Article

Are Parents Investing Less in Children? Trends in Mothers’ and Fathers’ Time With Children

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Abstract

In this study, time diary data are used to assess trends in mothers' and fathers' child care time from the mid-1960s to the late 1990s. Contrary to conventional wisdom, the results indicate that both mothers and fathers report spending greater amounts of time in child care activities in the late 1990s than in the "family-oriented" 1960s. For mothers, there was a 1965-75 decline in routine child care time and then a 1975-98 rebound along with a steady increase in time doing more developmental activities. For 1998 fathers report increased participation in routine child care as well as in more "fun" activities. The ratio of married mothers' to married fathers' time in child care declined in all primary child care activities. These results suggest that parents have undergone a behavioral change that has more than countered family change that might otherwise have reduced time with children.

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... In response to women's increased participation in the paid labour market, together with the intensification of parenting norms, fathers increased their time spent with children each week from 10 to 12.7 hours each week between 1996 and 2002 (Craig & Mullan, 2012). Other studies suggest that fathers in the United States showed similar trends of increasing involvement (Craig & Mullan, 2012;Sayer, Bianchi, & Robinson, 2004). ...
... Yet, it is important to delineate children's ages for two key reasons. Firstly, parents need to be most highly engaged and involved in childcare when children's care needs are the most intensive as young infants (Sayer, Bianchi, & Robinson, 2004;Sayer, Gauthier, & Furstenberg, 2004). Secondly, important caregiving patterns are often established when children are very young infants, and may predict fathers' ongoing participation throughout childhood (Baxter & Smart, 2010;Gracia, 2014). ...
... In addition to work-related policies and provisions impacting fathers' participation in childcare, studies have shown that the family and household context in which fathers are embedded can also make a difference to the time fathers spend with children and to the types of activities fathers engage in. The bulk of the literature tends to focus on the ways that fathers' participation may be influenced by their partner's income (Baxter, 2011a;Baxter & Smart, 2010;Pleck, 1997;Raley et al., 2012), and by the age and number of children who live in the household (Aldous, Mulligan, & Bjarnason, 1998;Baxter & Smart, 2010;Bulanda, 2004;Gracia, 2014;Sayer, Bianchi, & Robinson, 2004). By drawing on a range of theories and perspectives outlined in Chapter Two, how these factors can influence fathers' time with children and their engagement in specific routine care activities. ...
... The second perspective, the parental time investment perspective, suggests that lower-income parents may have less time to spend with children in their learning at home. Less time engaged at home in math learning with children may negatively influence their math development and academic achievement (Becker, 1965;Francesconi & Heckman, 2016;Sayer, Bianchi, & Robinson, 2004). Theoretically, lower-income limits parents' financial abilities to purchase children's math educational materials and may limit parents' available time to spend with children in their math learning activities in the home (Becker, 1965;Conger & Donnellan, 2007;Conger et al., 2010;Francesconi & Heckman, 2016). ...
... In turn, lower parental time investments negatively influenced children's math scores on their fifth grade final exam. These findings are consistent with previous research in high-and low-income countries (see, Guryan & Kearney, 2008 ;Sayer et al., 2004). Although parental time spent with children has increased over the past decades in high-and low-income countries (e.g., U. S., European Union), several studies have documented that lower-SES parents still spend less time with children in their developmental and educational activities such as math homework and math book reading to children that, in turn, affects their academic achievement in mathematics and English during third grade through sixth grade (Hojnoski et al., 2014;Kornrich & Furstenberg, 2013;Lunn & Kornrich, 2018;Pezdek et al., 2002;Silinskas & Kikas, 2017;Thomsen, 2015). ...
... In Denmark, Thomsen (2015) found that lower-income parents spent less time with children's developmental care (e.g., reading, playing, talking and teaching) and that affected their educational achievement in mathematics and Danish classes during preschool to ninth grade. In contrast to our findings, some research in high-income countries has found that low-educated parents spend less time with children for their developmental activities that affect their cognitive and human capital development (Guryan & Kearney, 2008;Sayer et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Mechanisms underlying the relation between family income and primary math achievement (PMA) are not wellunderstood. We tested whether family income via parental monetary and time investments during fourth grade through fifth-grade (24 months) was associated with math scores in fifth-grade (24 months later) in a sample of Bangladeshi children (N = 760, 52% boys, M = 9.1 Years, SD = 3.3 at baseline) and their parents. The results from structural equation modeling suggested that lower-family income, fewer monetary investments in children's math stimulating materials and less time spent with children's math practices at home were directly and significantly associated with lower math scores in fifth-grade. Although both factors mediated the relations between income and PMA, time investment explained a greater amount of variance (15%) in the associations with PMA as compared to monetary investment (10%), after accounting for control variables. Future directions for policy and further research are discussed.
... Educational attainment is consistently found to be a key factor in explaining the level and type of parental engagement (Monna & Gauthier, 2008;Sullivan, 2010). Prior research has shown that high-educated partnered fathers tend to be more involved with their children than the lower educated, because the former are more likely to adopt modern fatherhood norms and often have the resources (i.e., time and money) that make involvement easier (Köppen et al., 2018;Sayer et al., 2004). High-educated nonresident fathers have also been found to be more involved in childrearing (Cheadle et al., 2010;Kalmijn, 2015). ...
... Previous studies have shown that partnered fathers-who generally perform a secondary role in caregiving-take on more of the responsibility for parenting tasks when being highly educated (Köppen et al., 2018;Sayer et al., 2004). As compared to partnered fathers, educational attainment may positively influence father involvement to a lesser extent for resident and shared residence fathers because of a ceiling effect. ...
... As mentioned earlier, we controlled for factors that may be related to selection into separation as well as into pre-separation residence arrangements, namely pre-separation father involvement, pre-separation level of conflict and pre-separation union type-for partnered fathers those variables refer to their current partnership. We also controlled for factors that the literature has documented to be associated with father involvement: parents' age, mother's education, father's work hours, child's gender and age, and number of children 5 (Carlson et al., 2017;Cheadle et al., 2010;Grätz, 2017;Landale & Oropesa, 2001;Manning et al., 2003;Sayer et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Separated fathers are generally assumed to be less involved with their children than partnered fathers. Yet, extant research on separated fathers has mainly focused on nonresident fathers without taking into consideration the existing diversity in post-separation residence arrangements. In fact, separated resident and shared residence fathers may possibly be more involved than partnered fathers, because the former likely bear primary childcare responsibilities, while the latter often act as secondary caregivers. This study extends previous research by investigating father involvement via regular care and leisure activities across a full range of separated fathers, and how it compares to that of partnered fathers, as well as whether patterns differ by father's education. Data from the New Families in the Netherlands survey (N = 1592) reveal that as compared to partnered fathers, shared residence fathers and especially resident fathers are more actively involved in the regular care of their child, whereas nonresident fathers are less involved. Results are similar for leisure, except that partnered fathers are similarly involved as shared residence fathers in this activity. Education also matters: involvement of fathers across different post-separation residence arrangements is more similar to that of partnered fathers when being highly educated. These findings suggest that including resident and shared residence fathers in the picture offers a more optimistic view of fathers' post-separation parenting role, because these separated fathers are actually more actively involved in childrearing than partnered fathers. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10680-021-09593-1.
... Women are often accused to exert less effort in their jobs after having children, which can be caused by the fact that mothers are most often the primary caregivers during child rearing (Sayer et al. 2004). Some mothers leave the labour market voluntarily due to increased family responsibilities. ...
... Some researchers find that motherhood impacts the level of effort and job performance (Sayer et al. 2004). Women can be accused to exert less effort in their jobs after having children, which is reported by 20% of examined mothers in Croatia. ...
Conference Paper
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Around the world, the participation of women in the labor markets has increased in the last decades. Nevertheless, the employment rate for women is still lower than men's, and one of the reasons for the lower participation of women in the labour market could be motherhood. This paper examines women's perceptions of the effects of motherhood on women careers and employment status. Empirical research was conducted among 241 women in Croatia, including 136 mothers and 105 women with no children. Research results indicate that mothers and women that are not mothers generally have similar expectations about raising children and building career. About 1 out of 5 mothers have experienced some workplace discrimination due to motherhood, including lower salaries, getting passed over for a promotion or being considered as a less committed employee. Although research results confirm the detrimental effects of motherhood for some mothers, most mothers consider that building career would not be much easier without children.
... Since the beginning of the pandemic, research and media have focused on how COVID-19 has differentially impacted women and men (Kantamneni, 2020). Due to societal expectations and gender norms, mothers often assume an unequal share of caregiving, childcare, and schooling responsibilities compared with fathers (Hochschild, 1989;Sayer et al., 2004) and thus may be at increased risk for negative outcomes during the pandemic. Mothers may have fulfilled and continue to fulfill the additional caregiving and education needs of the family while also balancing work-related tasks and their own mental and emotional health. ...
... Recent research has demonstrated that women's work hours have been reduced significantly more than men during the pandemic, especially for those with young children (Collins et al., 2020). This is unsurprising, given that before the pandemic women already assumed a greater share of childcare than men, even among two working parents, and women struggle more with work-family balance guilt than men (Borelli et al., 2017;Sayer et al., 2004). It is likely that these preexisting challenges were exacerbated by the pandemic as the lines between work and childcare have blurred. ...
Article
Objective This study describes parenting experiences at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and examines differences across parent gender and family income level. Background The COVID-19 pandemic had unprecedented impacts on families. Many parents faced employment changes, including job loss, reduced pay, and working remotely, while simultaneously experiencing increased childcare responsibilities due to school and childcare closures. Research is needed to document the ongoing impact of these changes on parents and families. Method An online convenience sample of parents (N = 1,009) reported on their parenting experiences during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic (April 2020) in an online survey. Results Parents reported high levels of depression, anxiety, and parental burnout. Further, many parents reported increased negative emotions, such as anger and worry, while simultaneously feeling closer to their children and offering more comfort and soothing. Differences across gender and income levels are presented. Conclusion These results align with other emerging findings of increased impacts to mental health and well-being for parents and children and document the disproportionate effects on women and low-income families. Implications Implications include needing additional support (e.g., financial, caregiving) for parents and families as we continue to face the impacts and consequences of COVID-19.
... análise das diferenças de género tanto das crianças (Carvalho, 2001;Mattingly & Bianchi, 2003) como dos pais (Hwang & Lamb, 1997;Sayer, Bianchi & Robinson, 2004;Yeung, Sanberg, Davis-Kean & Hofferth, 2001;Wical & Doherty, 2005); impacto do emprego dos pais no tempo que passam com os filhos (Drago, 2001;, Nock & Kingston, 1988; a divisão do trabalho doméstico e os papeis familiares (Bianchi, Milkie, Sayer & Robinson, 2000); e ocupação dos tempos livres das crianças e suas consequências desenvolvimentais (McHale, Crouter & Tucker, 2001;Teixeira, 2004;Teixeira & Cruz, no prelo ...
Article
De acordo com a perspectiva ecológica do desenvolvimento humano, as actividades diárias das crianças constituem um importante cenário de desenvolvimento. A análise da investigação mostra que a forma como as crianças usam o seu tempo influencia o seu desenvolvimento cognitivo e social. São diversos os instrumentos e as metodologias disponíveis na literatura para estudar a forma como as pessoas usam o seu tempo. O Diário de Uso do Tempo é o instrumento mais utilizado quando tratamos de crianças e adolescentes. Nesta comunicação são apresentados vários modelos de Diário de Uso do Tempo, referindo-se os estudos realizados tanto em Portugal como no estrangeiro (principais consórcios e estudos transnacionais). São referidas as principais indicações e utilizações, e discutidas questões metodológicas relacionados com a forma de administração do instrumento, a cotação e os sistemas de categorização das variáveis do uso do tempo, as metodologias de análise estatística e a interpretação dos resultados. São ainda apresentadas algumas questões de investigação cujo estudo pode passar pela inclusão deste instrumento nos respectivos planos metodológicos. 1. Introdução: apresentação e indicações do instrumento O diário de uso do tempo é uma técnica utilizada para recolher informação sobre o quotidiano dos indivíduos. Há diversos instrumentos e metodologias para estudar a forma como as pessoas usam o seu tempo. Todavia, este é o método mais utilizado para avaliar a forma como as crianças e adolescentes o fazem (Larson & Verna, 1999). Este instrumento pode ser visto como um exemplo do que Robinson (1988) chama de abordagem "micro-comportamental". Quer isto dizer que o que é pedido às crianças é que forneçam informação sobre as actividades concretas realizadas em dias específicos (normalmente "ontem") e não actividades que "habitualmente" realizam ou que "costumam" realizar. Para cada actividade referida (actividade primária) pode ser pedido à criança que indique vários tipos de informação: a que horas essa actividade começou e terminou; onde estava a criança durante essa actividade; quem estava a fazer essa actividade com a criança; quem mais estava nesse local mas não directamente envolvido nessa actividade; que mais a criança estava a fazer ao mesmo tempo que a actividade primária (actividade secundária). Dependendo dos objectivos de cada estudo, pode ser pedido outro tipo de informação mais específica, por exemplo, que tipo de programa de televisão estava a ver, qual o grau de satisfação com a actividade, qual a finalidade da actividade, etc. Existem vários modelos de diário. Neste artigo referimo-nos aos diários em que se recorre a uma grelha da rotina diária para registo das actividades realizadas. E, neste caso, há dois grandes tipos de grelhas: uma em que
... Parents are concerned about spending sufficient time with their children (Shaw & Dawson, 2001) in part because of very high expectations for developing children's potential. The demands on mothers to support children's achievements and well-being have become more intensive (Hays, 1996;Sandberg & Hofferth, 2001;Sayer, Bianchi, et al., 2004) and fathers are increasingly expected to be present and engaged (Hobson, 2002). Furthermore, parents want to be with children-and they benefit emotionally from time with children compared to time apart (Musick et al., 2016;Poortman & Van Der Lippe, 2009). ...
Article
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A sizeable portion of parents say they lack time with children—an important social problem given that time strains link to parental well‐being. Extending perspectives on the demands and rewards of parenting beyond the individual level, we provide a contextual‐level window onto mothers' and fathers' time strains. Based on data from the European Quality of Life Survey 2016/17 (n = 5,898), we analyze whether parents feel they spend enough time caring for their children using multilevel models. We first observe that country context matters in that perceptions of time only moderately or weakly relate to hours with children across countries, especially for fathers, suggesting varying social expectations across Europe. Second, in multivariate analyses examining micro‐ and macro‐level factors, we show that at the individual level, feeling too little time with children is more frequent among fathers and those who work more hours, even when controlling for estimated weekly hours spent caring for children. At the country level, parents' time strain is higher in countries where employees have less time and place flexibility, typically in Central and Eastern as well as Southern Europe. Gender norms matter as well. Extending contextual perspectives, we argue that how gender‐work‐family regimes color felt time strain is a promising future research direction.
... In practice, improvements in emotional support might be observed in, for example, shifts in parental attitudes away from corporal punishment and other harsh parenting practices, even among groups historically more favorable to such practices (e.g., Hoffman et al., 2017). Other changes that might have impacted children's emotional support include changes in both mother's and father's time investment in their children (e.g., Sayer et al., 2004). These shifts, and others, may lead to improvements in children's emotional support and related outcomes. ...
Article
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This study evaluated changes over time in the quality of children’s home environment, using the Home Observation Measurement of the Environment (HOME). Longitudinal increases in HOME scores were predicted by both theory and past empirical results. Analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Children data (N = 5715, aged 0–14) suggested that HOME scores have been increasing, and that the increase is a family-level phenomenon. The data were a sample of children born to mothers who were approximately representative of the United States in 1979. An increase in HOME scores occurred primarily for the three age categories younger than ten. Effect sizes were of approximately the same magnitude as the Flynn effect for intelligence. These results have implications for policy and future research regarding the home environment.
... Parents transmit human capital-skills, knowledge, and experience-to their children through investments in child development (Becker & Tomes, 1976). Scholars have increasingly recognized the importance of parents combining different types of inputs, such as time and money, in shaping human capital development (Moroni et al., 2019;Sayer et al., 2004), and researchers have measured these investments in various ways. Financial investments, for example, have been operationalized as the number of children's books owned, the access a child has to a home computer (Hamilton et al., 2007), and the payment of child support by nonresident fathers (Hofferth & Anderson, 2003;Mitchell et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Recent studies have found that adoptive parents invest in their children equally or more than biological parents do. Most of these studies observed relationships across families, comparing families with adopted children to those without. In this study, alternatively, we focused on within-family comparisons to more fully isolate the relationship between biological ties and parental investments. Using American Time Use Survey (2007–2018; n = 1,152 children) and American Community Survey (2014–2018; n = 34,673 children) data, we employed within-family fixed effects regression models and focused on both parental time and financial investments, using private school enrollment as a proxy for the latter. Our findings show that parents spent less one-on-one, quality, and total time daily with adopted children compared to biological children. In terms of financial investments, 90% of children in the sample received equal investments, meaning that either all or no siblings within the same family were enrolled in private school. However, among families with enrollment differences between siblings, adopted children were significantly less likely than their non-adopted siblings to be enrolled in private school. These findings show that adopted children within mixed-adoption families may receive equal or fewer investments than their non-adopted siblings. The findings highlight the possibility of selection as an interpretation of the adoptive-child advantage, illustrate the importance of within-family studies on this topic, and point to the complexity of parental investments in adopted children.
... Although the issues are not new, telecommuting during the pandemic has highlighted the importance of understanding how working from home shapes parents' time in paid and unpaid work. Work arrangements that provide greater control over the location or timing of work have long been put forward as a potential fix for the work-family conflict that disparately impacts mothers, who continue to do far more care work and housework than fathers (Bianchi et al., 2012;Sayer et al., 2004). To the extent that telecommuting offers greater work hour flexibility, it may make it possible for some mothers to stay in jobs who would otherwise drop out (Goldin, 2014;Ishizuka & Musick, 2021). ...
Article
Objective This study examines the relationship between telecommuting and gender inequalities in parents' time use at home and on the job before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Background Telecommuting is a potential strategy for addressing the competing demands of work and home and the gendered ways in which they play out. Limited evidence is mixed, however, on the implications of telecommuting for mothers' and fathers' time in paid and unpaid work. The massive increase in telecommuting due to COVID-19 underscores the critical need to address this gap in the literature. Method Data from the 2003–2018 American Time Use Survey (N = 12,519) and the 2020 Current Population Survey (N = 83,676) were used to estimate the relationship between telecommuting and gender gaps in parents' time in paid and unpaid work before and during the pandemic. Matching and quasi-experimental methods better approximate causal relationships than prior studies. Results Before the pandemic, telecommuting was associated with larger gender gaps in housework and work disruptions but smaller gender gaps in childcare, particularly among couples with two full-time earners. During the pandemic, telecommuting mothers maintained paid work to a greater extent than mothers working on-site, whereas fathers' work hours did not differ by work location. Conclusion In the context of weak institutional support for parenting, telecommuting may offer mothers a mechanism for maintaining work hours and reducing gender gaps in childcare, while exacerbating inequalities in housework and disruptions to paid work.
... Other explanations based on perceptions on safety and parenting values have also been used to explain the education gradient. The fact that college-educated parents may be more concerned about children's physical safety than non-college educated parents may explain why collegeeducated parents spend more time accompanying their children in their activities (Sayer et al., 2004a). Similarly, college-educated parents may subscribe to a more time-intensive parenting style than non-college educated parents (Sayer et al., 2004b;Sullivan, 2010;Wight et al., 2009). ...
Article
We use novel diary surveys coupled with universities' administrative student data for the last three decades to document that increased competition for university places at elite institutions in the United Kingdom contributes to explain growing gaps in time investments between college and non-college educated parents. Competition for university places in the UK grew significantly during the 1980s and early 1990s, and gradually diminished afterwards. We find that the gap in time investments by college and non-college educated parents and their children widened up precisely during this first period, especially in terms of human capital enhancing activities.
... All around the world, studies have shown that the process of mothering involves higher physical and emotional labour and a higher responsibility for managing care of the children (Craig, 2006a). Moreover, studies have demonstrated that mothers spend more time doing different activities with children than fathers (Craig, 2006b;Sayer et al., 2004), engaging in tedious household activities while fathers had more leisure and play time (Musick et al., 2016). This in turn contributes to less happiness and more fatigue for mothers especially when the world is under a crisis (Davenport et al., 2020;Evans et al., 2020;Janssen et al., 2020). ...
Article
The current exploratory study endeavoured to understand the lived experiences of Indian mothers with children below the age of 10 during the COVID-19 pandemic through a feminist lens. Vignettes of two mothers from different occupational backgrounds and family units were chosen. Through in-depth interviews, and using a thematic analysis framework, themes of increased household and childcare responsibilities, evolving socio-cultural gender roles, self-compassion, self-care and meaning making emerged from the narratives. Findings indicate heightened inequalities and efforts from spouses to reduce this gap. Mothers responded by choosing a more compassionate approach towards themselves and in their mothering practices and thus making meaning of their experiences through the pandemic. Results indicate a need to establish and enforce stronger policies around recognizing and appreciating unpaid care and domestic work in keeping with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 5.
... A second way that we extend this work is by exploiting the temporal nature of our data to examine time use in day-to-day life. Time use measures are well suited for studying how individuals vary in everyday experiences and have been used extensively by scholars to explore gendered differences in household labor (see Milkie et al., 2009;Sayer et al., 2004;Schneider, 2012), for example. Yet, as noted by Quadlin and Rudel (2015), variation in time use among college students remains relatively underexplored. ...
Article
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Educational debt is an economic stressor that is harmful to mental health and disproportionately experienced by African American and Latinx youth. In this paper, we use a daily diary design to explore the link between mental health, context specific factors like “college stress” and time use, and educational debt stress, or stress incurred from thinking about educational debt and college affordability. This paper utilizes data from a sample of predominately African American and Latinx college students who provided over 1000 unique time observations. Results show that debt-induced stress is predictive of greater self-reported hostility, guilt, sadness, fatigue, and general negative emotion. Moreover, the relationship may be partly mediated by “college stress” reflecting course loads and post-graduation job expectations. For enrolled students then, educational debt may influence mental health directly through concerns over affordability, or indirectly by shaping facets of college life. The window that our granular data provides into college experiences suggest that the consequences of student debt are manifest and immediate. Further, the documented day-to-day mental health burden for minority students may contribute to downstream processes such as matriculation.
... Working women play dual roles in the household as generators of household income and caregivers to their children. The dual role of mother reduces the time available to spend with the children compared to nonworking counterparts (Sayer et al., 2004;Bianchi et al., 2006;Fox et al., 2013;Hsin and Felfe, 2014). In a typical rural household, father who is engaged in market work and allocates resources to household is considered as the primary breadwinner, and has more control over the household resources (Glick, 2002;Desai and Jain, 1994). ...
Article
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This paper examines the influence of mothers' workforce participation on children's schooling in India. Data for the study is drawn from the fourth round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS). Using logistic regression models, it analyses whether the engagements of mothers in market work have a significant impact on their children's schooling compared to children whose mothers are unemployed. The pa per also investigates whether mother's workforce participation has a different impact on female children compared with male children. The result shows that mother's participation in agriculture, household/ domestic services and manual work impacts negatively on children's schooling. However, the father's workforce participation has a significant positive effect on children's schooling. Further, the results of gender-based analysis show that female children are more likely affected by the mother's participation in agriculture and manual employment. However, mother's white-collar employment significantly increases the likelihood of schooling of female children. The likelihood of male children attending school is approximately 12 percentage points higher compared to female children in the household. If the child is oldest in the household, the likelihood of attending school is lower with respect to other children. But the effect is 5 percentage points higher if the oldest child in the household is female.
... The ideal parent norm has its origins in Hays (1996) conception of intensive mothering as an ideology that requires mothers to expend tremendous resources to raising their children. While mothers still bear the primary responsibility for parenting, parenting expectations are on the rise as for both men and women (Sayer et al., 2004). The ideal parent norm entails a high level of involvement in children's lives and a significant amount of time spent with children, especially from mothers, but increasingly, also from fathers (Bianchi, 2011;Kramer & Kramer, 2016). ...
Article
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Work–family policies are meant to support labor force participants, but they often result in lower rewards for those who use them. Based on the ideal worker norm framework and signalling theory, we hypothesise that parental leave duration will result in lower wage growth, above and beyond that of having children. The 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data from 2000 to 2015 are used to test the hypotheses with a longitudinal sample (14 waves) of individuals in the United States who worked before and after taking parental leave (n = 6723). Discontinuous growth models are used to predict the penalty for parental leave duration for men and women. We find that both men and women suffer from a lower hourly wage growth for taking longer parental leave and that there are more severe penalties for taking paid parental leave than taking unpaid parental leave. Full text via Wiley https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/share/author/GIVKG2MMAJH3BAYWMVIQ?target=10.1111/1748-8583.12428
... Russell & A. Russell, 1987). And although today fathers are caring for their children more than in the past (Sayer et al., 2004), mothers still spend a greater share of time taking care of children than fathers (e.g. Craig, 2006;McBride & Mills, 1993;Greving Mehall et al., 2009). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between dimensions of a constructive parenting style, (i.e. parental acceptance and autonomy granting) factors of the climate for creativity in parent–child relationships (encouragement to experience novelty and variety, encouragement of nonconformism, support of perseverance in creative efforts, and encouragement to fantasize), and parents’ visual mental imagery. 313 parents of children between 6 and 12 years of age participated in the study. The results indicated that (a) a constructive parenting style was positively related to three of four factors of the climate for creativity in the parent–child relationships, i.e. encouragement to experience novelty and variety, support of perseverance in creative efforts, and encouragement to fantasize in the parent–child relationship; (b) parents’ level of vividness of mental imagery was positively related with both parental acceptance of child and autonomy support as well as components of climate for creativity in parent–child relationship; (c) mothers scored significantly higher than fathers in exhibiting acceptance of a child; (d) parents’ gender played an important role in the relations between dimensions of constructive parenting style and factors of climate for creativity in parent–child relationships. Findings were discussed in terms of the implications for further research and theory development in the area of family influences on the development of children’s creativity.
... Annelik rolünde sosyal olarak inşa edilen iyi anne kalıbı kadının tam zamanlı çalışması, yarı zamanlı çalışması ya da evde kalması tercihlerine bağlı olarak şekillenmektedir. Ancak bir işte aktif olarak çalışmayı tercih eden anneler kimi zaman mesleki rolleri ile annelik rolü arasında dengesizlik yaşayabilmektedir (Sayer, Bianchi & Robinson, 2004). Bu durumda kadının işinin gerektirdiği sorumluluklar ile annelik sorumlulukları arasında yaşanan çatışmaları bilişsel akrobasi ile dengelemesi beklenmektedir (Leberman & LaVoi, 2011). ...
... The structure of American families has changed significantly over the past several decades, with a decrease in two-parent intact biological families being coupled with a subsequent increase in single-parent families, blended families, cohabiting non-married couples with children, as well as other family forms (Phillips, Wilmoth, Wheeler, Turner, Shaw, & Brooks, under review) (Antonucci, Wong, & Trinh, 2012) Further, regardless of family structure, the amount of time parents can devote directly to their children would seem to have a direct effect on the impact of their efforts. Though there have been some studies that have shown the time parents spend with their children has not decreased (Sayer, Bianchi, & Robinson, 2004;Suzanne, 2011), other studies have shown parental time with children has decreased as more hours are spent away from home --working, commuting, and delivering children to and from child care, school, and other activities; families are less likely to share meals and other rituals together as domestic time becomes compressed; and increasingly, family members characterize home life as hectic, unstructured, unpredictable, and, at times, simply out of control (Evans, Gonnella, Marcynyszn, Gentile, & Salpekar, 2005). Even so, empirical evidence indicates that "intentional" family-related efforts, including establishing and maintaining family rituals, can serve an organizing and unifying function in family life (Doherty, 2002;Fiese et al., 2002;Marks & Dollahite, 2012) ...
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One hundred thirty-seven married members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with children participated in a study of Family Home Evening and its relation to family well-being. Results support previous research suggesting that regular family-level rituals and sacred practices benefit families, marriages, and parent-child relationships. While this study's results cannot demonstrate any sort of causal link, they do provide very strong correlational evidence in support of the power and value of regular family-level routines, rituals, and sacred practices, as seen in LDS observance of FHE. Implications for the full universe of families are discussed.
... Our study shows that women may be in higher risk for burnout in PB and WB, especially when they are also in charge of child rearing of children under 12 years old -even when compared to men who also live with their children. This may be because mothers seem to more frequently engage in practices involving explanation and organization of the environment 45 and with issues related to children's education 46 , which can also contribute to a greater family interference with work. The increase in the childcare load had an influence on the prevalence of clinical burnout indices in all CBI subscales, being more significant than the increase in workload. ...
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Objective: To investigate burnout and procrastination in a sample of Brazilian workers during the COVID-19 pandemic according to their current work mode. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from an online survey conducted in 2020: 435 workers were included. The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and the Irrational Procrastination Scale were used to access burnout and procrastination respectively. Results: There was no difference between workers working from home (WFH) and at face-to-face work regarding burnout symptoms. However, the WFH group had higher levels of procrastination. Clinically significant levels of burnout were associated with being female, increased childcare load and living with children under 12 years old. Conclusions: WFH may have more advantages than disadvantages in ideal conditions. However, work-life imbalances seem to be a key aspect regarding distress among workers WFH, especially in women with small children.
... First, politicians are selected from a broader population, which has itself diverged from gender-stereotypical behaviours over time. In most advanced economies in recent decades, women's traditional role as care-givers has declined, and women's educational attainment, participation in the workforce, and occupancy of senior management positions have increased (Sayer, Bianchi and Robinson, 2004;Diekman and Goodfriend, 2006, 370). As societal gender roles have changed, women in the public have come to demonstrate increasingly agentic behaviours across a wide set of contexts and countries (Twenge, 2001;Leaper and Ayres, 2007, 357). ...
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Research on political style suggests that where women make arguments that are more emotional, empathetic and positive, men use language that is more analytical, aggressive and complex. However, existing work does not consider how gendered patterns of style vary over time. Focusing on the UK, we argue that pressures for female politicians to conform to stereotypically ‘feminine’ styles have diminished in recent years. To test this argument, we describe novel quantitative text-analysis approaches for measuring a diverse set of styles at scale in political speech data. Analysing UK parliamentary debates between 1997 and 2019, we show that the debating styles of female MPs have changed substantially over time, as women in Parliament have increasingly adopted stylistic traits that are typically associated with ‘masculine’ stereotypes of communication. Our findings imply that prominent gender-based stereotypes of politicians' behaviour are significantly worse descriptors of empirical reality now than they were in the past.
... It is reasonable to assume that the effect of parenthood on conflict behavior and perception differs between men and women. Mothers are often more involved in parenting (Musick & Bumpass, 1999;Sayer et al., 2004) and have less quality downtime to buffer parenting strain (Bittman & Wajcman, 2000;Burgard & Ailshire, 2013;Craig & Mullan, 2011). Also, new parents often find themselves in a more traditional division of labor (Baxter et al., 2008;Dechant & Blossfeld, 2015;Yavorsky et al., 2015), which is even more likely to occur when the parents undergo psychological adjustment difficulties after childbirth (Jia et al., 2016). ...
... Entre incompréhension et découragement, les parents doivent alors accepter une école qui n'est pas tout à fait inclusive et se battre pour faire valoir les compétences et le potentiel de l'enfant. Lorsqu'au moins l'un des deux parents est enseignant, on parle de métier de parent tant le lien est étroit entre la responsabilité de parent et le métier d'enseignant, qui fait émerger une intensification de l'accompagnement éducatif parental (Sayer, Bianchi et Robinson, 2004). Les parents-enseignants sont parmi ceux qui ont développé les formes les plus sophistiquées d'adaptation aux nouveaux cadres sociaux (Van Zanten, 2018). ...
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Which outlook holds a Teacher-Parent on inclusive education Inclusive education is a main concern in the law of 8 July 2013 about orientation and programming for the reshaping of the school of the Republic. Clinical didactic (Carnus, Terrisse, 2009, 2013) will facilitate the understanding of the subjective challenges that arise when parents having children with educational needs are teachers. We conducted semi-directive interviews with three subjects. As a result, these interviews reveal “déjà-là” which are much of a part that highlight the presence of a singular, submissive and divided subject’s theory. This paper not only exposes the idea of a “supposed to know subject”, moreover it uncovers the existence of an “unendurable” for our three Teachers-Parents when it comes to outlook the inclusive education of their child(ren).
... Y este tiempo, además está marcado por otras variables como el nivel educativo: a mayor nivel de estudios más tiempo con los hijos e hijas (Dotty y Treas, 2016). Resultados similares se han encontrado en otros países (Sayer et al., 2004) a costa de la minimización del tiempo propio de madres y padres. Y ante esta coincidencia de demandas sobre un único sujeto es fácil la colisión, sobre todo si la solución legítima pasa por los arreglos individuales, donde el azar de contar con los recursos necesarios (ya sea tener un jefe flexible o una red de apoyo suficiente) y la decisión personal ante el dilema de familia-trabajo remunerado prima ante consideraciones estructurales (Christopher, 2012;Edgley, 2021). ...
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La “ideología de la maternidad intensiva” (Hays, 1998) según la cual la prioridad de la madre es dar respuesta a las necesidades de los hijos e hijas mediante la inversión de grandes cantidades de recursos económicos, temporales y emocionales, proporciona en este artículo una perspectiva clarificadora para comprender mejor el apoyo de un gran número de familias a la jornada continua en las escuelas. El artículo representa una primera aproximación a la relación entre maternidad intensiva y jornada escolar, a partir de la reflexión teórica que suscita la bibliografía existente sobre la construcción social de la maternidad, los análisis realizados sobre la jornada escolar en el ámbito español y materiales generados por los centros educativos. Los resultados obtenidos, aunque tentativos, apuntan a que la jornada continua está jugando un papel importante en la distinción de las familias más acomodadas, con mayores recursos para poder maximizar el tiempo que deja la compactación horaria. Al mismo tiempo supone un fortalecimiento de la responsabilidad individual, en este caso de las madres especialmente, que conlleva la individualización característica de la modernidad reflexiva y que puede generar un incremento de la desigualdad.
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Tourism has become an industry with an increasingly significant impact on economic, social, cultural, and environmental aspects in the world and in Turkey. Sustainability is the primary criterion in all of these dimensions. In the continuation of tourism activities, sustainable tourism practices come to the forefront in increasing the positive effects and minimizing the negative effects. The issue of sustainable tourism has attracted attention in recent years for all stakeholders in the field of tourism and in the academic field. In this study, the concept of Sustainable Tourism has been discussed from different aspects by analyzing the academic studies in the literature with the content analysis method. The importance of sustainable tourism, its impact on sustainable development, and the driving power of existing tourism activities are emphasized. It was pointed out that the sustainability feature sought in all areas of life should be at the center of tourism.
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Permaculture in the world and Turkey is increasing day by day the importance of implementation of economic, social, cultural, and environmental dimensions has an impact. Sustainability is the primary criterion in all of these dimensions. Sustainability is at the core of permaculture practices. Permaculture studies aim to create systems that support natural life with the least possible resources from a comprehensive perspective that brings together different disciplines related to plants, animals, buildings, and infrastructure studies. For this purpose, combining the characteristics of land and structures with the natural characteristics of plants and animals creates sustainable, ecologically healthy, and economically viable systems in the long term. In this study, the concept of permaculture has been discussed from different aspects by analyzing the academic studies in the literature with the content analysis method. The importance of permaculture and its impact on sustainable development are emphasized.
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Investments in clean fuel and piped water are often recommended in developing countries on health grounds. This paper examines an alternative channel, the relationship between piped water and access to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and children’s educational outcomes. Results based on the second round of the India Human Development Survey (2011–12) for rural India show that children aged 6–14 years, living in households that rely on free collection of water and cooking fuel, have lower mathematics scores and benefit from lower educational expenditures than children living in households that do not collect water and fuel. Moreover, gender inequality in this unpaid work burden also matters. In households where the burden of collection is disproportionately borne by women, child outcomes are significantly lower, particularly for boys. The endogeneity of choice to collect or purchase water and cooking fuel are modeled via Heckman selection and the entropy balancing method.
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Objective This study examines how occupational resources and demands are associated with parents' childcare time. Background Scholars recognize parental employment as important for understanding parental time use. Yet, given data limitations, we know relatively little about how strain‐based demands (demands that can produce negative psychological states) are associated with parent's time with children. Method Occupational‐level data in the O*NET Database are linked to the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) 2011–2019 (n = 10,274 workday diaries from employed parents in 427 occupations). Ordinary Least Squares regression (OLS) is used to examine how occupational resources and demands are associated with parents' time with children and in childcare on workdays. Results Mothers in occupations with greater strain‐based demands—competitive pressure, aggression‐conflict, monotony, and physicality‐hazards—spend less time with their children and less time on physical childcare activities. For fathers, associations are weaker with monotonous jobs also associated with less time with children. Workplace conditions, however, are weakly or even positively associated with parents' time on nonworkdays, suggesting that the daily experience of work affects parents' time use at home. Autonomy, an occupational resource, is positively associated with fathers' time with children and with mothers' time in interactive care. Conclusion Resources and strain‐based demands—measured at the occupational‐level—are associated with parents' time use. The O*NET Database can be linked to the ATUS to better understand families' time use.
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The previous literature documents that female-owned businesses are less profitable than male-owned businesses, including microenterprises that make up the majority of firms in developing countries. In this paper, we uncover an overlooked gendered constraint for these businesses: childcare. We collect field data through unannounced visits to a sample of microentrepreneurs in select areas of Uganda, combining surveys of business owners and real customers, as well as purchases by confederate buyers (i.e., mystery shoppers). We document that childcare duties in businesses are highly gendered: 37% of female owners bring small children to work, compared with 0% of men. Childcare duties are correlated with a “baby-profit gap,” as businesses where children are present earn 48% lower profits than even other female-owned businesses where a child is not present. Using our rich data, we analyze potential reasons why childcare obligations may affect profits. We find that prices, product quality, and other explanations are not robustly correlated with the presence of a baby. However, we find that women with children in the store are more likely to run out of stock than both men and women who do not have children in the store. Although we caution that our analysis is not causal, we consistently find that childcare duties are associated with profitability and may relate to the wider gender gap in business performance. This paper was accepted by Lamar Pierce, organizations.
Article
Objective This study examines parents' time use in developmental child care by parental education and assesses whether the educational gap has widened or narrowed over the period of 2003–2017. Background The diverging trends in work hours between mothers with different levels of education since the early 2000s, along with the proliferation of the ideal of intensive parenting, suggest that education disparities in developmental child care time have likely converged, opposite to the widening trend before then. Method Using the 2003–2017 American Time Use Survey (N = 30,072), ordinary least squares regression models estimate minutes per day mothers and fathers with children under age 5 spend on developmental child care, after accounting for demographic characteristics, family income, and hours at work. The interaction terms between parental education and years estimate the trend in the educational gap. Results The educational disparity in developmental child care has narrowed between 2003 and 2017 due to opposite trends at both ends of the educational spectrum: whereas time spent among parents with a bachelor's degree or higher has stalled, time spent among counterparts with high school or less education has continuously increased. For mothers, the converging trend is partly attributable to differential trends in hours at work by education. Conclusion In contrast to the claim of diverging destinies, parents' time use in developmental child care is likely not contributing to diverging resources for children between more‐ and less‐educated parents.
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Scholars have been increasingly concerned about the rise in “intensive mothering” and its implications for the well-being of children and women and for inequality more broadly. These concerns, however, reflect a key assumption: that socioeconomic disparities in mothers' parenting time observed in earlier eras have continued to grow. Using the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) from 2003–2005 and 2015–2017 (n = 13,755), we test this assumption by examining whether maternal education gaps in active time spent with children have persisted across the 2000s. We pay particular attention to the continued socioeconomic bifurcation in women's access to full-time stable work, assessing whether changes in the education-related time gap are due to changes in who works and how much. We find that the gap in active childcare time between mothers with a college degree and those without has closed dramatically. Although some of this narrowing was driven by declines in time among college-educated mothers, most was driven by increases among mothers with less education. These trends, however, are observed only among mothers who were not employed full-time. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analyses further reveal that although most of the increase in active care time among nonworking mothers with less education was attributable to behavioral change, 58% of the decline among nonworking, college-educated mothers was a result of sociodemographic compositional changes. These findings illuminate population-level trends in mothers' active parenting time, provide insights into the driving factors, and help update theories, qualitative findings, and policy considerations related to mothers' and children's well-being.
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We use the 2015 Canadian time diary data to examine the gender income gap in relation to time spent doing domestic (household and childcare) and market work. Specifically, we highlight the impact of relationship and parenting status by comparatively examining three groups: single without children, married without children, and married with children (N = 10,573). After controlling for household labour and market work hours, we find that the gender income gap is negligible for those who are single without children. The gender income gap for married couples without children is much larger. The largest gender income gap exists for married couples with children. When we examine married couples with children, accounting for hours spent on market and domestic work reduces the gap substantially. There is a mediating relationship of market work to the domestic work–income relationship. Domestic work is the largest contributor in the models predicting market work hours. We contribute to the understanding of gender-based income inequality by going beyond the conventional study of market work. Implications for reducing structural gender inequality in income by addressing both family and work spheres are discussed.
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One of the main drivers of gender inequality is the unequal distribution of paid work between men and women, in particular, after the birth of a child. In this study, we examine how a man’s employment flexibility, specifically his weekly hours of employment and schedule autonomy, influence his female partner’s return to employment after the birth of a first child using the German Socio-Economic Panel. Given women’s placement as primary but not solitary carers of young children, it is plausible that women’s attachment to the labour force will increase if their male partner is in a position to take on more of the responsibility for unpaid work. Results indicate that a father’s employment flexibility facilities a mother’s part-time employment. A return to full-time hours, however, is less contingent on the father’s employment circumstances or other external factors. The findings highlight the importance of employing couple-level analyses in examinations of the gender division of labour.
Chapter
In the last decades, fathers have become increasingly involved in the daily care of children (Kornrich & Furstenberg, 2013), mainly in couples where mothers participate to the labour market. Although the evidence regarding the possible effects of maternal employment on child development and wellbeing is mixed, some studies have suggested that an increased fathers’ involvement may offset the potentially negative effects of maternal work on child development (Sayer et al., 2004; Raley et al., 2012; Hsin & Felfe, 2014).
Article
Objective Divorce is now widespread in later life, yet little is known about how older adults and their adult children respond in the aftermath of gray divorce. Guided by the life course perspective, this study examines the consequences of gray divorce and subsequent repartnering for parent-adult child relationships from the parent’s perspective. Method Using longitudinal data from the 1998-2014 Health and Retirement Study in the United States, we estimated growth curve models to compare fathers’ and mothers’ frequent contact with and financial support to their adult children prior to, during, and following gray divorce. Results Gray divorce and repartnering had disparate effects on father- versus mother-adult child relationships. Following divorce, fathers’ frequent contact with their adult children decreased but financial support to their adult children increased. Fathers’ repartnering had an enduring negative effect on frequent contact with their children. Gray divorce did not alter mothers’ financial support to adult children and it actually increased interaction between mothers and adult children as the odds of frequent contact doubled upon divorce. Repartnering had no appreciable effects on mothers’ relationships with their adult children. Discussion The results of our study are consistent with prior research showing that divorce creates a matrifocal tilt in our kinship system. The shifting dynamics of parent-adult child relationships in response to gray divorce and repartnering raise questions about whether gray divorced parents will be able to rely on their adult children for care as they age.
Chapter
This chapter outlines two fields of academic scholarship—intimate relationships and parenting—to make the argument that contemporary couples are caught in an uncomfortable confluence between competing narratives of family life. The field of Parenting Culture Studies is informed by the insight that ‘parenting’ (as opposed to child-rearing) has become a hugely expanded task in recent years, replete with a multimillion-pound industry of advice and support. Underlining the emergence and popularisation of developmental psychology, this chapter shows how parenting has become a more ‘intensive’ activity for parents, particularly mothers, than it was a generation ago, with infancy understood as having life-long consequences. The ‘permanence’ of parenting is contrasted with literature around ideal (couple) relationships which instead endorse notions of equality, intimacy and fluidity, in line with the ‘reflexive modernisation’ thesis (Beck and Beck-Gernsheim, The normal chaos of love. Polity, 1995). An overview of these two bodies of literature, as well as the policy context around parental leave and childcare (particularly the low take-up for ‘shared’ parental leave, the current policy iteration) sets the scene for the chapters which follow, outlining how the contradiction between these two ‘ideals’ is experienced by contemporary couples in the UK in terms of their experience of birth, infant feeding and sleeping.
Article
Despite decades of progress toward gender equality, women remain as the United States’ primary caregivers. Past research has shown how couples and families organize care at distinct life course moments but has not studied how these moments combine to create differences in men and women’s full life courses of caregiving. In this article, I look beyond negotiations within households to introduce a complementary demographic explanation for the gender gap in caregiving—women’s greater likelihood to reside with dependents. A focus on patterns of coresidence is warranted, given the growing diversity of family forms, which may expose women to additional and varied care demands at differing ages. Drawing on data from the 2011 to 2019 American Time Use Surveys, I study how coresidential care demands shape the population gender gap in childcare and eldercare across ages 20–79 and how demands differ for Black, White, and Latina/o women and men. My results show that coresidence with dependents is uneven across the life course, and women’s exposures occur early and late in adulthood, while men are exposed to more care demands in midlife. Patterns of childbearing, partnership, and extended family embeddedness contribute to Black and Latina women’s greater exposure to care demands early in adulthood and White women’s greater exposure to care demands later in the life course. Thus, despite growing egalitarianism within households, the rise of complex families contributes to bolstering population-level gender inequality in caregiving across adulthood.
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Negli ultimi 15 anni, la Regione Marche ha implementato politiche turistiche finalizzate a rafforzare l'immagine del territorio a livello nazionale ed internazionale, adottando un modello di governance mirato e perfezionato gradualmente. Negli anni questa modalità di governance è stata supportata da un crescente potenziamento del marketing regionale, che ha strutturato l'offerta turistica intorno al brand "Destinazione Marche". Tale brand consta di sei cluster, che identificano differenti prodotti turistici; tra questi, il cluster "Mare. Le Marche in blu" è espressamente rivolto alle vacanze famigliari. Nella prima parte, l'articolo affronta il tema dei consumi turistici, concentrandosi in particolare sulle vacanze famigliari. La seconda parte ha l'obiettivo di inquadrare l'offerta turistica regionale entro lo scenario delle politiche turistiche italiane. Tra i risultati ottenuti, la Regione Marche è stata introdotta dalla Lonely Planet al secondo posto della prestigiosa classifica "Best in Planet 2020". Tuttavia, l'epidemia da Covid-19 rischia di vanificare gli sforzi ed i traguardi raggiunti: questa situazione enfatizza ulteriormente l'importanza di politiche turistiche mirate e la necessità di riprogrammazione ed adattamento degli strumenti fin qui utilizzati.
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Family scholars have used several approaches to explain the division of domestic work: economic exchange, time availability, and gender. These are often presented as analytically different and competing perspectives, although the consensus in the literature is that all of them contribute to explaining the division of work. This article presents a critical appraisal of this literature that intends to move research forward in three ways: first, by highlighting how these approaches are empirically and analytically interdependent, and therefore should not be studied separately. Second, by arguing that one of them—the gender perspective—takes analytical precedence. The underlying argument is that both economic factors and time availability are not gender‐neutral and can thus be accounted for using a gender perspective. Finally, the article illustrates how using an integrative approach to gender—Risman's gender as a social structure—can provide a more fruitful way to analyze the gendered division of work.
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Most scholars, parents, and educators agree that parental involvement is beneficial for children’s academic and developmental outcomes. However, a small but growing body of scholarship suggests that intensive parental involvement may potentially hinder children’s development. In this study, we examine the “more is less” assumption in parental involvement research and formally test the argument of parental overinvolvement. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 (ECLS-K), we examine whether high levels of involvement are associated with unintended negative child development in elementary school. Analyses based on curvilinear mixed effects models show that elevated parental expectations, intensive participation in extracurricular activities, and increased parental school involvement are associated with diminishing returns to children’s outcomes. The most meaningful parental overinvolvement pattern is found for internalizing problems. These patterns are generally consistent for children from all socioeconomic levels. We conclude with a discussion of the research and policy implications of these findings.
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There exists a high proportion of women with disabilities who decide to be mothers although there is a high stigma about their capabilities. The objective is to analyze the impact of disability, among other socioeconomic conditions, on the motherhood decisions. We compared the results of treating disability as exogenous with a bivariate probit model. A cross-sectional analytical study has been analyzed by using data from the Fecundity Survey of 2018. The model estimates the probability of having children having disability, which is a 3.5%. Moreover, motherhood propensity for disabled women is 0.4 percentage points lower than for non-disabled. In this article the authors undertook a significant literature review, then it is included a development of the theoretical and methodology framework for analyzing the effect of disability on the attitudes of women toward the decision of having children. In this context, many disabled women have successfully become mothers but the existent barriers have unmotivated others. The difficulty is basically due to the stigma about their mothering capabilities or associated with physical conditions such as risk of abortion or even a worsening of health. The economic framework under our specification is an extension of the Households Health Production Model where women derive utility from having children and they use their skills, knowledge or time to achieve their objective. In this case, to have children is the outcome and education, health status and other socioeconomic factors are the inputs. Having children is only one of the sources of utility that a woman has, they also derive utility from labor time, consumption or healthcare, among others. Despite several studies used this methodology to analyze motherhood decisions in many Countries in the world, the impact of disability is much less explored.
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Parents' time with children has increased over the past several decades, according to many scholars. Yet, research predominantly focuses on childcare activities, overlooking the majority of time that parents spend with children. Using time diaries from the 1986-2015 Canadian General Social Survey, we examine trends in the quantity and distribution of parents' childcare time and total co-present time in the company of children, as well as the behavioral or compositional drivers of these trends. Co-present time with children increased sharply since the mid-1980s, by 1 hour per day for fathers and 1.5 hours for mothers. This rise was driven not only by childcare activities, but also parents' time in housework and mothers' time in leisure with children present. Decomposition analyses indicate that changes in parenting behavior primarily explain these increases in co-present time. This study expands knowledge on intensive parenting through a more comprehensive understanding of parents' daily lives with children.
Article
As the global trend towards both middle- and working-class families raising their children intensively increases, social class differences in parenting beliefs and choices for their children have become more subtle. In light of the proliferation of intensive parenting norms, however, few studies have explored particular mechanisms underlying the subtle class differences linked to parental values. Drawing on in-depth interviews of 51 Hong Kong Chinese parents, this study investigated how parents contended with competing values in socialization, which in turn shaped their parenting choices. Three common values emerged from the interviews – academic excellence, hard work and happiness – showing that the middle and working classes managed their values for children in two different ways, termed here as ‘values coupling’ and ‘values juggling’, respectively. Middle-class parents were able to make their value choices cohesive through a ‘twist’ to reconcile between competing values. However, working-class parents were inclined to ‘drift’ their value choices in the face of unreconciled value tensions as well as structural constraints. Subtle differences in parental values were found to be tied to class position, and contributed to maintaining class inequality and social reproduction.
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We study the contribution of parental educational assortative mating to the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment. We develop an empirical model for educational correlations within the family in which parental educational sorting can translate into intergenerational transmission jointly by both parents, or transmission can originate from each parent independently. Estimating the model using educational attainment from Danish population-based administrative data for over 400,000 families, we find that about 75 percent of the intergenerational correlation in education is driven by the joint contribution of the parents. We also document a 38 percent decline of assortative mating in education for parents born between the early 1920s and the early 1950s. While the raw correlations also show decreases in father- and mother-specific intergenerational transmissions of educational attainment, our model shows that once we decompose all factors of intergenerational mobility, the share of intergenerational transmission accounted for by parent-specific factors increased from 7 to 27 percent; an increase compensated by a corresponding fall in joint intergenerational transmission from both parents, leaving total intergenerational persistence unchanged. The mechanisms of intergenerational transmission have changed, with an increased importance of one-to-one parent-child relationships.
Article
Heterosexual unions and parenthood are key contributors to gender inequality in housework. Over the last two decades, the social meaning of partnership and parenthood has changed. This study investigated whether this change in the narrative of partnership and parenthood status influenced changes in the housework gender gap. Using the American Time Use Survey 2003–2005 and 2013–2015, the findings show that housework gender gap was larger for people in a couple relationship than for singles. For nonparents, the gender gap in housework was no difference between those married and those cohabiting. Gender inequality in housework persisted among married parents but decreased among cohabiting parents, mainly because of the increase in cohabiting fathers’ housework time. These findings suggest a heterosexual union, particularly marriage, reproduces conventional gender roles. Men’s gendered behaviors were not uniform but diverse across partnership and parenthood status.
Article
Expanded school-choice policies have weakened the traditional link between residence and school assignment. These policies have created new school options and new labor for families to manage and divide. Drawing on interviews with 90 mothers and 12 fathers of elementary-age children, I demonstrate that mothers across class, racial, and ethnic backgrounds absorb the labor of school decision-making. Working-class mothers emphasize self-sacrifice and search for schools that will keep their children safe. Middle-class mothers intensively research school information and seek niche school environments. Working-class and middle-class black and Latinx mothers engage in ongoing labor to monitor the racial climate within schools and to protect their children from experiences of marginalization. Partnered fathers and single primary-caregiver fathers invest less time and energy in the search for schools. These findings identify an important source of gender inequality stemming from modern educational policies and suggest new directions for research on school choice.
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Although debates over the growth of work-family conflict tend to center on the experiences of employed parents and dual-earner couples, analyses of trends in working time typically focus on individual workers. We reexamine the debates regarding the growth of working versus leisure time and then analyze trends in working time by focusing on the combined paid work of family members. We use the 1970 and 1997 Current Population Surveys to investigate the distribution of working hours across dual-earner couples and single parents. Our findings demonstrate that the shift from male-breadwinner to dual-earner couples and single-parent households, rather than changes in the length of the workweek per se, have created growing concern for balancing work and family. This analysis suggests that debates over conflicts between work and family need to focus more on the combined work schedules of family members than on changes in individual work patterns.
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This paper addresses the question of how families manage the after-school care of younger (11–14) and older (15–17) teenage children. I examine how mothers of teenage children view their after-school care, and how they coordinate their paid work and their family responsibilities to accommodate the lives of their older children. How families, particularly mothers, manage the after-school care of older children is a question that few researchers or policymakers have addressed. In this paper I argue that this is a topic which not only has important policy implications, but also raises basic issues about how work and family are structured in the United States.
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This paper analyses the labour supply behaviour of households in Denmark and Britain. It employs models in which the preferences of individuals within the household are explicitly represented. The households are then assumed to decide on their labour supply in a Pareto Optimal fashion. Describing the structure of the household decision in this way allows preliminary results to be obtained on the internal weighting of utilities within the household. Copyright 2001 by Taylor and Francis Group
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Explains the trends since World War II in fertility, marriage, divorce, family size orientation, and contraception in the five major non-European industrialized countries. By emphasizing the changing social construction of parenthood, the framework fills a gap left by more conventional approaches. -from Author
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This article examines how much fathers participate in child care, an important component of domestic duties, and factors related to it. It has the advantage of longitudinal data, so that it is possible to look at changes in fathers' participation and factors affecting changes and continuities over time. The data come from the 1987-1988 and 1992-1993 National Surveys of Families and Households. The sample is restricted to White, two-parent families with at least one child younger than 5 years of age at the time of the first survey. The analyses control for the number of children and the gender of the child for whom there is fathering information. Based on prior theories and research, the study variables related to fathers' child care include performance of household tasks, their marital quality, gender role ideologies, perceptions of the fairness of the division of domestic labor, and the mothers' child-care hours. The labor-force variables are the husbands' and wives' hours of paid employment, as well as the earned incomes of husbands and wives. The findings indicate that hours on the job keep some men from active fathering, but if they begin taking care of young children, a continuing pattern is established. Mothers' child-care hours are positively related to fathers' child care, and fathers do more with sons. The discussion places the findings in theoretical context.
Article
Using a unique data source on family time use both in and outside the home, we obtained estimates of parental time allocated to preschool children for several socioeconomic status groups. We find that while high status mothers have a relatively high potential wage, they spend from two to three times as much time in preschool child care as do low status mothers. To the extent that this class differential in time investments to preschool children influences cognitive achievement, our results indicate again that equal educational programs across different school systems need not imply equal educational opportunity.
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Has fatherhood changed in the wake of the social and economic changes that have taken place in America since the turn of the century? Although the evidence is scant, it would appear that the answer to this question is both yes and no. Yes, fatherhood has changed, if one looks at the culture of fatherhood--the ideologies surrounding men's parenting. No, fatherhood has not changed (at least significantly), if one looks at the conduct of fatherhood--how fathers behave vis-a-vis their children. The consequences of this asynchrony between the culture and conduct of fatherhood are, as this article demonstrates, both positive and negative and need to be addressed by family researchers and practitioners alike.
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This article defines responsible fathering, summarizes the relevant research, and presents a systemic, ecological framework to organize research and programmatic work in this area. A principal finding is that fathering is influenced, even more than mothering, by contextual factors in the family and community.
Article
Numerous researchers have examined the incidence, correlates, and predictors of childlessness. Few, however, have examined changes in intended childlessness because the longitudinal data required to track these changes are rare. We utilize the National Survey of Families and Households to examine trends in intentions to remain childless. We include both demographic and ideational variables in the analysis, and we focus on respondents between the ages of 19 and 39 years who had not had children at the beginning of the study. The largest group wants children but still postpone childbearing. The next largest group carries out their intention to have children. The third largest group switches from wanting children to not wanting children. Some are consistently childless in both surveys. Finally, a relatively small group did not intend to have a child in the first survey but subsequently had a child. Marital status is the most salient predictor for having children, but cohabitors also are more likely to have children than are single noncohabitors.
Article
Paternal involvement with children has received increased attention, yet the factors that influence variation in involvement remain largely unidentified. This analysis of fathers from a nationally representative sample explores the relationship between timing of fatherhood and men's parenting behavior and paternal affect. Multivariate analyses reveal no effects of timing on these outcomes when considered separately. Yet, differences are found on a multidimensional typology of paternal behavior and affect. Compared to "On-time" fathers, "Late" fathers are more likely to be classified as highly involved with positive paternal affect. The results call into question the notion that On-time transitions are optimal. Explanations for the findings are framed in terms of competing roles and the accumulation of psychological resources.
Article
Using the cultural and human ecology models as a guide, we assessed the associations between fathers' age, family income, length of time married, educational level, dimensions of fathers' functional style within the family, social support, and fathers' involvement in basic caregiving of their preschool-age child in intact middle to lower middle income African-American families. The data revealed that fathers spend about a third as much time as their wives in primary caregiving, and fathers' educational level, family income, communication, extrafamilial support, and length of time married were the chief variables associated with different dimensions of men's involvement with children. The data are discussed with respect to the primacy of specific factors in considering the father's role in African-American families.
Article
Using time-diary data collected from a statewide probability sample of California children aged 3-11, we examine the amount of time children spend on four activities presumed to affect their cognitive and social development - reading or being read to, watching TV, studying, and doing household chores - and how that time varies by four family characteristics: parental education, maternal employment, number of parents in the household, and family size. As expected, children of highly educated parents study and read more and watch TV less. Contrary to expectations, children of mothers who are employed part-time watch significantly less TV than children of mothers at home full-time. Otherwise, there are few significant differences by mother's extent of paid employment, the presence of a father, and the number of siblings. Thus, the results reinforce the thesis that parental education is the predominant predictor of the human and social capital investments that children receive.
Article
In the eighteenth century a Great Transformation began--a transformation rooted in even earlier times and still in progress today. This transformation is characterized by the decline of primordial institutions based on the family as the central element of social organization and the replacement of these institutions by purposively constructed organization. Sociology is itself a product of this transformation, and the stages in the Great Transformation are mirrored by changes in the central foci of sociological theory and research. The decline of primordial social organization has been accompanied by a loss of informal social capital on which social control depended before the transformation. The design of purposive organization is necessary to compensate for this loss; this design is an emerging central focus for sociology. I introduce an example, "bounties on children," to illustrate this point.
Article
This paper explores how twenty dual-earner couples with school-aged children talk about sharing child care and housework. In about half of the families, fathers are described as performing many tasks traditionally performed by mothers, but remaining in a helper role. In the other families, fathers are described as assuming equal responsibility for domestic chores. With reference to the parents' accounts of the planning, allocation, and performance of household labor, I investigate the social conditions and interactional processes that facilitate equal sharing. I describe how the routine practice of sharing child care and an ongoing marital conversation socialize the parents and help them to construct an image of the father as a competent care giver. Drawing on West and Zimmerman's (1987) formulation of “doing gender,” I suggest that household labor provides the opportunity for expressing, confirming and sometimes transforming the meaning of gender.
Article
Using ethnographic data of US white and African-American children 7-10 years of age, this study examines the role of social class in shaping the contours of childhood, pace and rhythm of life, and the amount of interweaving between parents' and children's lives. Focusing on middle-class and working-class boys, the results show that middle-class children spend time in activities organized by adults stressing public performance and skill development. Working-class children's lives tend to revolve around informal play, visiting kin and `hanging out'. Middle-class children's activities, while formally leisure, were similar to school activities. There are also parallels between middle-class children's activities and the nature of their parents' work.
Article
The roles of women and of feminine identity have been historically and traditionally constructed around motherhood. However, recent years have seen a growing trend among women to remain childless/ childfree. Drawing on interviews with 25 voluntarily childless women, this article considers the extent to which this trend results from the appeal or pull of the perceived advantages of a childfree lifestyle as well as the ways childfree women might represent a more fundamental and radical rejection of motherhood and the activities associated with it. The article concludes by considering how to recast understandings of feminine identity away from a mother-centered focus.
Article
Custodial fathers' engagement activities with their minor children are examined with data for heterosexual couples from the National Survey of Families and Households. Analyses focus on men who are currently living with a wife or nonlegal partner, and are conducted separately for fathers with children aged 0-4, 2-4, and 5-18. Fathers' and wives'/partners' level of education and fathers' work/scheduling hours were related to paternal involvement for selected models. However, analyses of these data, contrary to much of the previous research in this area, revealed that characteristics associated with wives'/partners' work scheduling status, number of hours worked, occupational prestige, percentage of couple income, and gender role attitudes were seldom, if ever, related to various models of fathers' engagement activities with their children. The strongest and most consistent predictors of paternal involvement with children 5-18 years of age were children's characteristics: age, number, biological status, and gender composition. Paternal involvement in leisure, playing and project activities, and private talks was positively related to having only male children living in the household, while fathers with only biological children were more likely to engage in playing and project activities and private talks with their children.
Article
This article examines trends in family attitudes and values across the last 4 decades of the 20th century, with particular emphasis on the past 2 decades. The article focuses on attitudes toward a wide range of family issues, including the roles of men and women, marriage, divorce, childlessness, premarital sex, extramarital sex, unmarried cohabitation, and unmarried childbearing. More generally, the article considers trends in 3 broad contemporary values: freedom; equality; and commitment to family, marriage, and children. Five data sets are used for the article: Monitoring the Future, General Social Survey, International Social Science Project, Intergenerational Panel Study of Parents and Children, and the National Survey of Families and Households. These 5 data sets reveal substantial and persistent long-term trends toward the endorsement of gender equality in families, which may have plateaued at very high levels in recent years. There have also been important and continuing long-term trends toward individual autonomy and tolerance toward a diversity of personal and family behaviors as reflected in increased acceptance of divorce, premarital sex, unmarried cohabitation, remaining single, and choosing to be childless. At the same time, marriage and family life remain important in the cultural ethos, with large and relatively stable fractions of young people believing that marriage and family life are important and planning marriage and the bearing and rearing of children.
Article
In this article, the author explores the care involved in parenting teenage children. Parenting at this stage, when teenagers are on the cusp of independence, requires strategies of monitoring and controlling children that are often not thought of as carework. The author focuses her analysis on one particular area of great concern to parents—control over teenagers' freedom of movement. Parents see control over their children's whereabouts as essential for keeping children safe. In presenting her data—interviews with mothers and teenagers—the author highlights the interactive aspect of this work. This kind of carework is above all a series of negotiations between parents and teenage children as teenagers try to gain more independence and parents try to maintain some control over them. Another important part of this analysis is to demonstrate that this type of parenting work is strongly affected by larger social forces of gender, class, and race.
Article
Research on fear of crime in the United States has concentrated on personal fear while overlooking the fear that people have for others in their lives-children, spouses, friends-whose safety they value. Sample survey data reveal that altruistic fear (fear for others) has a distinctive structure in family households and is more common and often more intense than personal fear. Many of the everyday precautions practiced by Americans and conventionally assumed to be self-protective appear to be a consequence of altruistic fear. These and other findings underscore the need to understand fear of crime as a social rather than an individual phenomenon.
Article
Research literature on fatherhood has featured a critical perspective on men's attitudes toward family life, their style of parenting, and the amount they participate in myriad aspects of daily parenting. This qualitative study explores the resourcefulness of men and women in families dedicated to organizing their family life to involve fathers. A tag-team pattern of sharing parenting emerged as a key to their success. While agreeing on the fundamentals of child care, these mothers and fathers valued differences in what each parent contributes to the tag team. Both men and women in the research couples highlighted the pragmatic benefit of approaching parenting as a tag team requiring the full and unique contribution of each partner (mother and father). Pragmatic aspects of a tag team allow each partner to maintain certain specializations while remaining essentially interchangeable in function if not in form.
Article
This study uses newly collected time diary data to assess gender differences in both quantity and quality of free time, including measures of contamination of free time by nonleisure activities such as household chores, the fragmentation of free time, and how frequently children's needs must be accommodated during free-time activities. Our findings suggest that men and women do experience free time very differently. Men tend to have more of it. Marriage and children exacerbate the gender gap and market work hours erode men's and women's free time in different ways. Our findings reveal that despite gains toward gender equality in other domains, discrepancies persist in the experience of free time.
Article
Reviews the ways in which household work has been measured and compares results obtained using different approaches to data collection. Results show that direct questions on the amount of time spent doing housework tend to overestimate the time spent when compared with time diaries. It is concluded that methodologically oriented research designed to create reliable measures of involvement in household work for inclusion in surveys is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Three hypotheses of husbands participation in domestic labor (i.e., housework and child care) are examined: (1) the relative resources hypothesis states that the more resources (e.g., socioeconomic characteristics) a husband has relative to his wife, the less domestic labor he does; (2) the sex role ideology hypothesis maintains that the more traditional the husband's sex role attitudes, the less domestic labor he performs; and (3) the demand/response capability hypothesis states that the more domestic task demands on a husband and the greater his capacity to respond to them, the greater his participation in domestic labor. OLS regression results from a nationally-representative sample of employed persons overwhelmingly supports the demand/response capability hypothesis. The analysis suggests that neither attitude change nor education will alter the division of domestic labor. Rather, findings indicate that younger men who have children, employed wives, and jobs that do not require long work hours are most likely to be involved in houschold activities.
Article
The purpose of this article is to examine how American children under age 13 spend their time, sources of variation in time use, and associations with achievement and behavior. Data come from the 1997 Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The results suggest that parents' characteristics and decisions regarding marriage, family size, and employment affect the time children spend in educational, structured, and family activities, which may affect their school achievement. Learning activities such as reading for pleasure are associated with higher achievement, as is structured time spent playing sports and in social activities. Family time spent at meals and time spent sleeping are linked to fewer behavior problems, as measured by the child's score on the Behavior Problems Index. The results support common language and myth about the optimal use of time for child development.
Article
“Family time” is often uncritically accepted as a uniform, coherent concept and a universally desirable goal. In order to fully understand the meaning of family time in experience, interviews were conducted with parents in 17 dual-earner and 11 single-parent families, and 8 observation episodes were done with 4- and 5-year-old children in childcare. What emerged was a dramatic discordance between the expectations and experiences of family time. Although families have held on to an expectation of a positive experience of togetherness, they are typically left with a feeling that there is never enough, that it is in the service of children, and that they are duty-bound by it. There is a structural contradiction between the ideals and experience of family time that is typically expressed through disillusionment and guilt.
Article
This paper uses the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine children's involvement with their fathers in intact families as measured through time spent together. Our findings suggest that although mothers still shoulder the lion's share of the parenting, fathers' involvement relative to that of mothers appears to be on the increase. A “new father” role is emerging on weekends in intact families. Different determinants of fathers' involvement were found on weekdays and on weekends. Fathers' wages and work hours have a negative relationship with the time they spend with a child on weekdays, but not on weekends. Mothers' work hours have no effect on children's time with fathers. On weekends, Black fathers were found to be less involved and Latino fathers more involved with their children than are White fathers. The weekday-weekend differential suggests that a simple gender inequality theory is not sufficient in explaining the dynamics of household division of labor in today's American families.
Article
Historical and current data sets are used to trace the time married women and men spend caring for their own children on a daily basis. The data are also used to estimate the total time parents spend in raising two children to the age of 18. The analysis is restricted to primary child care time; i.e., the actual, direct administration of personal care, including physical care (feeding, bathing, dressing, putting to bed) and such other direct personal care as teaching, chauffering, supervising, counseling, managing, training, amusing, and entertaining. Secondary parental child care time is not studied. Although white married women spent about. 56 hours per day per child in primary child care in the 1924–1931 period, by 1981, the time had decreased to about 1.00 hour per day per child. Married men spent 0.25 hours per day per child in 1975, the first year for which national data exists. By 1981, this figure had increased to 0.33 hours per day per child. Raising two children to age 18 required about 5,789 hours of a white, employed, married woman's time and 14,053 hours of a white, unemployed, married woman's time in 1981. Husbands of white, employed married women spent about 1,500 more hours in raising two children to age 18 than the husbands of white, unemployed married women.
Article
The current experiment was designed to examine perceptions of employed and unemployed mothers and fathers in the context of Eagly's [(1987) Sex Differences in Social Behavior: A Social-Role Interpretation, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum] social role theory of sex differences in social behavior. Participants, who were students from a private college with a primarily white student body, read a brief description of a mother or father who was employed or had given up employment in order to stay at home with a young child. Reasons for current or previous employment were either financial or for personal fulfillment. As predicted by Eagly's social role theory, participants rated employed mothers and fathers similarly and perceived them to be more agentic and less communal than unemployed mothers and fathers. Approval ratings deteriorated significantly when a father sacrificed financial security for care giving; the same behavior by mothers received high approval. These findings provided evidence of a continuing societal mandate for fathers (and not mothers) to provide financially for their families.
Article
This paper puts recent feminist theorizing about “care” within an economic context by developing the concept of caring labor and exploring possible reasons for its undervaluation. It describes the relevance of tensions between neoclassical and institutionalist thought, as well as between pro-market and anti-market views. The final section explores the implications for feminist public policy.
Article
As soon as men and women … acquire the habit of weighing the individual advantages and disadvantages of any prospective course of action … they cannot fail to become aware of the heavy personal sacrifices that family ties and especially parenthood entail under modern conditions. (Schumpeter 1988/1942, pp. 501–502)