Article

The Influence of English Language and Spanish Language Captions on Foreign Language Listening/Reading Comprehension

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using Spanish captions, English captions, or no captions with a Spanish language soundtrack on intermediate university-level Spanish as a Foreign Language students' listening/reading comprehension. A total of 213 intermediate (fourth semester) students participated as intact groups in the study. The passage material consisted of a DVD episode (seven minutes) presenting information concerning preparation for the Apollo 13 NASA space exploration mission. The students viewed only one of three passage treatment conditions: Spanish captions, English captions, or no captions. The Spanish language dependent measure consisted of a 20-item multiple-choice listening comprehension test. The statistically significant results revealed that the English captions group performed at a considerably higher level than the Spanish captions group which in turn performed at a substantially higher level than the no captions group on the listening test. The article concludes with a discussion of the pedagogical implications of using multilingual captions in a variety of ways to enhance second language listening and reading comprehension.

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... A number of studies examined the impact of subtitled or captioned videos on the L2 learners' psychological and cognitive states (Markham & Peter, 2003;Vanderplank, 1988). To enhance the readability and to avoid confusion in this study, the words 'subtitles' or 'subtitling' "refer to on-screen text in the native language of the viewers that accompany the second language soundtrack of the video materials" (Markham & Peter, 2003, p. 332). ...
... Most empirical studies (Borras & Lafayette, 1994;Danan, 2004;Garza, 1991;Huang & Eskey, 2000;Markham & Peter, 2003) consider captioned videos as being an effective tool for helping L2 students enhance their listening and reading comprehension skills. For example, a number of studies showed positive effects of video captioning on developing L2 language skills and proficiencies. ...
... However, other studies produced contradictory results, showing no significant differences between subtitled and captioned videos or even pointing to more positive effects derived from subtitled videos (Başaran & Köse, 2013;Markham, Peter, & McCarthy, 2001). As an example, Markham and Peter (2003) found that for fourth-semester Spanish L2 learners, watching subtitled videos was most effective, con-siderably more effective than captioned videos, which were, in turn, more effective than videos without text support. ...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the psychological and cognitive role of using videos, YouTube videos and modes of text support in foreign language learning, with a focus on the effect that captioning and subtitling YouTube videos have on intermediate-high and advanced German language learners. The results of the study found that enhanced captioning plays a more positive role on the intermediate-high and advanced German learners’ motivation likely due to more efficient language processing; more specifically the videos are able to provide linguistic integrity, which allows the language learners to focus their incidental attention effectively. The findings provide useful insights into and enthusiasm for the effective use of YouTube videos for the curriculum development of higher-level German courses and hopefully contribute to establishing best practices in this emerging area.
... Captioning studies have differed largely with regard to their design of treatment conditions, but there are two general types of studies. There are those studies that (a) compared full captions with keyword captions and/or no captions (e.g., Guillory, 1998;Montero Perez et al., 2014a, 2014bRodgers & Webb, 2017;Teng, 2019;Winke et al., 2010Winke et al., , 2013 and those that (2) compared the L2 captions with the L1 captions and/or no captions (e.g., Markham & Peter, 2003;Markham et al., 2001;Hayati & Mohmedi, 2011). Aside from differences in the treatment conditions, captioning studies also differed in participants' L1 backgrounds, proficiency levels, age, type and duration of watching materials, measurement instruments and questions, and so forth. ...
... Other studies have compared the benefits of L1 and L2 captions. Some of those studies revealed the advantage of the L1 captions over L2 captions, such as Markham et al. (2001) and Markham and Peter (2003), who compared the effects of captions on Spanish language learners' listening comprehension of a documentary in one of three treatment conditions: L2 (Spanish) captions, L1 (English) captions, or no captions. In the 2001 study, participants' (n = 169) comprehension was measured with a written summary and 10 multiple-choice items. ...
... The questions were carefully developed so they could not be answered directly without a participant understanding the aural content of the vlogs. The multiple-choice test format seemed to be particularly appropriate in this study, as the low-and mid-level students clearly lacked highly developed English language writing ability at this point in their study of the target language (Markham & Peter, 2003). ...
Article
This study investigated the effects of captions on the listening comprehension of vlogs. A total of 96 EFL learners watched three vlogs under one of three conditions: L2 captions, L1 captions, and no captions. Each group included low-, mid-, and high-level proficiency learners. The vlogs differed in the pictorial support of the audio, with Vlog 1 being highly supported, Vlog 2 being partially supported, and Vlog 3 being slightly supported by pictorial images. After each vlog, the participants took a multiple-choice test measuring their comprehension of details. Afterwards, participants completed a questionnaire about their perception of captions. The findings suggest that the availability of captions may not necessarily lead to better listening comprehension because students, particularly lower proficiency learners, were unable to simultaneously process the multiple modalities (images, audio, and captions) due to their limited capacities of working memory and cognitive load. High-proficiency learners achieved better comprehension than low-and mid-proficiency learners and achieved their best comprehension with L2 captions. A significant increase in comprehension of vlogs caused by high pictorial support was detected, with the inverse relationship also being true. Analysis of the questionnaire indicated that participants consider L2 captions useful. For both L2 and L1 captions, students think that their listening comprehension would decrease without captions. When considering vlogs for L2 listening, language proficiency and pictorial support are better indicators of levels of comprehension. Captions might be beneficial when learners’ proficiency level is high. When visual images are highly supportive for the audio, better comprehension of vlogs is likely.
... Full captioning is defined as visual text delivered along with video via multimedia, where the language of the written text matches the spoken content (Markham & Peter, 2003;Leveridge & Yang, 2013). Without being affected by accent, pronunciation or audio deficiencies, full captions enable the listeners to parse the speech stream into meaningful chunks (Garza, 1991) an essential learning process (Ellis, 2003). ...
... A considerable amount of research has been published on the beneficial effects of full captioning. Some studies have investigated the effect of this method on word learning (Danan, 1992;Montero Perez et al., 2013), reading development (Markham & Peter, 2003), word recognition (Bird & Williams, 2002) and listening comprehension (Taylor, 2005;Winke et al., 2010). A recent meta-analysis (Montero Perez et al., 2013) investigated the overall effect of full-captioned video on listening comprehension and vocabulary learning based on eighteen studies. ...
... The first research question aimed to compare the effect of two captioning conditions (FC or PSC) with an NC. Our quantitative results on this question corroborate the findings of previous studies and suggest that the presence of captions significantly aids listening comprehension (Markham & Peter, 2003;Danan, 2004;Taylor, 2005;Winke et al., 2010;Montero Perez et al., 2013). This is confirmed regardless of whether PSC or FC was used, and is in line with Paivio's dual coding theory (see Section 2.1). ...
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This paper introduces a novel captioning method, partial and synchronized captioning (PSC), as a tool for developing second language (L2) listening skills. Unlike conventional full captioning, which provides the full text and allows comprehension of the material merely by reading, PSC promotes listening to the speech by presenting a selected subset of words, where each word is synched to its corresponding speech signal. In this method, word-level synchronization is realized by an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system, dedicated to the desired corpora. This feature allows the learners to become familiar with the correspondences between words and their utterances. Partialization is done by automatically selecting words or phrases likely to hinder listening comprehension. In this work we presume that the incidence of infrequent or specific words and fast delivery of speech are major barriers to listening comprehension. The word selection criteria are thus based on three factors: speech rate, word frequency and specificity. The thresholds for these features are adjusted to the proficiency level of the learners. The selected words are presented to aid listening comprehension while the remaining words are masked in order to keep learners listening to the audio. PSC was evaluated against no-captioning and full-captioning conditions using TED videos. The results indicate that PSC leads to the same level of comprehension as the full-captioning method while presenting less than 30% of the transcript. Furthermore, compared with the other methods, PSC can serve as an effective medium for decreasing dependence on captions and preparing learners to listen without any assistance.
... Studies on the instructional and non-instructional use of interlingual and intralingual subtitled videos have addressed a number of topics that include, but are not limited to: the improvement of Foreign/Second Language (L2) 2 reading (MARKHAM & PETER, 2003;CHEN, 2012;KRUGER & STEYN, 2014;SU & LIANG, 2015), L2 listening comprehension with/without L2 vocabulary learning (GARZA, 1991;HUANG & ESKEY, 1999;MARKHAM, PETER, & MCCARTHY, 2001;STEWART & PERTUSA, 2004;TAYLOR, 2005;WINKE, GASS, & SYDORENKO, 2010;WANG, 2012), L2 vocabulary learning per se (BIANCHI & CIABATTONI, 2008;D'YDEWALLE & VAN DE POEL, 1999;MATIELO, COLLET, & D'ELY, 2013;PETERS, HEYNEN, & PUIMÈGE, 2016), the effects on implicit and explicit memory and cognitive processing (BIRD & WILLIAMS, 2002), and the acquisition of L2 grammar (BIANCHI & CIABATTONI, 2008; VAN LOMMEL, LAENEN, & D'YDEWALLE, 2006;SAEEDI & BIRI, 2016). ...
... To date, one of the undeniable aspects that we do know regards the fact that subtitles have generally been found to enhance language comprehension considerably, regardless of being interlingual or intralingual (D'YDEWALLE & VAN DE POEL, 1999;HUANG & ESKEY, 1999;KOOLSTRA & BEENTJES, 1999;MARKHAM, 1999;MARKHAM & PETER, 2003;DANAN, 2004;STEWART & PERTUSA, 2004;TAYLOR, 2005;CAIMI, 2006;CHANG, 2006; VAN LOMMEL, LAENEN, & D'YDEWALLE, 2006;SYDORENKO, 2010;WINKE, GASS, & SYDORENKO, 2010;ZAREI & RASHVAND, 2011;RAINE, 2013, to mention but a few). Another aspect that we do know is that some studies have not shown significant differences considering subtitling availability and its relationship with the specific language component being tested, such as general/listening comprehension (BIANCHI & CIABATTONI, 2008;LATIFI, MOBALEGH, & MOHAMMADI, 2011;SHARIF & EBRAHIMIAN, 2013). ...
... In short, comparative studies that emerged from the 2000s on have presented a few grey areas. First of all, in two studies (STEWART & PERTUSA, 2004;HAYATI & MOHMEDI, 2011), better results were achieved with intralingual subtitles, mostly, whereas in one of the studies (MARKHAM & PETER, 2003), better results were achieved with interlingual subtitles. Some studies presented better results with one or the other type of subtitles depending on the language component being tested or proficiency group (MARKHAM, PETER, & MCCARTHY, 2001;BIANCHI & CIABATTONI, 2008;LATIFI, MOBALEGH, & MOHAMMADI, 2011;ZAREI & RASHVAND, 2011). ...
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*Legendas intralinguais, legendas interlinguais e compreensão de vídeo: percepções a partir de um estudo exploratório*Este estudo explora os efeitos de legendas intralinguais e interlinguais no processamento e compreensão de um sitcom norte-americano por brasileiros aprendizes de Inglês como Língua Estrangeira (ILE). Mais especificamente, este trabalho investiga os efeitos de legendas intralinguais e interlinguais na compreensão geral e específica do vídeo por parte dos aprendizes. Trinta e seis aprendizes de ILE, matriculados nos Cursos Extracurriculares de Língua da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), foram igualmente divididos em dois grupos experimentais (legendas intralingual e legendas interlinguais) e um grupo controle (sem legendas). O desempenho dos participantes foi medido com base em um teste de compreensão geral e específica do vídeo. Os dados foram analisados quantitativa e qualitativamente. Em relação aos efeitos das legendas na compreensão do video, os testes estatísticos e as análises revelaram que as legendas intralinguais foram mais benéficas para a compreensão geral e específica dos aprendizes do que as legendas interlinguais. Estas, por sua vez, foram mais benéficas do que a condição controle. Contudo, o desempenho dos participantes nas condições experimentais não mostrou diferenças estatísticas. Os resultados são discutidos à luz de diferentes possíveis mecanismos de processamento e potenciais que os tipos de legendas podem oferecer para a aprendizagem/instrução em L2.
... As subtitled and captioned videos are one of the most accessible and increasingly common ways a person can be exposed to a foreign language, it is natural that research would crop up which analyzed the impact that they can have on foreign language learners. An earlier study by Markham and Peter (2003) revealed that subtitles in the learners' native language could facilitate comprehension in Spanish language multimedia to a statistically significant degree. The same study also noted that a separate group that viewed the same materials with L2 captions also experienced gains, but not as significant as those who used L1 subtitles. ...
... After the study, it was found that L1 subtitles facilitated more content comprehension than L2 captions and that prior vocabulary knowledge was key in predicting success with either intervention. From the above-mentioned studies, it can be gathered that L1 subtitles tend to be more beneficial in improving comprehension of content (Bianchi & Ciabattoni, 2008;Birulés-Muntané & Soto-Faraco, 2016;Markham & Peter, 2003;Pujadas & Munoz, 2020). However, results are mixed concerning vocabulary learning, which suggests that other factors such as proficiency (e.g., Bianchi & Ciabattoni, 2008) may be more impactful compared to the on-screen textual aid used. ...
... The 15-item listening comprehension test was made up of 10 true-false questions and five open-ended short-answer items and related to global and detailed content. The true-false questions were presented in L2 English but retained the same words and sentence structures that were used in the target TV episode so that the difficulty of these items directly matched the difficulty level of the target video (Markham & Peter, 2003). On the other hand, the open-ended questions were presented and also answered in the participants' native language; thus, the students' reading and writing proficiency in the target language did not interfere with their ability to answer these questions. ...
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While the use of dual subtitles (concurrent L1 subtitles and L2 captions) has been studied in L2 research, more studies are needed to better understand the impact that this on-screen textual aid can have on vocabulary learning and comprehension. Therefore, this study explored if there were significant differences in vocabulary learning and listening comprehension between EFL students who watched L2 videos with L1 subtitles, L2 captions, and dual subtitles. Participants (N=96) were quasi-randomly divided into three equal groups (n=32) under each on-screen textual aid condition and viewed an episode from a sitcom through Netflix. Pre-and post-tests were administered to measure gains in vocabulary learning at two different levels among 20 target words that appeared in the episode. A 15-item listening comprehension test was also administered post-viewing to determine if there were significant differences in comprehension. Results indicated that the L1 subtitles and dual subtitles groups performed better than the L2 captions group in terms of vocabulary learning, whereas the participants who viewed the episode with dual subtitles did significantly better than the other two groups in listening comprehension. These findings suggest that L1 subtitles, either alone or with L2 captions, are key to supporting vocabulary learning and comprehension of video.
... The effectiveness of captions in enhancing learners' comprehension has been explored. Results suggest that captioned videos provide a greater depth of word knowledge processing, which may be useful in improving L2 comprehension (e.g., Goldman & Goldman, 1988;Koskinen, Wilson, & Jensema, 1985;Linebarger, 2001;Markham & Peter, 2003;Markham, Peter, & McCarthy, 2001;Rodgers & Webb, 2017). For example, Markham et al. (2001) sought to measure comprehension of a documentary and randomly assigned 169 university students learning Spanish to one of three treatment conditions: English captions, Spanish captions, or no captions. ...
... More recently, Rodgers and Webb (2017) focused on L2 television programs with captioning, rather than the short videos often used in previous studies (e.g., Markham & Peter, 2003;Montero Perez et al., 2014). A total of 372 Japanese university students were recruited and divided into a captioning group (N ¼ 51) and a no captioning group (N ¼ 321) in Rodgers and Webb's (2017) study. ...
... Through full captions, children may better comprehend key information about various subjects, thus facilitating comprehension of embedded knowledge presented in the videos. As noted by Markham and Peter (2003), full captions may help learners form strategies to determine how to summarize the main idea, predict events and outcomes in a story, draw inferences, and monitor coherence and misunderstanding. Using full captions thus seems to be an effective means of helping young learners concentrate on essential elements embedded in a video story. ...
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This study investigated the effects of captioned videos on ESL primary school students’ comprehension of video content. A total of 182 primary school students watched two short English story videos in one of three conditions: fully captioned videos (N = 62), keyword captioned videos (N = 63), and uncaptioned videos (N = 57). Each group included learners with higher and lower levels of English proficiency. Two videos were selected, and the second video was watched twice. After each video, all participants took a comprehension test, including global comprehension and detailed questions. Findings revealed that fully captioned group achieved the best results on the global comprehension questions. Significant differences between the fully captioned and keyword captioned videos on the detailed comprehension questions were not detected. Learners with a higher level of English proficiency and those who watched the video for a second time achieved better comprehension scores. These findings suggest that full captioning videos, rather than keyword captioning videos, should be considered when using video-based comprehension activities for ESL primary school learners. However, learners’ English level and the frequency of video viewing should also be considered.
... Furthermore, as most of the lower proficiency learners experienced understanding problems during video watching due to insufficient linguistic knowledge, the researchers addressing this issue put forward the idea of the use of subtitles and captions to ease the understanding process for the learners. In this regard, numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of various forms of subtitling and captions on listening performance of the learners (Başaran & Köse Durmuşoğlu, 2013; Ghasemboland & Nafissi, 2012;Hsu et al., 2013;Huang & Eskey, 1999;Latifi et al., 2011;Markham & Peter, 2003;Metruk, 2018;Rokni & Ataee, 2014;Shamsaddini et al., 2014;Hayati & Mohmedi, 2011;Wang, 2014;Winke et al., 2010). ...
... At the end of both content analysis and constant comparative analysis, the agreed themes and categories were finalized employing the research articles used as shown in Table 1 below. Huang, & Huang, 2020;Dehaki, 2017;Ghasemboland & Nafissi, 2012;Hayati & Mohmedi, 2011;Hsu et al., 2013;Latifi et al., 2011;Manan, 2018;Markham & Peter, 2003;Matthew, 2020;Metruk, 2018Metruk, , 2019Mustafa & Erişti, 2019;Napikul, Cedar, & Roongrattanakool, 2018;Pattemore & Muñoz, 2020;Pujadas & Muñoz, 2019;Rahmatian & Armiun, 2011;Rokni & Ataee, 2014;Shamsaddini et al., 2014;Wagner, 2010;Wang, 2014;Winke et al., 2010;Woottipong, 2014 Studies focusing on vocabulary development (n = 26) Al-Seghayer, 2001;Arndt & Woore, 2018;Bal-Gezegin, 2014;BavaHarji et al., 2014;Ebrahimi & Bazaee, 2016;Etemadi, 2012;Fazilatfar et al., 2011;Gorjian, 2014;Heriyanto, 2015;Ina, 2014;Kabooha & Elyas, 2015;Karakaş & Sarıçoban, 2012;Kusumawati, 2019;Mardani & Najmabadi, 2016;Mousavi & Gholami, 2014;Oladunjoye, 2017;Perez et al., 2018;Peters et al., 2016;Peters & Leuven, 2018;Pujadas & Muñoz, 2019;Sinyashina, 2019;Sirmandi & Sardareh, 2016a, 2016bVanderplank, 2015;Yüksel & Tanriverdi, 2009;Zoghi & Mirzaei, 2014 Findings The data were analyzed in relation to the research questions posed in this study. Initially, the findings regarding the effectiveness of watching videos on learners' listening skill and the role of captions or subtitles in improving listening comprehension were figured out. ...
... The findings regarding the first research question of the study were grouped in three major themes as the learners' attitudes towards watching videos, the effects of watching videos on listening skill, and the role of subtitles in improving listening skill as can be seen in Table 2 below. Hsu et al., 2013;Latifi et al., 2011;Markham & Peter, 2003;Matthew, 2020;Metruk, 2018;Napikul et al., 2018;Rokni & Ataee, 2014;Winke et al., 2010 Findings regarding the effects of watching videos on learners' listening skill yielded a number of remarkable aspects. It is seen that language learners are exposed to videos in English in the form of movies, TV series, music clips or YouTube videos which are both available in their everyday life and in the school context. ...
Article
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Considering recent advancement of technology and increased video use in language teaching and learning, this study attempted to investigate main findings of the studies conducted to examine the impact of video use on learners’ listening skill and vocabulary development in English language teaching (ELT). In this regard, 51 articles published between the years 2000 and 2020 in various scientific journals indexed in several research databases were found by searching relevant keywords. Analysis was conducted employing content analysis and constant comparison method. Some major themes were found such as ‘the learners’ attitudes towards watching videos,’ ‘the effects of watching videos on listening skill,’ and ‘the role of subtitles in improving listening skill’ considering the impact of video watching on listening skill; and ‘effects of watching videos on vocabulary development’ and ‘effects of subtitles on vocabulary development’ regarding vocabulary development. The findings presented the effectiveness of different forms of subtitling on learners’ listening skill and vocabulary development as well.
... This, in turn, enhances confidence, allays anxiety and provides motivation, which is in the long run expected to develop L2 learners' listening comprehension (Hsieh, 2020, Leveridge & Yang, 2013Winke et al., 2013). In this respect, there is a commonsense assumption that captions improve performance and have a positive impact on listening skills (Markham & Peter, 2003) However, a comprehensive review of the extant literature (e.g. Caimi, 2006;Robin, 2007;Taylor, 2005) precludes us from drawing firm conclusions about the effectiveness of video captioning since in some circumstances captions were stated to have no significant effect on listening comprehension due to such reasons as concentration on reading the text rather than listening to the audio, heavy reliance on the text, overloaded working memory, and learner perception of captions as a source of distraction (e.g. ...
... test difficulty, script differences) are discussed in separate studies, the available literature lacks a comprehensive list of factors influencing the utility of captions for L2 listening. In an effort to fill this gap, we surveyed literature (e.g.Bairstow & Lavaur, 2012;Behroozizad et al., 2015;Bianchi & Ciabattoni, 2008; Chai & Erla, 2008;Hayati & Mohmedi, 2011; Hwang et al., 2019;Latifi et al., 2011; Lee, 2021; Liversidge, 2000;Leveridge & Yang, 2014;Markham, 2001;Markham, 2003; Mayer, Lee & Peebles, 2014; Montero-Perez et al., 2013; Montero-Perez et al., 2014a; Montero-Perez et al.2014b; Pujadas & Munoz, 2020;Pujola, 2002; Rodgers & Webb, 2011;Stewart & Pertusa, 2004;Taylor, 2005;Teng, 2019;Vanderplank, 2016;Winke et al. 2010;Winke et al. 2013) and distilled research results into a list of characteristics that influence captioning effects. We have generated five main categories with 13 sub-categories: listener-related factors (e.g. ...
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This study aimed to extend the knowledge of teacher job satisfaction by specifically examining predictors at the teacher level. Several components of job satisfaction were examined for their hypothesized impact, including the focused predictor of teacherstudent relations. Based on the United States sample in the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2018 data, the author explored this issue utilizing responses from 2,560 lower secondary school teachers nested within 166 schools. Using the transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus, & Folkman, 1984) as a framework, the study found that teacher-student relationships are a positive and significant predictor of teacher job satisfaction. After controlling for relevant predictors, teacher relationships with their students were the strongest predictor of their job satisfaction present in the study. Discussions and implications are presented.
... Guichon and McLornan (2008) did not find differences between L1 and L2 subtitles on intermediate students' comprehension tests. In the research by Markham et al. (2001) and Markham and Peter (2003) involving intermediate-level students, the highest comprehension scores were reported for students who were given L1 subtitles and who significantly outperformed the control group. The captioned group, in turn, outperformed the video only condition. ...
... The captioned group, in turn, outperformed the video only condition. Markham and Peter (2003) therefore proposed a "developmental progression" (p. 399) which consists of providing learners with different types of support options in different viewings. ...
... This, in turn, enhances confidence, allays anxiety and provides motivation, which is in the long run expected to 500 Korucu-Kış develop L2 learners' listening comprehension (Hsieh, 2020, Leveridge & Yang, 2013Winke et al., 2013). In this respect, there is a commonsense assumption that captions improve performance and have a positive impact on listening skills (Markham & Peter, 2003) However, a comprehensive review of the extant literature (e.g. Caimi, 2006;Robin, 2007;Taylor, 2005) precludes us from drawing firm conclusions about the effectiveness of video captioning since in some circumstances captions were stated to have no significant effect on listening comprehension due to such reasons as concentration on reading the text rather than listening to the audio, heavy reliance on the text, overloaded working memory, and learner perception of captions as a source of distraction (e.g. ...
... In an effort to fill this gap, we surveyed literature (e.g. Bairstow & Lavaur, 2012;Behroozizad et al., 2015;Bianchi & Ciabattoni, 2008;Chai & Erla, 2008;Hayati & Mohmedi, 2011;Hwang et al., 2019;Latifi et al., 2011;Lee, 2021;Liversidge, 2000;Leveridge & Yang, 2014;Markham, 2001;Markham, 2003;Mayer, Lee & Peebles, 2014;Montero-Perez et al., 2013;Montero-Perez et al., 2014a;Montero-Perez et al. 2014b;Pujadas & Munoz, 2020;Pujola, 2002;Rodgers & Webb, 2011;Stewart & Pertusa, 2004;Taylor, 2005;Teng, 2019;Vanderplank, 2016;Winke et al. 2010;Winke et al. 2013) and distilled research results into a list of characteristics that influence captioning effects. We have generated five main categories with 13 sub-categories: listener-related factors (e.g. ...
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Listening is often perceived to be the most challenging skill by second/foreign language (L2) learners. Due to its real-time nature, L2 listeners experience several comprehension problems related to the processing of aural input. To scaffold L2 listening, captioning is commonly used since the dual coding of aural and written stimuli is expected to make L2 input more comprehensible leading to more in-depth processing. However, a survey of the extant literature precludes us from drawing firm conclusions about the effectiveness of captioning since in some circumstances captions were found to have no significant effect on listening comprehension. So, the question of whether captions function as a comprehension aid in L2 listening remains inconclusive. Hence, adopting a narrative literature review methodology, the present study aims to contribute to this inconsistent research area by clarifying some of these issues answering the following questions: (1) Is captioning really effective in L2 listening?, (2) Does captioning always work for L2 listening?, and (3) Why is research on captioning in L2 listening still inconclusive? Based on the insights gained, it is concluded that the mere presence of captions does not necessarily lead to improved comprehension. Captioning effectiveness is influenced by learner, material, measurement, task, and L1/L2 characteristics. Implications arising are discussed.
... Baltova [54] supports that subtitled audiovisual materials enhance vocabulary learning and improve content comprehension even when learners are relatively inexperienced. According to some researchers, subtitles may bridge the gap between reading and listening skills [55][56][57][58][59][60]. Bravo [61] found subtitles beneficial with regards to reading comprehension and other scholars support that subtitling may enhance vocabulary recall [62,63]. ...
... As for reversed subtitling, there has been some research recently that indicates this type as more beneficial for improvement in L2 general comprehension or listening skills [59,76,78,80,81]. Danan (1992), specifically, attributed the success of reversed subtitling to translation facilitating language encoding. ...
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The use of multimedia has often been suggested as a teaching tool in foreign language teaching and learning. In foreign language education, exciting new multimedia applications have appeared over the last years, especially for young learners, but many of these do not seem to produce the desired effect in language development. This article looks into the theories of dual-coding (DCT) and multimedia learning (CTML) as the theoretical basis for the development of more effective digital tools with the use of films and subtitling. Bilingual dual-coding is also presented as a means of indirect access from one language to another and the different types of subtitling are explored regarding their effectiveness, especially in the field of short-term and long-term vocabulary recall and development. Finally, the article looks into some new alternative audiovisual tools that actively engage learners with films and subtitling, tailored towards vocabulary learning.
... Scholars have investigated the effects of captions under two caption conditions (Chai & Erlam, 2008;Markham & Peter, 2003;Winke, Gass, & Syndorenko, 2010): L2 captions and no captions. These studies demonstrated that L2 captions were more effective than no captions in vocabulary learning as well as video comprehension. ...
... The results reveal that captions can aid vocabulary learning and comprehension. This finding is consistent with previous studies which suggest that captioned videos have a positive effect on language learning (Chai & Erlam, 2008;Lwo & Chia-Tzu, 2012;Markham & Peter, 2003). While most previous studies investigated the effects of captions under only two conditions (L1 captions versus L2 captions), this study also examined the influence of dual captions. ...
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Effects of L1/L2 Captioned TV Programs on Students’ Vocabulary Learning and Comprehension
... Many investigations have shown that viewers significantly exposed to subtitled video progressively improve their listening comprehension, vocabulary and syntactic skills in the foreign language, while others have been comparing different subtitling modes and their learning potential (e.g. d 'Ydewalle and Pavakanun 1995; Van de Poel and d 'Ydewalle 2001;Markham and Peter 2002;Ghia 2011Ghia , 2012. Little in comparison has been specifically researched on the role of dubbing in Second Language Acquisition (SLA), although a few studies have appeared in Italy and elsewhere exploring how dubbing can be exploited in the language classroom as a means to raise students' metalinguistic and cross-linguistic awareness and advance their receptive and productive competence in the L2 (Taylor 1996;Heiss 2000). ...
... multiple choice and true-false questions) (Baltova 1999;Talaván 2011). Closed tasks are especially typical of acquisitional and psycholinguistic research (Markham and Peter 2002;Perego et al. 2010), where response timing is also common: learners have to answer all questions within a given time interval. In the current study, closed tasks were selected, and included both yes-no and multiple-choice questions, which were administered in Italian. ...
Article
Recent research on L2 acquisition has been stressing the potential of audiovisual translation as a tool for boosting foreign language competence. Whereas most studies have concentrated on subtitled input, less attention has been devoted to dubbing, which is nevertheless the main audiovisual translation modality in several countries. Being the outcome of a translation process, dubbed dialogue is subject to translation universals, including simplification, explicitation and standardisation. These strategies may contribute to the greater accessibility of dubbed vis-à-vis original, non-translated products to non-native viewers. With a view to exploring the role of dubbing in ultimately fostering second language acquisition, an empirical study on the comprehension of different types of audiovisual input by learner-viewers was designed. The study moves from the assumption that input comprehension is a necessary prerequisite for acquisition proper and compares the degree of comprehension of dubbed vs. non-translated film scenes among intermediate-level learners of L2 Italian. Quantitatively and qualitatively comparable film scenes were selected and dialogue comprehension was assessed through closed and timed questions administered after exposure to each scene. Findings show that dubbed audiovisual input results in better comprehension than non-translated film dialogue independently of viewers’ L1 and audiovisual texts’ individual features. The study thus paves the way for further research on the acquisitional impact of dubbed dialogue, especially among learners at lower proficiency levels.
... Thus, one of the advantages in using L2 subtitles is helping learners to link the spoken word with its written form, working as "hearing aid" (Danan, 2004). Additionally, Danan, as well as Markham and Peter (2003), affirm that L2 subtitles are more effective for language learners with a high proficiency level in the second language. Furthermore, they claim that for the successful use of L2 subtitles, learners need sharper listening skills and faster reading ability. ...
... According to Taylor (2005), research has shown that subtitles distract lower-level learners, but both lower-level and upper-level learners' attitudes toward them are positive. It is now commonly accepted that audiovisual materials with subtitles are powerful pedagogical tools that facilitate language learning by helping the language learner to connect auditory with visual input, especially if the input is a little beyond the learners' linguistic ability (Danan, 2004;Markham & Peter, 2003;Borrás & Lafayette, 1994;Garza, 1991). However, both theoretically and pedagogically, it is not exactly known what young learners actually do with subtitles while watching cartoons. ...
... Moreover, participants under study found watching foreign movies and strategically manipulating subtitles as an effective mode of maintaining their proficiency. Similarly, previous studies found that watching movies with subtitles increased learners' skill in reading and their vocabulary improved significantly after lengthy exposure to the target language captions (Garza, 1991;Markham, 1999;Peter, 2003). As another effective strategy, the participants of this study took part in discussion groups to improve and maintain their language skills. ...
Article
Full-text available
Having developed foreign language proficiency, a large number of EFL learners experience some degrees of foreign language loss later in life since English has no social function in many EFL contexts including Iran. However, there are some language learners who actively maintain and develop their proficiency long after they leave language education programs. This study aims at uncovering techniques applied by this minority group in maintaining their foreign language proficiency. Participants who were willing to share their experience of proficiency maintenance were selected through purposive and snowball sampling and verbalizations of their experience were then analyzed in line with phenomenology research design. Abstraction and thematic analysis of the participants’ experiences revealed that they actively create conditions that are conducive to proficiency maintenance such as reviewing previously learned materials, watching target language movies and actively manipulating subtitles, reading for pleasure, attending discussion groups, and using internet to communicate in the target language. While proficiency loss and attrition is the norm in EFL contexts, maintenance is an exception; hence, the findings of this study have clear and immediate implications for both foreign language teachers and learners since they provide them with down-to-earth, data-driven techniques of proficiency maintenance.
... Moreover, some researchers (e.g. Borrás & Lafayette, 1994;Danan, 2004;Davey & Parkhill, 2012;Hsu, 1994;Hsu, Hwang, Chang, & Chang, 2013;Markham & Peter, 2003;Montero Perez, Peters, Clarebout, & Desmet, 2014;Plass, Chun, Mayer, & Leutner, 1998;Vanderplank, 2016) have Teaching English with Technology,18(1), 105-115, http://www.tewtjournal.org 106 attempted to make videos more educationally purposeful through captions (texts in the original language) and/or subtitles (texts in the target language), supporting listening comprehension and vocabulary development. ...
Article
Full-text available
Educational videos are among the most influential and authentic tools in foreign language education (Choi & Johnson, 2007; Erbaggio, Gopalakrishnan, Hobbs, & Liu, 2012; Hafner, 2014; Mackey & Ho, 2008; Mirvan, 2013; Shih, 2010; Wang, 2014). The reason that videos are particularly popular in foreign language education is that they are multimodal, that is, even in their basic form, they provide students with auditory, visual, contextual, verbal, and non-verbal sources of input, which can enhance comprehension (Gernsbacher, 2015; Hoven, 1999; Seo, 2002) by providing comprehensible input (Krashen, 1981, 1985). Moreover, some researchers (e.g. Borrás & Lafayette, 1994; Danan, 2004; Davey & Parkhill, 2012; Hsu, 1994; Hsu, Hwang, Chang, & Chang, 2013; Markham & Peter, 2003; Montero Perez, Peters, Clarebout, & Desmet, 2014; Plass, Chun, Mayer, & Leutner, 1998; Vanderplank, 2016) have attempted to make videos more educationally purposeful through captions (texts in the original language) and/or subtitles (texts in the target language), supporting listening comprehension and vocabulary development. However, although captions and subtitles contribute to the comprehensibility of input by adding an extra layer of cognitive processing (Bird & Williams, 2002) to videos, asking comprehension questions both during and after the video is also important. Comprehension questions help students attend to the materials at hand and allow educators to decide if they are progressing effectively through the materials. Not only is asking comprehension questions encouraged in foreign language classes, but also educators are advised to ask effective questions – those engaging higher order thinking skills (HOTS) – so that students develop critical thinking skills (Egbert, 2007, 2009). Accordingly, using instructional videos in the teaching-learning process, augmented with effective comprehension questions, can be where Playposit can support learning in language classrooms.
... A spectrum of studies has shown that it helps learners connect auditory to visual input, which may aid formmeaning mapping-a key process contributing to second language acquisition (SLA). Moreover, many scholars find that it helps to improve L2 listening, reading comprehension skills (Danan, 2004;Markham & Peter, 2003), and vocabulary acquisition. Winke, Gass, and Sydorenko (2010) support the use of captioned videos, which can be implemented in online, hybrid, and blended-instruction courses, as a good resource for presenting native speaker voices, particularly for less-commonly taught languages, such as Arabic and Chinese, with non-Latin scripts. ...
... To date, some studies have investigated the effectiveness of the use of Google Classroom for learning and learning (e.g., Albashtawi & Al Bataineh, 2020;Duong, Hoang, & Mai, 2019;Markham & Peter, 2003;Islam, 2008;Sukmawati & Nensia, 2019). Advantages of Google Classroom include helping students develop and organize their work to learn English effectively; increasing students' motivation of online learning; providing instant notifications of assignments and deadlines; easily uploading and downloading materials; being available on different electronic devices; improving EFL students' reading and writing performance and facilitating learner autonomy. ...
Book
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AsiaCALL Online Journal (acoj), Online ISSN 1936-9859, is committed to upholding ethical standards, retracting and correcting errors. The editorial team's primary responsibility is to discourage publishing malpractice. Any type of unethical conduct is unacceptable, and this journal's Editorial Team does not tolerate plagiarism in any form. All manuscripts must be the authors' original work and free of indications of plagiarism.
... therefore, many research were conducted to investigate the effects of captioning on language gaining knowledge of. some of studies have established a few beneficial results of captions on listening comprehension of ESL/EFL learners (Chung, 1999;Garza, 1991;Herron, Morris, Secules & Curtis, 1995;Huang & Eskey, 2000;Hwang, 2003;Markham, 2001;Markham, Peter, & McCarthy, 2001;Markham & Peter, 2003;Taylor, 2005;Yoshino, Kano, & Akahori, 2000). as an instance, Huang and Eskey (2000) examined the consequences of closedcaptioned television (CCTV) at the listening comprehension of intermediatelevel college students learning English as a second language, and observed that Closed-Captioned tv had beneficial outcomes at the listening comprehension of intermediate degree ESL college students. ...
Article
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This study researched the impacts of English writings, Indonesian subtitles, or no subtitles on the tuning in appreciation of middle of the road and low-transitional level EFL students. A sum of 30 Grade-XII Taman Karya Vocational School of Purworejo understudies took part as in place bunches in the examination. The members saw the initial 19-min portion of the film Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix in just a single of the three entry conditions: English inscriptions, Indonesian inscriptions, or no subtitles and finished a 20-thing different decision listening understanding test. The consequences of ANOVA strategies exhibited that the understudies in every one of the three conditions performed correspondingly on the tuning in understanding test
... Studies on interlingual and intralingual subtitled videos have covered a number of language domains, such as: the improvement of Foreign/Second Language (L2) reading (Markham & Peter, 2003;Kruger & Steyn, 2014), L2 listening comprehension with/without L2 vocabulary learning (Garza, 1991;Huang & Eskey, 1999;Markham, Peter, & McCarthy, 2001;Stewart & Pertusa, 2004;Winke, Gass, & Sydorenko, 2010;Matielo, Oliveira, Baretta, 2017), L2 vocabulary learning (D'Ydewalle & Van de Poel, 1999;Bianchi & Ciabattoni, 2008;Matielo, Collet, & D'Ely, 2013), the effects on implicit and explicit memory and cognitive processing (Bird & Williams, 2002), and the acquisition of L2 grammar (Van Lommel, Laenen, & D'Ydewalle, 2006;Bianchi & Ciabattoni, 2008). Although there is a substantial body of knowledge to date concerning the effects of subtitling on L2 development, very few studies have been carried out with the brazilian population so far. ...
Article
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This paper examines the effects of intralingual and interlingual subtitles on Brazilian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ L2 vocabulary learning as a result of their processing and comprehension of a North-American sitcom. Thirty-six intermediate-level EFL learners, enrolled in the Extracurricular Language Courses at Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), were evenly divided into two experimental groups (intralingual subtitles and interlingual subtitles) and one control group (no subtitles). Participants’ performance was measured based on an L2 vocabulary test (pre-test, test, and post-test), considering factors influencing word learnability (Laufer, 1997). Regarding the effects of subtitling availability, statistical tests and analyses performed revealed that experimental conditions were not found to substantially foster L2 vocabulary learning, and no statistically significant differences among the experimental groups and the control group were found. Across time, the results obtained point out to more positive growth in performance by the intralingual subtitles group, followed by the interlingual subtitles group, and then the control group. These results are discussed in light of the possible different processing mechanisms employed as well as some of the potentials and drawbacks that both intralingual and interlingual subtitles may offer for L2 learning/instructional purposes.
... Similarly, with the process of retaining vocabulary, the availability of captions or subtitles help the students to identify the appropriate pronunciation. A good deal of research has proven that combining captions with audio-visual materials is an effective instructional method to enhance the listening and reading comprehension of a second language (Danan, 2004;Garza, 1991;Markham & Peter, 2003). Through this, the learners can confirm the information they hear to what is provided by the captions (Froehlich, 1988;Grimmer, 1992;Vanderplank, 1988). ...
Article
Full-text available
Movies have been seen as an encouraging media in learning English, tuning out the formal fear of English. They have helped increase students’ confidence and initiative to ask and answer the questions, and improve their listening skill and attention span in English drastically (O'Donnell, 1990). This article is intended to seek the applicability of the English sentences used in the movie Up and their uses for EFL learning in Indonesia. The 2013 curriculum was used as the standard guideline to determine the sentences’ appropriateness. A qualitative research by imposing content analysis method was employed to conduct the data analysis in this article. The findings classified the specific numbers of sentences generated in this research into ten (10) categories of English tenses. Another finding also indicated the applicability of those sentences for teaching EFL/ESL in junior high schools. Remarkably, these findings were substantial for appending the teachers’ resources in teaching English tenses.
... Teachers and researchers have long been aware of the potential value of captions to enhance reading ability in both first and second language e.g., Bean and Wilson 1989;Markham and Peter 2003). When researching for my state-of-the-art article on video and language learning some years ago (Vanderplank 2010), I came across fascinating work in India by Brij Kothari and his colleagues in the context of Indian illiteracy and sub-literacy. ...
Chapter
For the last 70 years, people have held on to the belief that one should be able to learn a foreign or second language from watching TV programs, films, and other audiovisual material in a foreign language. After all, TV and films provide rich resources for language learning with the added benefit of motivating content and familiarity with the medium. No teacher, no classroom, no textbook can provide the richness, range, and variety of language available in television and films. Nowadays, when we say “video” in the context of learning a language in informal settings, we can mean a multiplicity of resources which, only 20 years ago, simply did not exist. Video material may be found on a streaming or broadcaster’s website or in DVD format or, if broadcast, as a scheduled broadcast and on “catch‐up” or as a “box set,” or as a podcast. Viewers may watch the video material on a variety of devices, more or less portable, from smartphones through tablets, laptops and PCs to smart TVs. Informal learners also have a great deal more choice and control about what they watch, when they watch it and how they watch it compared to 20 years ago. It is this profound change in the opportunities to engage in informal language learning through video which has altered the nature of the task, allowing learners to exploit the affordances of technology in ways which could barely have been imagined 20 years ago. In this chapter, I attempt to capture the scope and scale of video and informal language learning today as reported in surveys and empirical research together with our understanding of the processes which underpin such informal learning.
... Investigating the use of intralingual (same language) and interlingual subtitles (different linguistic pair in the audio/subtitles) in L2 learning has been gaining prominence in recent years. From the 1980s on, more than sixty papers have been published in respected journals around the world, In short, subtitles have been found to foster L2 development, regardless of whether they are interlingual or intralingual (D'YDEWALLE; VAN DE POEL, 1999;HUANG;ESKEY, 1999;KOOLSTRA;BEENTJES, 1999;MARKHAM, 1999;MARKHAM;PETER, 2003;DANAN, 2004;STEWART;PERTUSA, 2004;TAYLOR, 2005;CAIMI, 2006;CHANG, 2006; VAN LOMMEL;LAENEN;D'YDEWALLE, 2006;SYDORENKO, 2010;SYDORENKO, 2010;RASHVAND, 2011;RAINE, 2013). Nonetheless, some studies have not found significant differences considering subtitles' availability and their relationship with the specific language component being tested, such as general/listening comprehension (BIANCHI; CIABATTONI, 2008 When adding the simultaneous processing of audio and subtitles to the equation, the picture becomes blurrier. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the impact of intralingual and interlingual subtitles on Brazilian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners as a result of their processing of a North-American sitcom. More specifically, it examines whether subtitling interacts with one’s individual differences, working memory (WM) as the case in point. Thirty-six intermediate-level EFL learners were evenly divided into two experimental groups (intralingual subtitles and interlingual subtitles) and one control group (no subtitles). Participants’ performance was measured based on an L2 video comprehension test and an L2 vocabulary test. Participants’ performance was correlated with their scores on two WM tests. The results obtained revealed that both participants’ L2 video comprehension, as well as their L2 vocabulary test performance, did not significantly interact with their WM capacity under any of the experimental conditions. These results are discussed in light of the possible processing mechanisms employed by the participants that may account for the lack of statistically significant correlations found.
... Most of the studies exploring the effect of subtitles on comprehension are based on short videos. Overall, the comparison between the performance of learners under captioned (i.e., subtitles and soundtrack in the same language) and uncaptioned conditions have generally found an advantage for the captioned condition, providing evidence for the positive effect of captions to support the comprehension process (e.g., Guillory, 1998;Markham & Peter, 2003;Montero Perez, Peters & Desmet, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of materials combining verbal and nonverbal input in the EFL/ESL classroom is supported by theories of information processing and is a feature of most instructional practices designed for children. Previous research has shown that the combination of input modes leads to improved learning experiences. However, little is known about how learners direct their attention to the different sources of input in multimodal materials. The present study followed a within-subjects design in which two groups of young EFL learners (n = 19, n = 17) were exposed to two types of multimodal materials: an illustrated storybook with audio support, and a video with foreign language subtitles. Exploration of learners processing of picture and textual areas was carried out with eye-tracking and results indicate that learners spent more time processing the text than processing the visual input in both formats. In the case of the book format, regular and uniform patterns of reading behavior were found whereas in the case of the video condition a high degree of variability was observed. In sum, this study confirms that storybooks and subtitled videos are appropriate materials to engage students with reading since the visual information does not distract their attention from the text.
... A spectrum of studies has shown that it helps learners connect auditory to visual input, which may aid form-meaning mapping-a key process contributing to second language acquisition (SLA). Moreover, many scholars find that it helps to improve L2 listening, reading comprehension skills (Danan 2004;Markham and Peter 2003), and vocabulary acquisition. Winke et al. (2010) support the use of captioned videos, which can be implemented in online, hybrid, and blended-instruction courses, as a good resource for presenting native speaker voices, particularly for less-commonly taught languages, such as Arabic and Chinese, with non-Latin scripts. ...
Chapter
Traditionally, there is a dichotomy of spoken and written language facility, but a new kind of ‘biliteracy’ seems to have emerged, whereby there is now one way to write a language in the online medium and another to write it offline. Be that as it may, online literacy could also be a source of influence on the offline literacy, just as speech has affected written literacy. For instance, contraction is now found in the latter. One big area of online literacy is gaming literacy, which is the focus of this paper. The impact of gaming literacy and justification for this study can be indirectly seen in the revenue statistics of online gaming. While parents of some youngsters often complain that online games ‘fracture’ their children’s language, this paper seeks to argue that gaming literacy not only is a creative development of language but also has its pedagogical potential for even aiding the acquisition of a second language (L2). This chapter begins with some brief discussion of gamer talk characteristics, followed by an explicit focus on gamer slang (“ludolects”), and then, with the aid of questionnaire findings and some literature reviews, goes on to explore the bigger picture: gaming literacy’s pedagogical implications in terms of “paratextuality”, social identity and learner autonomy.
... Several studies have empirically established that L2 learners can substantially improve their listening and reading comprehension through the use of captioning (Borrás & Lafayette, 1994;Danan, 2004;Garza, 1991;Hayati & Mohmedi, 2011;Markham & Peter, 2003;Vanderplank, 1988;Winke et al., 2010). Garza's (1991) study is one example. ...
Article
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This study aims to establish the effects of captioning on enhancing EFL learners’ spoken vocabulary. To this end a three-month experiment, which involved ten level-appropriate videos from the cartoon series, Olivia, was conducted. A quasi-experiment design was adopted with a total of 118 EFL 8th graders at a junior high school participating in the study. Sixty students were assigned to watch the videos with captions and the others were assigned to watch them without. To explore if the efficacy of captioning would be modulated by the students’ linguistic competence profiles – an issue that a lot of EFL instructors are currently facing in their teaching – the participants were further subdivided into three groups (high-level, intermediate-level, and low-level) based on their achievements in English. Two types of vocabulary posttest (i.e., form recognition and vocabulary acquisition tests) were administered to evaluate any vocabulary gains. The results of the study indicate that the availability of captions significantly improved the participants’ recognition of form and form-meaning knowledge of novel L2 (English) spoken vocabulary. In addition, in both vocabulary tests, the participants with a higher level of linguistic competence acquired substantially more word gains from captions than their counterparts of lower competence. These results empirically established the efficacy of captioning in enhancing EFL 8th graders’ incidental vocabulary spoken vocabulary gains and suggest that linguistic competence appears to be a crucial factor modulating the pedagogical potency of captioned videos. Based on the findings of this study, some pedagogical implications for employing captioned video materials to enhance EFL middle school students’ language gains are discussed.
... Users ultimately could use captions to increase their level of attention, improve information processing, reinforce previous knowledge, and analyze incomplete language. In addition, combining captions with audiovisual resources could also enhance users' listening and reading comprehension of a second language [31] [6] [8] [21], as videos with captions may facilitate vocabulary acquisition and video watching [26]. ...
Conference Paper
Hearing-impaired people and non-native speakers rely on captions for access to video content, yet most videos remain uncaptioned or have machine-generated captions with high error rates. In this paper, we present the design, implementation and evaluation of BandCaption, a system that combines automatic speech recognition with input from crowd workers to provide a cost-efficient captioning solution for accessible online videos. We consider four stakeholder groups as our source of crowd workers: (i) individuals with hearing impairments, (ii) second-language speakers with low proficiency, (iii) second-language speakers with high proficiency, and (iv) native speakers. Each group has different abilities and incentives, which our workflow leverages. Our findings show that BandCaption enables crowd workers who have different needs and strengths to accomplish micro-tasks and make complementary contributions. Based on our results, we outline opportunities for future research and provide design suggestions to deliver cost-efficient captioning solutions.
... SDH differ from intralingual subtitles produced specifically for the purpose of learning other languages or improving viewers' literacy skills, as they contain not only a segmented transcription of the spoken language, but also include paralinguistic information, such as short descriptions of sound effects or music. interlingual subtitles 3 aid intentional second language (L2) learning (see, for example: Markham & Peter 2003;Bianchi & Ciabattoni 2008;Ghia 2011;Caimi 2011;Mora & Cerviño 2019) and incidental language acquisition in adults who are not receiving formal instruction in the L2 and have little knowledge of the language (Pavakanun & d'Ydewalle 1992;D'Ydewalle & Pavakanun 1995). ...
Article
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While a considerable body of experimental work has been conducted since the beginning of the 1980s to study whether subtitles enhance the acquisition of other languages in adults, research of this type investigating subtitles as a tool for enhancing children’s language learning and literacy has received less attention. This study provides an integrative review of existing studies in this area and finds extensive evidence that subtitled AV content can indeed aid the acquisition of other languages in children and adolescents, and that it can moreover enhance the literacy skills of children learning to read in their L1 or the official language of the country in which they live and receive schooling. Recommendations for future research are also made, and it is highlighted that further research using eye tracking to measure children’s gaze behaviour could shed new light on their attention to and processing of subtitled AV content.
... A vast crucial majority of studies and researches carried out in language learning, have been devoted to vocabulary learning process and tried to evince the significant role of lexical in learning a language, however, a few of them investigated the effect of visual teaching techniques on vocabulary learning and most of them attempt to investigate the role of vocabulary in de-contextualized situations (Goldman & Goldman, 1988;Koolstra & Beentjes, 1999;Koskinen et al., 1985;Markham & Peter, 2003;Neuman & Koskinen, 1992;Grgurovic & Hegelheimer, 2007;Yuksel & Tanriverdi, 2009;Zoghi & Mirzaei, 2014). ...
... Meanwhile, Markham & Peter (2003) proposed that L1 subtitles may be more useful to low-level learners, which in turn supported Guillory's (1998) Simpsons with subtitles and she discovered that children or beginner ESL learners fixate more on words than adults, adolescents or more proficient learners who skipped words in the subtitles more in their L1 than the L2. She concluded that L1 subtitles may be more appropriate for learners whose vocabulary size is small and higher proficiency levels can use L2 subtitles to aid L2 learning. ...
Thesis
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The aim of this study is two-fold: first, it explores the effects of captions in audiovisual support in pragmatic development; and second, it investigates the role of proficiency when learning pragmatics with captioned/non-captioned audiovisual material. This study was triggered by the increasing interest in ILP in bringing together both theoretical and practical frameworks in the study of pragmatics. Twenty-nine EFL learners were assigned to two groups (captioned/non-captioned). The participants were exposed to one season of a TV show; however, neither of the groups received instruction on pragmatics. In order to test pragmatic development (requests and suggestions), a WDCT was used before and after watching the show. Although the results showed a significant change in some of the request and suggestion strategies, captions did not seem to have a significant effect on the participants’ responses. Regarding proficiency, no conclusive results could be drawn from the data of the present study.
... Bimodal subtitles are particularly popular among upper-intermediate and advanced learner-viewers, but have been shown to be effective at various levels of proficiency in the foreign language (Montero Perez et al. 2013). Due to the presence of the L1, standard interlingual subtitles can be accessed by learners with lower mastery of the L2, as they impact primarily on text comprehension and vocabulary development (d' Ydewalle and Pavakanun 1996;Van de Poel and d'Ydewalle 2001;Markham and Peter 2003). More recent research also indicates the potential of interlingual subtitling on the learning of syntax among intermediate-level learners: the presence of the two languages can stimulate L1-L2 comparison and contribute to shifting viewers' attention to L2 structure, overall facilitating input segmentation (Ghia 2012). ...
... For instance, many studies have compared the efficacy of first language (L1) subtitles, L2 captions, and no textual aids in the context of FL video. Results from these studies indicate that students who have access to on-screen text (i.e., L1 subtitles or L2 captions) when viewing video typically outperform those who do not have access to them (Bianchi & Ciabattoni, 2008;Birulés-Muntané & Soto-Faraco, 2016;Markham & Peter, 2003). For example, a study by Rodgers and Webb (2017) found that captions were beneficial in promoting learner comprehension of English-language TV programs, particularly if the content was challenging. ...
Article
The use of video streaming services has exploded over the past several years. However, although the use of video is a well-studied topic in computer-assisted language learning literature, the use of video streaming for out-of-class, informal foreign language (FL) learning has received little attention. This study addresses this gap in the literature. Specifically, the study investigated Japanese university students’ practices regarding the use of subscription video streaming services (SVSSs) for informal FL learning and examined their opinions about the use of these tools for informal FL learning. A survey was administered to second language English students at four Japanese universities to achieve the study’s goals. In addition, semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 of the participants to gain more insight into their opinions of SVSSs for FL learning. A total of 256 students participated and fully completed the survey. The results indicate that informal FL learning through SVSSs is common among FL students and that learners have favorable views toward their use for language learning. These findings highlight the need to examine students’ digital practices such as video streaming in order to bridge the gap between out-of-class informal language learning and formal language learning in the classroom.
... Research about the use of videos (whether online or not) offers rich discussion on numerous aspects of FL learning. For example, videos can have positive effects on content learning (Bahrani, 2014;Bush, 2000) by improving vocabulary (Secules et al., 1992), knowledge of the target culture (Dubreil, 2006;Herron, Corrie, Dubreil, & Cole, 2002;Zhou, 1999), speaking (Yu, 2012), listening (Markham, 1989(Markham, , 1999Markham & Peter, 2003), reading (Yu, 2012), and writing skills (Curry, 1999;Leland, 1994). Online videos also have been considered to be an effective means of developing academic literacy skills, learner identities, and critical thinking (Berk, 2009;Curry, 1999;Choi &Yi, 2012;Liontas, 1992;Youngbauer, 2013). ...
Book
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Abstract American college Chinese as Foreign Language (CFL) education is in need of an emic understanding of the learners, and CFL learners commonly have experience with informally learning Chinese from watching online videos. Informal learning has been recognized as one of the most powerful factors in Foreign Language (FL) development. While it has been commonly practiced, little research on informal CFL learning from watching online videos is available. CFL learning from videos is a complex process. Understanding the learners’ experience of informally learning Chinese from watching online videos is crucial for advancing the traditional CFL learning practices. Such an understanding is important for creating a socially oriented learning environment while taking into account both inter- (social) and intra-level (personal) factors in FL learning. Grounded in Sociocultural Theory (SCT) in Second Language Acquisition (SLA), this study fills this gap in the research on CFL. This is a multiple qualitative case study focused on three CFL participants’ informal learning experiences from watching videos. The data was collected through 12 sequentially designed, in-depth interviews, 30 participatory observations, three clip-elicitation conversations, and document analysis focused on three case participants. Using Constant Comparative Methods (CCM) in Grounded Theory (GT) as the data analysis method, this study found there were four prominent affordances from video learning: 1) providing a window for authentic conversation, 2) teaching Chinese native-like speech, 3) depicting Chinese social realities, and 4) offering a way of assessment. Videos are not always harmonious with CFL learning. There were also challenges. The interviews, field notes from observations,and document analysis suggest that the participants lacked verisimilitude in the Chinese video watching due to four main challenges. Specifically, the participants struggled to understand 1) Chinese internet cultural references (e.g., internet shortenings, buzzwords, and/or abbreviations), 2) contemporary Chinese cultural references (e.g., contemporary collectivist cultural values and cultural history in the 1990s in China), 3) traditional Chinese cultural references (e.g., dynastic knowledge and classical poems), and 4) the fast speed of video conversations. This study contributes to the existing body of knowledge in the field of FL education in general and CFL education in particular.
... Furthermore this element contributes to better listening comprehension scores as manifested by the improved performance of the Spanish captions group versus the performance of the no captions group. It is, therefore, not completely possible to rule out the benefit of the reading input provided by the captions as a factor in enhancing the participants' listening comprehension test scores (Markham & Lizette, 2003). ...
... To date, some studies have investigated the effectiveness of the use of Google Classroom for learning and learning (e.g., Albashtawi & Al Bataineh, 2020;Duong, Hoang, & Mai, 2019;Markham & Peter, 2003;Islam, 2008;Sukmawati & Nensia, 2019). Advantages of Google Classroom include helping students develop and organize their work to learn English effectively; increasing students' motivation of online learning; providing instant notifications of assignments and deadlines; easily uploading and downloading materials; being available on different electronic devices; improving EFL students' reading and writing performance and facilitating learner autonomy. ...
Book
Full-text available
AsiaCALL Online Journal (acoj), Online ISSN 1936-9859, is committed to upholding ethical standards, retracting and correcting errors. The editorial team's primary responsibility is to discourage publishing malpractice. Any type of unethical conduct is unacceptable, and this journal's Editorial Team does not tolerate plagiarism in any form. All manuscripts must be the authors' original work and free of indications of plagiarism.
... At the same time, the review revealed that there was substantial evidence of their value in training in listening skills and aural word recognition (Baltova 1999;Chung 1999Chung , 2002Huang/Eskey 1999-2000Markham 1999Markham , 2001Markham/Peter/McCarthy 2001;Markham/Peter 2003). Bird and Williams' (2002) well-designed and much-quoted study concluded that captions have a significant facilitating effect on long-term implicit and explicit learning of spoken word forms. ...
Chapter
Following a brief overview of the major developments that have occurred in the digital age as they relate to listening and language learning, this chapter begins by discussing the affordances and applications that digital technology offers to improving listening comprehension and supporting language acquisition. The next section explores connections between technology for listening and second language acquisition models and theories, drawing on the work of Chapelle (2003) regarding technology-based input modification and enhancement and Plass and Jones (2005) on multimedia theory, among others. The following section reviews both research and practice on a number of these aspects of technology-mediated listening, focusing on the use of captions and transcripts, multimedia, electronic glossaries and dictionaries, and speech rate control. The final section looks further at a few evolving trends touched on previously, as well as exploring future directions.
Chapter
As one of the four core skills, listening plays an important role in most modern language teaching methodology. Keywords: CALL; language teaching; second language acquisition; teaching methods in applied linguistics; vocabulary
Article
This study explores the differential effects of captions and subtitles on extensive TV viewing comprehension by adolescent beginner foreign language learners, and how their comprehension is affected by factors related to the learner, preteaching of target vocabulary, the lexical coverage of the episodes, and the testing instruments. Four classes of secondary school students took part in an 8-month intervention viewing 24 episodes of a TV series, two classes with captions, and two with subtitles. One class in each language condition received explicit instruction on target vocabulary. Comprehension was assessed through multiple-choice and true-false items, which included a combination of textually explicit and inferential items. Results showed a significant advantage of subtitles over captions for content comprehension, and prior vocabulary knowledge emerged as a significant predictor—particularly in the captions condition. Comprehension scores were also mediated by test-related factors, with true-false items receiving overall more correct responses while textually explicit and inferential items scores differed according to language of the on-screen text. Lexical coverage also emerged as a significant predictor of comprehension.
Article
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With the light that literature has shed on the merits of authentic videos, this paper aims to foreground two video input enhancement activities, namely annotating and captioning and argue that when embedded in authentic videos, annotations and captions aid EFL learners’ vocabulary acquisition and thus English listening comprehension. To this end, annotations and captions are discussed on the theoretical grounds of Multimodality and the Interactionist Theory of Second Language Acquisition (SLA). The paper concludes with implications for language teachers as to the use of input-enhanced authentic videos for educational purposes in the listening classroom. Keywords: listening comprehension, authentic videos, input enhancement, multimodality, interactionist theory
Thesis
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This dissertation addresses research gaps in second / foreign language (L2) vocabulary learning by investigating issues surrounding multimedia annotations, word concreteness, and individualized instruction. Two experiments were conducted with beginner learners of L2 German who used Voka, an online flashcard-based multimedia program for intentional vocabulary learning designed by the author of this dissertation. Experiment 1 explored the effectiveness of annotations for vocabulary learning by also considering word concreteness and variation in annotation effectiveness among learners. Using a within-subjects design, 72 participants studied 15 abstract and 15 concrete German nouns. For each word, learners received a translation, an example sentence, and one of five annotation clusters that address the form, meaning and / or use of a word: PG) picture, gloss of example sentence, DG) definition, gloss, PA) picture, audio pronunciation, DA) definition, audio, or PAGD) picture, audio, gloss, definition. An immediate vocabulary posttest revealed that for both abstract and concrete words, annotation clusters containing a picture are significantly more effective than clusters without a picture. The delayed posttest data showed, however, that all annotation clusters are equally effective for abstract and concrete words. Furthermore, both posttests demonstrated that abstract words are significantly harder to learn than concrete words in all annotation clusters and that the effectiveness of annotation clusters varies across learners. Experiment 2 constructed an individualized learning environment by considering the effectiveness of different annotation clusters on learner performance in experiment 1 to then examine the additional effect of two presentation sequences of annotation clusters on L2 vocabulary learning. Using a between-subjects design, 68 participants studied another 28 nouns with Voka. The FIX group received a fixed presentation sequence that showed all words in each learner's most effective annotation cluster. The ALT group received an alternating presentation sequence of each learner's two most effective annotation clusters by studying 14 words in each cluster. The results showed that presentation sequence has no effect on L2 vocabulary learning. The dissertation discusses the implications of the findings of both experiments and identifies potential avenues for future research. Keywords: second language acquisition (SLA); computer-assisted language learning (CALL); computer-assisted vocabulary learning (CAVL); multimedia vocabulary annotations; picture annotations; definition annotations; audio annotations; gloss annotations; word concreteness; imageability; individualized instruction; German as a foreign language
Chapter
Research has shown that the flipped classroom approach enhances student learning by creating a more interactive and dynamic environment which offers greater flexibility in terms of time, location, and pace of study. Different from the traditional pattern of teaching, students can access teaching and learning content through online interactive activities prior to class and prepare themselves for desired tasks. However, few studies have been undertaken to investigate its impact on student learning outcomes in second language acquisition. Traditional models of Chinese language teacher education generally focus on knowledge-based transmission such as second language learning and acquisition. Nevertheless, recent research has demonstrated that teaching a second language should be context-based. In most Australian universities, language units other than Chinese (e.g. Japanese, French, and German) are currently offered online. To bridge this gap, a set of audio-visual materials were designed and developed to help students flip the classroom as part of a pilot study that adopted a functional model of language teaching. This current study expanded upon the preliminary body of work and investigated second language (L2) learners’ use of captions while watching videos in Chinese and its impact on expected learning outcomes. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed to gain students’ perceptions of (a) how the captioned videos affected their second language acquisition in their undergraduate Chinese language units and (b) their learning experiences in a flipped class. The research findings provide a theoretical and practical framework for the design of a teaching model for language teachers other than Chinese, one that supports the development of dynamic activities, enhances interaction, and enables flipped learning in the classroom. The results shed light on this current trend in teacher education, promoting the application of innovative pedagogical practices using technology in the digital era.
Article
Drawing on narratives (Jones, 2016; Jones & Walton, 2018) from bilingual technical communication projects, this article makes a case for the importance of considering language access and accessibility in crafting and sharing digital research. Connecting conversations in disability studies and language diversity, the author emphasizes how an interdependent (Price, 2011; Price & Kerchbaum, 2016), intersectional (Crenshaw, 1989; Medina & Haas, 2018) orientation to access through disability studies and translation can help technical communication researchers to design and disseminate digital research that is accessible to audiences from various linguistic backgrounds and who also identify with various dis/abilities.
Conference Paper
A massive open online course (MOOC) is a free Web-based distance learning program that is designed for the participation of large numbers of geographically dispersed students. MOOCs provide unlimited participation and open access via the web to knowledge in diverse fields. The hype surrounding MOOCs can be best manifested when the New York Times declared 2012 the "year of the MOOC" (Pappano, 2012). They have become an important, innovative learning resource and strategy in Taiwan as well. In response to such a global trend, this study was therefore designed to incorporate a scientific MOOC-Child Nutrition and Cooking, offered by Stanford University, USA on Coursera-into the curriculum of an undergraduate Chinese-English translation class in a university in Taiwan. The research aimed to offer students an interdisciplinary learning experience between food science and languages to strengthen their translation ability. In addition to knowledge acquisition and bilingual terminology data collection, a focus was placed on the English-to-Chinese subtitling project of the MOOC videos. Using advanced subtitling software, students in the program were divided into small groups of three-to-five people to translate concertedly the English captions into Chinese subtitles as their term project. Then each group's translation was presented both orally and in written form in class. Moreover, students' translation quality and performance were critiqued and discussed with the entire class. Finally, a questionnaire was administered at the end of the training to understand students' responses to the blended model, and to evaluate students' learning effects, including learning interest, motivation, and the use of subtitling software. The procedures of the study, and the findings of the questionnaire and their implications will be analyzed and reported in this paper.
Article
Captioned video is widely used to enhance L2 learners’ exposure to oral input beyond the classroom setting and captioning has been found to provide an instantaneous, useful visual aid for parsing and understanding L2 oral discourse. Notwithstanding, a recent meta-analysis has shown that captioning exerts a selective effect on L2 learners with different profiles. This study investigated whether L2 learners’ modality preferences (visual vs. auditory) and working memory capacity (high vs. low) would modulate the effect of full captions on L2 listening outcome. Results from 60 participants revealed that both cognitive variables impacted their L2 listening to different extents. Notably, working memory capacity modulates the impact of L2 learners’ preferred modality on their listening outcome. Modality preference did not exert any significant impact on the listening outcome of L2 learners with lower working memory capacity. For L2 learners with high working memory capacity, their modality preference played a pivotal role in modulating their listening outcome; in this case, auditory learners had the best listening performance viewing the video without captions, whereas visual learners did best when watching the captioned video. These findings speak to the need for taking individual differences into consideration when employing captioned videos.
Article
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Connected speech produced by native speakers poses a challenge to second language learners. Video subtitles have been found to assist the decoding of English connected speech for learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). However, the presence of subtitles may divert the listeners’ attention to the visual cues while paying less attention to the speech signals. To test this proposal, we employed a bi-modal audio-visual listening test and examined whether EFL listeners were able to correctly identify the connected speech when misleading subtitles were present. We further tested whether connected speech with words of lower frequency further reduced the accuracy rate. Twenty-eight adolescent EFL learners, all with more than 10 years of experiences in learning English in schools, were tested with three major types of connected speech phonological processes, namely assimilation, elision, and juncture. The results of statistical analyses showed that matched and mismatched subtitles facilitated the comprehension of both familiar and unfamiliar connected speech. Error analyses revealed the degree of item-specific variations across the three types of connected speech processes as well as across the three subtitling conditions. This research provides insights on the immediate and long-term impact of subtitles on the decoding of English connected speech.
Article
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It is thought that in order to comprehend general conversation at the native-speaker level, it is necessary to know thousands of word families. Vocabulary learning is therefore a vital component to attaining proficiency in a language. The revolution in digital and information technology has dramatically transformed the landscape of resources available to language students. Learners increasingly have access to audio-visual, meaning-focused input, such as DVDs and streamed video material. Studies indicate that such materials can be used as linguistic input to facilitate incidental vocabulary learning, in the same way extensive reading (ER) uses graded readers have traditionally been used for the same purpose. The current study sought to measure the effect of watching a single movie in English, with English captions, on the ability of Japanese students to recall a selection of words taken from the movie script. The results revealed a significant increase in students’ ability to recall the words directly after watching the movie. From a list of 42 target words, the mean number of words recalled increased by 1.7 (4.05%) words after viewing. The result suggests that meaning-focused audio-visual input such as movies are a valuable supplementary resource for language learners, which can help provide a welcome boost their rate of vocabulary acquisition.
Article
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One theory of second language acquisition argues that children's competence in a second language is a function of the amount of "comprehensible input" acquirers receive and understand, without formal instruction in reading or grammar. To examine this hypothesis, this study analyzes whether comprehensible input in the form of captioned television might influence bilingual students' acquisition of vocabulary and conceptual knowledge in science. The 129 bilingual seventh and eighth graders in the study were assigned to one of the following groups: (1) captioned television; (2) traditional television without captioning; (3) reading along and listening to text; and (4) textbook only. Students in these groups either viewed or read 3 units from a science series, twice a week for a period of 12 weeks. Pretest checklist vocabulary tests and prior knowledge pretests were administered before the study of each unit; vocabulary measures analyzing a continuum of word knowledge of 90 target words were administered, along with a written retelling activity analyzing recall of science information. An analysis of word-related and video-related factors suggested that contexts providing explicit information yielded higher vocabulary gains. Further analysis indicated that those who were more proficient in English learned more words from context than others. These results suggest that along with the development of instructional strategies sensitive to differing levels of bilingualism, comprehensible input may be a key ingredient in language acquisition and reading development. (JL)
Article
This study investigated the effects of closed-captioned TV (CCTV) on the listening comprehension of intermediate English as a second language (ESL) students. Thirty students with intermediate levels of ESL proficiency participated in this study. Since vocabulary/phrase acquisition and comprehension are main factors that influence the success/failure of listening comprehension, this research also examined the effects of CCTV on these two subscales. The correlations between the listening comprehension and other factors—starting age of ESL instruction, length of time in the United States, length of ESL instruction, length of time in private language schools, length of time with tutors, and length of time traveling in English speaking countries—were inspected as well. Subjects' perceptions of the effects of CCTV on ESL learning were also covered in the study. The results of the research showed that CCTV helped ESL students' general comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and listening comprehension. However, all other factors examined in the study, such as age of starting ESL instruction, length of ESL instruction, etc., did not correlate with the listening comprehension test.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of captioned television on the incidental vocabulary acquisition of seventy-two inmates of a Pennsylvania correctional facility. Participants viewed nine science information segments over a period of nine weeks. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group of inmates was exposed to the science video segments with captions and the other group viewed the same science video material without captions. No definitions or explanations of the target science words were given during the brief science orientation sessions that took place on a weekly basis. Three posttests were administered to assess the participants' acquisition of the targeted vocabulary words. The tests consisted of word recognition, sentence anomaly, and word meaning measures. A brief television viewing questionnaire was also developed to assess the participants' perception of knowledge gained via the science videos and their opinion of the use of captions with such material. The...
Article
Since 1980, many popular television programs on ABC, NBC and PBS have been closed‐captioned. These captions are subtitles which present a steady stream of written language with video and audio reinforcement. While the captions were originally developed for the hearing impaired, there is considerable potential for their use with hearing populations. This article describes two projects which involved teachers using closed‐captioned television materials to develop skills in the areas of comprehension, vocabulary, and oral reading fluency with hearing remedial readers, Positive evaluations by teachers and students suggest that this area merits further investigation.
Article
ABSTRACT  The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of captioned videotapes on advanced, university-level ESL students' listening word recognition. A total of 118 ESL students participated in the study. The videotaped materials consisted of episodes from two separate educational television programs concerning whales and the civil rights movement. The results for both passages revealed that the availability of captions significantly improved the ESL students' ability to recognize words on the videotapes that also appeared on the subsequent listening-only (listening stems and alternatives) multiple-choice tests. Recommendations for using captions to enhance second language student listening and reading comprehension are included.
Article
Subtitled television programs seem to provide a rich context for foreign language acquisition. Moreover, viewers are generally quite motivated to understand what is shown and said on television. The present study investigated whether children in Grades 4 and 6 (N = 246) learn English words through watching a television program with an English soundtrack and Dutch subtitles. Children were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: (a) watching an English television program with Dutch subtitles, (b) watching the same English program without subtitles, and (c) watching a Dutch television program (control). The study was carried out using a 15-min documentary about grizzly bears. Vocabulary acquisition and recognition of English words were highest in the subtitled condition, indicating that Dutch elementary school children can incidentally acquire vocabulary in a foreign language through watching subtitled television programs.