents and children, and 4) methods for decision-making within the social network of families (family group conferencing). The review shows that structured decision-making contributes to a child-centred and integral assessment in which professionals also take into account family and environmental factors. The use of risk assessment instruments seems to lead to valid judgments of the risk of the (re)occurrence of child maltreatment to a limited extent. Shared decision-making may possibly improve parent and child participation and the quality of decisions made by including their preferences in the decision-making process; however, there is only little evidence available on child welfare outcomes. Finally, the review shows that family group conferences can lead to increased participation of parents and children in decision-making, but child safety is not effectively guaranteed with this method. Van der Put, Assink and Stams (2016) commented on our review in Child Abuse and Neglect, in which they particularly discussed the conclusions on the value of risk assessment instruments. Chapter 2b presents our published response on this commentary. Effects of structured decision-making A structured decision-making method, called ORBA, was then investigated. ORBA15 aims to structure decision-making and make it explicit by discerning the core phases of the decisionmaking process and describing for each phase which information professional working for Advice and Reporting Centres of Child Abuse and Neglect (ARCCAN) need to make judgments and decisions. 15 ORBA is the Dutch acronym for Onderzoek, Risicotaxatie en Besluitvorming AMKs (in English: Investigation, Risk Assessment and Decision-Making by ARCCANs). Chapter 3 presents the effects of the ORBA structured decision-making method on the systematicity and transparency of decisions made by professionals before and after the introduction of ORBA. The central question of this study was to what extent ARCCAN case files contain relevant information, process steps and decision rationales. This study compared 60 case files from the period before the implementation of ORBA (in 2006), with 100 case files from the period since the implementation of ORBA (in 2010). We discovered that the case files since ORBA implementation contained more relevant information and process steps than before. However, rationales for judgments and decisions were still often lacking. Chapter 4 presents the effects of ORBA on the inter-rater reliability of judgments and decisions by ARCCAN professionals. This study examined the extent to which inter-rater reliability improves when ORBA is used. Forty ORBA-trained professionals and forty untrained professionals were asked to make judgments and decisions on several vignettes (in particular, to decide whether a case needed to be investigated and to decide on interventions after the ARCCAN investigation). The inter-rater agreement was determined using intra-class correlation coefficients. Both ORBAtrained and untrained professionals turned out to agree in their judgments and decisions to a limited extent. The judgments and decisions of ORBA-trained professionals did not correspond more often, compared to the judgments and decisions of untrained professionals. We conclude that ORBA did not convincingly lead to more uniform decision-making. Effects of a risk assessment instrument The risk assessment instrument we investigated was the LIRIK. The LIRIK16 aims to support child welfare and child protection workers in making safety and risk assessments through the structured evaluation of the relevant signals and risk and protective factors of child maltreatment. Originally, the LIRIK was developed for the Regional Child Protection Service Agencies and ARCCANs, but in the meantime an increasing number of organizations have come to use the LIRIK, such as child welfare agencies, local teams and public child healthcare. Chapter 5 presents the inter-rater reliability and predictive validity of the LIRIK in relation to unstructured safety and risk judgments. Inter-rater reliability was investigated in a vignette study; the predictive validity was investigated in a prospective study. Both studies compared professionals using the LIRIK to professionals not using an instrument. In the vignette study, professionals using (n=43) and professionals not using the LIRIK (n=36) assessed twelve vignettes on safety and risks. The results showed that agreement was low, that the differences between the groups were small, and that the LIRIK group did not agree more often on the safety and risk assessments. In the prospective study, the safety and risk assessments of professionals using and not using the LIRIK were compared to the outcomes in client files after six months. A total of 370 case files were analysed – 278 with the LIRIK and 92 without – for the presence of signs of real danger. The predictive validity of safety and risk judgments in both groups was low. The number of unsafe outcomes did not increase with increasing danger or risk assessed six months previously for either group. We conclude that safety and risk assessments made with the LIRIK were not more reliable or valid than assessments without the use of this instrument. Influence of reasoning on intervention recommendations The limited effects of the ORBA method and the LIRIK led us to enquire into what other factors might play a part in decision-making. Therefore, we focused on the characteristics of the decisionmakers in child welfare and child protection. Chapter 6 reports on a study of the rationales presented by students and professionals regarding their recommendations for whether a child should be placed into care or not, in a case of suspected child maltreatment. The study investigates the decision-making in greater depth to gain a better understanding of which decision-maker factors influence the decision-making process, in particular his/her reasoning process and attitudes towards out-of-home placement. We assume that the rationales decision-makers provide for intervention recommendations link their personal characteristics to their situational assessments and decisions. This study’s main question was to what extent and how arguments, in addition to the decision-maker’s attitudes towards out-of-home placement and work experience, influence a decision to place a child into care. Professionals working for child welfare agencies (n=214) and students (n=381) assessed a vignette and decided whether the child needed to be placed into care, and then explained their rationales for their recommendations. In addition, they completed a questionnaire on their attitudes towards out-of-home placement. Professionals and students mentioned a large number of arguments for their intervention recommendation. Their attitudes and several arguments appeared to be strong predictors for a placement decision, while work experience did not influence the decision made. It appeared that professionals and students showed some ‘bias’ in their decisions, given the influence of personal attitudes and varying approaches to reasoning they adopted: participants who recommended out-of-home placement had more positive attitudes towards placement and emphasized the nature and severity of the problems more strongly in their rationales than participants who recommended that the children should stay at home. General discussion Chapter 7 presents the general conclusions and discussion of the results of this dissertation. We found that the effects of the ORBA structured decision-making method and the LIRIK risk assessment instrument are limited. Though they support professionals in considering relevant case factors, the use did not increase inter-rater reliability and validity of judgments in child maltreatment cases. Furthermore, we found that the reasoning and attitudes of professionals influenced decision-making substantially. This finding provides a potential explanation for the limited effects of the use of ORBA and the LIRIK. As a recommendation, we present some options how decision-making could be further improved, namely by using ‘critical thinking’ (i.e. hypothesis testing, thinking of alternative explanations, generating counterarguments for the decision made, and generating arguments and counterarguments for alternative decisions), by applying structured team decision-making, and by shared decision-making with parents and children.
... Report in regard to about 50 percent of the studies reviewed showed improvement over alternative conditions or no-treatment control. Three randomized control studies were also located pertaining to the effectiveness of SFBT (Corcoran & Pillai, 2009).This study review correlates with the findings because the experimental groups (Kiandutu and Gachagi respondents) showed reduction of PTSD symptoms against the control groups (Umoja and Kiganjo respondents). Other models of treatment have been used in the reduction of trauma signs and symptoms. ...
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