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On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low‐altitude ash plumes [ Lara , 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [ Guffanti et al. , 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.
VOLUME 90 NUMBER 24 16 JUNE 2009
Chemistry-Climate Models, p. 206
News: Gender Equity at U.S. Research Institutions, p. 207
Forum: Geomagnetic and Archeomagnetic Jerks, p. 208
Meeting: Marine Research Drilling, p. 209
About AGU: Fein Receives Flinn Award, p. 210
On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began
unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén
volcano in Chiles southern volcanic zone.
Ash columns abruptly jetted from the vol-
cano into the stratosphere, followed by lava
dome effusion and continuous low- altitude
ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic pho-
tographs of eruption plumes suffused with
lightning were circulated globally.
Effects of the eruption were extensive.
Floods and lahars inundated the town of
Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacu-
ated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash
clouds closed regional airports and can-
celled hundreds of domestic fl ights in Argen-
tina and Chile and numerous international
ights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily
affected the aquaculture industry in the
nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotour-
ism, and closed regional nature preserves.
To better prepare for future eruptions, the
Chilean government has boosted support for
monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén
and at 42 other highly hazardous, active vol-
canoes in Chile.
The Chaitén eruption discharged rhyo-
lite magma, a high- silica composition asso-
ciated with extremes of eruptive behavior
ranging from gentle lava effusion to violent,
gas- driven explosions. As the fi rst major rhy-
olitic eruption since that of Alaskas Katmai-
Novarupta in 1912, it permits observations
that are benchmarks for future such events.
It also reignites the debate on what processes
rekindle long- dormant volcanoes, justifi es
efforts to mitigate rare but signifi cant haz-
ards through ground- based monitoring,
and confi rms the value of timely satellite
Background and Chronology
of the 2008 Eruption
At 1122 meters high, Chaitén volcano
(42.83ºS, 72.65ºW) stands 10 kilometers
northeast of the town of Chaitén on the Gulf
of Corcovado. Its last known major erup-
tion occurred 9400 years ago and produced
a caldera 34 kilometers in diameter, with
deposits containing rhyolite pumice capped
by ma c scoria [Naranjo and Stern, 2004].
On the basis of the caldera collapse volume,
the previous eruption merited a volcanic
explosivity index (VEI) of 5, ejecting nearly
4 cubic kilometers of material. Prior to
May 2008, a large obsidian lava dome more
than 5600 years old, with a volume of nearly
half a cubic kilometer, occupied the caldera.
Before the 2008 eruption, Chaitén was
unmonitored. Retrospective analysis
revealed that precursory seismic activity
detected by instruments up to 300 kilome-
ters to the north [Basualto et al., 2008], began
on 30 April 2008 with volcano- tectonic (VT)
earthquakes (magnitudes ranging from
3 to 5) located within 20 kilometers of Chai-
tén. Large VT events peaked at 15–20 per
hour from 1 to 2 May, coincident with an
explosive eruption around 0800 coordinated
universal time (UT) on 2 May that lasted
about 6 hours and lofted ash to an altitude of
more than 21 kilometers. Seismicity declined
abruptly on 3 May, probably refl ecting ero-
sion of a conduit to the surface, but sustained
ash emission interspersed with stratospheric
plumes continued for several days.
On 4 May, the Chilean Servicio Nacional
de Geología y Minería ( SERNAGEOMIN)
deployed a seismic network around Chai-
tén. SERNAGEOMIN found that a persistent
pattern of VT seismicity (about 70 events
per day, average M > 3.5) occurred from
4 to 12 May [Basualto et al., 2008]. Ash
plumes continued for about a week, punc-
tuated by two additional stratospheric col-
umns (between 20 and 22 kilometers in
altitude) on 6 and 8 May. Theoretical mod-
els of eruption columns [Sparks, 1986]
imply discharge of about 1 cubic kilometer
of magma in the eruption’s first week, plac-
ing it among the largest since the August
1991 eruption of Hudson volcano, located
about 300 kilometers south of Chaitén.
Subsequent work on tephra volume [Watt
et al., 2009] suggests that the eruption fell
in the middle VEI 4 range.
Eruption of a new lava dome through
vents in the preexisting dome began
around 10–12 May, extruding between
20 and 100 cubic meters of lava per sec-
ond through late July. Nonetheless, seis-
micity declined from mid- May through
June, suggesting ease of magma fl ow in the
conduit. During July, ash and steam emis-
sions subsided while lava extrusion con-
tinued, accompanied daily by up to 300
hybrid earthquakes, which have character-
istics transitional between low- and high-
frequency events. Earthquake magnitudes
increased from less than 2.5 to 4 by the end
of July, raising concerns about renewed
explosive eruptions, but seismicity declined
in August.
By late September 2008, the new lava
dome volume was about half a cubic kilo-
meter. A large dome collapse, a lateral
blast, and pyroclastic flows occurred on
19 February 2009, resulting in further ash-
fall in Argentina. Since then, dome growth,
frequent block and ash flows, and low-
altitude ash and gas emissions are ongoing
as of June 2009. Current seismicity is char-
acterized by about 15 hybrid events daily
(aver age M < 4.5). The current volcanic
alert code is red, indicating that activity
could escalate to dangerous levels at any
time and without warning.
Satellite Observations
Chaitén’s eruption demonstrates the value
of satellite observations of unexpected nat-
ural hazards. Numerous spaceborne assets
imaged the eruption clouds, elucidating
their altitude and extent (Figure 1; see also
the electronic supplement to this Eos issue
at http:// www .agu .org/ eos _ elec/). Altitude
determines a volcanic cloud’s effect on avia-
tion and climate, and is used to assess erup-
tion magnitude.
Key observations came from NASAs
A- Train, a eet of fi ve polar- orbiting space-
craft with overpass times separated by about
8 minutes. A- Train sensors include the Ozone
Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Atmo-
spheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which mea-
sure volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO
); the Mod-
erate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
( MODIS), which provides visible images and
measurements of ash mass loading; and the
Cloud- Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polar-
ization ( CALIOP) on the Cloud- Aerosol Lidar
and Infrared Pathfi nder Satellite Observa-
tions ( CALIPSO) satellite, which provides
vertical profi les of aerosol. This sensor syn-
ergy permits direct measurement of volcanic
cloud altitude, an improvement over indirect
altitude determinations using infrared cloud
top temperatures, observed cloud drift, or
ground- based clinometry.
Geostationary Operational Environmental
Satellite (GOES) images captured the erup-
tion onset at around 0800 UT on 2 May, with
the ash cloud top altitude estimated at about
12 kilometers, near the tropopause. On
34 May, CALIOP detected aerosol at about
30ºS and near 12 kilometers in altitude, col-
located with SO
detected by OMI. CALIOP
data were consistent with the presence of
solid particles—possibly fi ne volcanic ash,
ice crystals, or a mixture of both.
The next, and largest, explosive eruption
occurred around 1200 UT on 6 May, emitting
a cloud that drifted east and deposited ash
over a large swath of Argentina (Figure 1).
Ground- based observers reported eruption
column altitudes of 30 kilometers. Cloud top
temperatures and visible plume movement
suggested altitudes of 18–20 kilometers; this
was corroborated on 8 May when CALIOP
detected aerosols at similar heights. These
aerosols were interpreted as ash or an ice-
ash mix [Thomason and Pitts, 2008]. GOES
identi ed a third stratospheric eruption at
approximately 0330 UT on 8 May, produc-
ing aerosol detected by CALIOP on 9 May at
about 13 kilometers in altitude.
CALIOP subsequently detected strato-
spheric aerosol from Chaitén drifting over
southeastern Australia, suggesting long-
range transport of fi ne ash. The rhyolitic ash
clouds also produced a distinctive spectral
signature in AIRS data, suggesting that ash
composition could be determined from sat-
ellite measurements.
OMI measured strikingly low SO
sions during the eruption, only about 10 kilo-
tons of SO
in the clouds emitted on 2, 6, and
8 May. At the low sulfur abundances typical
of rhyolites (~50 parts per million), degassing
The Unexpected Awakening
of Chaitén Volcano, Chile
J. W. E
Chaitén Volcano cont. on page 206
Fig. 1. (a) Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image at 1505 coordi-
nated universal time (UT) on 6 May 2008, showing the ash cloud that began erupting from Chai-
tén about 3 hours earlier. (b) Photo (from the north) of stratospheric eruption column on 2 May
(courtesy of El Mercurio Online; http:// www . emol .com). (c) Aqua MODIS image at 1915 UT on
6 May, showing ash deposited by the 6 May eruption cloud over southern Argentina. (d) Ozone
Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) detection of sulfur diox-
ide (SO
) in the drifting 6 May eruption cloud. The Cloud- Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder
Satellite Observations ( CALIPSO) satellite track is indicated. (e) Cloud- Aerosol Lidar with Orthog-
onal Polarization (CALIOP) backscatter data (0430 UT on 7 May) showing aerosols from the
6 May eruption between 5 and 16 kilometers in altitude (x- axis shows latitude and longitude).
(f) Shaded isopach map (thickness in millimeters) of ashfall over Argentina, modified from Watt
et al. [2009]. Inset photographs show surface ash cover at two locations.
Chemically active species in the atmo-
sphere (e.g., aerosols, ozone, methane)
play important roles in climate and air
quality. Atmospheric concentrations of
these species respond relatively rap-
idly to changes in emissions, providing
opportunities for rapid response mitiga-
tion options. Because of the large spatial
and temporal variability of these species,
their global distributions must be calcu-
lated with a model, as must their influ-
ence on climate. Models are also needed
for future projections of these species and
their interaction with climate. Understand-
ing what controls the distribution of these
species, their role in climate change, how
they will change with climate, and the
coupling between climate and air quality
is therefore critical.
Studies [e.g., Eyring et al., 2006; Textor
et al., 2007] have shown large intermodel
differences in the distribution of these spe-
cies and their precursors, and also have
provided insights into which models do
well at producing certain features. How-
ever, studies have not fully clarifi ed why
models do well at producing certain fea-
tures, nor have studies identifi ed whether
these models improved accuracy in one
feature at the expense of another feature.
Differences in emissions, model confi gura-
tions, and the treatment of component pro-
cesses, and inconsistencies in the design
of projects involving multiple models, have
impaired the characterization of the role
of a changing chemical composition in
climate. Sometimes even simple coding
and physical or chemical process repre-
sentation errors contribute to differences
between models; such errors need to be
identi ed and corrected. In addition, obser-
vational data sets need to be used to more
stringently constrain atmospheric process
Motivated by these defi ciencies, a new
Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Initia-
tive (AC&C; Figure 1), established over the
course of a series of meetings from 2006 to
2009, aims in its approximately 5- year ini-
tial phase to improve process representation
in chemistry- climate models while building
upon existing activities in this area. The goal
of AC&C—jointly led by the International
Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) proj-
ect of the International Geosphere- Biosphere
Programme (IGBP) and the Stratospheric
Processes and their Role in Climate (SPARC)
project of the World Climate Research Pro-
gramme ( WCRP)—is to achieve synergy
across related scientifi c fi elds (aerosols,
reactive gases, emissions). This brief report
serves to inform the community and also to
invite interested parties with suitable mod-
els and data sets to become involved in this
Decadal (1980–2009) Hindcast Activity
To have con dence in near- term
(~30- year) climate and regional air qual-
ity forecasts, it is necessary to know that
models can accurately represent critical
chemistry- climate interactions and to know
the magnitude and source of uncertainties.
The AC&C initiative will use four hindcasts
to test model skill:
Inert tracers (chlorofl uoro carbons and
nitrous oxide), to quantify the importance
of changes in emissions, tropospheric
meteorology, and stratosphere- troposphere
exchange variability;
Aerosols, to test the accuracy of mod-
els in reproducing observed past trends in
concentrations, chemical composition, opti-
cal properties, and aerosol optical depth; to
study the effects of emissions trends; and to
of about 0.1 cubic kilometer of rhyolite
would be commensurate with the observed
yield, also supporting an eruption VEI
around 4. No signifi cant climate impact is
expected due to these low SO
Eruption Deposits
Chaitén ash samples contain fi ne parti-
cles (diameter < 100 microns) characteris-
tic of silicic explosive eruptions. Because of
extensive ash fallout over land, the eruption
offers a rare opportunity to investigate the
characteristics, distribution, deposition, and
fate of fi ne ash following explosive erup-
tions, and permits evaluation of ash disper-
sion and fallout models [Folch et al., 2008].
Teams from Argentina, the United King-
dom, and the United States sampled the
ashfall and measured its thickness; esti-
mates suggest that about 0.2 cubic kilo-
meters (160 megatons) of ash was deposited
over 200,000 square kilometers of Argentina
[Watt et al., 2009]. A complex ash dispersal
pattern, with several discrete but overlap-
ping depositional lobes, arose from chang-
ing wind patterns during the initial, and
most explosive, eruption period (Figure 1f;
see also the electronic supplement to this
Eos issue at http:// www .agu .org/ eos _ elec/).
These data and material collected are being
used to improve ash fallout models and
investigate environmental impacts of fi ne
ash deposition [e.g., Martin et al., 2009].
Estimates of magma discharge for the fi rst
week of the Chaitén eruption vary widely.
Some fi eld data suggest total volumes of sev-
eral cubic kilometers, and volumes based
on eruption column models [Sparks, 1986]
range from about 1 to 6 cubic kilometers,
although the larger value neglects column
height fl uctuations and is clearly an overes-
timate [Folch et al., 2008]. Determining the
total volume discharged is important not just
to assign a VEI but also to better understand
the conduit, vent, and plume dynamics.
Analysis of deposits [Castro et al., 2008;
Lowenstern et al., 2008; Muñoz et al., 2008]
shows that the eruption tapped an extremely
crystal- poor rhyolite magma similar to the
rhyolite erupted 9400 years ago, with evi-
dence for 4–5% dissolved water by weight
prior to fi nal ascent. These conditions are
similar to those of many other explosively
erupted rhyolites. Calcium- rich cores in pla-
gioclase crystals, aluminum- rich amphi-
boles, and relatively unevolved trace
element abundances suggest rhyolite extrac-
tion from a more mafi c crystal mush at
depth. Lack of amphibole decompression
rims indicates rapid magma ascent, consis-
tent with the abrupt eruption onset. Unlike
the event 9400 years ago, there is no evi-
dence of mafi c magma having erupted so far
in 2008–2009. Like eruptions such as Pina-
tubo (Philippines) in 1991 and Usu (Japan)
in 1663, basaltic magma at depth may have
played a role in mobilizing silicic magma to
drive an explosive eruption after centuries
to millennia of dormancy.
Eruption Response
Because Chaitén was unmonitored before
the eruption, precursory observations were
unavailable and affected communities were
unprepared. SERNAGEOMIN is now moni-
toring the volcano, assisted by the U.S. Geo-
logical Survey Volcano Disaster Assistance
Program (VDAP). In late May 2008, real- time
telemetered seismometers were installed
around Chaitén by SERNAGEOMIN and
VDAP. Because of ongoing volcanic activity,
on 29 January 2009 the Chilean government
announced that the town of Chaitén will be
relocated to a more protected site 9 kilome-
ters to the northwest.
The international nature of this event
necessitated cooperation between Chile and
Argentina, both of which are at high risk
from the 122 active volcanoes close to their
shared border. The Buenos Aires Volcanic
Ash Advisory Center, the Argentine Space
Agency, and the University of Chile’s Center
for Space Studies were primarily responsible
for operational tracking of ash emissions for
aviation safety using satellite data. Ash trans-
port and fallout were also simulated using
meteorological forecasts and dispersion
models running in operational mode [Folch
et al., 2008].
Spectacular lightning displays inspired a
team from the New Mexico Institute of Min-
ing and Technology to deploy an autono-
mous electrical monitoring array on Chiloe
Island (70–110 kilometers from Chaitén) in
late May 2008. This array continuously maps
electrical discharge, revealing the spatiotem-
poral distribution of charged particles (ash
and volatiles) in the eruption plume. Data
analysis alongside other monitored param-
eters (e.g., seismicity, infrasound) will permit
evaluation of remote electrical activity moni-
toring as a proxy for eruption intensity.
Most important, the 2008 eruption of Chai-
tén focused the attention of the Chilean gov-
ernment on its volcano hazards and resulted
in a new national volcano- monitoring pro-
gram (Red Nacional de Vigilancia Vol-
nica), which over the next 5 years will
build real- time monitoring networks at
Chile’s highest- risk volcanoes. Such efforts,
combined with continued international
monitoring, the refi nement of models, and
the elaboration of the eruptive histories of
the region’s volcanoes, are needed to miti-
gate the impacts of future eruptions.
For their work on the 2008 Chaitén erup-
tion and its deposits, we thank Daniel Basu-
alto, Jorgé Muñoz, Hugo Moreno, Michael
Fromm, David Pyle, Tamsin Mather, Naomi
Matthews, Robert Martin, Andrés Pavez,
Raul Aguilera, William Rison, Paul Kreh-
biel, Jeffrey Johnson, Arnau Folch Duran,
Thomas Casadevall, Marianne Guffanti,
Carlos Benitez, José Viramonte, Valeria
Outes, and Brent Alloway. Their work is
described in abstracts submitted to the
2008 AGU Fall Meeting (http:// www .agu
.org/ meetings/ fm08/ fm08 - sessions/ fm08
_ V43D .html). We also acknowledge the
VDAP team (Andrew Lockhart, Jeffrey
Marso, Randall White, and John Power)
who responded to the Chaitén eruption
with SERNAGEOMIN, and Marvin Couch-
man, Ron Keeler, William Burton, and Julie
Griswold for supporting the fi eld teams.
Basualto, D., P. Peña, C. Delgado, C. Gallegos,
H. Moreno, and J. O. Muñoz (2008), Seismic
activity related to the evolution of the explosive
eruption of Chaitén volcano in the Southern
Andes Volcanic Zone, Eos Trans. AGU, 89(53),
Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V43D- 2178.
Castro, J. M., D. B. Dingwell, and T. Fehr (2008),
Rhyolite magma storage and ascent at Chaitén
volcano: Clues from pyroclast textures, mineral-
ogy, and composition, Eos Trans. AGU, 89(53),
Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V43D- 2179.
Folch, A., O. Jorba, and J. Viramonte (2008), Volcanic
ash forecast—Application to the May 2008 Chaitén
eruption, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 8, 927–940.
Guffanti, M., C. Benitez, M. Andrioli, R. Romero,
and T. J. Casadevall (2008), Widespread effects
on aviation of the 2008 eruption of Chaitén vol-
cano, Chile, Eos Trans. AGU, 89(53), Fall Meet.
Suppl., Abstract V42C- 03.
Lara, L. E. (2009), The 2008 eruption of the Chai-
tén volcano, Chile: A preliminary report, Andean
Geol., 36(1), 125–129.
Lowenstern, J. B., T. W. Sisson, J. Pallister,
L. Lara, and J. Muñoz (2008), Explosive erup-
tion of aphyric rhyolitic liquid during May 2008
from Chaitén volcano, Chile, Eos Trans. AGU,
89(53), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V43D- 2180.
Martin, R. S., S. F. L. Watt, D. M. Pyle, T. A. Mather,
N. E. Matthews, R. B. Georg, J. A. Day, T. Fairhead,
M. L. I. Witt, and B. M. Quayle (2009), Environmen-
tal effects of ashfall in Argentina from the 2008
Chaitén volcanic eruption, J. Volcanol. Geotherm.
Res., doi:10.1016/ j. jvolgeores .2009.04.010, in press.
Muñoz, J. O., D. Basualto, H. Moreno, P. Peña, and
M. Mella (2008), Geochemistry and magma-
genesis of the early May 2008 rhyolitic magma
erupted by Chaitén volcano, Southern Andes Vol-
canic Zone, Eos Trans. AGU, 89(53), Fall Meet.
Suppl., Abstract V43D- 2181.
Naranjo, J. A., and C. R. Stern (2004), Holocene
tephrochronology of the southernmost part
(42º30’45ºS) of the Andean Southern Volcanic
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Sparks, R. J. S. (1986), The dimensions and dynamics of
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Thomason, L. W., and M. C. Pitts (2008),
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tin, and N. E. Matthews (2009), Fallout and
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Author Information
Simon A. Carn, Michigan Technological Univer-
sity, Houghton; E-mail: scarn@ mtu . edu; John S.
Pallister, U.S. Geological Survey Cascades Volcano
Observatory, Vancouver, Wash.; Luis Lara, Servicio
Nacional de Geología y Minería ( SERNAGEOMIN),
Santiago, Chile; John W. Ewert, U.S. Geological
Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory; Sebastian
Watt, Oxford University, Oxford, UK; Alfred J.
Prata, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller,
Norway; Ronald J. Thomas, New Mexico Institute
of Mining and Technology, Socorro; and Gustavo
Villarosa, Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodi-
versidad y Medio Ambiente, Consejo Nacional de
Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Universidad
Nacional del Comahue, Bariloche, Argentina
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Chaitén Volcano
cont. from page 205
Initiative to Improve Process Representation
in Chemistry- Climate Models
Fig. 1. The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Initiative (AC&C) will initially involve three
research activities (large box) and supporting efforts (ovals). Model runs are being stream lined
through and coordinated with the research implementation bodies and the collaborative part-
ners. The TropChem (tropospheric chemistry) group is acting as the organizing body for tropo-
spheric gas phase runs. In parallel, emissions are being coordinated through the Global Emission
Inventory Activity (GEIA) to be consistent across the AC&C model runs and with the Intergovern-
mental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) representative concentration
pathways. CCMVal is Chemistry Climate Model Validation project; AeroCom is Aerosol Model
Intercomparison Project; and TF- HTAP is Task Force on the Hemispheric Transport of Atmospheric
Pollutants. ACCENT refers to a European model comparison project.
Chemistry-Climate Models cont. on next page
Women and men faculty in science, engi-
neering, and mathematics for the most part
have comparable opportunities within major
U.S. research universities, according to a
report released 2 June by the U.S. National
Research Council (NRC). The report found
that gender does not appear to have been a
factor in a number of important career transi-
tions and outcomes, including hiring for tenure
track and tenure positions and promotions.
“That is probably going to be surprising to
many people. It was surprising to our own
panel. And it may not have been the case
if we had done the study in 1985 instead of
2005,” said Claude Canizares, cochair of the
NRC committee that prepared the report,
entitled Gender Differences at Critical Transi-
tions in the Careers of Science, Engineering
and Mathematics Faculty.
The congressionally mandated report,
sponsored by the National Science Foun-
dation, also found that “although women
represent an increasing share of science,
mathematics, and engineering faculty, they
continue to be underrepresented in many of
those disciplines.
The report based its fi ndings on two com-
missioned national surveys, conducted
in 2004 and 2005, of more than 1800 ten-
ured and tenure- track faculty—in biology,
chemistry, mathematics, civil and electrical
engineering, and physics—at 89 research-
intensive universities.
The report, which does not focus on the
geosciences, contrasts with a 2006 report,
Beyond Bias and Barriers, released by the
U.S. National Academies’ Committee on Sci-
ence, Engineering, and Public Policy, which
concluded that “women who are interested
in science and engineering careers are lost
at every educational transition.” Canizares
said the new NRC report, which has a differ-
ent focus and benefi ts from the two recent
surveys, is a snapshot in time, whereas the
earlier report examined accumulated experi-
ences sometimes stretching over a period of
Key fi ndings of the NRC report include:
Tenure- track women received a greater
proportion of fi rst job offers than their pro-
portion in the interview pool;
Male and female faculty generally have
similar access to many kinds of institutional
Women were less likely to engage in
conversation with colleagues on a range of
professional topics, including research, sal-
ary, and benefi ts. The report notes, “This dis-
tance may prevent women from accessing
important information and may make them
feel less included and more marginalized in
their professional lives.
There is little evidence that women and
men exhibited different outcomes regarding
grant funding, honors and awards, and other
Male full professors earned about 8%
more than females, though salary differ-
ences disappeared at associate and assistant
professor ranks; and
Women are applying for tenure- track
positions at a lower rate (dramatically lower
in biology and chemistry) than they are
earning Ph.D.s.
Committee cochair Sally Shaywitz,
Audrey G. Ratner Professor in Learning
Development at the Yale University School
of Medicine, New Haven, Conn., told Eos
that based on data from a certain group
of universities, and using a certain meth-
odology, the report found “there was fairly
gender equity in hiring, interviews, and
“Things look better than people might
have expected,” she added. “But then, on the
other hand, when you compare the number
of graduates in postdoctoral programs and
the proportion of women, we saw less of a
proportion entering academic life. There is
a great need for longitudinal studies so that
we can actually track men and women fi n-
ishing their education, and then fi nd out the
whys behind this.
Canizares, vice president for research at
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
told Eos that although universities are paying
attention to the gender issue and are trying to
deal with the factors under their control, “It
is also very clear that we are still a very long
way from gender equity in all disciplines.
“Those knobs we can turn seem to be
in some sense not the way we are going to
change things. Now we have got to look
for much more systemic things like climate
[within institutions], like the length of time
we are forcing people to be in the uncer-
tainty of a not permanent position, and
try and see what we can do about those
factors,” he said, referring to the increas-
ing amount of time often required to enter
“White males constitute less than a third
of the population of the United States. Why
are we tying two hands behind our backs,
so to speak, in trying to attract the best
and the brightest talent to these careers?”
National Academy of Sciences presi-
dent Ralph Cicerone said the report can
help to document progress that has already
occurred and point out areas that still need
attention. “Getting these results out into the
university community is one of the things we
should be doing. And somehow encourag-
ing people to re- do this survey this year and
next year so we can get longitudinal data,
he told Eos.
Cicerone also expressed disappointment
that the geosciences were not covered in the
NRC report and said he is not sure whether
those fi ndings can be extrapolated to the
geosciences. “I wonder if there is some way
that geosciences faculty could be inspired,
perhaps through AGU or through the Acad-
emy, somehow to do a similar study,” he
For more information about the report,
visit http:// www .nap .edu/ catalog . php ? record
_id =12062.
understand the impact on aerosol trends of
changes in meteorology (and natural emis-
sions) versus changes in anthropogenic
Tropospheric ozone, to understand the
effect of large changes over the past sev-
eral decades in lower stratospheric ozone,
stratosphere- troposphere exchange, emis-
sions, and climate;
Methane, to test against observed trends
and variability and to quantify the importance
of changes in emissions and of variations in
concentrations of the hydroxyl radical.
Each model run will be defi ned by multi-
year observational data sets, consistent
emissions inventories, objective model
grading criteria, model comparison, and
Vertical Distributions Activity
Model comparisons conducted under the
Chemistry- Climate Model Validation project
(CCMVal, for ozone [e.g., Eyring et al., 2006;
Braesicke et al., 2008]) and the Aerosol
Model Intercomparison Project (AeroCom,
for aerosols [e.g., Textor et al., 2007]) have
identi ed particularly large uncertainties
in modeled distributions of trace species in
the upper troposphere, even when the same
emissions are used. Species at these alti-
tudes are radiatively important, and aero-
sols at these altitudes have a longer life time
and a large integrated impact. Initial model
runs will be designed to understand convec-
tion and scavenging processes, as these are
among the most uncertain and most signifi -
cant processes in models affecting upper
tropospheric distributions. A particular
focus will be the distributions of tracers in
the tropical tropopause layer.
Scenarios Activity
A set of representative concentration
pathways (RCPs) of emissions is being pre-
pared for the next Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment,
planned for 2013 [Moss et al., 2008]. Many
climate modeling centers will perform sim-
ulations to defi ne the chemical composi-
tion of the atmosphere as needed for these
simulations. However, some modeling cen-
ters may not have the capability to create
their own time- evolving distributions of
ozone and aerosols (consistent with each
RCP), do not need to carry this information
iteratively, or would prefer to use a stan-
dard climatology. This activity will provide
well- evaluated distributions for use in such
climate and Earth system models.
In addition, because there has been no
systematic effort to date to archive, evaluate,
and compare the composition changes used
in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project
(CMIP) simulations, an atmospheric chemis-
try and climate model intercomparison proj-
ect is needed. This activity would include
diagnostics from the CMIP5 simulations and
from additional runs of composition- climate
models, archiving more detailed data on
the processes governing the behavior of gas
phase and aerosol species. Additional spe-
cifi c time- slice experiments would enable
the participation in this activity of chemistry
transport models.
While AC&C’s fi rst phase is well under
way, future plans will be shaped through les-
sons learned from this phase and from the
interest of the science community. For more
information, visit http:// www . igac . noaa .gov/
ACandC .php.
Please see the electronic supplement to
this Eos issue (http:// www .agu .org/ eos _ elec/)
for a list of lead researchers for the AC&C.
Braesicke, P., et al. (2008), A model intercompari-
son analysing the link between column ozone
and geopotential height anomalies in January,
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8(9), 2519–2535.
Eyring, V., et al. (2006), Assessment of tempera-
ture, trace species, and ozone in chemistry-
climate model simulations of the recent past,
J. Geophys. Res., 111, D22308, doi:10.1029/
Moss, R., et al. (2008), Towards new scenarios
for analysis of emissions, climate change,
impacts, and response strategies: Technical
summary, 25 pp., Intergov. Panel on Clim.
Change, Geneva. (Available at http:// www . ipcc
. c h / p d f / s u p p o r t i n g - m a t e r i a l / e x p e r t - m e e t i n g - t s
- scenarios .pdf)
Textor, C., et al. (2007), The effect of harmonized
emissions on aerosol properties in global mod-
elsAn AeroCom experiment, Atmos. Chem.
Phys., 7(17), 44894501.
SARAH J. DOHERTY, International Global
Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Core Project Office,
Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),
Seattle, Wash.; E-mail: igac . seattle@ noaa . gov;
PHILIP J. RASCH, Pacific Northwest National Labo-
ratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Wash.;
and A. R. RAVISHANKARA, Chemical Sciences Divi-
sion, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA,
Boulder, Colo.
Chemistry-Climate Models
cont. from page 206
New Study Finds Increasing Gender Equity
at U.S. Research Institutions
AGU Hydrology Section
Members of AGU are encouraged to nominate deserving individuals for this newly
established award given in recognition of
cant early career contributions
to hydrologic science.
e award recognizes that “…the awardees research,
educational or other accomplishments, or the societal impact of his/her work, are
outstanding for a scientist at his/her stage of career, and to acknowledge that the
awardee shows exceptional promise of continued contributions to the hydrologic
sciences.” Nominees must be members or a
liates of the Hydrology section and
within 6 years of earning their Ph.D. at the time of the nomination deadline.
Please send a nomination letter, the candidates two-page curriculum vitae, a
list of publications up to two pages long, and up to three letters of support, by
15 July 2009, to the committee chair. Please combine the entire nomination
package in le for ease of processing.
orsten Wagener (Committee Chair)
Civil and Environmental Engineering, 226B Sackett Building
Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802, USA
Tel: +1-814-865-5673, Fax: +1-814-863-7304
For further information, visit the AGU Hydrology Section Web site,
Nominations for the 2009
Early Career Hydrologic Sciences Award
The Earths magnetic fi eld is generated
mainly by a self- sustaining dynamo in the
uid outer core. Known as the core or main
eld, the dynamos magnetic fi eld is not con-
stant but changes with time, a phenomenon
denoted as secular variation. Unfortunately,
no common agreement exists about the defi -
nition of secular variation: While some use
this term for the temporal changes of the
core eld in general, others use the term only
for its linear part (fi rst time derivative).
Two more terms are linked to core fi eld
temporal variations: geomagnetic jerks and
archeomagnetic jerks. They are used to
describe speci c magnetic fi eld signatures
in the observations, implying a phenom-
enological classifi cation. We suggest that a
characterization of magnetic eld changes
based on the physics of the underlying core
process may be more useful. Such a classifi -
cation is proposed here to help avoid further
misunderstanding through terminology.
Problems in Terminology
Whether or not something is perceived as
a trend depends on the time scale in consid-
eration: A linear change over a time scale of
years to decades may be more complicated
when looking at the century to millennium
time scale. Indeed, the secular variation for
the past few centuriesover which direct
measurements are available—is far from lin-
ear. Phenomena characterized by a sudden
change in the trend of the fi rst time deriva-
tive of the magnetic fi eld (corresponding
to a step in the second time derivative) are
called geomagnetic jerks. They originate in
the Earths core and occur over short time-
scales. But how short is “short”?
Using additional information provided by
geomagnetic fi eld models and the latest sat-
ellite data [Mandea and Olsen, 2006; Olsen
and Mandea, 2007], authors have found new
characteristics of secular variation regarding
spatial resolution and the duration of “sud-
den” changes. Yet a problem arises: Should
every fl uctuation of the core magnetic fi eld
that occurs on time scales of just a few
months to a couple of years be called a geo-
magnetic jerk?
The terminology is further complicated
by the term “archeomagnetic jerk” [Gal-
let et al., 2003], which is meant to denote
sharp features at a time scale intermedi-
ate between geomagnetic jerks (1–2 years
in a centennial time series) and excursions
years in a time series 10
in length). Whereas a geomagnetic jerk is
defi ned based on a sudden change of the
second time derivative of the magnetic eld,
an archeomagnetic jerk has been de ned
based on a sudden change of the magnetic
eld itself. Thus, the term archeomagnetic
jerk may be misleading.
To better characterize observed values
without ambiguity, we suggest a classifi ca-
tion of the magnetic fi eld temporal changes
based on the physics of the underlying core
Geomagnetic Jerks
Geomagnetic jerks have been explained
by invoking torsional oscillations in the fl uid
outer core [Bloxham, 2002]. These oscilla-
tions consist of time- dependent axisymmet-
ric and equatorial symmetric zonal fl ows,
with typical periods of several decades. The-
oretical considerations suggest that such
oscillations should be contained in core
ows, and because of their time scale they
can be observed in historical data. For core
dynamics, torsional oscillations are very
important because they are the most robust
observed dynamic feature inside the core
and provide a crucial link between mag-
netic fi eld observation and dynamo theory.
We suggest that changes in the geomagnetic
eld due to the torsional oscillations should
be denoted as geomagnetic jerks.
As an example of geomagnetic jerks
observed from historical data, the black
curve in the magnifi ed part of Figure 1
shows the temporal changes of the annual
means of declination (dD/dt) since the fi rst
French observatory was installed in the Paris
region. Also shown are predictions of dD/dt
for Chambon- la- Forêt observatory in France,
as given by the gufm1 model (dashed curve
[see Jackson et al., 2000]) and the prelimi-
nary CALSK10 model (black curve with dots
(M. Korte, personal communication, 2009)).
These curves indicate that there are lin-
ear segments of constant slope of dD/dt, last-
ing from a few decades (e.g., 1925–1970) to
nearly a century (e.g., the fi rst part of the
nineteenth century), as well as short- term
abrupt changes on decadal or even subdec-
adal time scales. The estimations deduced
from the preliminary CALSK10 model indi-
cate periods characterized by important
accelerations, as around 7000 B.C.E. with a
change of about 0.5º in some 100 years or,
starting with the eighteenth century, of more
than 0.3º in less than 200 years.
Rapid Secular Variation Fluctuations
Torsional oscillations may give only
a snapshot of the dynamo on a decadal
time scale. No direct information is avail-
able for very short time scales (less than
a couple of years) or at the time scale of
magnetic field generation (more than
thousands of years). Thus, magnetic field
changes arising on both of these time-
scales should be denoted a bit differently.
Can we nd fl ows in the core that are
(1) consistent with the very rapid changes of
the eld (<1 year) recently observed using
magnetic satellite data [Mandea and Olsen,
2006; Olsen and Mandea, 2007] and (2) in
agreement with the observed change in the
length of day (LOD)? Recently, Olsen and
Mandea [2008] have shown that changes in
the magnetic fi eld occurring over only a few
months, as well as the fl uid fl ow at the top of
the core generating them, can be resolved.
The derived time- dependent core fl ow, fi t-
ting the recent secular variation behavior
and being in agreement with the LOD
variation, is spatially rather localized and
involves rapid variations over time scales of
only a few months, with surprisingly large
local accelerations. We suggest calling these
changes rapid secular variation fl uctuations,
or, in short, rapid fl uctuations.
Archeomagnetic Jerks
Are there fl ows that are consistent with
changes observed in the secular variation
covering a few millennia, and also with
the LOD variations on a millennial time-
scale? Dumberry and Bloxham [2006] have
shown that the amplitudes and characteris-
tic time scales of the observed LOD changes
can be explained by zonal fl ow variations
deduced from secular variation on millen-
nial time scales. Changes in the magnetic
eld confi guration are generated by convec-
tive motions, which in turn produce observ-
able secular variation. Recently, Wardinski
and Korte [2008] found that a toroidal fl ow
explains better the long- term variation in the
geomagnetic fi eld secular variations com-
pared with a geostrophic fl ow. The signifi -
cant periodicities for the large- scale zonal
ows range from some 540 to 1050 years.
We suggest that the term archeomagnetic
jerk should be used to denote these long-
term changes in the secular variation, rather
than current classi ciations that use the
term to defi ne changes in fi eld direction.
We hope that our suggested changes in
terminology of geomagnetic fi eld variations
will help to better track the different tempo-
ral variations revealed by observations and
facilitate future developments concerning
the dynamics of the fl uid core.
We thank Monika Korte for providing the
preliminary CALSK10 model and Alexander
Jordan for his support in improving Figure 1.
Bloxham, J. (2002), Time- independent and time-
dependent behavior of high- latitude fl ux bundles
at the core- mantle boundary, Geophys. Res. Lett.,
29(0), 1854, doi:10.1029/2001GL014543.
Dumberry, M., and J. Bloxham (2006), Azimuthal
ows in the Earth’s core and changes in length
of day at millennial time scales, Geophys. J. Int.,
165(1), 3246.
Gallet, Y., A. Genevey, and V. Courtillot (2003), On
the possible occurrence of “archaeomagnetic
jerks” in the geomagnetic fi eld over the past three
millennia, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 214, 237–242.
Jackson, A., A. R. T. Jonkers, and M. R. Walker
(2000), Four centuries of geomagnetic secular
variation from historical records, Philos. Trans.
R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 358, 957–990.
Mandea, M., and N. Olsen (2006), A new approach
to directly determine the secular variation from
magnetic satellite observations, Geophys. Res.
Lett., 33, L15306, doi:10.1029/ 2006GL026616.
Olsen, N., and M. Mandea (2007), Investigation of
a secular variation impulse using satellite data:
The 2003 geomagnetic jerk, Earth Planet. Sci.
Lett., 255, 94–105, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.12.008.
Olsen, N., and M. Mandea (2008), Rapidly changing
ows in the Earth’s core, Nat. Geosci., 1, 390–394.
Wardinski, I., and M. Korte (2008), The evolu-
tion of the core- surface fl ow over the last seven
thousand years, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B05101,
doi:10.1029/ 2007JB005024.
MIOARA MANDEA, Helmholtz- Zentrum Pots-
dam, Deutsches Geo Forschungs Zentrum, Potsdam,
Germany; E-mail: mioara@ gfz - potsdam .de; and
NILS OLSEN, National Space Institute, Tech nical
University of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark
Geomagnetic and Archeomagnetic Jerks:
Where Do We Stand?
Fig. 1. Temporal evolution of the declination for Chambon- la- Forêt location (France) given by the
preliminary CALSK10 model (black curve with dots). The magnified part of the figure indicates
the secular variation recorded in the Paris region and adjusted to the Chambon- la- Forêt obser-
vatory (gray curve), and the corresponding predictions for the same site given by the gufm1
model (dashed curve) and the preliminary CALSK10 model (black curve with dots). Note the
well- known geomagnetic jerks around 1900, 1925, 1970, and 1980, with a rounded shape due
to the 11- year smoothing used. During the period preceding the twentieth century, the data are of
lower quality; however, a clear jerk appears around 1870. There is no evidence of a jerk with a
similar magnitude prior to this date; nonetheless, some events, though drowned out by the high-
amplitude noise, can be noted over the general increasing tendency.
Nominations for the
2009 Donald L. Turcotte Award
Nonlinear Geophysics Focus Group
Deadline: 31 July 2009
To be eligible, the candidate should be a recipient of a Ph.D. (or equivalent
degree) between 1 July 2008 and 30 June 2009. Research advisors are encouraged
to nominate deserving individuals whose dissertations contribute directly to
nonlinear geophysics. Nominations should consist of a nomination letter, one
to three supporting letters from other members of the thesis committee or
other scientists familiar with the research, and a copy (preferably digital) of the
Send nominations to:
American Geophysical Union Attn: Leadership
2000 Florida Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20009-1277, USA
Tel: +1-202-777-7502 E-mail:
For further information, visit the AGU Nonlinear Geophysics
Focus Group Web site:
22–24 June 2009 NASA Earth System Science
at 20: Accomplishments, Plans, and Chal-
lenges, Washington, D. C., USA. Sponsor: NASA.
( W e b s i t e : h t t p : / / d e l s . n a s . e d u / o s b / n a s a . s h t m l )
The symposium will include an open forum
to examine the history of the NASA Earth System
Science Program and its future, and an open sci-
ence meeting to discuss scientifi c fi ndings and ad-
vances from the Earth Observing System and other
NASA or NASA- partnered Earth science missions.
26 June 2009 Making a Geology Course
More Engaging for Students: Incorporating
More Interactive Assignments and Activi-
ties to Promote Critical Thinking and Re-
ection, Allendale, Michigan, USA. Sponsors:
Center for Excellence in Science and Mathemat-
ics Education, Grand Valley State University; Pew
Faculty Teaching and Learning Center, in co-
operation with Frederik Meijer Honors College,
Grand Valley State. (Conference Coordinator,
Tel.: +1- 616- 331- 3912; Fax: +1- 616- 331- 8658; E-mail:
CESME@ gvsu . edu; Web site: http:// www . gvsu
. e d u / c e s m e / i n d e x . c f m ? i d = 0 C 0 3 9 F B 7 - C A E B - 4 7 A E
- 9434A83EE1EA87B9)
The workshop will focus on developing en-
gaging ways of presenting material and teaching
2530 July 2009 2009 Annual Meeting of the
American Crystallographic Association, To-
ronto, Ontario, Canada. Sponsors: American Crys-
tallographic Association (ACA); Canadian Institutes
of Health Research; Natural Sciences and Engineer-
ing Research Council; others. (D. Rose, Department
of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University
Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada; Tel.:
+519- 888- 4567 ext. 35208; Fax: +519- 746- 0614; E-mail:
drrose@ scimail . uwaterloo . ca; Web site: http:// www
.cins .ca/ aca2009/ index .html)
Session themes include green biochemis-
try, the structure of nanophase materials, and
complementary methods for macromolecular
12–14 August 2009 Cryospheric Changes and
Infl uences: Cryospheric Issues in Regional
Sustainable Development, Lijiang, China. Spon-
sors: Climate and Cryosphere project (CliC); In-
ternational Association of Cryospheric Sciences;
International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics;
others. (S. Kang, Conference Secretariat, Tel.:
+0086- 10- 6284- 9681; E-mail: shichang .kang@
itpcas .ac .cn; Web site: http:// clic . npolar . no/
meetings/ First _ circular _ lijang .doc)
Sessions will include cryospheric distribution
and changes, cold region hydrology and water
resources, frangibility and adaptability of cryo-
sphere, and mitigation and adaptive countermea-
sures on cryospheric changes.
7–11 September 2009 First Antarctic Cli-
mate Evolution Symposium, Granada, Spain.
Sponsors: U.S. National Science Foundation;
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científi-
cas (CSIC); Scientific Committee on Antarc-
tic Research; others. (Carlota Escutia Dotti,
Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra
CSIC, University of Granada, Granada, Spain;
E-mail:; Web site: http:// www
. acegranada2009 .com/)
The symposium will focus on the integration
of paleoenvironmental data and numerical mod-
els for an improved understanding of processes
related to the past, present, and future dynamics
and interactions of the Antarctic atmosphere,
ocean, cryosphere, and biosphere.
28 September to 1 October 2009 MARGINS
Theoretical and Experimental Institute:
Volatiles in the Subduction Factory, Tim-
berline, Oregon, USA. Sponsor: MARGINS.
( MARGINS Offi ce, Lamont- Doherty Earth Obser-
vatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Pali-
sades, NY 10964, USA; Tel.: +1- 845- 365- 8711; Fax:
+1- 845- 365- 8150; E-mail: margins@ nsf - margins
.org; Web site: http:// www .nsf - margins .org/ SF/
2009/ index .html)
The meeting will focus on the behavior, mass
balance, and in uence of volatiles in subduc-
tion zones. The meeting will encompass research
topics within MARGINS subduction factory, seis-
mogenic zone experiment, and rupturing conti-
nental lithosphere initiatives that are directly in-
uenced by subduction- related fl uids.
59 October 2009 Second International
Symposium on the Geology of the Black Sea
Region, Ankara, Turkey. Sponsors: Mineral Re-
search and Exploration Institute of Turkey (MTA);
Chamber of Geological Engineers. (A. I. Okay,
Eurasia Institute of Earth Sciences, Istanbul Tech-
nical University, Maslak, Istanbul 34469, Turkey;
Tel.: +90-212-285-6208; Fax: +90-212-285- 6210;
E-mail: okay@ itu .; Web site: http:// www .mta
. g o v . t r / i s g b / )
All aspects of the geology of the Black Sea re-
gion onshore and offshore, including tectonics,
petroleum geology, marine geology and geophys-
ics, volcanology, mining geology, engineering ge-
ology, and Quaternary geology, will be discussed
at the symposium. Abstract deadline is 25 June.
Cold- water carbonate mounds sup-
porting cold- water coral ecosystems,
often dominated by Lophelia pertusa and
Madrepora oculata, are widespread along
the Atlantic margins from Norway to Mau-
ritania. During the past 10 years, the sci-
entific community has accumulated new
insights on their occurrence and develop-
ment and identified their potential role
in reservoir formation, thus establishing
a framework for collaboration with the
hydrocarbon industry.
A Magellan workshop, sponsored by the
European Science Foundation (ESF; http://
www .esf .org/), was held in Switzerland in
January. The workshop gathered 35 sci-
entists from 10 European and two extra-
European countries (Canada and Morocco),
representing 20 research teams, includ-
ing members of two Integrated Ocean
Drilling Program (IODP) proposals. Some
of the participants were also involved with
two ESF European Collaborative Research
( EUROCORES) projects [Microbial Diver-
sity and Functionality in Cold- Water Coral
Reef Ecosystems ( MiCROSYSTEMS) and
Mid- Latitude Carbonate Systems: Complete
Sequences From Cold- Water Coral Car-
bonate Mounds in the Northeast Atlantic
( CARBONATE)], and the European Union
Framework Program 6 integrated project
Hotspot Ecosystem Research on the Margins
of European Seas ( HERMES).
The scientists, representing a wide spec-
trum of geological and biological disci-
plines, came together to launch the Cold-
Water Carbonate Reservoir Systems in Deep
Environments ( COCARDE) initiative and to
discuss and plan future common research
strategies and joint projects for the study of
these important geological settings together
with industry, ideas that are also being dis-
cussed within IODP.
The workshop was organized in fi ve pan-
els, addressing the most important key pro-
cesses that contribute to the shaping of the
mound structures. Panel 1, “Environment,
stressed the importance of understanding the
entire architecture of cold- water coral car-
bonate mounds to open new insights into the
role of both primary oceanic processes and
early diagenesis in determining the internal
architecture of a mound reservoir. Panel 2,
“The microbial lter,” focused on these struc-
tures as giant biogeochemical reactors.
Panel 3, “Petrophysical characterization,
pointed out the need for a better understand-
ing of sub recent diagenetic processes and
their impact on the primary fabric and petro-
physical characteristics of a cold- water coral
mound, which might help scientists to under-
stand and predict the occurrence of later
diagenetic processes that play an important
role in reservoir formation. Panel 4, “Con-
nectivity issues and compartmentalization in
mixed cold- water carbonate/ siliciclastic con-
tourite systems,” showed that the association
of cold- water coral carbonate mounds with
contourites offers various opportunities for
connectivity at several scales, including the
role of fi ne- grained contourite drift as reser-
voir seals. Panel 5, “Ancient cold- water car-
bonate systems and potential recent analogs,
discussed the importance of combined
research on fossil and modern cold- water car-
bonate settings to provide the baseline refer-
ence standard for a better understanding of
these systems and their potential as hydrocar-
bon reservoirs.
The ideas expressed during the Fribourg
workshop will be compiled into a draft
proposal promoting the “carbonate fac-
tory” theme for future post- IODP planning.
COCARDE endeavors to sail under the fl ag
of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic
Commission/United Nations Educational,
Scientifi c, and Cultural Organization (IOC-
UNESCO) Geosphere- Biosphere Coupling
Processes program. In the future, as part of
the International Continental Scientifi c Drill-
ing Program, COCARDE will aim to obtain
complete records cored through ancient
mounds with continuity and resolution com-
parable to those achieved in drilling marine
mounds. The ESF EuroDiversity program and
the ESF MiCROSYSTEMS project will support
a workshop with fi eld seminars on carbon-
iferous mounds in Cantabria, Spain, in early
September 2009.
The full text of this meeting report can be
found in the electronic supplement to this
Eos issue (http:// www .agu .org/ eos _elec/).
SILVIA SPEZZAFERRI, Department of Geosciences,
University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland;
E-mail: silvia . spezzaferri@
Workshop on Marine Research Drilling
Cold- Water Carbonate Reservoir Systems in Deep Environments (COCARDE):
A Pilot Industry- Academia Partnership in Marine Research Drilling;
Fribourg, Switzerland, 21–24 January 2009
Silicate spatter from Nicaragua’s Mayasa vol-
cano offers insight into volcanic processes
Nicaragua’s Masaya volcano is considered a “lab-
oratory volcano” because its persistent aerosol
emissions can be readily monitored at the sum-
mit as well as farther downwind. These aerosol
plumes are a complex mixture of gas and particles
that evolve over a range of timescales. Studies of
plumes offer snapshots of plume chemistry at a
given time, providing more general insights into
processes occurring at the magma surface and in
the vent and crater. Martin et al. directly sampled
and remotely studied the aerosol plume emanating
from Masaya’s active vent, specifi cally focusing on
studying the size distribution of silicate particles
with diameters less than 10 micro meters. Using an
automated scanning electron microscope, the au-
thors found that fi ne silicate particles in Masaya’s
plume are most typically spherical, with diameters
close to 1 micrometer, and are best represented as
droplets of quenched magma produced through
spattering. Further analyses showed that these
particles become depleted in metals by reactions
with acidic droplets in the plume, with the smallest
particles being most signifi cantly altered through
this process. (Journal of Geophysical Research-
Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/ 2008JD011211, 2009)
Rapid increase in the amount of fresh water
within the Arctic Ocean Fresh water fl owing
into or out of the Arctic Ocean plays an impor-
tant role in ocean circulation and may be a fac-
tor in the response of the world ocean to climate
change. To study recent change in freshwater
content of the Arctic, McPhee et al. analyzed
data from an extensive aerial hydrographic sur-
vey carried out in March and April 2008. Their
study showed a dramatic increase in the amount
of fresh water in the Arctic Ocean as well as a sig-
nifi cant change in the distribution of fresh water,
as compared with average winter values. In par-
ticular, the authors found that freshwater volume
in the Canada and Makarov basins on the Pacifi c
side of the Lomonosov Ridge increased by about
8500 cubic kilometers; the freshwater volume on
the Eurasian area decreased by about 1100 cubic
kilometers. The freshening of the Arctic occurred
in conjunction with the recent dramatic loss of
Arctic sea ice, the authors noted. They found that
these changes have altered Arctic Ocean circula-
tion, with a large increase in northward transport
of fresh water in the Canada Basin. (Geophysical
Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2009GL037525, 2009)
Including zonal ozone asymmetries is key
to accurate climate modeling Ozone levels
are not uniform in space but vary with height,
latitude, and longitude. However, most coupled
atmosphere- ocean climate models and simula-
tions of the middle atmosphere simply use pre-
scribed zonal average ozone levels as input. To
assess the infl uence of three- dimensional (3-D)
ozone variations on simulated temperatures, Gil-
lett et al. used the Canadian middle atmosphere
model with coupled chemistry, which interactively
simulates 3-D variations in stratospheric ozone
and temperature. They compared temperature in
the atmosphere in a simulation with 3-D ozone
variations with temperature in a simulation with
zonally averaged ozone. Consistent with previ-
ous studies, they found a signifi cant temperature
response to zonal asymmetries in ozone, compa-
rable in magnitude to the response of temperature
to ozone depletion. The authors concluded that
zonal variations in ozone levels have important
effects on climate and that realistic simulations
of future atmospheric temperature trends require
climate models to include the zonally asymmetric
component of the ozone distribution. (Geophysical
Research Letters, doi:10.1029/ 2009GL037246, 2009)
I am honored to present Jay S. Fein, recip-
ient of the 2009 AGU Edward A. Flinn III
Award. I have known Jay for over 25 years
and have often witnessed his deep commit-
ment to leading and serving the atmospheric
sciences community. This commitment goes
well beyond what his program manage-
ment job at the National Science Foundation
calls for; Jay is visionary and insightful and
has on many occasions supported high- risk
innovative research that has proven to be
watershed science. He has an uncanny abil-
ity to balance risk taking, leadership, and
partnering with national and international
agencies and community members on proj-
ects in a way that does not compromise his
federal oversight responsibilities, and always
in a humble and gracious manner.
Long ago Jay recognized the importance
of pursuing parallel climate and weather
paths in complex fi eld campaigns in order
to fundamentally understand the climate
system. He has provided sage advice, and
served as a brilliant mediator when nec-
essary, in such major international fi eld
programs as the Monsoon Experiment
(MONEX; 1979), Tropical Ocean– Global
Atmosphere/ Coupled Ocean- Atmosphere
Response Experiment (TOGA/ COARE;
1992–1993), Indian Ocean Experiment
( INDOEX; 1998), The Observing- System
Research and Predictability Experiment
( THORPEX) Paci c- Asian Regional Cam-
paign (T- PARC; 2008), and many others.
Jay saw the need for comprehensive
global models early on. When Francis
Bretherton, Dave Schimel, and I were orga-
nizing the community Climate System
Modeling Project (CSMP) in the late 1980s
and early 1990s, Jay encouraged, sup-
ported, and helped defi ne the CSMP vision.
CSMP evolved into the Community Cli-
mate System Model (CCSM) effort, which
now includes over 300 scientists from the
National Center for Atmospheric Research
and many universities and labs working to
develop a fully coupled model of Earth’s
climate system. Jay was instrumental in ral-
lying the community behind CCSM and
in obtaining computer resources for the
model, which has been critical to the Inter-
governmental Panel on Climate Change
Jay has also played a vital leadership
role in pioneering satellite observing
technology. He supported the high- risk
but highly successful Global Position-
ing System/ Meteorology (GPS/ MET) pro-
gram (1995–1997), which provided the fi rst
soundings of Earth’s atmosphere using the
radio occultation technique. It took cour-
age and foresight for Jay to embrace GPS/
MET in the early 1990s, because at that
time the radio occultation technique was
virtually unknown to most atmospheric sci-
entists. Jay then helped lead the Taiwan-
U.S. Constellation Observing System for
Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate
( COSMIC) mission. COSMIC extended GPS/
MET by launching six microsatellites in
2006 that provide between 1500 and 2000
soundings of the global atmosphere each
day in near real time. The benefi t of these
soundings for numerical weather predic-
tion has been demonstrated by leading
weather centers around the world. COSMIC
was an extremely complex program to
organize, from the political as well as the
scientifi c and technological side, requiring
negotiations and coordination among fi ve
U.S. agencies and Taiwan. It never would
have happened without Jay’s profound
commitment and support.
In addition to his extraordinary scientifi c
and organizational skills, Jay Fein is a true
gentleman. He has had a major impact on
science overall and on my career and that
of many others. I am proud to call him my
RICHARD A. ANTHES, University Corporation for
Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo.
I am deeply honored to be the 2009
recipient of AGU’s Edward A. Flinn III
Award, and I thank AGU, its Award Nomi-
nations Committee, and, in particular, my
nominators, Rick Anthes, Jack Fellows, and
Roger Wakimoto.
Whatever successes have come my way,
however, have less to do with me than with
the brilliant and creative research scien-
tists and institutional leaders I have had the
pleasure to work with over the past several
decades. I have been fortunate to be able to
work in a science I love and with the best
group of colleagues one could hope for.
I have also been fortunate to witness the
birth and maturation of “Earth system sci-
ences,” the goal of which was enunciated in
a presentation on 26 June 1986, by Francis
To obtain a scienti c understanding of the
entire Earth system on a global scale by
describing how its component parts and
their interactions have evolved, how they
function, and how they may be expected to
continue to evolve on all time scales.
He further pointed out that the impact
of human activities poses an additional
To develop the capability to predict those
changes that will occur in the next decade
to century, both naturally and in response to
human activities.
The worldwide communities of geosci-
entists, working with colleagues in many
areas of science and applications, have
made extraordinary advances in meeting
these challenges posed over 2 decades
ago. This is a remarkable testimony to the
visionary brilliance of Bretherton and his
peers, including past recipients of this
award as well as my nominators. That I
have been fortunate enough to be a part
of this extraordinary group and this period
of advancement has been delightful to me
and also very gratifying.
JAY S. FEIN, National Science Foundation,
Arlington, Va.
Fein Receives Edward A. Flinn III Award
Jay S. Fein received the Edward A. Flinn III Award at the Joint Assembly, held 26 May
2009 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The award honors “individuals who personify the
Union’s motto ‘unselfish cooperation in research’ through their facilitating, coordinating,
and implementing activities.
Jay S. Fein
Atmospheric Sciences
Post-Doctoral Position/Harvard University.
Applications are invited for a post-doctoral position
with the Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling Group
at Harvard University. The successful applicant will
investigate the effects of a changing climate on
extratropical fires, and effects of the fires on tropo-
spheric composition and air quality. They will use a
coupled chemistry/climate model and will contrib-
ute to the development of a model that projects the
effects of climate on fires, http:// www .fas . harvard
.edu/ ~logan/. They will join a diverse and vibrant
research group working on a range of global and
regional tropospheric chemistry and climate prob-
lems, http:// www .as . harvard .edu/ chemistry/ trop.
Preference will be given to candidates with
experience with global models, or fire modeling,
or related topics. Send curriculum vitae, brief state-
ment of research experience and goals, and con-
tact information for three references to Dr. Jennifer
Logan, jlogan@ seas . harvard .edu, as one pdf file.
Harvard University is an Equal Opportunity/Affirma-
tive Action employer.
Postdoctoral Researcher Atmospheric
Research & Mass Spectrometry. A postdoctoral
non-tenure-track position in the area of gas par-
ticle reactions of PAH nitration and oxidation. The
experience in atmospheric research using mass
spectrometry and chromatography, and in writing
papers is highly desired. The successful applicant
is expected to assist students. A Ph.D. degree in
Analytical Chemistry is required. Please send your
application including cover letter, resume, publica-
tion list, two letters of recommendation, and an
applicant control card http:// www .und .edu/ dept/
aao/ apcontrolcard .htm. Contact Dr. Alena Kuba-
tova: email akubatova@ chem .und .edu. University
of North Dakota is an Affirmative Action/Equal
Employment Opportunity Employer and women
and minorities are encouraged to apply.
Postdoctoral Research Position. Applications
are solicited for a postdoctoral research position at
the Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate (C4)
of the Division of Climate, Atmospheric Science
and Physical Oceanography (CASPO) at Scripps
Institute of Oceanography (SIO) at the University of
California, San Diego (UCSD). Potential candidates
should have a Ph.D. or equivalent in atmospheric
science or a related discipline.
The Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate
will soon conduct an assessment of radiative forcing
and climate impact by black carbon (BC) aerosols
in California. This is an exciting and challenging
project involving 4 laboratories in California, and
will provide the postdoctoral researcher with a
unique experience interacting with leading climate
scientists. Specifically, the successful candidate will
be expected to compile and evaluate BC regional
properties in California, including spatial and time
variations, optical properties, vertical profiles, the
mixing state, and deposition on snow based on
multi-platform (satellite, unmanned aircraft, and
surface) observational data and regional chemical
transport model assimilation for the last 40 years.
He/she will collaborate with other scientists to esti-
mate the radiative forcing of BC and anthropogenic
aerosols using the assimilated data, and assess the
regional climate response with a regional climate
model (WRF), plus be expected to publish works in
peer-reviewed journals and support other research
programs in aerosol climatic impact.
Applicants should have experience with satel-
lite remote sensing or ground-based aerosol data;
good understanding of aerosol properties, transfor-
mation, radiative effects, and regional climate mod-
eling; proficiency in programming, data analysis,
and familiarity with visualization software.
Position will be open until filled. For early
consideration, applications should be received by
July 15, 2009. Please send your application to Dr. Yan
Feng at, yafeng@ ucsd .edu, including a letter of intent
addressed to Professor V. Ramanathan, current cur-
riculum vitae with publication record and names of
3 references including the thesis advisor. SIO/UCSD
is an equal opportunity employer.
Senior Research Climatologist. The Division of
Illinois State Water Survey within the Institute of
Natural Resource Sustainability at the University
of Illinois is seeking a full-time Senior Research
Climatologist. The primary function of the position
will develop a research program focused on clima-
tological processes or impacts of climate variations
and change, particularly in the US Midwest and the
nation. Please refer to http:// www . isws . illinois .edu/
jobs/ joblist .asp. To ensure full consideration, a cov-
er letter, resume and the names, addresses, phone
numbers, and e-mail addresses of three profes-
sional references must be received by July 15, 2009.
All requested information must be submitted for
your application to be considered. The University of
Illinois is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action
Employer. The administration, Faculty and staff
embrace diversity and are committed to attracting
qualified candidates who also embrace and value
diversity and inclusivity.
Visiting Scientist Programs. UCAR Air Force
Weather Agency (AFWA), Offutt Air Force Base,
Nebraska, General Meteorological Algorithm
Development, Associate Scientist I. This is a new,
full-time position. Initial consideration will be
given to applications received prior to July 1, 2009.
Thereafter, applications will be reviewed on an
as-needed basis. Relocation benefits will not be
provided. Conduct research, collaborate, and
apply numerical weather prediction techniques
to smooth and accelerate the transition of new
technologies in meteorology, specifically analyze
data for use in weather forecast algorithm devel-
opment, software development and visualization
based upon algorithms developed and modified,
and verification of existing algorithms and soft-
ware validation.
Bachelor of Science in Meteorology or Atmo-
spheric Sciences is required, and enrollment in a
Masters degree program in Meteorology or Atmo-
spheric Sciences would be desirable.
For a more detailed position description you
may email vsp@ ucar .edu, or visit the VSP Website
at http:// www . vsp . ucar .edu/ opportunities/. UCAR is
an EO/AAE who values and encourages diversity in
the workplace.
Ph.D. Student and Postdoctoral Positions.
Openings at the Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry
Laboratory at UC Davis, Alexandra Navrotsky. Fun-
damental thermodynamics and high temperature
calorimetry of systems relevant to SOFCs, nano
and microporous materials, actinides and nuclear
waste, minerals, CO
sequestration, polymer
derived ceramics, sulfides, melts and glasses. See
website, http:// thermo . ucdavis .edu, and contact
anavrotsky@ ucdavis .edu for more information.
Ph.D. Candidate. New Mexico State University
seeks a highly qualifed M.S. or Ph.D. candidate for
a degree in Range Science with a specialization in
Watershed Management. The student will partici-
pate in a study of river valley hydrology and interac-
tions between surface water and groundwater. Field
research will take place in northern New Mexico.
Funding is provided by the National Science
Foundation NM EPSCoR project Climate Change
Impacts on New Mexico’s Mountain Sources of
Water. As part of the larger EPSCoR project, the
successful candidate will interact with research-
ers from throughout New Mexico and the western
U.S. Applicants should have a B.S. or M.S. degree
in Watershed Science, Hydrology, Range Science,
Environmental Science, Natural Resources, or a
related field. Experience in field hydrology mea-
surement and hydrologic modeling are desirable.
To apply or for further information contact Dr. Sam
Fernald, Box 30003 MSC-3I, New Mexico State
University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, 575-646-1041,
f e r n a l d @ n m s u . e d u .
Postdoctoral Fellow in Groundwater Model-
ing. The University of Calgary, Department of
Geoscience, www . ucalgary . ca/ geoscience/, seeks a
postdoctoral research fellow to conduct watershed-
scale modeling of groundwater in bedrock aquifers
and its interaction with surface water. Duties will
include using data from ongoing field studies to
parameterize and calibrate models, and code modi-
fication when required. The successful candidate
will have a Ph.D. degree in geosciences, engineer-
ing or a related field with significant experience in
numerical groundwater modeling. Research expe-
rience in land-surface and soil hydrological pro-
cesses is an asset. The position is for two years with
a possible extension to a third year. Interested can-
didates should send their CV, academic transcripts,
and the names and addresses of three references to
D r . M a s a k i H a y a s h i , h a y a s h i @ u c a l g a r y . c a .
Solid Earth Geophysics
Research Associate in Geodesy. Newcastle
University-Salary: Up to £28,839, rising to £35,469.
Based in the School of Civil Engineering & Geosci-
ences, you will join the Newcastle Geodesy team
and carry out research related to determining
large scale movement of water mass by measuring
deformation of the Earth and changes in the Earths
gravity field. The aim of the project is to develop
an integrated observation model using gravity
measurements from GRACE and SLR, and measure-
ments of the Earth’s shape from GPS. In addition,
the results will improve the realisation of the Ter-
restrial Reference Frame used throughout the Earth
Sciences and in particular for altimetric and tide
gauge estimates of sea level rise. You should hold a
PhD (or be expecting the imminent award of one)
in geodesy or geophysics and have a proven or
emerging track record of self motivated progress
in academic research, including publication in
peer-reviewed journals. This post is available for
30 months in the first instance.
For further information please e-mail: peter
. clarke@ ncl .ac .uk or tel: + 44 (0) 191 222 6351.
Please apply online at http:// www .ncl .ac
.uk/ vacancies/. Closing date: 17 July 2009, Job
Reference: D478R.
Visiting Assistant Professor at Tulane Uni-
versity. The Department of Earth and Environ-
mental Sciences at Tulane University seeks to
fill a one-year, non-tenure-track visiting faculty
position to teach introductory Physical Geol-
ogy and other undergraduate and/or graduate
courses commensurate with the applicant’s
experience. The position is subject to budgetary
approval by Tulane University. The deadline for
applications is June 30, 2009, but the position will
remain open until filled. Applications should be
sent (email preferred) to Dr. Stephen A. Nelson,
Department of Earth and Environmental Sci-
ences, Tulane University, 6823 St. Charles Avenue,
New Orleans, LA 70118-5698, USA (snelson@
tulane .edu) , and should include a curriculum
vitae, a statement of teaching interests and goals,
and the names and contact information of at
least three refrences. Further information can
be obtained at http:// www . tulane .edu/ ~eens/.
Tulane University is an affirmative action/equal
opportunity employer. Women and minorities are
encouraged to apply.
Visiting Professor/Post-doc Position at ERI, the
University of Tokyo. The Earthquake Research
Institute, the University of Tokyo, invites applica-
tions for Visiting Professor/Post-doctoral Fellow
positions in the research fields of earthquakes,
volcanoes, and physics of the earth’s interior.
The period of each position will be three through
twelve months during the period from April 1, 2010
to March 31, 2011. Candidates are requested to sub-
mit the following set of documents:
CV with birth date and detailed account of aca-
demic activity.
List of academic publications.
Summary of research that the candidate has con-
ducted (300-500 words).
Title of research and research proposal at ERI
(300-500 words).
Desired length of stay; from three to twelve
Candidates are also requested to nominate a
host researcher of ERI. If you need detailed infor-
mation on host researchers, please visit our website
at http:// www .eri . u-tokyo .ac .jp/
The appointed candidates are expected to
carry out research at ERI as an employee of the
University of Tokyo. Monthly salary, ancillary
expenses including partial housing costs and com-
muting allowance will be paid based on the rules
of the University and ERI.
The deadline for this application is July 10
(Friday), 2009. If you need further information
regarding this position, please feel free to contact
Professor Teruyuki Kato.
Teruyuki Kato
Head Office of International Earthquake and
Volcano Research Promotion
Earthquake Research Institute, the University
of Tokyo
1 - 1 , Y a y o i 1 , B u n k y o - k u , T o k y o 1 1 3 - 0 0 3 2 J A P A N
Phone: +81-3-5841-5818
Fax: +81-3-5841-5693
E - m a i l : t e r u @ e r i . u - t o k y o . a c . j p
Assistant, Associate, or Senior Research Sci-
entist. The Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the
University of Arizona expects to fill up to 2 non-
tenure track faculty positions at the level of Assis-
tant, Associate, or Senior Research Scientist. These
ranks are equivalent to the corresponding professo-
rial ranks, but without a commitment for state sup-
port or teaching responsibility. Research Scientists
report to the director of the Lunar and Planetary
Laboratory. Salary and position title will be based
on the qualifications of the selected candidate(s),
who will be responsible for raising 100% of their sal-
aries and research funds through their own extra-
mural grants and contracts. For full position details
and to apply online, please see www .hr . arizona .edu
and reference job #42950. The University of Arizona
is an AA/EEO/ADA employer-M/W/D/V.
Environmental Surface Chemistry Research
Scientist. Project Description: The Savannah River
National Laboratory is seeking applicants interested
in conducting fundamental and applied research
in any one of the following areas: quantifying short-
term and long-term mechanisms controlling metal/
radionuclide fate and transport, understanding the
role of microorganisms in solubilizing metal/radio-
nuclide, identifying and quantifying redox reac-
tions of radionuclides with natural organic matter,
natural sediments, and iron oxides.
Qualifications: The incumbent would identify
and quantify rate- limiting environmental processes
occurring at solid-liquid interfaces through the
use of wet-chemistry, spectroscopy, microscopy,
and numerical modeling. Possessing skills related
to colloid chemistry, geochemistry, nanotechnol-
ogy, radiochemistry, microscopy, or spectroscopy
is desirable. The applicants must work effectively
within an interdisciplinary team focused on iden-
tifying heterogeneities and integrating results at
Classified cont. on page 212
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multiscales in reactive transport calculations. PhD in
Chemistry or Engineering required. Radiochemistry
experience strongly desired. US Citizenship Required.
How to Apply: Qualified applicants are encour-
aged to submit a cover letter, detailed CV and
reference job number SRNS- 08- 70 to the SRNL
Recruiting Office at SRNLResearchRecruiting@
srnl. doe .gov . EOE.
Faculty Position. The Department of Earth Sci-
ences, Zhejiang University, China, is seeking faculty
members at the level of associate or full professors