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Rocks & Minerals
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Gemstone Deposits in Turkey
Murat Hatipoglu
, Hakki Babalik
& Steven C. Chamberlain
Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey
Adnan Menderes University, Turkey
Karacasu Multidisciplinary Vocational School
New York State Museum, Albany, New York
Available online: 08 Jul 2010
To cite this article: Murat Hatipoglu, Hakki Babalik & Steven C. Chamberlain (2010): Gemstone Deposits in Turkey, Rocks &
Minerals, 85:2, 124-133
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 96*2:405,9(3:
espite having significant gemstone deposits, Turkey
is not known as a producer of gemstones. In this
article, we summarize six deposits: diaspore, fire
opal, blue chalcedony, amethyst, smoky quartz, and agate.
Close scrutiny of a recent compendium of mineral locali-
ties (Bernard and Hyrsl 2004) shows that only gem diaspore
is recognized as coming from Turkey and then only in the
past decade or so. Current commercial sources of amethyst
include Uruguay, Brazil, Zambia, Mozambique, Mexico, and
Siberia. Fire opal is commercially available from Mexico and
Brazil. Smoky quartz is available from numerous sources
including Brazil, Madagascar, Russia, Scotland, Switzerland,
and Ukraine. Blue chalcedony for gemstone use is produced
in Nevada (Mount Airy blue), California (Mohave blue), and
Namibia (African blue). Commercial production of agates
is geographically widespread and includes Brazil, Mexico,
Botswana, Australia, Argentina, and the United States (Min-
nesota, Montana, and South Dakota), but not Turkey. In
fact, significant deposits of all six of these gemstones occur
in Turkey.
As shown in figure 1, Turkey comprises the Anatolian
plate, which is wedged between much larger tectonic plates,
including the African plate, the Arabian plate, the Black
Sea plate, and the Aegean plate. These plates have been ac-
tively moving at least since the Paleocene (65 million years
ago [mya]). As a result, Turkey experiences frequent, often
serious earthquakes (Tan, Tapirdamaz, and Yörük 2008),
such as the pair of deadly quakes that occurred in 1999
along the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAF, fig. 1). Gener-
ally, the gemstone occurrences described here are found in
Gemstone Deposits
Izmir Multidisciplinary
Vocational School and
Graduate School of Natural
Applied Sciences
Dokuz Eylul University
35160 Buca-Izmir, Turkey
Karacasu Memnune Inci
Vocational School
Adnan Menderes University
09730 Karacasu-Aydin, Turkey
Center for Mineralogy
3140 CEC
New York State Museum
Albany, New York 12230
A 24.31-carat faceted diaspore from Milas-Mugla, Turkey. Photo by
Murat Hatipoglu.
All photos by the authors
in Turkey
Figure 1. Map showing the intersections of five tectonic plates on the Anatolian Peninsula that
comprises modern Turkey. Volcanic and tectonic activity along the major fault zones (shown)
and many minor zones (not shown) are responsible for much of the gemstone mineralization
summarized in this article (modified from Yagmurlu 2000).
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metamorphic, volcanic, and sedimentary rocks of relatively
young ages (Tertiary) (e.g., Cater and Tunbridge 1992; Co-
hen et al. 1995; Bozkurt and Sözbilir 2004). Figure 2 shows
the provinces in which the deposits of the six gemstones are
located. By comparing figures 1 and 2, the general relation-
ships between the gemstone deposits and the tectonically ac-
tive regions becomes clear.
Although there are numerous localities worldwide
for diaspore crystals and several that have produced
gem material in limited quantities, only the deposits
in southwestern Turkey in the Mugla-Milas-Pinarcik
region (fig. 2) contain commercial quantities of gem-
quality diaspore. The mines are located about 16 ki-
lometers northwest of Milas and about 50 kilometers
west-northwest of the city of Mugla in Mugla Province
(fig. 3). Excavations were carried out for many years
for aluminum ore (fig. 4) by the Eti Holding Mining
Company (a government corporation), but eventu-
ally they were stopped because the ore was no longer
a profitable source of aluminum. The ore consists of
metamorphosed bauxite mixed with small grains of
diaspore. Large crystals of diaspore capable of yielding
faceted stones largely occur in fracture zones in the
adjacent marbles and more rarely in the outer zone
of brecciated lenses of metamorphosed bauxite inter-
posed with zones of marble.
Many of the diaspore crystals were distorted by
postformational tectonic activity extending from the
Oligocene (37.8 mya) to the Miocene (23.8 mya), so
they are more suitable for use as gem rough (marketed
as “zultanite”) than as mineral specimens (fig. 5). Re-
cently, however, some spectacular crystallized speci-
mens of diaspore have also been produced that may
be among the finest known (Moore 2008).
Unfortunately, exploration geologists seeking alu-
minum ore did not document the reserves of diaspore
crystals, and none were saved as a byproduct of meta-
bauxite mining. Some indication of the significant
amount of gem diaspore in the deposits is given by the
statistic that between 1978 and 1984 about 10 tons of
diaspore crystals were illegally extracted. These were even-
tually delivered to government officials, but most were then
dispatched abroad (Saatcioglu 2004).
Dr. Murat Hatipoglu is an assistant professor at Dokuz Eylul
University in Turkey. He is the coordinator of the Gemology
and Jewelry Program in the Izmir Multidisciplinary Vocational
School and director and senior staff gemologist of the Dokuz
Eylul Geomological Testing Laboratory.
Hakki Babalik is an instructor at Adnan Menderes Uni-
versity in Turkey. He is coordinator of the Jewelry Design and
Lapidary Program and director of the Lapidary Workshop at
the Karacasu Multidisciplinary Vocational School.
Dr. Steven C. Chamberlain is the coordinator of the Cen-
ter for Mineralogy at the New York State Museum in Albany,
New York, and the chairman of the Rochester Mineralogical
Figure 2 (top). Map of Turkey showing selected provinces. Those contain-
ing localities for gemstones discussed in this article are color coded.
Figure 3 (above). Location of deposit of gem diaspore in Mugla Province.
Figure 4. Old entrance to the Kucuk Camiliktepe diasporitic
bauxite mine, which produced gem diaspore (zultanite) crystals.
The surrounding rock is marble.
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 96*2:405,9(3:
Most of the world’s supply of gem-quality fire opal has
come from the state of Queretaro in Mexico, hence the trade
name Mexican opal (Koivula, Freyer, and Keller 1983; Spen-
cer, Levinson, and Koivula 1992; Fritsch, Wery, and Ostrou-
mov 1999; Fritsch et al. 2006; Schütz 2007). More recently,
limited quantities of fine gem rough have been mined in the
states of Paiui and Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil (Farrar 2007).
Gem-quality fire opal is also found in the Kutahya-
Saphane-Karamanca region of Turkey (figs. 2, 6), although
references to this deposit in the literature are scant (Fischer
2007). The deposit is just east of the village of Simav, about
10 kilometers northwest of the town of Saphane in Kütahya
Province. The fire opal fills vesicles in rhyolite.
Legend holds that the Lydians mined opal in Turkey in
ancient times and that it was recovered by the Genoese about
550 years ago—there is still one
mine called the Genoese mine in
the region. Commercial mining
of nearby alunite deposits com-
menced in the 1850s. Several
mining companies, especially
those based in Germany, recog-
nized the gemological impor-
tance of the fire-opal deposits
nearby. German companies
mined fire opal from the gal-
leries and fracture zones during
World War I, between 1914 and
1919. Mining continued inter-
mittently in the 1940s, 1950s,
and 1980s (fig. 7). Millions of
tons of rhyolitic waste can be
seen today as evidence of past
episodes of intense mining; in-
deed, local freelance collectors
still recover fire opal from the
dumps and export it. Unfortu-
nately, most of it is still marketed
as Mexican opal, although some
collectors are becoming aware of
the true locality (Fischer 2007).
Pure opal samples vary from
the size of a lentil to that of a walnut and show a range of
colors including brownish-red, red, pink, orange, yellow, and
colorless. The rough provides excellent material for cutting
cabochons (fig. 8).
Deposits of blue chalcedony are commercially exploited
in North America and Africa. Mining has also begun in
Turkey, where there are numerous blue chalcedony depos-
its with commercial potential. Bolu-Kibriscik, Afyon-Bayat
Izmir-Aliaga, and Tokat-Zile have important deposits, but
the most important and economically viable deposit is in the
Figure 5. Rough and cut diaspore crystals. a: An 84-gram piece of olive-oil-colored diaspore, with
internal cleavage planes. b: A 480-gram fragment of a diaspore crystal. c: A 687-gram V-shaped
group of bicolored diaspore crystals (olive-oil-colored and pink) of a sort rarely found. d: A
26.34-carat, faceted, pear-shaped diaspore stone of dark olive-oil color and very good clarity.
Figure 6. Location of deposit of fire opal in Kütahya Province.
Figure 7. Open-pit Karamanca fire-opal mine in rhyolite.
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Figure 8. Rough and cut fire opal. a: Brownish-red, red, and colorless fire opal filling
vesicles. b: All the colors of fire opal found in the Turkish deposits—brownish-red,
red, yellow, pink, orange, and colorless. c: Cut and polished cabochons of red and
colorless fire opal. d: Cabochons of orange fire opal.
Figure 9. Location of deposit of blue chalcedony in Eskisehir
Figure 10. Blue chalcedony nodules in the fault breccia.
Eskisehir-Saricakaya-Mayislar region (fig.
2). The Sirri Gerçin Chalcedony Mining
Company currently operates a mine (Ger-
cin 2005) just east of Saricakaya in Eskise-
hir Province (fig. 9).
The blue chalcedony occurs as sedimen-
tary nodules in a brecciated sandstone-
arkose (fig. 10). In most cases, a blue core
is surrounded by a brownish-yellow crust
about 5 mm thick, although occasionally a
thinner ivory crust surrounds the blue core
(fig. 11). The nodules typically range from
5 to 15 cm in diameter; however, nodules
to 70 cm in diameter are recovered. Some
show a dark blue color when broken or cut,
but occasionally violet chalcedony forms
the inside of the nodules—a color rarely
found anywhere else. The chalcedony of
these nodules is compact, durable, and
readily worked for cut stones and gem-
stone carvings.
Amethyst is a common gemstone world-
wide; however, most current commercial
production comes from South America,
Africa, and Mexico. Turkey has an operat-
ing mine for gem amethyst in the Balike-
sir-Dursunbey-Gugu region (fig. 2). The
Alacam Amethyst Mining Company is
producing single amethyst crystals vary-
ing in size from 2 to 12 mm. The mine is
about 8 kilometers south of Dursunbey in
Balikesir Province (fig. 12).
Local miners had extracted about 50
tons of amethyst specimens from the 1960s
through 2003, when professional commer-
cial mining began (fig. 13). The specimens
are extracted as a druse of crystals on a thin
matrix of host rock and are then broken
into single crystals for use as gem rough.
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 96*2:405,9(3:
Since 2003, about 100 tons of gem rough and small amethyst
crystals on matrix have been sold.
The amethyst crystals line the edges of lenticular voids
among the fractures and joints in a ryolitic-dacitic host rock.
Each mineralized lens has a length of 6–10 meters, a width
of 0.4–1.0 meter, and a depth of 0.2–0.6 meter. Amethyst in
this deposit ranges in color from purple through violet, li-
Figure 12. Location of amethyst deposit in Balikesir Province.
Figure 13. Open-pit mine exposing lenses of amethyst crystals.
lac, heliotrope, and orchid hues and provides rough
suitable for fine faceted stones (fig. 14).
Like amethyst, smoky quartz deposits are widely
distributed, and many of them are exploited com-
mercially, including some in Brazil, Madagascar,
Russia, Scotland, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Brazil is
currently the largest producer and exporter of gem-
quality smoky quartz. Turkey has a huge number
of smoky quartz veins in the Menderes Massif, but
only some of them contain gem-quality crystals, es-
pecially those in the Kocarli, Karacasu, and Cine dis-
tricts of Aydin Province (figs. 2, 15). None of these
smoky quartz deposits have yet been mined profes-
sionally; however, a commercial mining company
has obtained a license to mine some promising veins
in the region, and field studies and seismic investi-
gations are underway.
The smoky quartz occurs in fractures that have
been repeatedly mineralized by hydrothermal solu-
tions forming mineralized veins and lenses (fig. 16).
Veins may be 0.2–8 meters wide with a length of 1–7
meters and a depth of 10–30 meters. Lenses are typi-
cally 0.5–2 meters wide, 3–10 meters long, and 3–6
meters deep.
Specimens are generally extracted as matrix
pieces weighing up to 180 kilograms, although most
specimens vary between 0.3 and 5 kilograms. The
color ranges from pale to dark smoky-brown and
occasionally to the black variety, morion (fig. 17).
As gemstones, agates are distinct from the others dis-
cussed in this article in that colors and patterns vary so
greatly from locality to locality (see Zenz 2005 for a review).
Although Brazil is probably still the major commercial pro-
Figure 11. Rough and cut blue chalcedony nodules. a: Rough
nodules ranging from 5 to 25 cm in diameter. b: Cut cabochon
mounted in a 14-karat gold ring and a rough nodule of the ideal
blue color.
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Figure 14. Rough and cut amethyst crystals. a, b, c: Druses of amethyst crystals coat thin matrix of rhyolite-dacite rock. The amethyst
shows a range in color including heliotrope, lilac, dark purple, violet, dark orchid, pale orchid, and pale lilac. d: Small pieces of natural
amethyst crystals mounted in a silver necklace-earrings-ring set. e, f: Two views of a 147-carat violet faceted stone.
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 96*2:405,9(3:
Figure 15 (above). Map showing several smoky quartz deposits
in Aydin Province.
Figure 16 (right). Smoky quartz veins in gneiss and schist are
exposed at the surface where they can be exploited by villagers.
Figure 17. Rough and cut smoky quartz crystals. a: Loose and matrix specimens of morion. The crystals range from finger sized to
arm sized. b: A 20.3-cm-long single crystal of smoky quartz. c: Irregular-shaped faceted smoky quartz gems showing various shades of
brown. d: Two faceted smoky quartz stones mounted in a silver necklace.
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ducer, agates are currently available commercially from every
continent except Antarctica. In Turkey, the Cubuk-Susuz re-
gion in Ankara Province has commercially viable agate de-
posits that have not yet been exploited (fig. 2), although they
are known to agate collectors (Mason 1970; Swindle 1974;
Zenz 2005).
The deposits are located about 35 kilometers northeast
of Ankara just southwest of the town of Sabanözü (fig. 18).
Here, agates occur in andesite, which locally is basaltic, and
rhyolite of Miocene age. Agates formed in andesite as open-
space fillings in crevice and fissure-vein cavities, so their
orientation is stratiform, not nodular. By contrast, agates
formed in rhyolite as fillings in regular and irregular vesicles.
Agate mineralization outcrops on the Ankara-Cubuk plain
(fig. 19).
Figure 18 (top). Map showing several deposits of agate in Ankara
Figure 19 (above). Barred agate layers exist in the stratified
andesite that forms this outcrop.
Figure 20 (right). Rough and cut agate nodules. a: Three polished
samples of agates—a fortification agate on the left and barred
agates in the center and on the right. b: Polished specimens of
moss agate with banded agate at the top. c: Two decorative cut
and polished samples of common agate with an agate cabochon
mounted in a handcrafted silver ring.
Agates hosted in andesite and basalt often have barred
inclusions where chalcedony has replaced zeolites and other
earlier minerals (fig. 20). The bars have a rectangular pris-
matic shape or an acicular shape, resulting from chalcedony
or quartz replacement or hollow tubes reflecting the original
crystallized framework. These agates occur individually and
are called barred agates (Hatipoglu and Dora 1999). Others
have concentric bands, but these are not horizontal Uruguay
bands and are, therefore, fortification agates.
Agates hosted in rhyolite often have sagenitic or mosslike
inclusions with tubiform structures and both concentric and
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 96*2:405,9(3:
horizontal Uruguay banding. These agates are generally re-
ferred to as moss agates (fig. 20).
Our field examination of the gemstone deposits discussed
in this article revealed that Turkey has significant commer-
cially viable reserves of all of them. Were these deposits pro-
fessionally mined, hundreds of millions of dollars of gem
rough could be produced, and this mineral wealth could be
the basis for an expanded Turkish gem and jewelry industry,
given that most gem rough is currently imported. Past unli-
censed mining and trade in Turkish gem rough have demon-
strated that the quality of the product meets the standards
of international buyers. We estimate that 90 percent of the
economic potential for gemstone production in Turkey is
still underground. The future prospects for commercial de-
velopment appear to be excellent.
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... Compared to other existing commercial materials, topaz is the hardest material, physio-chemically resistant to weathering, and possesses thermoluminescent characteristics [1]. Natural colorless topaz is largely utilized in jewelry, and the irradiation process is commonly employed to artificially induce colors in it [2]. In the jewelry industry, artificial methods are employed to induce colors in topaz, which include (i) irradiation with neutron, electrons and gamma rays followed by low-temperature annealing, (ii) colored metal oxide coating and (iii) heat treatment in different chemical atmospheres [3,4]. ...
Full-text available
We present results of calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis of natural colorless topaz crystal of local Pakistani origin. Topaz plasma was produced in the ambient air using a nanosecond laser pulse of width 5 ns and wavelength 532 nm. For the purpose of detection of maximum possible constituent elements within the Topaz sample, the laser fluences were varied, ranging 19.6–37.6 J·cm−2 and optical emission from the plasma was recorded within the spectral range of 250–870 nm. The spectrum obtained has shown the presence of seven elements viz. Al, Si, F, O, H, Na and N. Results shows that the fluorine was detected at laser fluence higher than 35 J·cm−2 and plasma temperature of >1 eV. Al and Si were found as the major compositional elements in topaz crystals. The ratios of concentrations of Al and Si were found as 1.55 and 1.59 estimated by CF-LIBS and EDX, respectively. Furthermore, no impurity was found in the investigated colorless topaz samples.
... İnceleme alanındaki opallerde silis yerine demir ve alüminyumun geçmesi ile oluşan safsızlıklar belirlenmiştir. Ülkemizde süstaşı konusunda yapılan çalışmalar sayılı olup, Batı Anadolu, Orta Anadolu ve Karadeniz Bölgeleri'nde yoğunlaşmaktadır [18,19]. Bu çalışmanın temel amacı Arguvan-Malatya bölgesinde bulunan silisli süstaşlarının (krizokol ve opal) arazideki dağılımı, parajenetik ilişkileri ile mineralojik, jeokimyasal ve gemolojik özelliklerinin ortaya çıkarılarak süstaşı olarak kullanılabilirliğinin belirlenmesidir. ...
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Yamadağ Volcanics which is one of the examples of the Late Miocene volcanism in Eastern Anatolia covers largeareas within the boundaries of Arguvan county of Malatya. The gemstones, subject of this research range from afew centimeters to about 30-40 cm in size and are formed in the cavities of the basalts beonging to Yamadağ volcanics. These gemstones seem to have formed as veins extending in east-west direction and consist of opal (opal-CT) and chrysocolla. Opal formations have various colours such as white, brown, yellow and greenish, while chrysocolla formations are bluish-greenish in color. both opal and chrysocolla are of massive type and their fresh surfaces display waxy luster. Mineral paragenesis and formation conditions of gemstones and are determined by applying XRD, SEM, FT-IR techniques. ICP-MS technique is used for the determination of the geochemical compositions. The gemological characteristics are identified via cabochon and facet cut techniques by using diamond coating blade, sintered diamond abrasive discs and polishing machine. Opals are usually composed of tridymite minerals, also in some cases quartz and cristobalite minerals accompany the tridymite minerals. The EDX measurements reveal, enrichment of Fe and Al in opals, and of Cu in chrysocolla. The ICP-MS measurements, in chrysocollas reveal, enrichments in LIL elements such as Ba, Sr and in HFS elements such as U. Consequently, gemological studies show that the chrysocolla and opals in study area, which have waxy luster and massive structure, are suitable for utilization as a gemstone due to its color, hardness, durability, homogeneous distribution of color and processability. (17) YAMADAĞ VOLKANİTLERİ İÇERİSİNDE SİLİSLİ SÜSTAŞLARI: Mineralojik, Jeokimyasal, Gemolojik Özellikleri ve Ekonomik Önemleri, Arguvan-Malatya. Available from: [accessed May 14 2018].
There are 6 semi-precious gemstones in Turkey that are the most significant in terms of abundance and authenticity. These include smoky quartz, blue chalcedony, chrysoprase (aka Şenkaya emerald), diaspore (aka sultanite/zultanite), sepiolite (aka meerschaum/Eskişehirstone), and jet (aka Oltustone). The smoky quartz occurs in the south of Büyük Menderes Basin within metamorphic rocks of the massif. Chalcedony occurrences are in Çanakkale and Sarıcakaya (Eskişehir). Chrysoprase is acquired in Bursa, Alaşehir (Manisa) as yellowish green in color, Biga (Çanakkale), Sivrihisar (Eskişehir) and Şenkaya (Erzurum) as dark green in color. Diaspore occurs in Milas (Muğla), Söke (Aydın), Tire (İzmir), Bolkardağı Gerdekkilise area and Saimbeyli (Adana). Sepiolite occurrences are limited to Kıbrısçık-Köroğlu (Bolu), Eskişehir and Konya. Jet (aka Oltustone) occurs in Oltu area (Erzurum). These are the major varieties that has been used to produce both jewelry and ornamental objects among which the prayer beads are one of the most indispensable object of oriental cultures in particular. These are also considered to be the authentic gems of Turkey and exported as raw and processed in into many forms. As for the prayer beads, lightness, color, durability, hardness, and cost are the main criteria. Thus, the Oltustone has been the major source for decades. However, the Eskişehir stone and blue chalcedony are becoming popular as well.
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Son birkaç on yılda, şifalı olarak bilinen taşlar yapay olarak üretilip doğal olanların aksine çok düşük fiyatla piyasaya sürülmeye devam etmektedir. Bu ticari pazara alt yapı oluşturmak amacıyla bilimsel temeli olmayan birçok kitap, materyal ve uygulama bilinçsizce insanların kullanımına sunulmaktadır. Şifalı taşların insanlar üzerindeki olumlu etkilerinin kanıtlandığı nicel bilimsel çalışmalar yoktur. Nitel çalışmaların sayısı ise çok azdır. Bu alandaki bilimsel çalışmaların eksikliği bilim dışı çalışmalar ve bilimsel yetkinlikte olmayan kişilerce işgal edilmektedir. Plasebo etkisi; tesirsiz bir ilacın, nesnenin veya uygulamanın telkine dayalı olumlu bir etki ortaya çıkarma durumudur. Bu çalışmanın amacı; şifalı olarak bilinen taşların plasebo etkisine yönelik yapılması planlanan projenin anket hazırlama sürecini ve dar kapsamlı istatistiki sonuçlarını kapsamaktadır. Yöntem olarak gözlem altında anket tekniği tercih edilmiştir. Anket sorularının istatistiki olarak değerlendirilmesinde ise yüzde oranı kullanılmıştır. Sonuç olarak, insanlar arasında kavram olarak “Plasebo Etkisi” çok az bilinmektedir. Ancak deneklere anlaşılabilir bir şekilde ifade edildiğinde taşlardan şifa aramak eyleminin çok yüksek oranda plasebo etkisi ile ilişkilendirildiği görülmektedir.
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Massive-nodular and crystal-faced gemstones; humanity has been used as a sign of embellishment and social status since the earliest periods of history because of its unique color, figure appearance and physico-chemical properties which are mineralogical phenomena, but also by means of magical meanings, war tool 'and healing have been used as' means of manipulation of positive events' such as peace, happiness, blessing. Indeed, the lapidary and jewelries mounted gems, in the first man, began in the form of amulet beads (rounded and internally perforated objects) for both earthly and spiritual purposes. Therefore, the use of these stones serving purposes such as religion, amulet, magic and lucky charm, the dead gift, god presentation, concession and class indicator, social status and marital status indicator, tribal marking tool, symbolic communication tool, of course, served for purposes such as ornamentation that preserved its validity both in the past and today. Another important function that still maintains its validity is beliefs, which include the prevention of bad eyes, defeating the existing evils, the aim of increasing the quality of life materially / spiritually and physically. In this study, applications and recommendations for the use of some sample stones in ancient and medieval times for the purpose of charm-protective-healing-therapy will be considered in the category of "traditional complementary medicine" in public health. However, besides the basic principles and predictions of the science of gemology that investigate how the gemstones are formed, their physical and chemical properties, this study also contains important determinations that the unconscious use of these stones for protection and / or remediation may cause significant damage.
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There are chalcedony and amethyst formations in two fields in Aydıncık-Yozgat (West of Aydıncık District, Keşlik area and Southwestern of Hacıilyas). The gemstones in this region have been formed within the gaps and cracks of the brecciated rocks of the fault zone in altered andesites. Chalcedony and amethyst are either present in the form of crack fillings from a few millimeters to 10 cm in width, or in the form of generally oval pore fillings reaching a few centimeters to 40 cm in diameter. The chalcedony is composed of 0.1-mm–centimeter-thick bands parallel to each other in varying tones ranging from light blue/white to dark blue to reddish brown, and in some points in the central part of this banded structure are large crystalline quartz and amethysts. Chalcedony occurs as kidney—banded and geodesic forms as cryptocrystalline and macrocrystalline. The altered volcanic rock with brecciated texture, which hosts chalcedony and amethyst occurrences in both regions, is the altered andesite. Petrographic examinations carried out from chalcedony and amethysts indicated that gemstones composed of fine-coarse grained quartz have microcrystalline texture in the rim zones and have macrocrystalline texture toward the core. XRD analysis of chalcedony and amethyst with different colors and crystal grain sizes revealed that gemstones in the region were composed of large and microcrystalline quartz. When amethyst, blue chalcedony, and reddish brown chalcedony were compared to white transparent quartz, there was a significant increase in the amounts of Fe2O3 and Al2O3, and metal elements (Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Mn, Cr) in the case of amethyst and reddish brown chalcedony. The visible reserves of chalcedony and amethysts in the region, their dimensions and varying color range, and large-grained texture and physical properties show that the chalcedonies and amethyst formations can be used as gemstones. Use of these formations as gemstones also makes a significant contribution to the regional economy.
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İnceleme sahasında bulunan yarı değerli süstaşı oluşumları Yozgat ili Aydıncık ilçesi batısı Keşlik mevkii ve Hacıilyas güneybatısı olmak üzere iki bölgede yüzeylemektedir. Her iki bölgedeki süstaşları altere andezitlerdeki fay zonunda gelişmiş breşler içerisindeki boşluk ve çatlaklarda oluşmuşlardır. Bu oluşumlar küçük boyutlara sahip olup ebatları birkaç milimetreden on santimetreye ulaşan çatlak dolgusu ya da çapı birkaç santimetreden- kırk santimetreye ulaşan gözenek dolguları şeklindedir. Süstaşları açık mavi/beyazdankoyu mavi-kahverengimsi kızıla kadar değişen tonlarda birbirine paralel 0.1 mm- santimetre kalınlığında bantlardan oluşmaktadır. Yer yer bu bantlı yapının merkez kesimlerinde iri kristalli kuvars mineralleri içeren kalsedonlar ve ametistlerden oluşmaktadır. Kalsedon oluşumları kriptokristalli ve makrokristalli olarak böbreğimsi - bantlı yapılı ve jeod şeklinde gözlenmektedir. Her iki bölgedeki kalsedon ve ametist oluşumlarının ev sahipliğini yapan breşik dokulu altere volkanik kayaç, altere andezitlerdir. Altere andezitler hipokristalin hipidiyomorf porfirik dokuya sahip olup, feno kristal olarak plajioklas+amfibol mineral parajenezinden oluşmaktadırlar. Kalsedon ve ametistlerden yapılan petrografik incelemelerde süstaşlarının ince-iri taneli kuvars mineralinden oluştuğu kenar zonlarda mikrokristalin merkeze doğru makrokristalin bir dokuya sahip olduğu, mikroçatlaklarda yoğun demir oksitleşmeler içerdiği belirlenmiştir. Aynı zamanda farklı renk ve kristal tane boyuna sahip kalsedon ve ametistlerden yapılan XRD çekimleri sonucuna göre de, bölgedeki süs taşlarının iri ve mikro kristalli kuvars mineralinden oluştukları gözlenmiştir. Bölgedeki kalsedon ve ametistlerin görünür rezervleri, boyutları, kalsedonlardaki açık maviden koyu parlament mavisine kadar değişen ve yer yer kızıl kahve renkler, ametistlerde açık mordan koyu mora kadar değişen renk çeşitliliği ve iri kristtalli yapısı, bu kalsedon ve ametist oluşumlarının süstaşı olarak kullanılabilir olduklarını gösteren niteliklerdir. Bu oluşumların süstaşı olarak kullanılması, bölge ekonomisine önemli oranda katkı da sağlamaktadır
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The earthquake,data from instrumental records in the last 40 years indicate the general seismicity of the earth. However, examining historical records is necessary to understand long-term seismicity. Catalogue studies about historical earthquakes in Turkey are limited. All these catalogues are on printed paper and a digital database has not yet been prepared. On the other hand, there is no common database for the focal mechanism solutions of the recent destructive earthquakes (Mw≥5.5) in the region. The present study aims to prepare,two new digital databases for earth scientists so that the earthquake parameters can be reached from a single source. The first one is ‘The Historical Earthquake Catalogue of Turkey’ which includes parameters,of the,earthquakes occurring between 2100 B.C. and 1963 A.D. This database contains approximately 2285 events and is presented as an electronic supplement. The second dataset, ‘The Focal Mechanism Solutions Catalogue of Turkey’, contains fault plane solution parameters,of the,destructive earthquakes occurring between,1938 and 2004. All available mechanism solutions of the destructive earthquakes were collected, although the global moment tensor solutions reported via the internet were not included in the present study. Key Words: Turkey, historical earthquakes, focal mechanism solutions, earthquake catalogue Türkiye Deprem Katalo¤u
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Western Turkey is one of the most spectacular regions of widespread active continental extension in the world. The most prominent structures of this region are ES extension along the Gediz Graben occurred during two episodes, each characterized by a distinct structural styles: (1) rapid exhumation of Menderes Massif in the footwall of low-angle normal fault (core-complex mode) during the Miocene; (2) late stretching of crust producing EQuaternary times, separated by a short-time gap. The later phase is characterized by the deposition of now nearly horizontal sediments of Pliocene age in the hanging walls of the high-angle normal faults and present-day graben floor sediments. The evolution of extension is at variance with orogenic collapse and/or back-arc extension followed by the combined effect of tectonic escape and subduction rollback processes along the Aegean-Cyprean subduction zone. Consequently, it is misleading to describe the Miocene sediments exhumed on shoulders of the Gediz Graben as simple graben fill.
The opals occur in gas cavities in rhyolitic lava flows. About 3000 opals were examined for inclusions; 20 examples are described. Inclusions include three- and two-phase inclusions as well as hornblende, limonite pseudomorphs after hornblende, goethite, hematite, fluorite, quartz, cristobalite, kaolin and pyrite. The identity of the fluorite, cristobalite, kaolin and pyrite are tentative.-R.V.D.
The Buyuk Menderes and Gediz graben of western Turkey developed during Miocene to Recent extension in the Aegean region. New mapping of structures and sedimentary lithofacies in exhumed basin-fill strata is used to reconstruct the evolution of the graben. Field evidence shows that extension was primarily accommodated by tilted fault-blocks 0.2-0.8 km wide, bounded by planar faults, with some modification by antithetic faulting. The basins are faulted on both margins, although they are highly asymmetric, with dominant 'footwall' margins characterized by steeper topography and greater thicknesses of exhumed strata. Within exhumed graben-fill sequences, lacustrine, axial fluvial, and laterally-derived sedimentary facies can be identified. Palaeocurrent orientations, divergent wedge geometries and intra-basin unconformities all indicate that exposed sediments are syn-tectonic. The present day map patterns demonstrate that the position of graben-bounding faults has migrated basinward with time. As a result, large-scale erosion and recycling of the uplifted basin fill have created extensive footwall-derived alluvial fans. These displace the axial drainage towards the hanging-wall margins, away from the locus of greatest subsidence.
A review of published data for the Palaeozoic of SE Turkey, together with facies distribution and palaeo-fault maps derived from regional field data, are used to interpret the Palaeozoic tectonic history of the region. Intracratonic rifting events in the Early Cambrian and the Early Ordovician led to syn-rift deposition within fault-bounded basins. Marine transgressions across the region in the mid-Cambrian and mid-to-Late Ordovician were probably influenced by regional thermal subsidence after each rifting event, in addition to (glacio-)eustatic mechanisms. Marine transgressions in the Early Silurian and Early Carboniferous are thought to have been entirely eustatic in origin. Poorly-constrained, Late Palaeozoic facies variations across the region can be related to uplift during the Caledonian and Hercynian orogenic episodes. Widespread tilting and erosion before the Cretaceous, which has removed much of the Late Palaeozoic record from this region, resulted from uplift at the edges of a major rift system which was initiated during the Triassic-to-Jurassic opening of the Southern Neotethys.