ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Copper oxide (CuO) has broad-spectrum anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties. The aim of this study was to test the acaricidal efficacy of CuO-impregnated fabrics on the common house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae. The overall vitality/mobility of the mites was reduced when they were exposed to the CuO-impregnated fabrics and, when possible, the dust mites migrated to fabrics where no CuO was present. The mortality of mites exposed for 10 days to fabrics containing 0.2% (w/w) CuO was significantly higher than the mortality of mites on control fabrics (72 ± 4 and 18.9 ± 0.3%, respectively). The mortality reached 95.4 and 100% with fabrics containing 0.4 and 2% CuO after 47 and 5 days, respectively. The acaricidal effect of copper oxide seems to be due to direct toxicity. The use of fabrics containing copper oxide may thus be an important avenue for reducing house dust mite populations, and for reducing the load of dust mite allergens.
Content may be subject to copyright.
This article was downloaded by:[Borkow, Gadi]
On: 30 June 2008
Access Details: [subscription number 794527262]
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954
Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK
International Journal of Pest
Management
Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:
http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713797655
Copper oxide-impregnated fabrics for the control of
house dust mites
Kosta Y. Mumcuoglu
a
; Jeffrey Gabbay
b
; Gadi Borkow
b
a
Department of Parasitology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School,
Jerusalem, Israel
b
Cupron Inc., Greensboro, NC, USA
Online Publication Date: 01 July 2008
To cite this Article: Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y., Gabbay, Jeffrey and Borkow, Gadi
(2008) 'Copper oxide-impregnated fabrics for the control of house dust mites',
International Journal of Pest Management, 54:3, 235 — 240
To link to this article: DOI: 10.1080/09670870802010856
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09670870802010856
PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE
Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdf
This article maybe used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction,
re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly
forbidden.
The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be
complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be
independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings,
demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or
arising out of the use of this material.
Downloaded By: [Borkow, Gadi] At: 12:03 30 June 2008
Copper oxide-impregnated fabrics for the control of house dust mites
Kosta Y. Mumcuoglu
a
, Jeffrey Gabbay
b
and Gadi Borkow
b
*
a
Department of Parasitology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel;
b
Cupron Inc., Greensboro,
NC, USA
(Received 28 October 2007; final version received 25 February 2008)
Copper oxide (CuO) has broad-spectrum anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties. The aim of this study was to
test the acaricidal efficacy of CuO-impregnated fabrics on the common house dust mite, Dermatophagoides
farinae. The overall vitality/mobility of the mites was reduced when they were exposed to the CuO-impregnated
fabrics and, when possible, the dust mites migrated to fabrics where no CuO was present. The mortality of mites
exposed for 10 days to fabrics containing 0.2% (w/w) CuO was significantly higher than the mortality of mites on
control fabrics (72 + 4 and 18.9 + 0.3%, respectively). The mortality reached 95.4 and 100% with fabrics
containing 0.4 and 2% CuO after 47 and 5 days, respectively. The acaricidal effect of copper oxide seems to be due
to direct toxicity. The use of fabrics containing copper oxide may thus be an important avenue for reducing house
dust mite populations, and for reducing the load of dust mite allergens.
Keywords: acaricide; house dust mites; allergy; copper oxide; fabrics; Dermatophagoides farinae; control
1. Introduction
It is estimated that 15% of the Western general
population suffer from one or mo re allergic disorders
of which allergic rhinitis is the most common (Skoner
2001). The latter condition affects an estimated 20–40
million people in the USA alone. Similarly, nearly 15
million Americans, including almost 5 million chil-
dren, have asthma. Approximately 5500 persons die
each year from asthma (Redd 2002).
House dust mites (HDM) are considered to be an
important source of allergen implicated in allergic
asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis and dermatitis (Brun-
ton and Saphir 1999). HDM are microscopic
arthropods belonging to the family Pyroglyphidae
of the order Acarina. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus
Trouessart 1897 and Dermatophagoides farinae
Hughes 1961 are the most common HDM species
worldwide. Bedding, carpets and sofas are the main
biotopes for HDM within the human habitations.
HDM feed mainly on human skin scales and
microorganisms found on the scales. The skin scales
have to be pre-digested by fungi such as Aspergillus
(Van Bronswijk et al. 1987). Mite allergens are
excreted together with the faeces, which are further
decomposed by microorganisms and become air-
borne. The allergens excreted from dust mites are
responsible for allergic reactivity in many people
(Milian and Diaz 2004; Fernandez-Caldas and Iraola
2005). The higher the allergen levels, the greater are
the clinical symptoms (Custovic et al. 1996; Taggart
et al. 1996). Reduction of HDM populations and
allergens would thus significantly reduce the aller-
genic load and consequently reduce the severity of
symptoms. As a result, there will be an improvement
in the quality of life for those suffering from dust
mite-related allergies.
High concentrations of copper oxide (CuO) are
toxic to micro-organisms (Borkow and Gabbay
2005). Copper ions, either alone or in copper
complexes, have been used for centuries to disinfect
liquids, solids and human tissue. Today, soluble
copper is used as a water purifier, algaecide,
fungicide, nematocide, molluscicide, bactericide and
anti-fouling agent (Borkow and Gabbay 2005).
Studies have also shown that copper has insecticidal
(Servia et al. 2006) and acaricidal properties (Filser
et al. 2000).
Based on copper’s acaricidal and antifungal
properties, we hypothesized that CuO-impregnated
fabrics could kill HDM direct ly and/or indirectly by
destroying fungi such as Aspergillus. The aim of this
study was to test the efficacy of CuO-containing
fabrics on the vitality and viability of HDM in vitro.
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Test fabrics
Cellulosic fibres were permanently plated with CuO
as described by Borkow and Gabbay (2004) and
Gabbay et al. (2006). Fabrics were made with
*Corresponding author. Email: gadi@cupron.com
International Journal of Pest Management
Vol. 54, No. 3, July–September 2008, 235–240
ISSN 0967-0874 print/ISSN 1366-5863 online
Ó 2008 Taylor & Francis
DOI: 10.1080/09670870802010856
http://www.informaworld.com
Downloaded By: [Borkow, Gadi] At: 12:03 30 June 2008
cellulosic fibres of which 10, 20 or 100% of the fibres
were plated with CuO (Figure 1). The fabrics were
examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM;
Jeol JMS 5410 LV scanning electron microscope,
Japan) and the presence of copper content was
determined by X-ray photoelectron spectrum analysis
(Link IV, ISIS, Oxford Instruments, England). The
copper content of the fabrics was determined by using
inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectro-
metry (Spectroflame modula E from Spectro GMBH,
Kleve, Germany). The fabrics contained 0.2, 0.4 or
2% (w/w) CuO, respectively. Similar fabrics but
without CuO were used as controls.
2.2. Antifungal efficacy of the test items
Swatches of CuO-containing fabric s and control
fabrics were tested for antifungal efficacy against
Aspergillus niger van Tieghem 1867, Trichophyton
mentagrophytes Blanchard 1896 and Candida albicans
[Berkhout 1923] using the American Association of
Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) Test
Method 100-1993. Briefly, sterile swatches weighting
0.50 + 0.01 g of both CuO-containing fabrics and
control fabrics were placed in sterile vials and
exposed to 0.5 mL solutions containing 1 6 10
5
to
4 6 10
6
colony forming units (CFU). The samples
were then incubated at room temperature for 24 h.
After the incubation periods, the test samples were
transferred aseptically to 250-mL jars, and 100-mL
Letheen Broth were then immediately added. The jars
were sealed tightly and shaken vigorously for 1 min.
Serial 10-fold dilutions with water were made and
1-mL aliquots were plated by standard bacterio-
logical procedures, in duplicate, on Tr yptic Soy Agar
plates. The plates were incubated at 35 + 18C for 24
h and the numbers of fungi colonies were determined
by the standard Pour Plate Count. These tests were
carried out by FDA-approved laboratories: Amino-
Lab Laboratory Services, Weizmann Industrial Park,
Nes Ziona, Israel, and NAMSA, Irvine, CA , USA.
2.3. Mites
Dermatophagoides farinae was cultured in the labora-
tory using a mixture of horse dander/medical yeast
(2:1) at a temperature of 25 + 18C and 75 + 5%
RH.
2.4. Acaricidal efficacy
CuO-containing fabrics an d control fabrics (3.5 cm in
diameter) were introduced into a micro-titre plate
with the same diameter and glued to the bottom of
the vial with regular plastic glue (White Glue,
Blanbang, China). After 24 h, 100–200 mites of all
developmental stages and 10 mg of culture medium
were placed on the fabrics. The opening of each vial
was sealed with non-hardening glue, which prevented
the mites from escaping. During the entire
experiment, the mites were incubated under the
above-described conditions. The mobility of mites;
their egg-laying activity; appearance of a new
generation of HDM; and the mortality of the HDM
was monitored and rated as ‘almost all alive’; ‘some
dead’; ‘most dead’ and ‘all dead’ every 2–4 days under
a stereo-microscope. When necessary, additional food
was added for the surviving mites. At the end of each
experiment, each vial and the fabric within was rinsed
thoroughly with 40% alcohol. The liquid was then
filtered through a filter paper (7 cm diameter) and the
mites (dead and alive) were counted under the
microscope. The rinsed vials and fabrics were re-
examined under a stereo-microscope for any remain-
ing mit es. Each experiment was conducted in
triplicate.
2.5. Statistical analysis
The percent of fungal reduction was determined
according to the following formula: 100(AB)/A ¼
%R and the log reduction was calculated by the
Figure 1. Scanning electronic microscope pictures of
CuO-plated cellulosic fibres. (a) Mixture of CuO-plated
fibres and untreated fibres. The X-ray photoelectron
spectrum analysis of dot 1 on a plated fibre in (a) is
shown in (b).
236 K.Y. Mumcuoglu et al.
Downloaded By: [Borkow, Gadi] At: 12:03 30 June 2008
following formula: Log A–Log B ¼ Log R to the
nearest hundred, where R is the reduction; A is the
CFU of the challenge organism; and B is the CFU
recovered from the inoculated test sample. Student’s
t-test was pe rformed using SigmaPlot 9.0 (Jandel
Corporation, USA).
3. Results
3.1. Biocidal properties of the CuO-containing fabrics
Over 99% of C. albicans, T. mentagrophytes and A.
niger fungi were killed by fabrics containing 0.2% CuO.
No reduction in antifungal efficacy occurred even after
50 home washes of the CuO-containing fabrics. In
contrast, significantly lower reduction of fungal titres
occurred in fabrics that did not contain CuO (11 + 5.5,
33 + 10 and 9.2 + 16% for C. albicans, A. niger and
T. mentagrophytes,respectively;P 5 0.001).
3.2. Acaricidal properties of the CuO-containing
fabrics
Four kinds of experiments were conducted in order to
test the acaricidal efficacy of CuO-containing fabrics.
3.2.1. Experiment I
Mites were exposed to swatches of fabrics containing
0.2% CuO and compared to control fabrics. After 4
days of culture, the mites exposed to the copper-
containing fabrics showed a very low acti vity while
those on the control fabrics were very active. After 10
days, the mean percent mortality of mites exposed to
0.2% CuO-containing fabrics was 72 + 4%, while
the mortality on the control swatches was
18.9 + 0.3% (P 5 0.001).
3.2.2. Experiment II
Mites were exposed to fabrics containing 0, 0.4 and
2% CuO. As depicted in Figure 2, most mites were
dead after 1 day of exposure to 2% CuO and all were
dead after 5 days. Most mites exposed to 0.4% CuO-
containing fabri cs died after 12 days and the
mortality was 95.4% at day 47. HDM on control
patches showed a significantly lower mortality of
32.5% at day 47 (P 5 0.01). In the control fabrics the
mites were very active, and mating and egg-laying
mites could be observed everywhere, while those
exposed to CuO-impregnated fabrics showed a low
activity and few eggs were laid during the period of
the experiment.
3.2.3. Experiment III
Mites were exposed to two round fabric swatches
glued to each other in whi ch the lower swatch was a
35-mm (diameter) untreated fabric and the upper
swatch was either a 20- or 35-mm; 0.4 or 2% CuO-
containing fabric; a 35-mm silver nitrate (SN)-
containing fabric or 35-mm untreated control fabric
(Figure 3). All mites exposed to the test items
containing 2% CuO, or to the 35-mm 0 .4% CuO,
were dead after 5 days of exposure. Almost all mites
exposed to the 20-mm 0.4% CuO fabric were dead at
day 12 and most of those which survived were
concentrated in the untreated area. In contrast, the
mites exposed to 2% SN or control fabrics were very
active and 55% of the mites were dead at 12 days of
exposure (Figure 3). At day 47, a total of 100, 37
and 55% of the mites exposed to the 20-mm 0.4%
CuO, 2% SN and control fabrics were dead,
respectively.
Figure 2. Dose-dependent acaricidal activity of 0.4 and 2% CuO-containing fabrics.
International Journal of Pest Management 237
Downloaded By: [Borkow, Gadi] At: 12:03 30 June 2008
3.2.4. Experiment IV
The efficacy of a tri-laminated fabric (composed of an
external layer of 0.4% CuO, an internal layer of a
breathable barrier membrane, made from a poly-
ether-based polyurethane thermoplastic material and
a third layer made of cotton sheetin g) was compared
to 0.2% CuO-containing and control fabrics
(Figure 4). A plastic eraser was placed on top of
each two fabrics to allow a better contact between the
mites and the fabrics. After 10 days, 100 and 99% of
mites placed between the impregnated sides of two
tri-laminated fabrics or between two 0.2% impreg-
nated fabrics died, respectively. Mites exposed
between the impregnated and non-impregnated sides
of two tri-laminated fabrics showed a mortality of
87.2%, while those exposed to the control fabrics had
a mortality of only 42.5% after 26 days of exposure
(P 5 0.01; Table 1).
4. Discussion
Our study shows that CuO-containing fabrics sig-
nificantly control or eliminate the population of
HDM. When the mites are in direct contact with a
high enough concentration of copper-containing
fabrics and without access to untreated areas, they
died within a few days.
The negative effect of high copper concentrations
on insects has been demonstrated by an increasing
delay of larval growth of the midge Chironomus
riparius Meigen 1804 (Servia et al. 2006), of the
coccinellid beetle Olla v-nigrum [Mulsant 1866]
(Michaud and Angela 2003) and of the mosquito
Aedes albopictus [Skuse 1894] (Bellini et al. 1998). The
acaricidal effect of copper has also been described in a
re-colonization experiment in which the abundances
of gamasid mites were significantly higher in copper-
uncontaminated soil (Filser et al. 2000). Similarly, the
densities of gall mites in two birch species ( Betula
pubescens Ehrh. and B. pendula Roth) were found to
be negatively correlated with the levels of copper in
the air in the area near to a copper–nickel smelter
(Koricheva et al. 1996). Interestingly, copper ions
inhibit an elastase-like enzyme present in D. pter-
onyssinus and D. farinae (Stewart et al. 1994).
In contrast to the high susceptibility of micro-
organisms to copper, human skin is not sensitive to
copper and the risk of adverse reactions due to
dermal exposure to this metal is extremely low
(Hostynek and Maibach 2003; Gorter et al. 2004).
Copper is considered safe to humans, as demon-
strated by the widespread and prolonged use by
women of copper intrauterine devices (Hubacher
et al. 2001; Anon. 2002; Bilian 2002). Furthermore,
copper is an essential metal needed for normal
metabolic processes. The National Academy of
Sciences Committee established the US recommended
Daily Allowance of 0.9 mg of copper for normal
adults. This committee also noted that daily intakes
Figure 3. Survival of D. farinae exposed to fabrics containing CuO or SN. The statistical difference between each group and
the control fabric was determined using Student’s t-test. *P 5 0.05; **P 5 0.01.
238 K.Y. Mumcuoglu et al.
Downloaded By: [Borkow, Gadi] At: 12:03 30 June 2008
of up to 3 mg/da y in children and 8–10 mg/day
for adults are considered tolerab le and non-toxic
(Trumbo et al. 2001).
Recently, a platform technology has been devel-
oped that incorporates CuO into textile fibres from
which woven and non-woven fabrics can be produced
(Borkow and Gabbay 2004; Gabbay et al. 2006).
These copper-impregnated products possess broad-
spectrum antimicrobial properties (Borkow and
Gabbay 2004; Gabbay et al. 2006) and have been
shown to possess no skin sensitization or irritation
properties in animals and in humans (Borkow and
Gabbay 2004; Gabbay et al. 2006). Copper, including
CuO, is permitted for use in fabrics by the US
Environmental Program Agency.
Based on the above, and as fungi are a key factor
in the HDM food chain (Van Br onswijk et al. 1987),
together with the antifungal properties of copper
(Borkow and Gabbay 2005), we hypothesized that
introducing CuO, a non-soluble form of copper, into
fabrics, will endow them with acaricidal properties.
HDM were not severely affected by SN-impreg-
nated fabrics. Since silver has also fungicidal proper-
ties, this suggested that the mechanism of CuO killing
the mites is not necessarily via the destruction of the
fungus needed to predigest the human scales, but that
the CuO may have a direct toxic effect on the mites
themselves. The fact that, at 2% CuO concentrations,
most of the HDM died within a few days furt her
shows that mites died as a result of the direct toxicity
of CuO rather than starvation. In addition, it was
observed that the overall vitality/mobility of the mites
exposed to CuO-containing fabrics was much lower
than in control or SN-treated fabrics and that, when
possible, mites migrated to untreated parts of the test
items.
The antifungal activity of copper-containing
fabrics further enhances the efficacy of these fabrics
to control fungi, such as Aspergillus, necessary for the
pre-digestion of skin scales before they can be
consumed by the mites (Van Bronswijk et al. 1987).
In addition, the presence of fungi has been asso-
ciated with asthma, cough and wheeze (Belanger et al.
2003; Su et al. 2005; Kercsmar et al. 2006). Several
mechanisms for the biocidal activity of copper have
been proposed. These include: denaturation of nucleic
acids by binding to and/or disordering helical
structures and/or by cross-linking between and within
nucleic acid strands; alteration of proteins and
inhibition of their biological assembly and activity;
plasma membrane permeabilization; and membrane
lipid peroxidation (Borkow and Gabbay 2005).
In conclusion, the results of this study clearly
demonstrate that, by using CuO-containing fibres in
fabrics, the HDM population can be controlled and,
if enough copper is present in the fabric (0.4% and
above), the mites can be eradicated. In order to assure
effective killing of the HDM a CuO-containing fabric
should be constructed in such a way as to prevent the
mites from migrating to areas without CuO.
Table 1. Percentage mean mortality of m ites placed
between impregnated and non-impregnated CuO fabrics.
Test
Day
group 6 10 13 17 23 26
A75
a
100
b
B0
a
25
a
25
a
50
a
75
a
87.2
b
C25
a
99.1
b
D0
a
0
a
0
a
25
a
25
a
42.5
b
a
Estimated.
b
Exact count.
Figure 4. Survival of D. farinae exposed to tri-laminated fabrics.
International Journal of Pest Management 239
Downloaded By: [Borkow, Gadi] At: 12:03 30 June 2008
Obviously, in order to achieve as close as possible an
allergen-free environment, all fabric material, such as
those in carpets, sofas and beds, should be impreg-
nated with CuO. By reducing the HDM population,
the overall allergen levels responsible for adverse
clinical reactions in allergic individuals are expected
to be reduced significantly, thus improving their
quality of life.
References
Anonymous. 2002. Copper IUDs, infection and infertility.
Drug Therapy Bull. 40:67–69.
Belanger K, Beckett W, Triche E, Bracken MB, Holford T,
Ren P, McSharry JE, Gold DR, Platts-Mills TA,
Leaderer BP. 2003. Symptoms of wheeze and persistent
cough in the first year of life: Associations with indoor
allergens, air contaminants, and maternal history of
asthma. Am J Epidemiol. 158:195–202.
Bellini R, Carrieri M, Bacchi M, Fonti P, Celli G. 1998.
Possible utilization of metallic copper to inhibit Aedes
albopictus (Skuse) larval development. J Am Mosquito
Cont Assoc. 14:451–456.
Bilian X. 2002. Intrauterine devices. Best Pract Res Clin
Obstet Gynaecol. 16:155–168.
Borkow G, Gabbay J. 2004. Putting copper into action:
Copper-impregnated products with potent biocidal
activities. FASEB J. 18:1728–1730.
Borkow G, Gabbay J. 2005. Copper as a biocidal tool. Curr
Med Chem. 12:2163–2175.
Brunton SA, Saphir RL. 1999. Dust mites and asthma.
Hosp Pract (Off Ed). 34:67–62, 75.
Custovic A, Taggart SC, Francis HC, Chapman MD,
Woodcock A. 1996. Exposure to house dust mite
allergens and the clinical activity of asthma. J Allergy
Clin Immunol. 98:64–72.
Fernandez-Caldas E, Iraola CV. 2005. Mite allergens. Curr
Allergy Asth R. 5:402–410.
Filser J, Wittmann R, Lang A. 2000. Response types in
collembola towards copper in the microenvironment.
Environ Poll. 107:71–78.
Gabbay J, Mishal J, Magen E, Zatcoff RC, Shemer-Avni Y,
Borkow G. 2006. Copper oxide impregnated textiles
with potent biocidal activities. J Ind Text. 35:323–335.
Gorter RW, Butorac M, Cobian EP. 2004. Examination of
the cutaneous absorption of copper after the use of
copper-containing ointments. Am J Ther. 11:453–458.
Hostynek JJ, Maibach HI. 2003. Copper hypersensitivity:
Dermatologic aspects An overview. Rev Environ
Health. 18:153–183.
Hubacher D, Lara-Ricalde R, Taylor DJ, Guerra-Infante
F, Guzman-Rodriguez R. 2001. Use of copper intra-
uterine devices and the risk of tubal infertility among
nulligravid women. New Eng J Med. 345:561–567.
Kercsmar CM, Dearborn DG, Schluchter M, Xue L,
Kirchner HL, Sobolewski J, Greenberg SJ, Vesper SJ,
Allan T. 2006. Reduction in asthma morbidity in
children as a result of home remediation aimed at
moisture sources. Environ Health Perspect. 114:1574–
1580.
Koricheva J, Lappalainen J, Vuorisalo T, Haukioja E.
1996. Density patterns of gall mites (Acarina: Erio-
phyidae) in a polluted area. Environ Pollut. 93:345–
352.
Michaud JP, Angela KG. 2003. Sub-lethal effects of a
copper sulfate fungicide on development and repro-
duction in three coccinellid species. J Insect Sci. 3:16–
22.
Milian E, Diaz AM. 2004. Allergy to house dust mites and
asthma. P.R. Health Sci J. 23:47–57.
Redd SC. 2002. Asthma in the United States: Burden and
current theories. Environ Health Perspect. 110(Suppl. 4):
557–560.
Servia MJ, Pery AR, Heydorff M, Garric J, Lagadic L.
2006. Effects of copper on energy metabolism and larval
development in the midge Chironomus riparius. Ecotox-
icology. 15:229–240.
Skoner DP. 2001. Allergic rhinitis: Definition, epidemiology,
pathophysiology, detection, and diagnosis. J Allergy
Clin Immunol. 108:S2–S8.
Stewart GA, Kollinger MR, King CM, Thompson PJ.
1994. A comparative study of three serine proteases
from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae.
Allergy. 49:553–560.
Su HJ, Wu PC, Lei HY, Wang JY. 2005. Domestic
exposure to fungi and total serum IgE levels in
asthmatic children. Mediators Inflamm. 2005:167–170.
Taggart SC, Custovic A, Francis HC, Faragher EB, Yates
CJ, Higgins BG, Woodcock A. 1996. Asthmatic
bronchial hyperresponsiveness varies with ambient
levels of summertime air pollution. European Resp J.
9:1146–1154.
Trumbo P, Yates AA, Schlicker S, Poos M. 2001. Dietary
reference intakes: Vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron,
chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybde-
num, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. J Am Diet
Assoc. 101:294–301.
Van Bronswijk JE, Reumer JW, Pickard R. 1987. Effects of
fungicide treatment and vacuuming on pyroglyphid
mites and their allergens in mattress dust. Exp Appl
Acarol. 3:271–278.
240 K.Y. Mumcuoglu et al.
... Alternaria brassicae [165] Aspergillus carbonarius [176] Aspergillus flavus [9,134,167,169] Aspergillus fumigatus [9,177] Aspergillus niger [9,39,112,134,165,[177][178][179] Aspergillus oryzae [39] Candida albicans [9,29,79,103,104,112,116,121,130,131,135,158,177,[179][180][181][182] Candida glabrata [130,142,159,169] Candida krusei [130] Candida parapsilosis [130] Candida tropicalis [130,142] Cronobacter sakazakii [183] Cryptococcus neoformans [177] Culvularia lunata [160] Epidermophyton floccosum [177] Fusarium culmonium [9] Fusarium oxysporium [9,165] Fusarium solani [9,160,169] Microsporum canis [169,177] Myrothecium verrucaria [39] Penicillium chrysogenum [9] Pleurotus ostreatus [151] Pycnoporus cinnabarinus [151] Rhizoctonia bataicola [160,167] Rhizoctonia solani [178] Rhizopus stolonifer [167] Saccharomyces cerevisiae [41,131,182,184] Torulopsis pintolopesii [181] Trichoderma viride [39] Trichophyton longifusus [169] Trichophyton mentagrophytes [39,112,116,159] Tricophyton rubrum [116,177] Tricophyton schoenleinii [159] Virus Avian Influenza [122,171] Adenovirus Type 1 [40,185] Bacteriophages [186][187][188][189][190] Coxsackie Virus Types B2 & B4 [185] Cytomegalovirus [40] Echovirus 4 [185] Herpes Simplex Virus [186,187] Human Immunodeficiency Virus [40,103,119,191] Punta Toro [40] Respiratory Syncytial Virus [40] Rhinovirus 2 [40] Simian Rotavirus SA11 [185] Vaccinia [40] West Nile Virus [103] Yellow Fever [40] that copper damages is the microorganisms' envelope. It was reported that copper containing steel adhered to Escherichia coli plasma membrane via the electrostatic forces exerted by Cu 2+ , to a significantly greater extent than the austenitic stainless steel not containing copper [44]. ...
... Alternaria brassicae [165] Aspergillus carbonarius [176] Aspergillus flavus [9,134,167,169] Aspergillus fumigatus [9,177] Aspergillus niger [9,39,112,134,165,[177][178][179] Aspergillus oryzae [39] Candida albicans [9,29,79,103,104,112,116,121,130,131,135,158,177,[179][180][181][182] Candida glabrata [130,142,159,169] Candida krusei [130] Candida parapsilosis [130] Candida tropicalis [130,142] Cronobacter sakazakii [183] Cryptococcus neoformans [177] Culvularia lunata [160] Epidermophyton floccosum [177] Fusarium culmonium [9] Fusarium oxysporium [9,165] Fusarium solani [9,160,169] Microsporum canis [169,177] Myrothecium verrucaria [39] Penicillium chrysogenum [9] Pleurotus ostreatus [151] Pycnoporus cinnabarinus [151] Rhizoctonia bataicola [160,167] Rhizoctonia solani [178] Rhizopus stolonifer [167] Saccharomyces cerevisiae [41,131,182,184] Torulopsis pintolopesii [181] Trichoderma viride [39] Trichophyton longifusus [169] Trichophyton mentagrophytes [39,112,116,159] Tricophyton rubrum [116,177] Tricophyton schoenleinii [159] Virus Avian Influenza [122,171] Adenovirus Type 1 [40,185] Bacteriophages [186][187][188][189][190] Coxsackie Virus Types B2 & B4 [185] Cytomegalovirus [40] Echovirus 4 [185] Herpes Simplex Virus [186,187] Human Immunodeficiency Virus [40,103,119,191] Punta Toro [40] Respiratory Syncytial Virus [40] Rhinovirus 2 [40] Simian Rotavirus SA11 [185] Vaccinia [40] West Nile Virus [103] Yellow Fever [40] that copper damages is the microorganisms' envelope. It was reported that copper containing steel adhered to Escherichia coli plasma membrane via the electrostatic forces exerted by Cu 2+ , to a significantly greater extent than the austenitic stainless steel not containing copper [44]. ...
... Alternaria brassicae [165] Aspergillus carbonarius [176] Aspergillus flavus [9,134,167,169] Aspergillus fumigatus [9,177] Aspergillus niger [9,39,112,134,165,[177][178][179] Aspergillus oryzae [39] Candida albicans [9,29,79,103,104,112,116,121,130,131,135,158,177,[179][180][181][182] Candida glabrata [130,142,159,169] Candida krusei [130] Candida parapsilosis [130] Candida tropicalis [130,142] Cronobacter sakazakii [183] Cryptococcus neoformans [177] Culvularia lunata [160] Epidermophyton floccosum [177] Fusarium culmonium [9] Fusarium oxysporium [9,165] Fusarium solani [9,160,169] Microsporum canis [169,177] Myrothecium verrucaria [39] Penicillium chrysogenum [9] Pleurotus ostreatus [151] Pycnoporus cinnabarinus [151] Rhizoctonia bataicola [160,167] Rhizoctonia solani [178] Rhizopus stolonifer [167] Saccharomyces cerevisiae [41,131,182,184] Torulopsis pintolopesii [181] Trichoderma viride [39] Trichophyton longifusus [169] Trichophyton mentagrophytes [39,112,116,159] Tricophyton rubrum [116,177] Tricophyton schoenleinii [159] Virus Avian Influenza [122,171] Adenovirus Type 1 [40,185] Bacteriophages [186][187][188][189][190] Coxsackie Virus Types B2 & B4 [185] Cytomegalovirus [40] Echovirus 4 [185] Herpes Simplex Virus [186,187] Human Immunodeficiency Virus [40,103,119,191] Punta Toro [40] Respiratory Syncytial Virus [40] Rhinovirus 2 [40] Simian Rotavirus SA11 [185] Vaccinia [40] West Nile Virus [103] Yellow Fever [40] that copper damages is the microorganisms' envelope. It was reported that copper containing steel adhered to Escherichia coli plasma membrane via the electrostatic forces exerted by Cu 2+ , to a significantly greater extent than the austenitic stainless steel not containing copper [44]. ...
Article
The manuscript reviews the biocidal mechanisms of copper and its current uses in the fight against transmission of health-associated (nosocomial) pathogens, foodborne diseases, dust mites loads and fungal and wound infections. The manuscript also discusses possible future applications such as filtration devices capable of deactivating contaminated blood products and breastmilk.
... Alternaria brassicae [165] Aspergillus carbonarius [176] Aspergillus flavus [9,134,167,169] Aspergillus fumigatus [9,177] Aspergillus niger [9,39,112,134,165,[177][178][179] Aspergillus oryzae [39] Candida albicans [9,29,79,103,104,112,116,121,130,131,135,158,177,[179][180][181][182] Candida glabrata [130,142,159,169] Candida krusei [130] Candida parapsilosis [130] Candida tropicalis [130,142] Cronobacter sakazakii [183] Cryptococcus neoformans [177] Culvularia lunata [160] Epidermophyton floccosum [177] Fusarium culmonium [9] Fusarium oxysporium [9,165] Fusarium solani [9,160,169] Microsporum canis [169,177] Myrothecium verrucaria [39] Penicillium chrysogenum [9] Pleurotus ostreatus [151] Pycnoporus cinnabarinus [151] Rhizoctonia bataicola [160,167] Rhizoctonia solani [178] Rhizopus stolonifer [167] Saccharomyces cerevisiae [41,131,182,184] Torulopsis pintolopesii [181] Trichoderma viride [39] Trichophyton longifusus [169] Trichophyton mentagrophytes [39,112,116,159] Tricophyton rubrum [116,177] Tricophyton schoenleinii [159] Virus Avian Influenza [122,171] Adenovirus Type 1 [40,185] Bacteriophages [186][187][188][189][190] Coxsackie Virus Types B2 & B4 [185] Cytomegalovirus [40] Echovirus 4 [185] Herpes Simplex Virus [186,187] Human Immunodeficiency Virus [40,103,119,191] Punta Toro [40] Respiratory Syncytial Virus [40] Rhinovirus 2 [40] Simian Rotavirus SA11 [185] Vaccinia [40] West Nile Virus [103] Yellow Fever [40] that copper damages is the microorganisms' envelope. It was reported that copper containing steel adhered to Escherichia coli plasma membrane via the electrostatic forces exerted by Cu 2+ , to a significantly greater extent than the austenitic stainless steel not containing copper [44]. ...
... Alternaria brassicae [165] Aspergillus carbonarius [176] Aspergillus flavus [9,134,167,169] Aspergillus fumigatus [9,177] Aspergillus niger [9,39,112,134,165,[177][178][179] Aspergillus oryzae [39] Candida albicans [9,29,79,103,104,112,116,121,130,131,135,158,177,[179][180][181][182] Candida glabrata [130,142,159,169] Candida krusei [130] Candida parapsilosis [130] Candida tropicalis [130,142] Cronobacter sakazakii [183] Cryptococcus neoformans [177] Culvularia lunata [160] Epidermophyton floccosum [177] Fusarium culmonium [9] Fusarium oxysporium [9,165] Fusarium solani [9,160,169] Microsporum canis [169,177] Myrothecium verrucaria [39] Penicillium chrysogenum [9] Pleurotus ostreatus [151] Pycnoporus cinnabarinus [151] Rhizoctonia bataicola [160,167] Rhizoctonia solani [178] Rhizopus stolonifer [167] Saccharomyces cerevisiae [41,131,182,184] Torulopsis pintolopesii [181] Trichoderma viride [39] Trichophyton longifusus [169] Trichophyton mentagrophytes [39,112,116,159] Tricophyton rubrum [116,177] Tricophyton schoenleinii [159] Virus Avian Influenza [122,171] Adenovirus Type 1 [40,185] Bacteriophages [186][187][188][189][190] Coxsackie Virus Types B2 & B4 [185] Cytomegalovirus [40] Echovirus 4 [185] Herpes Simplex Virus [186,187] Human Immunodeficiency Virus [40,103,119,191] Punta Toro [40] Respiratory Syncytial Virus [40] Rhinovirus 2 [40] Simian Rotavirus SA11 [185] Vaccinia [40] West Nile Virus [103] Yellow Fever [40] that copper damages is the microorganisms' envelope. It was reported that copper containing steel adhered to Escherichia coli plasma membrane via the electrostatic forces exerted by Cu 2+ , to a significantly greater extent than the austenitic stainless steel not containing copper [44]. ...
... Alternaria brassicae [165] Aspergillus carbonarius [176] Aspergillus flavus [9,134,167,169] Aspergillus fumigatus [9,177] Aspergillus niger [9,39,112,134,165,[177][178][179] Aspergillus oryzae [39] Candida albicans [9,29,79,103,104,112,116,121,130,131,135,158,177,[179][180][181][182] Candida glabrata [130,142,159,169] Candida krusei [130] Candida parapsilosis [130] Candida tropicalis [130,142] Cronobacter sakazakii [183] Cryptococcus neoformans [177] Culvularia lunata [160] Epidermophyton floccosum [177] Fusarium culmonium [9] Fusarium oxysporium [9,165] Fusarium solani [9,160,169] Microsporum canis [169,177] Myrothecium verrucaria [39] Penicillium chrysogenum [9] Pleurotus ostreatus [151] Pycnoporus cinnabarinus [151] Rhizoctonia bataicola [160,167] Rhizoctonia solani [178] Rhizopus stolonifer [167] Saccharomyces cerevisiae [41,131,182,184] Torulopsis pintolopesii [181] Trichoderma viride [39] Trichophyton longifusus [169] Trichophyton mentagrophytes [39,112,116,159] Tricophyton rubrum [116,177] Tricophyton schoenleinii [159] Virus Avian Influenza [122,171] Adenovirus Type 1 [40,185] Bacteriophages [186][187][188][189][190] Coxsackie Virus Types B2 & B4 [185] Cytomegalovirus [40] Echovirus 4 [185] Herpes Simplex Virus [186,187] Human Immunodeficiency Virus [40,103,119,191] Punta Toro [40] Respiratory Syncytial Virus [40] Rhinovirus 2 [40] Simian Rotavirus SA11 [185] Vaccinia [40] West Nile Virus [103] Yellow Fever [40] that copper damages is the microorganisms' envelope. It was reported that copper containing steel adhered to Escherichia coli plasma membrane via the electrostatic forces exerted by Cu 2+ , to a significantly greater extent than the austenitic stainless steel not containing copper [44]. ...
Article
Copper oxide is a potent biocidal. A durable platform technology has been developed in which polyester, polypropylene, polyethylene, polyurethane, polyolefin, or nylon fibers are impregnated with copper oxide [1]. Impregnation of copper is achieved by adding a cupric oxide powder to the polymers during the master batch preparation stage. The copper oxide doped master batch is designed in such a way as to allow fiber extrusion in the normal production systems. The introduction of copper oxide at the early stages of the production cycle enables the use of the copper-treated fibers in many manufacturing processes without altering manufacturing procedures or equipment, allowing for rapid and simple production of nonwoven fabrics with potent biocidal qualities. Animal and human studies demonstrated that the copper impregnated fibers do not possess adverse properties, which is in accordance with the very low risk of adverse skin reactions associated with copper. The coppercontaining nonwoven fabrics possess potent antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. These fabrics may thus be used in i) disposable hospital textiles to reduce hospital acquired infections; ii) hospital and Nuclear Bacteriological Chemical (NBC) barrier fabrics to protect the wearer and immediate environment from pathogens; iii) air filters to reduce passage of viable microbes; iv) filters to reduce transmission of bacterial and viruses during transfusion of blood or blood related products; v) in diapers to reduce diaper rash infections; and vi) in masks to protect the wearer from aerosol transmitted pathogens, such as the avian flu. This paper will discuss the potential uses of copper in new applications that address medical concerns of the greatest importance. Implementation of even a few of the possible applications of this technology may have a major effect on the lives of many.
... As such, copper oxide particles serve as a reservoir of copper ions that are slowly liberated in the presence of humidity, such as that present in the interior of the shoe or in the skin surface. Thus, the introduction of copper oxide particles into polymeric materials endows them with potent broad-spectrum anti-microbial (anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal) [14][15][16], anti-mite properties [14,42], and in some applications has a direct ef-fect on physiological processes, such as enhanced wound healing [9]. ...
... The innovative current or potential uses of this technology in health-related applications include a) making hospital sheets, patient robes, patient pajamas, and nurse clothing, from copper-oxide impregnated biocidal textiles, with the aim of reducing bioburden and nosocomial infections [14,15,43,44]; b) producing acaricidal mattresses, quilts, carpets, and pillows that may improve the quality of life of those suffering from dust-mite related allergies [14,42]; c) using copper-impregnated socks for the prevention and treatment of fungal foot infections (athlete's foot) [45]; d) using copper-impregnated socks for reducing the risk of skin pathologies, especially in diabetic patients with compromised blood supply to the extremities [10]; e) producing antiviral and antibacterial copper-impregnated personal protective equipment (PPE), such as protective respiratory masks [44]; f) using pillowcases that improve the facial skin characteristics, such as reduction of wrinkles [46]; and g) using copper oxide containing wound dressings for the reduction of dressing and wound contamination and enhancement of wound repair [9,47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Copper has two key properties that make it an active ingredient in the medical devices currently being developed. First, copper is an essential trace element needed by humans, which plays a key role in many physiological processes in different tissues. For example, copper has been shown to be involved in angiogenesis and in wound healing. Second, copper has very potent antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and acaricidal properties. Recently, a novel technology has been developed that introduces copper oxide particles into polymeric materials, where they serve as a slow release source of copper ions. For example, by using this technology, copper oxide containing wound dressings that enhance wound healing; copper oxide containing antiviral respiratory masks that reduce the risk of infection; socks that protect from athlete's foot, and acaricidal bedding products that kill dust mites, have been developed. While copper oxide is used as the source of copper in mineral and vitamin supplements and is considered safe, its use in medical devices, as well as in industrial and consumer products, is novel. The current manuscript reviews the safety aspects of the use of copper oxide in products that come in contact with open and closed skin. Copper oxide products have been tested in 9 clinical trials and in several non-clinical studies and have been found to be non-irritating, non-sensitizing, and safe to use, with not even one adverse reaction recorded, both when in contact with intact and broken skin. This is in accordance with the extremely low risk of adverse reactions attributed to dermal exposure to copper.
... The advantages of these salts are their strong bactericidal power and abundant sources, but their binding force to fibers is poor and, therefore, they require to be combined with reactive resins (Shahid-ul-Islam and Kumar 2020;Lin et al. 2018). This method of combining is used to improve their durability, but they also have defects such as poor chemical stability (Buffa et al. 2020), high toxicity (Mumcuoglu et al. 2008), and short antibacterial aging . Silver is an inorganic antibacterial agent which is often used in fabric finishing Shameli et al. 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Natural antibacterial agents have attracted increasing attention due to safety, ecological, and environmental protection concerns. In this study, hinokitiol-grafted-chitosan (HTCS) was prepared via the Mannich reaction and used as an antibacterial agent for the treatment of cotton fabric. The results showed that, compared with chitosan (CS) and hinokitiol (HT) alone, HTCS exhibited a lower value of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Compared with the fabrics treated by CS and HT, the antibacterial rate of the treated fabric against Escherichia coli using HTCS as antibacterial agent increased by approximately 90% and 27%, the bacterial reduction rate against Staphylococcus aureus increased by about 58% and 39%. The HTCS-treated cotton fabric possessed good antibacterial properties even after 25 washing cycles. Moreover, the antibacterial cotton fabric retained original hydrophilicity, handle, and strength. Consequently, HTCS has great potential as a natural antibacterial agent for textiles.
... A peer-reviewed study of the fungicidal property of copper was carried out in the 1950s, finding that copper, including copper compounds, are effective in killing several fungi and yeast, including Candida albicans (C. albicans) [108,109], Aspergillus niger (A. niger) [107], and Aspergillus carbonarious (A. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pathogen transfer and infection in the built environment are globally significant events, leading to the spread of disease and an increase in subsequent morbidity and mortality rates. There are numerous strategies followed in healthcare facilities to minimize pathogen transfer, but complete infection control has not, as yet, been achieved. However, based on traditional use in many cultures, the introduction of copper products and surfaces to significantly and positively retard pathogen transmission invites further investigation. For example, many microbes are rendered unviable upon contact exposure to copper or copper alloys, either immediately or within a short time. In addition, many disease-causing bacteria such as E. coli O157:H7, hospital superbugs, and several viruses (including SARS-CoV-2) are also susceptible to exposure to copper surfaces. It is thus suggested that replacing common touch surfaces in healthcare facilities, food industries, and public places (including public transport) with copper or alloys of copper may substantially contribute to limiting transmission. Subsequent hospital admissions and mortality rates will consequently be lowered, with a concomitant saving of lives and considerable levels of resources. This consideration is very significant in times of the COVID-19 pandemic and the upcoming epidemics, as it is becoming clear that all forms of possible infection control measures should be practiced in order to protect community well-being and promote healthy outcomes.
... The death rate reached to 95.4 and 100% after 47 and 5 days with fabrics comprising 0.4 and 2% CuO, respectively. The acaricidal influence of copper oxide appears because of direct toxicity, and usage of fabrics comprising copper oxide might therefore be a significant opportunity for decreasing populations of house dust mites and the burden of dust mite allergens [66]. ...
... Nevertheless, modification of artificial polymers by nanostructured Cu is less diffused, and it is generally achieved by adding a copper-containing additive to the polymers during the master batch preparation stage [26][27][28][29]. Silicone fibers [30], polyester [26,31,32], and nylon [33] have been successfully modified by both nanostructured CuO and Cu. Polyurethane (PU) has been modified by different types of inorganic clusters, such as Ag [34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44], CNTs (carbon nanotubes) [45], Zn-Ag bimetallic particles [46], tourmaline [47,48], silica [49] and ZnO [50]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) were electrosynthetized and applied to the controlled impregnation of industrial polyurethane foams used as padding in the textile production or as filters for air conditioning systems. CuNP-modified materials were investigated and characterized morphologically and spectroscopically, by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The release of copper ions in solution was studied by Electro-Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (ETAAS). Finally, the antimicrobial activity of freshly prepared, as well as aged samples—stored for two months—was demonstrated towards different target microorganisms.
... The copper oxide impregnated products possess broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties, including against antibiotic resistant bacteria [4, 108-110, 117, 119, 125, 126]. These products include biocidal fabrics [4,108,109,117], anti-fungal socks [108,118,121,123,127], anti-viral masks and filters [119,125,126,128], anti-dust mite mattress-covers [108,129], and non-porous biocidal countertops (see next section). ...
Article
Potentially overlooked and neglected sources of healthcare-acquired pathogens are non-intrusive soft and hard surfaces located in clinical settings. Microbes can survive on bedding, uniforms, trays, bed rails and other such surfaces for days to months. Furthermore, on some of these surfaces, such as patient bedding, the microorganisms proliferate as textiles are an excellent substrate for bacterial and fungal growth. Additionally the temperature and humidity conditions present between the patients and these textiles are appropriate for microorganism multiplication. Bed making in hospitals can release large quantities of microorganisms into the air, which contaminate the surroundings. Thus soft and hard surfaces that are in direct or indirect contact with the patients can serve as a source of healthcare-acquired pathogens. Copper oxide impregnated materials have potent intrinsic biocidal properties. This manuscript reviews the laboratory and clinical studies that demonstrate that soft and hard surfaces containing copper oxide particles reduce bioburden and healthcare-acquired infection rates.
Article
Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a global problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Controlling the spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is a major public health challenge, and antimicrobial resistance has become one of the most important global problems in current times. The antimicrobial effect of copper has been known for centuries, and ongoing research is being conducted on the use of copper-coated hard and soft surfaces for reduction of microbial contamination and, subsequently, reduction of HAIs. This review provides an overview of the historical and current evidence of the antimicrobial and wound-healing properties of copper and explores its possible utility in obstetrics and gynecology.
Thesis
Full-text available
The current study was conducted on the Poultry Field in University of Basrah - College of Agriculture - Animal Production Department for the period from 5/9/2017 to 10/10/2017 during (35 days) experiment to investigate the effect of adding different Levels (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg feed) of copper sulfate and vitamin C Level (500 mg /kg feed) to the basal diet provided to the birds on some productive, physiological,histological,some microorganism and behavioral characteristics of the broilers. In this study, 288 one-day-old chicks of females (Ross 308) broiler were used, The chicks were randomly distributed in to 8 treatments with three replicates, (12 chicks/ replicates) according to the Complete Randomized Design (CRD), the chicks were given copper sulfate and vitamin C from the first day to the end of the experiment 35 days. The treatments were as follows: T1 = Basal diet without any additions (control) T2 = Basal diet supplemented with (500 mg/kg) of vitamin C. T3=Basal diet supplemented with (100 mg/kg) of copper sulphate.T4= Basal diet supplemented with (100 mg/kg) of copper sulfate + (500 mg/kg) of vitamin C. T5 = Basal diet supplemented with (200 mg/kg) of copper sulphate. T6 = Basal diet supplemented with (200 mg/kg) of copper sulphate + (500 mg/kg) of vitamin C. T7 = Basal diet supplemented with (400 mg/kg) of copper sulphate. T8= Basal diet supplemented with (400 mg/kg) of copper sulfate + (500 mg/kg) of Vitamin C.
Article
Full-text available
Impregnation or coating of cotton and polyester fibers with cationic copper endows them with potent broad-spectrum antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antimite properties (Borkow, G. and Gabbay, J. (2004). Putting Copper into Action: Copper-impregnated Products with Potent Biocidal Activities, FASEB Jounal, 18(14): 1728-1730). This durable platform technology enables the mass production of woven and non-woven fabrics, such as sheets, pillow covers, gowns, socks, air filters, mattress covers, carpets, etc. without the need of altering any industrial procedures or machinery, but only the introduction of copper oxide-treated fibers. The biocidal properties of fabrics containing 3-10% copper-impregnated fibers are permanent, are not affected by extreme washing conditions, and do not interfere with the manipulation of the final products (e.g., color, press, etc.). In this article, the authors describe data showing that (i) antifungal socks containing 10% w/w (weight/weight) copper-impregnated fibers alleviate athlete’s foot; (ii) antimicrobial fabrics (sheets) containing 10% (w/w) copper-impregnated fibers decrease bacterial colonization in a clinical setting; and (iii) these products do not have skin-sensitizing properties or any other adverse effects. Taken together, these results demonstrate the wide preventive and curative potential of copper oxide-impregnated apparel products.
Article
Full-text available
House-dust mites (Pyroglyphidae) are an important source of indoor airborne allergens. Several methods may be applied to reduce the population growth of these mites and thus the quantity of allergen formed. One such method is to interfere with the mites' food chain. Fungi are a key factor in this food chain: they serve as an indirect food source. In this study we investigated the results of the repeated application of a fungicide (natamycin) on mattresses. As controls we treated some mattresses with a placebo, while others were left untreated. The application of natamycin appeared to hamper mite development. Additional vacuuming reduced the quantity of mite allergens present. In the usual household situation repeated treatment will be necessary to obtain a long-term reduction.
Article
Full-text available
It is widely believed that the mechanisms of action of outdoor air pollutants are the same as those found in the laboratory, although few studies have attempted to clarify this issue. This study investigates the relationship of asthmatic bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), a marker of airway inflammation, and pulmonary function to ambient levels of summertime air pollution. Thirty eight nonsmoking adult asthmatic subjects underwent repeated measurement of methacholine BHR, using Yan's method, at differing levels of air pollution (O3, SO2, NO2, smoke) during summer 1993. A total of 109 evaluable tests were performed: 31 subjects completed three or more challenge tests, and seven managed two. Levels of all pollutants remained within current World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines for Health. Changes in BHR were found to correlate significantly with changes in the levels of 24 h mean SO2, NO2 and smoke; 48 h mean NO2 and smoke; 24 h lag NO2; although the effect was only small, accounting for approximately 10% of the variability in within-subject BHR between visits. Twenty four hour lag NO2 was also associated with forced vital capacity (FVC). In conclusion, in subjects with asthma, methacholine bronchial hyperresponsiveness varies with ambient levels of summertime air pollution. This suggests that changes in airway inflammation underlie the increased respiratory morbidity known to accompany pollution episodes.
Article
With the exception of its mineral salts, copper (II) compounds (complexes, soaps) exhibit low irritancy and several have been adapted as therapeutics for epicutaneous applications as antiseptics or deodorants (e.g., the chlorophyllin copper complex, gluconate, oleate or citrate) or in transdermal drugs (copper salicylate, copper phenylbutazone). Because of the increasing need for reliable skin irritation tests and in order to reduce the number of animal experiments, in vitro alternatives have been developed. So far, in vitro studies show that different chemicals induce irritant inflammatory responses which vary considerably in the time course of the response and that there are differences in the components of the inflammatory response to different irritants. Although no single test can be considered as an indirect, though reliable measure of skin irritation in vivo, a battery of tests, each addressing a different aspect of such multifactorial phenomena leading to skin irritation may well be a critical step preparatory to in vivo testing in humans. Distinguishing between irritant and allergic contact dermatitis can be problematic; thus, copper crossreactivity/concomitant sensitization with other transition metals and failure by practitioners to resort to patch testing for resolution of questionable skin reactions in many cases leads to questionable diagnosis of irritation. Cu (II) sulfate is clearly an irritant when applied in pet. under occlusion for 48 h. However, there are no currently available data that allow us to determine the threshold for induction of acute or cumulative irritancy dermatitis for copper or any of its salts. Fortunately, the technology to define this is readily available (cumulative irritancy testing). These are now being generated in this laboratory.
Article
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) represent the new approach adopted by the Food and Nutrition Board to providing quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes for use in a variety of settings, replacing and expanding on the past 50 years of periodic updates and revisions of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The DRI activity is a comprehensive effort undertaken to include current concepts about the role of nutrients and food components in long-term health, going beyond deficiency diseases. The DRIs consist of 4 reference intakes: the RDA, which is to be used as a goal for the individual; the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), which is given to assist in advising individuals what levels of intake may result in adverse effects if habitually exceeded; the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the intake level at which the data indicate that the needs for 50% of those consuming it will not be met; and the Adequate Intake (AI), a level judged by the experts developing the reference intakes to meet the needs of all individuals in a group, but which is based on much less data and substantially more judgment than that used in establishing an EAR and subsequently the RDA. When an RDA cannot be set, an AI is given. Both are to be used as goals for an individual. Two reports have been issued providing DRIs for nutrients and food components reviewed to date: these include calcium and its related nutrients: phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride; and most recently, folate, the B vitamins, and choline. The approaches used to determine the DRIs, the reference values themselves, and the plans for future nutrients and food components are discussed. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998;98: 699–706 .
Article
Trends in the densities of six species of gall mites on European aspen (Populus tremula) and on two birch species (Betula pubescens and B. pendula) were compared in an air pollution gradient from the Harjavalta copper-nickel smelter, SW Finland. The densities of gall mites on both birch species decreased towards the smelter and were negatively correlated with the levels of copper and nickel in the birch leaves. In contrast, the densities of aspen mites correlated neither with distance from the pollution source nor with the content of heavy metals in aspen leaves. Both birch and aspen trees tended to produce smaller leaves near the smelter, but a significant correlation between gall mite densities and site-specific leaf areas was only found for one species of mite.
Article
Studies have shown that the dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae contain several serine proteases, two of which have been shown to be allergenic, and to include trypsin and chymotrypsin, corresponding to the groups III and VI mite allergens. However, mites also contain other serine proteases, and the data reported in this study show that an elastase-like enzyme is present in both species. This enzyme was differentiated from the other serine proteases, particularly chymotrypsin, on the basis of charge, substrate specificity, and inhibition by copper and mercury cations. Its apparent mol. mass, as judged by gel filtration, was similar to those previously described for trypsin and chymotrypsin, i.e., 30 kDa. Several isoforms were detected by isoelectric focusing, but the isoelectric points of the major forms in both D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae were 10.5 and 9.8, respectively, contrasting with the acidic mite chymotrypsins. All three serine proteases were detected in whole mite and faecally enriched extracts, but the activities of trypsin and the elastase-like enzyme were greater in the latter type of extract. These data were similar to those obtained by quantitative immunochemical analysis of the D. farinae group III allergen in appropriate extracts, suggesting that culture conditions may modulate protease production. A monoclonal antibody affinity matrix specific for the group III allergen from D. farinae was shown to bind mite trypsin. However, a small amount of mite chymotrypsin also bound, suggesting limited immunologic cross-reactivity, a finding consistent with known sequence data.
Article
House dust mite allergens play an important role in inducing IgE-mediated sensitization and the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and asthma. This study investigated the relationship between mite allergen exposure and the clinical activity and severity of asthma. Nonsmoking adult patients with asthma (n = 53) were randomly recruited from the asthma registry of two large family practitioner surgeries. Each participant underwent skin testing with common inhalant allergens, a methacholine bronchoprovocation test, and pulmonary function testing on up to 3 separate occasions over a 4-week period. BHR was expressed both as PD20 and dose-response ratio (DRR), and the patients with patients with PD20 of less than 12.25 mumol methacholine were classified as methacholine reactors. Patients were also asked to record peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) values at 2-hour intervals during waking hours for 1 month. Daily PEFR variability was calculated as amplitude percent mean. Dust samples were collected by vacuuming bedding, bedroom carpets and mattresses. In addition, in the homes of 32 subjects with positive skin test responses to mites, airborne samples were taken overnight for 8 hours with a personal sampler attached to each subject's pillow. Der p 1 and Der p 2 levels were determined by a two-site monoclonal antibody-based ELISA. No difference in mite exposure was found between subjects who were sensitive to mites and those who were not. However, mite-sensitive methacholine reactors were exposed to significantly higher concentrations of Der p 1 in beds than mite-sensitive methacholine nonreactors (13.2 micrograms/gm and 1.45 micrograms/gm, respectively; p < 0.02). Der p 1 and Der p 2 were undetectable in 30 of 32 airborne samples. In mite-sensitive patients both Der p 1 and Der p 2 in beds significantly correlated with BHR (PD20: r = -0.49, DRR, r = 0.49; PD20: r = -0.46, DRR: r = 0.43) and amplitude percent mean PEFR (r = 0.38, r = 0.41) for Der p 1 and Der p 2, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between exposure to Der p 1 and percent predicted FEV1 (r = -0.43). The correlation between Der p 2 and percent predicted FEV1 just failed to reach a significant level but showed a clear trend ( r = -0.35, p = 0.068). Clinical activity and severity of asthma (measured by the level of BHR, PEFR variability, and percent predicted FEV1) in mite-sensitive patients is related to exposure to mite allergens in the dust reservoir, with levels in bed being an important indicator that correlated with disease activity.
Article
The effect of metallic copper on development of Aedes albopictus was studied in the laboratory. Multiwire electric cable was used as a source of metallic copper in flower saucers colonized by Ae. albopictus. A linear regression coefficient of 0.68 was obtained between copper concentration in the water during larval development and the relative production of adults. Larval mortality was higher in earlier instars with less evident effect on 4th-instar larvae and pupae. The effect of copper on larval development time and adult weight in both sexes was also observed. The strong algicidal action is presumed to only partially explain the effect of metallic copper on Ae. albopictus larvae. A direct toxic effect also may be involved. The use of metallic copper is suggested as a practical alternative method for preventing development of Ae. albopictus in small containers such as flower saucers found in urban areas.