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Vital Friends: The People You Can''''t Afford to Live Without

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... Much of the attention on such services – in the traditional media as well as scientific literature – has focused on the use and impact of such services on interpersonal awareness, connections and relationships. Although there is a growing appreciation for the role of friendships and other informal relationships in work settings [3, 4, 16], and some research on the use of social media within the enterprise [12], relatively little attention has been devoted to how sharing personal media through online social networking services can help foster stronger relationships in the workplace. ...
... The general organizational benefits from increased awareness and interactions, and personal and professional relationships, among co-workers include higher job satisfaction and higher productivity [16]. This particular lab, which is engaged in research and development of new technologies to support the creation and sharing of social media (among other topics), would also realize benefits from increased use of social media by the researchers and developers working there. ...
... This discrepancy between the impact on personal and professional relationships is not surprising, given that the photos shown on the displays were nearly all of a personal nature. However, given the recent research demonstrating the importance – and productivity gains – from personal friendships in workplaces, even increases in personal relationships can have an indirect impact on professional aspects of work [16]. We also asked people to report any interesting experiences they had around the displays in an open text question. ...
Conference Paper
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Online social media services enable people to share many aspects of their personal interests and passions with friends, acquaintances and strangers. We are investigating how the display of social media in a workplace context can improve relationships among collocated colleagues. We have designed, developed and deployed the Context, Content and Community Collage, which runs on large LCD touchscreen computers installed in eight locations throughout a research laboratory. This proactive display application senses nearby people via Bluetooth phones, and responds by incrementally adding photos associated with those people to an ambient collage shown on the screen. This paper describes the motivations, goals, design and impact of the system, highlighting the ways the system has increased interactions and improved personal relationships among coworkers at the deployment site. We also look at how the creation of a shared physical window into online media has affected the use of that media. Author Keywords Online social networking services, social media, physical spaces, proactive displays, mobile phones, ubiquitous computing.
... For instance, work friends share sensitive information with one another, provide work and non-work support, and increase comfort in performing job tasks (generally referred to as social and instrumental support; Blau, 1964;Ibarra, 1995). Past research has also shown that having friends in the workplace is more beneficial than being friendless in terms of career outcomes, psychological attachment, and productivity (Rath, 2006). ...
... Three functions of incoming friendship ties should allow them to act as job resources and enhance employee performance: (1) access to information (Adler & Kwon, 2002), (2) positive affective reactions (Rath, 2006), and (3) embeddedness in informal organizational workflows (Krackhardt & Hanson, 1993). Employee PO fit functions to enhance receptivity toward or utilization of two of these potential resources. ...
Article
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While scholars have attended to the performance implications of employee embeddedness in social networks within the workplace, less research accounts for the interface of employee and organizational values in enabling employees to leverage these networks. Network perspectives on employee performance acknowledge that certain informal network positions create resources that are beneficial for performance while simultaneously creating demands that may diminish or erode these benefits. Leveraging a Job Demands‐Resources (JD‐R) perspective, we suggest that person–organization (PO) fit—the perceived congruence between individual and organizational values—will play a crucial role in shaping the performance effects of demands and resources inherently generated by workplace relationships. Results suggest that PO fit moderates relationships between network positions and individual job performance. Specifically, we find that having many friendships or being heavily sought out for advice enhances performance for those with higher levels of PO fit. Supplemental analyses highlight that incoming friendships or advice ties that are cross‐functional are still beneficial for those among the highest in PO fit, but also that these same network positions can be detrimental for employees who are among the lowest in PO fit. These results contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the demands and resources generated by informal networks and how the translation of these features into performance is contingent upon the extent to which an employee identifies with organizational values.
... Friendships start early in life and extent all of human development and Roisman et al.(2004) argue that the capacity to establish and retain associates in juvenile and youth has been tied to success in early adulthood. Noting the importance of friendships and company, a research by Fiori (2011) established that adults with strong community networks of either family or friends experienced lesser levels of despair and greater levels of intellect over time and displayed higher levels of confidence in being able to ask for assistance. ...
... A "sahwira" as it was given by Rath (2006), has several responsibilities in society. Some of the roles may be considered bad while others are viewed as progressive. ...
Book
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This publication is part of the journey that was initiated by the author in 1999 when he embarked on higher studies. The idea was to finally be part of the learned group in the society with a view to contribute in the governance system through writing and researches. Pursuant to that objective, the author started to write in 2010 on a variety of subjects before he settled for conflict resolution with a bias towards endogenous component. This publication, which was started in 2012, is a compilation of various papers (Chapters) on various elements of endogenous conflict resolution mechanisms especially in the Zezuru culture on Zimbabwe. What is however of interest is that the book tries to discuss the traditional lifestyle of the Shona people and in particular the Zezuru group in relation to conflict prevention and resolution as they were practiced by the forefathers since time immemorial. The book essentially discusses the following areas; as part of the several modes of conflict prevention and resolution methods. As an introduction, the book looks at homemade beers that are used during special cultural events such as weddings, funerals and spirit-appeasing ceremonies amongst others. These beers are still used in traditional ceremonies, though in some instances they are sold for subsistence purposes and as part of regular social gatherings. It also looks at silence that has been used by victims of injustices as a way of keeping away from constant reminders of the past suffering. Briefly, the publication also discusses customs, compensation or reparation as a common method of settling disputes especially where one or the perpetrator would have caused the victim to lose his/her valuables. Closely akin to the above method, the publication also looks at marriage which brings together strangers creating strong bonds, seeing the continuation of the family name, solving conflicts and bringing labour into the family amongst others. However, interestingly, the book also discusses death as a conflict resolution measure. Death has in some cases been considered an option to conflicts where the death of a participant in a conflict marks the end of a conflict. Alongside death is the practice of appeasing the dead; a practice considered sacred in most communities as they remember and invite the spirits of the dead back into the villages. ix „Chisahwira‟ is an endogenous conflict and dispute resolution mechanism which has been in use at various forums especially at funeral wakes, marriages, village disputes and other formal gatherings where way-ward individuals in society are either reprimanded or reminded of their unbecoming behaviour by some personalities who are considered either as comic or witty. In another chapter, the practice of jakwara is also discussed and how traditionally people regarded the practice and managed to preserve it as an engine for collective work and development. Another chapter also focuses on the „bira‟ spiritual dance ceremony which is an all-night ritual in which family members call on ancestral spirits for direction and intervention. This practice is applied in various circumstances, all with a view to either resolve a conflict, register an appreciation or as a cultural rite. Story-telling as a conflict resolution and prevention method is also discussed as a closing conflict resolution method. While most of the stories were nurtured for the following reasons; to hold attention, re-live memories, humour, production of identity, education, entertainment and therapy, their long-term purpose was to impart wisdom and knowledge on life skills that ultimately contributed to conflict resolution and prevention methods. Concluding the discussion are some of the basic „tools‟ required in-order to be effective in conflict prevention and resolution within the Shona societies. It is hoped that all these conflict prevention and resolution methods that are presented in a particular sequence will be of interest and benefit to you. Cognizant of the fact that this book was written to create a permanent record of some of the Shona endogenous conflict prevention and resolution mechanisms; the discussions were taken down to the grassroots such that some of the jargon was also included to bring the practitioners‟ flavour. It is also hoped that the other mechanisms will be discussed in other publications to follow. Thank you.
... al. 2005). Another detailed study conducted by the Gallup organization across a large number of firms found that employees who have best friends at work are seven times more likely to be engaged in their jobs, have better safety records, higher customer loyalty scores, and more profitable teams (Rath 2006) ...
... Results come from a Gallup poll of 1009 employees and Gallup's Employee Engagement Database. SeeRath (2006) Appendix D for details. ...
Article
Friendship is both ubiquitous and economically important, but neglected in the economic literature. We provide a definition of friendship supported by anthropology research that we believe is plausible, widely accepted, and distinct from altruism. This motivates a game-theoretic model of friendship that provides a characterization of how friendship in a bilateral relationship can explain cooperation in a finite-horizon setting without the aid of altruism or pro-social preferences. We highlight the difference between two key equilibria of our model: opportunistic friendship that is short-lived and driven by material support, and sustained friendship that is long-lived and is distinguished from opportunistic friendship by the provision of support without the expectation of return. Opportunistic friendship seems more likely in environments characterized by economic uncertainty such as in developing countries or immigrant communities. We provide cross-cultural examples of friendship that are consistent with the conditions underpinning opportunistic versus sustained friendship equilibria.
... Much of the attention on such services – in the traditional media as well as scientific literature – has focused on the use and impact of such services on interpersonal awareness, connections and relationships. Although there is a growing appreciation for the role of friendships and other informal relationships in work settings [Cohen & Prusak, 2001; Cross & Parker, 2004; Rath, 2006], and some research on the use of social media within the enterprise [Millen, et al., 2006], relatively little attention has been devoted to how sharing personal media through online social networking services can help foster stronger relationships in the workplace. ...
... This discrepancy between the impact on personal and professional relationships is not surprising, given that the photos shown on the displays were nearly all of a personal nature. However, given the recent research demonstrating the importance – and productivity gains – from personal friendships in workplaces, even increases in personal relationships can have an indirect impact on professional aspects of work [Rath, 2006]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Online social media services enable people to share many aspects of their personal interests and passions with friends, acquaintances and strangers. We are investigating how the display of social media in a workplace context can improve relationships among collocated colleagues. We have designed, developed and deployed the Context, Content and Community Collage, that runs on large LCD touchcomputers installed in eight locations throughout a research laboratory. This proactive display application senses nearby people via Bluetooth phones, and responds by incrementally adding Flickr photos associated with those people to an ambient collage shown on the screen. This paper will highlight the motivations, goals, design and early deployment experiences with this proactive display application.
... The criticality of making strengthening social connections a strategic priority for organizations is indeed a rallying cry coming from multiple sources. 2,26 In addition to the undeniable health consequences, loneliness among one team member can affect the performance of a whole team, 27 as it affects an individual's execution, ability to communicate effectively with others, and overall contribution to the group. Moreover, there are definite advantages to employers to promoting social connection, such as-in addition to those you will read more about later in this issue-increased loyalty 28 and increased satisfaction. ...
... Those who had a best friend at work produced higher quality of work, reported higher well-being, were less likely to get injured on the job, and were 7 times more likely to be engaged in their jobs compared to those who did not report having a best friend at work. 26 In an experiment where workers wore high-tech badges that monitored movement and interactions on a second-by-second basis to determine when workers were most and least efficient, researchers found that even small increases in social cohesion had large influences on better productivity. 27 This was true even when interactions were not work related, suggesting that it wasn't so much about the interaction as it was about having a relationship. ...
... Much of the attention on such services -in the traditional media as well as scientific literature -has focused on the use and impact of such services on interpersonal awareness, connections and relationships. Although there is a growing appreciation for the role of friendships and other informal relationships in work settings [Cohen & Prusak, 2001;Cross & Parker, 2004;Rath, 2006], and some research on the use of social media within the enterprise [Millen, et al., 2006], relatively little attention has been devoted to how sharing personal media through online social networking services can help foster stronger relationships in the workplace. ...
... This discrepancy between the impact on personal and professional relationships is not surprising, given that the photos shown on the displays were nearly all of a personal nature. However, given the recent research demonstrating the importance -and productivity gains -from personal friendships in workplaces, even increases in personal relationships can have an indirect impact on professional aspects of work [Rath, 2006]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Online social media services enable people to share many aspects of their personal interests and passions with friends, acquaintances and strangers. We are investigating how the display of social media in a workplace context can improve relationships among collocated colleagues. We have designed, developed and deployed the Context, Content and Community Collage, that runs on large LCD touchcomputers installed in eight locations throughout a research laboratory. This proactive display application senses nearby people via Bluetooth phones, and responds by incrementally adding Flickr photos associated with those people to an ambient collage shown on the screen. This paper will highlight the motivations, goals, design and early deployment experiences with this proactive display application.
... Multiplex workplace friendships-those in which a personal, affective relationship coincides with a business relationship, namely, with coworkers within one's organization-are a widespread organizational phenomenon (Ingram & Zou, 2008). Indeed, a recent Gallup study determined that 30% of employees report having a best friend at work (Rath, 2006), and studies show that a sizeable number of employees describe their coworkers as both colleagues and friends (e.g., Gersick, Bartunek, & Dutton, 2000;Lonkila, 1998). Importantly, multiplex workplace friendships have implications for key employee and organizational outcomes through the provision of moral and material support, work and nonwork advice, and quality information exchanges (Kram & Isabella, 1985;Rawlins, 1992;Sias, 2005;Sias & Cahill, 1998;Winstead, Derlega, Montgomery, & Pilkington, 1995). ...
... Importantly, multiplex workplace friendships have implications for key employee and organizational outcomes through the provision of moral and material support, work and nonwork advice, and quality information exchanges (Kram & Isabella, 1985;Rawlins, 1992;Sias, 2005;Sias & Cahill, 1998;Winstead, Derlega, Montgomery, & Pilkington, 1995). For instance, employees who report having friends at work have higher levels of productivity, retention, and job satisfaction, and are seven times more likely to be engaged in their work than their "friendless" counterparts (Rath, 2006). ...
... I "Friends: The People You Can't Afford to Live Without" visar Tom Rath på flera intressanta aspekter av personlig vänskap som påverkar arbetet på ett positivt sätt [11]. I sitt arbete att kolla närmare på hur relationer påverkar oss och vårt liv har han hämtat information frånöver fem miljoner intervjuer gjorda av Gallup och från arbeten av flera ledande forskare. ...
... Forskningen från Gallup visar också att nära vänskap på jobbetökar anställdas nöjdhet med nästan 50%. [11] Kapitel 3 Metod I ett användarcentrerat projekt finns det väldigt många olika metoder man kan använda för att få användarmedverkan i projektet. Detäräven väl dokumenterat att en kombination av flera olika utvärderings-och datainsamlingsmetoderär att föredra framför fokus på en enda metod. ...
... Multiplex workplace friendships-those in which a personal, affective relationship coincides with a business relationship, namely, with coworkers within one's organization-are a widespread organizational phenomenon (Ingram & Zou, 2008). Indeed, a recent Gallup study determined that 30% of employees report having a best friend at work (Rath, 2006), and studies show that a sizeable number of employees describe their coworkers as both colleagues and friends (e.g., Gersick, Bartunek, & Dutton, 2000;Lonkila, 1998). Importantly, multiplex workplace friendships have implications for key employee and organizational outcomes through the provision of moral and material support, work and nonwork advice, and quality information exchanges (Kram & Isabella, 1985;Rawlins, 1992;Sias, 2005;Sias & Cahill, 1998;Winstead, Derlega, Montgomery, & Pilkington, 1995). ...
... Importantly, multiplex workplace friendships have implications for key employee and organizational outcomes through the provision of moral and material support, work and nonwork advice, and quality information exchanges (Kram & Isabella, 1985;Rawlins, 1992;Sias, 2005;Sias & Cahill, 1998;Winstead, Derlega, Montgomery, & Pilkington, 1995). For instance, employees who report having friends at work have higher levels of productivity, retention, and job satisfaction, and are seven times more likely to be engaged in their work than their "friendless" counterparts (Rath, 2006). ...
Article
Theory and research note the ubiquity of multiplex workplace friendships—multifaceted relationships that superimpose friendship with work-focused interactions—but it is unclear how they compel or hinder job performance. In a study of insurance company employees (n = 168), we found that the number of multiplex workplace friendships in one’s social network is positively associated with supervisor ratings of job performance. However, we also found that there is a negative indirect effect on job performance through emotional exhaustion, which is offset, in part, through enhanced positive affect. Results of a second study of restaurant and retail sales employees (n = 182) provide greater insight into the positive and negative effects of multiplex workplace friendships. Specifically, these relationships enhanced job performance through trust, but detracted from job performance through maintenance difficulty. Collectively, our results illustrate that having a large number of multiplex friendships at work is a mixed blessing. Although the provision and restoration of resources fostered by multiplex relationships benefits employee job performance, these benefits are muted somewhat by the personal resources they deplete.
... Pero lo que una persona aporte a su trabajo también resulta importante. Los que están socialmente comprometidos también son más propensos a sentirse satisfechos (Watson, 2000), sobre todo si coinciden con amigos en el lugar de trabajo (Rath, 2006). Según los estudios de Park, Peterson y Seligman (2004) las fortalezas de carácter más asociadas al bienestar en el trabajo serían: la gratitud, la esperanza, la vitalidad, la curiosidad y el amor. ...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen: Este trabajo presenta las aportaciones em-píricas y teóricas de la Psicología Positiva, enfatizando su relación con la teoría moral aristotélica. La inves-tigación empírica llevada a cabo desde la Psicología Positiva apoya un cierto modelo teórico del bienestar, próximo a la tesis moral aristotélica: la felicidad y el bienestar consisten en el ejercicio de las virtudes. Las implicaciones que para la educación se derivan son importantes, especialmente en la formación del pro-fesorado. Si sus resultados son correctos, necesitamos prestar una mayor atención a las virtudes y a las forta-lezas de carácter, tanto en la práctica docente como en las políticas educativas. Palabras clave: psicología positiva; Aristóteles; for-mación del profesorado; fortalezas de carácter. Abstract: This paper presents the empirical and theoretical results of Positive Psychology, emphasizing its relation with Aristotelian moral theory. Empirical research in Positive Psychology contributes a certain theoretical model about well-being, close to the Aristotelian moral thesis that happiness and well-being consists in the exercise of virtues. The implications for education that be derived are important, especially in teacher's training. If its results are correct, we need to pay major attention to virtues and character strengths, both in teaching practice and education policies.
... Most human beings wish to make life-long friends [1], to engage in emotional relationships [2], to have a satisfying sexual life [3], and to engender children [4]. People with learning difficulties (PLD) are no exception [5][6][7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study mapped French people’s views regarding childbearing among persons with learning difficulties. Participants were members of the community aged 18–84. Some of them had a solid grounding in law or had medical training or were psychologists or remedial education workers. They were presented with 48 realistic stories that were composed according to a four-factor within-subject design: level of learning difficulty (light vs. severe) × level of help to be expected from the family (stable, well-to-do family vs. single-parent family with socio-economic problems) × stability of the relationship (stable, long-term relationship, stable short-term relationship or episodic relationship) × partner (no learning difficulties vs. light difficulties) × parents’ attitude (did not oppose their daughter’s project vs. unfavourable). Several additional stories were added to the main design, in which etiology was genetic (Down’s syndrome). Participants were asked to judge the “reasonableness” of both partners’ decision in each case. Through cluster analysis, four qualitatively different positions were found. They were called Never Reasonable (34 % of the sample, mostly lawyers and self-identified rightists), Depends on Circumstances (50 %, mostly male participants), Depends on Stability of Relationship (9 %), and Quite Reasonable (8 %, mostly participants younger than 26).
... Gallup had demonstrated in previous research that higher levels of engagement are strongly related to higher levels of innovation, the combination of engagement with focus on strengths amplified this effect. Gallup research has also shown that strong friendships at work translate into business outcomes (Rath, 2006). Employees working in cultures that support and nurture friendships and strengths are more likely to share ideas (Krueger & Killham, 2007). ...
... Partimos de la base de que las personas que están socialmente comprometidas, como es el caso del grupo de estudio, son más propensas a sentirse satisfechos (Watson, 2000), en especial si desarrollan el trabajo en equipo en entornos afectivos (Rath, 2006). No en vano, una de las características y exigencias de esta profesión es la necesidad de trabajar en y con colectivos. ...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen La formación de los educadores sociales pasa por conseguir que desarrollen unas competencias transversales que les permitan desenvolverse en diversos contextos laborales. Estas competencias están estrechamente relacionadas con las fortalezas de carácter formuladas por Peterson y Seligman (2004). En este artículo se muestra un estudio exploratorio transversal realizado con treinta estudiantes de cuarto curso del grado de Educación Social de la Universidad de Barcelona en el curso 2014 2015, en el que se aplica el VIA, inventario de fortalezas (VIA IS), que nos permite conocer las fortalezas de carácter de estos estudiantes. Tras concretar las fortalezas que aparecen en los distintos planes docentes, los resultados muestran que el VIA IS resulta un instrumento válido para evaluar eficazmente las competencias de carácter que adquiere el alumnado en el grado de Educación Social. Posteriormente, se ha cotejado esta investigación con estudios realizados con otros estudiantes de diversos grados y diferentes universidades y se ha dialogado sobre los resultados, y a partir de ahí se han aportado referencias para mejorar la propuesta docente del grado de Educación Social.
... In seeking to self-manage their careers, people seek help from many different sources, formal and informal (Greller & Richtermeyer, 2006;Higgins & Kram, 2001;Kidd et al., 2004). There is increasing recognition of the value of 'relationship constellations' (Kram, 1986: 170), developmental networks (Cummings & Higgins, 2006;Higgins & Kram, 2001), friendships at work (Rath, 2006) and effective informal career discussions (Kidd et al., 2003). An investigation that intentionally seeks to include informal career helpers is therefore timely. ...
Article
Full-text available
From a constructionist perspective, we examine how non-managerial employees make sense of the part played by other people in shaping their careers. Taking as our starting point the methodological limitations of existing research into career shapers and arguing for a perspective that starts with actors’ situated understandings, we use a life story method to develop a new typology of career shapers. Grounded in our data, we distinguish and contrast the shaper categories of adviser, informant, witness, gatekeeper and intermediary in terms of their perceived impact on individuals, including their career aspirations, career enactment, and their career world-view and career self-concept. At the level of practice, locating themselves within this framework will enable line managers, human resources staff and professional careers advisers to be explicit about the career support they can offer, and to identify other potentially valuable career shapers.
... And I think that comes across to the children, because they would know if you were a really miserable devil. (Veronica) Rath (2006), writing on the connections between friendship and work, noted that when work-places get 'personal' those who work in them talk of 'extended families' and 'happiness'. He argued that personal work-places are good for productivity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Scholars of educational change agree that leaders need to develop a vision, build capacity and ensure ownership of change by staff. We argue that understanding the actual work that leaders must do in order to convert these categories into action, requires a social practice approach. Taking the notion of sense-making as a social practice, drawn from the scholarship of Karl Weick, a case study of the sense-making for change in Holly Tree primary school is developed. The meta-narrative of the school is underpinned by four elements: (1) the school as innovative, this makes sense of continued and sustained change; (2) we do things our way, this makes sense of continued professional knowledge construction; (3) child-centredness, this provides the value base against which decisions to change can be made; and (4) we are a family, this governs the processes through which changes are developed and owned. The paper argues on the basis of this exemplar that a sense-making approach may offer an explanatory middle ground between descriptions of characteristics of change, and the situated work of school leaders.
... Those who are generally happydue to their biological, psychological, or social makeup-are more likely to be satisfied at work (Campbell, Converse, & Rodgers, 1976;Staw, Bell, & Clausen, 1986). Those who are extraverted and socially engaged are also more likely to be satisfied (Watson, 2000), especially if they find close friends in the workplace (Rath, 2006). Zest as a construct captures many of these characteristics . ...
Article
Zest is a positive trait reflecting a person's approach to life with anticipation, energy, and excitement. In the present study, 9803 currently employed adult respondents to an Internet site completed measures of dispositional zest, orientation to work as a calling, and satisfaction with work and life in general. Across all occupations, zest predicted the stance that work was a calling (r = .39), as well as work satisfaction (r = .46) and general life satisfaction (r = .53). Zest deserves further attention from organizational scholars, especially how it can be encouraged in the workplace. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... Those who are generally happydue to their biological, psychological, or social makeup-are more likely to be satisfied at work (Campbell, Converse, & Rodgers, 1976;Staw, Bell, & Clausen, 1986). Those who are extraverted and socially engaged are also more likely to be satisfied (Watson, 2000), especially if they find close friends in the workplace (Rath, 2006). Zest as a construct captures many of these characteristics . ...
Article
This article introduces a special issue of the Journal of Organizational Behavior on organizational behavior in the context of multinational organizations (MNOs). MNOs have distinctive organizational characteristics and operate in national settings that have distinctive institutional and cultural characteristics that together provide a unique context for organizational behavior. We present a taxonomy, which suggests that OB scholars who have done research in the MNO context have given it theoretical meaning in several ways. This context can influence the frequency of occurrence of OB variables, influence their functional relationships, or produce nuanced or unique constructs. The articles in the special issue highlight the OB implications of the conflicting identities that are particularly likely to be found when an organization's different structural components are closely linked to different cultural and formal institutions. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... First, intrinsic task motivation refers to the desire to undertake work because it is interesting, satisfying, or personally challenging (Amabile, 1996). Given that employees with friends at work are much more engaged (Rath, 2006), we similarly posit that employees who have friends at work are more likely to feel intrinsically motivated to do their work, especially when considering that many employees often spend significant time in collaborative activities (Cross, Rebele, & Grant, 2016). Second, domainrelevant knowledge reflects the factual knowledge, technical skills, and special talents relevant to the domain of interest (Amabile, 1983). ...
Article
Although creativity research has devoted considerable effort toward identifying the antecedents of creativity , there remain important questions about how organizations can foster creativity through social processes. Drawing from social capital theory, we hypothesize a moderated mediation model that investigates the influence of employee participation in fun activities on individual creativity through workplace friendships. We further hypothesize that the strength of this positive indirect effect is weaker for managers compared with non-managers. Our analysis of data collected from a multi-source, three-wave field study (n = 163 employees) reveals a positive mediation between participation in fun activities and incremental creativity (but not radical creativity) via workplace friendships. The results further support our prediction that this positive indirect effect on incremental creativity is weaker for managers compared with non-managers. Our findings not only highlight the practical and theoretical importance of fun activities in generating novel and useful ideas, but the results also reveal that the benefits derived from fun activities (i.e., strengthened friendships, incremental creativity) are particularly salient for non-managers.
... The Q 12 is a 12-item scale that measures engagement in the workplace. According to Rath (2006), over eight million employees worldwide have taken the Q 12 ; those with high Q 12 scores exhibit superior performance, such as lower turnover, higher sales growth, increased productivity, and better customer loyalty. ...
Article
The objective of this study is to investigate whether teams are more engaged and productive when led by an optimistic manager. Furthermore, we hypothesize that optimistic managers embody positive leadership—employing a strengths-based approach, maintaining a positive perspective, and frequently providing recognition and encouragement—which increases the engagement and productivity of their employees. In a cross-sectional study of 86 employees and 17 managers in an Information Technology (IT) organization, positive leadership correlated with employee optimism, engagement, and project performance. When we looked at a subset of this data prospectively, with 39 employees and 14 managers, manager optimism predicted project performance. Our data support the claim that positive leadership is correlated with employee engagement and performance, and further extends the importance of optimism in the workplace.
... Una de las caraterísticas principales del grupo de estudio es que están socialmente comprometidas, lo cual muestra una propensión a sentirse satisfechos (Watson, 2000), en especial si desarrollan el trabajo en equipo en entornos afectivos (Rath, 2006). No en vano, tal como ya hemos descrito, una de las características y exigencias de esta profesión es la necesidad de trabajar en y con colectivos. ...
Article
Full-text available
El VIA Inventario de Fortalezas (VIA-IS) es un cuestionario diseñado por Peterson y Seligman que sirve para medir las virtudes y fortalezas de carácter. Este estudio muestra la adecuación del instrumento para evaluar las competencias que el alumnado adquiere en el grado de Educación Social de la Universitat de Barcelona. Para ello se ha aplicado en una muestra de estudiantes de cuarto curso comparando las fortalezas de carácter con las competencias que los planes docentes buscan desarrollar.
... Indeed, social connections that are of a higher quality can be important factors in shaping employee happiness [31,32]. For example, Ref. [33] reports that employees with strong relationships at work-specifically having a best friend-reported much higher engagement levels. Consequently, we expect managers who report higher levels of PRM (respect, caring and connectedness) will represent those managers with an abundance of psychological resources [28,29], which will enable them to draw on and ultimately experience greater happiness. ...
Article
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Interpersonal relationships at work are important especially for the well-being of employees. The present study tests Positive Relational Management (PRM) and its influence on employee happiness, and we include two firm-level moderators and an individual-level mediator to better understand the potential complexity of effects. Importantly, we test this in the context of New Zealand, which has been under-represented in employee studies of happiness and is important due to a growing national interest in wellbeing. We test whether positive relationships at work shape greater meaningful work (MFW) and this then influences happiness and mediates the effects of PRM. We also include Human Capital (the quality of people inside the firm) and firm size as moderators and combine these all to test a moderated moderated mediation model in PROCESS. We test this on a sample of 302 New Zealand managers with time-separated data. We confirm the dimensionality and reliability of the PRM scale and find it is positively related to MFW and happiness, while MFW fully mediates the direct effect of PRM. We find interaction effects including a moderated moderated mediation effect, with the indirect effect of PRM differing depending on firm size and the strength of human capital. The implications for understanding the importance of relationships on employee happiness is discussed.
... Örneğin, iş doyumu ve örgütsel bağlılık, işten ayrılma niyeti ve işgücü dolaşımı verimlilik artışı yokluğu ile ters bağlantılıdır (Griffeth vd., 2000:483;Meyer vd., 2002:20 İşte diğer bir mutluluk kaynağı ise diğer çalışanlar ile 'iyi ilişkiler'dir. Tom Rath (2006), 'Sıkı Dostlar' adlı eserinde kişilerin işte çok iyi arkadaşlarının bulunmasının işe 7 kez daha bağlılık nedeni oluşturduğunu belirtmektedir. 'Duyuşsal Olaylar Kuramı' ında Weiss ve Cropanzano (1996) istikrarlı bir iş düzeninde anlık oluşumlarla ortaya çıkan duygusal olaylar ile çakışan olumlu ve olumsuz duyguları tetiklediğini belirtmektedir. ...
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İş Doyumunun Performansa Etkisinde Mutluluğun Aracılık Rolü Üzerine Bir Araştırma ÖZ İş doyumunun performansa etkisinde mutluluğun rolünü araştırmayı amaçlayan çalışma, pozitif örgütsel davranış alanında güncel bir araştırma konusu olan mutluluğun çalışan performansına etkilerini ortaya çıkarmayı ve bu etkilerini incelemeyi hedeflemektedir. Yazında uzun yıllardır tartışılan ‘mutlu çalışanlar daha verimli midir?’ sorusuna yanıt aramak üzere olumlu bir tutum olan iş doyumunun performansa etkisinde mutluluğun rolünün sorgulanarak alan yazına katkı sağlanması amaçlanmıştır. Fisher (2010:385), çalışan mutluluğunun akademik araştırmalara nadiren konu edildiğine dikkat çekmektedir. İlgili yazında genel olarak araştırmalar iş doyumu üzerinde yoğunlaşmakla beraber, geçen 20 yıl zarfında işyerinde bazı mutluluk formları veya pozitif duygularla ilgili deneyimler konusunda bir takım yapılar araştırılmış, bu yapıların pek çoğu işyerinde pozitif tutumlar, pozitif haller ve hissiyat üzerinde durmuştur. Bu çalışma kapsamında, Pavia Üniversitesi, Beyin ve Davranış Bilimleri Bölümü’nde araştırma modeline uygun ölçeklerin değerlendirilmesi, düzenlenmesi ve soru formuna uyarlanması gerçekleştirilmiş, pilot çalışmanın ardından 2017 Haziran -Temmuz aylarında hedef gruplara e-posta ile dağıtılarak geçerli toplam 409 yanıt elde edilmiştir. Araştırma bulguları; işte mutluluğun iş doyumu ile çalışan performansı arasında; tam aracılık bağı oluşturduğu, performansı olumlu yönde etkilemekte olduğu ve iş doyumunun performansı ancak mutluluğun geliştirici yöndeki katkısı ile yordadığını ortaya çıkarmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: İş Doyumu, Olumlu Duygular, Olumsuz Duygular, İşte Mutluluk, Çalışan Performansı. A Research on the Mediating Role of Happiness to the Impact of Job Satisfaction to Performance ABSTRACT A study aiming to investigate the role of happiness under the influence of job satisfaction on performance aims to reveal the effects of employee happiness which is a current research topic in the field of positive organizational behavior and to examine these effects. Except for the rare efforts, Fisher (2010:385) states that, the happines within the organization has not been much studied in academic research. Usually these efforts are focused on job satisfaction. During the past 20 years, researches have been made on some happiness forms and positive feelings experiences in the work-place. Many of them have focused on positive attitudes, positive situations and feelings in the workplace. The evaluation, translation and adaptation of questionnaire of the appropriate scales were held in the Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences of University of Pavia. After the pilot study, 409 valid replies were received between June with July 2017. Findings are; happiness at work positively affects employee performance, fully mediates between job satisfaction and performance, job satisfaction predicts performance only through developer contribution of happiness at work. Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Positive Feelings, Negative Feelings, Happiness at Work, Employee Performance.
... Thus, it is natural that friendships are formed not only outside, but also inside organizations. Rath (2006) suggests that forming friendships at work is important in increasing job engagement, job satisfaction, and even life satisfaction. However, previous empirical studies on workplace friendship have shown somewhat inconsistent findings on the relationship between friendship and performance (Jehn & Shah, 1997). ...
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Previous studies on the effects of workplace friendship on team effectiveness have yielded somewhat inconsistent findings. Despite the inconsistent findings, our understanding of why those inconsistent findings exist are still in a nascent state. Furthermore, beyond group-level task performance, it remains unclear how workplace friendship affects group-level contextual performance, such as organizational citizenship behaviors and workplace deviance behaviors. On the basis of a qualitative review of studies in the existing literature, the authors build a theoretical model highlighting the roles of three contextual factors (i.e., group-level emotional labor demands, team-based rewards, and group members’ average age) in explaining how workplace friendship is related to three aspects of team effectiveness. This proposed model provides theoretical insights to facilitate future empirical studies on workplace friendship.
... Workplace friendship (beside or in addition to instrumental relationships) is a widespread organizational phenomenon (e.g., Ingram & Zou, 2008) the importance of which for individual and organizational outcomes is well recognized both in the academic (Chiaburu & Harrison, 2008;Lu et al., 2017) and practitioner fields (eg., Rath, 2006;Riordan, 2013). ...
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Previous research has shown the importance of individual learning goal orientation for both job and task performance and consequently organizational performance. Despite its importance, knowledge on the antecedents of learning goal orientation remains scarce, especially in the context of self‐managing team‐based organizations. In fact, most of the research on goal orientation antecedents has been focused on individual characteristics, belief, and ability, while the contextual factors that might influence them remain unspecified. We build on and further extend earlier studies by jointly exploring the role of individual and contextual factors affecting individual learning orientation. In particular, this study combines individual informal social network, self‐efficacy, performance feedbacks, and team identification into a model that explains individuals' learning goal orientation within self‐managing team‐based organizations. The model was empirically tested on a sample of 104 individuals belonging to an R&D organization relying on self‐managing teams. Results show that performance feedback has a negative direct effect, while team identification has a positive direct effect on individual learning goal orientation. In addition, we found that individual self‐efficacy is a mediator of the relationships between performance feedback and brokerage in the advice network and individual learning goal orientation. Finally, we did not find a relationship between centrality in the friendship network and individual learning goal orientation.
... La plupart des êtres humains souhaitent se faire des amis au long terme (Rath, 2006), s'engager dans des relations émotionnelles (Fisher, 2004), avoir une vie sexuelle satisfaisante (Abramson, 2010), et engendrer des enfants (de Marneffe, 2005). Les personnes ayant un trouble de l'apprentissage ne constituent pas une exception (Conder, Mirfin-Veitch, Sanders, & Munford, 2012;Morales, Lopez, Campos, Charles, Mezquita, & Mullet, 2015). ...
... How and why can friends affect a focal employee's behavioral outcome? According to a study conducted by Gallup, people who have a best friend at work are not only to be happier and healthier, they are also seven times more likely to be engaged in their jobs as compared to those who say otherwise (Rath, 2006). In reality, friendships are private interpersonal networks that widely exist in an organizational setting (Ingram and Zou, 2008). ...
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Having friends in the workplace not only provides an employee joy and meaning, but also facilitates one’s positive behavior. In this study, we argue that workplace friendship has positive influence on an employee’s interpersonal citizenship behavior. Drawing upon conservation of resources theory, the present study explores how and when workplace friendship fosters interpersonal citizenship. Using a time-lagged, multisource data of 620 employees from 83 workgroups, we found that workplace friendship increases an employee’s relational energy, which subsequently, leads to greater interpersonal citizenship. Moreover, we discovered relational-interdependent self-construal as an important moderating influence that affects the saliency of this relationship. Specifically, for employee with a relational-interdependent self-construal, workplace friendship has a stronger positive influence on one’s relational energy and hence interpersonal citizenship. Contributions to theory and practice are also discussed.
... To help you with these leadership 'tests of change', we suggest that you nurture what author Tom Rath calls 'Vital Friends' at work. 12 His research included analysis of 8 million interviews conducted by Gallup and found that people who have a 'best friend at work' are seven times as likely to be engaged in their job. ...
Article
The NHS Long Term Plan recently published recognises the critical role of leadership to the delivery of high-quality, sustainable healthcare and sets out an ambition for compassionate and inclusive leadership behaviours. There is good evidence that the biggest influence on organisational culture is the quality of leadership, affecting patient outcomes and staff experience. However, the current NHS staff survey paints a sobering picture of the current experience of the 1.2 million staff who work in the NHS in England. Changing culture requires leadership effort and behavioural change at every level of the system, from the clinical microsystem to the national arms-length bodies. Leaders can take positive action by regularly seeking feedback, paying attention to the leadership behaviours within their team and finding ways to ensure the team can reflect and improve their team working. This opinion article offers an introduction to compassionate and inclusive leadership in healthcare. Our intention is to provide the reader with a sense of agency to act and improve local culture for the benefits of patients and staff.
... Generally happy people are more likely to be satisfied at work, 6,32 especially when they have close friends in the workplace. 29 Satisfaction is further enhanced when the work unit has a large proportion of personnel that views work as a calling, which, in turn, leads to higher morale and better communication. 34 Our survey results revealed a unexpectedly high level of general dissatisfaction with the organization. ...
Article
We surveyed laboratory animal care and research workers to determine the factors affecting their vocational calling. The survey comprised 56 questions in 4 groups: passion, job stability or happiness, work volition, and demographics. We hypothesized that personnel who worked in the feld a longer time, were older, had higher education levels, were involved with AALAS, and in higher positions in their organization were more likely to indicate a calling to the laboratory animal care feld. In addition, we hypothesized that job satisfaction and classifying one's job as a calling were positively related to organizational support and work volition. Overall, 44% of respondents categorized their work as at least partially a calling. Those working at a higher level in the position of laboratory animal technician and in the organization were more likely to view their work as a calling. Increasing education level was related to work being a calling. Overall, vocational calling was signifcantly associated with higher pay, but technicians were the only subgroup where calling and higher pay were signifcantly related. Vocational calling and job satisfaction were associated with organizational support. For our sample of workers in the animal care feld, other factors analyzed were not related to work being considered a calling. Leaders in the feld of animal care may fnd our survey results valuable as they strive to adapt their organization's structure to the perceptions of their workforce with regard to their sense of calling. © 2016 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.
... The Q 12 is a 12-item scale that measures engagement in the workplace. According to Rath (2006), over eight million employees worldwide have taken the Q 12 ; those with high Q 12 scores exhibit superior performance, such as lower turnover, higher sales growth, increased productivity, and better customer loyalty. ...
Article
The objective of this study is to investigate whether teams are more engaged and productive when led by an optimistic manager. Furthermore, we hypothesize that optimistic managers embody positive leadership—employing a strengths-based approach, maintaining a positive perspective, and frequently providing recognition and encouragement—which increases the engagement and productivity of their employees. In a cross-sectional study of 86 employees and 17 managers in an Information Technology (IT) organization, positive leadership correlated with employee optimism, engagement, and project performance. When we looked at a subset of this data prospectively, with 39 employees and 14 managers, manager optimism predicted project performance. Our data support the claim that positive leadership is correlated with employee engagement and performance, and further extends the importance of optimism in the workplace. The practical application of this research is now published in Greenberg and Maymin's book, Profit from the Profit: Proven Leadership Strategies to Boost Productivity & Transform Your Business (McGraw-Hill, 2013). The International Coaching Psychology Review published a peer-review edition of this study in their March 2007 issue (Vol. 2, No. 1). In addition, the Gallup Management Journal (http://gmj.gallup.com) published two articles using the results of this study: "The Business Benefits of Positive Leadership: Finding the Connection Between Productivity & Positive Management Behavior" (May 10, 2007) and "It Pays to Be Optimistic: Exploring the Connections Between Optimism & Business Success" (August 9, 2007).
... Studies with adult population have revealed similar findings. For example, employees who reported having friends at work were shown to be more productive than those who did not (Rath, 2006). Finally, in a representative sample of US elderly participants, those who had the highest levels of social integration had a memory decline twice as slow as those with the lowest levels of low social integration (Ertel et al., 2008). ...
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The debate about the desirability of using drugs to enhance human skills encompasses cognitive abilities such as memory and attention, and moral capacities such as emotional empathy and a sense of fairness. These two strands of literature in bioethics have grown relatively independent from each other, and an implicit framing assumption has emerged suggesting that apparently morally neutral cognitive capacities and paradigmatically moral capacities are distinct and vary independently of each other. Here, we identify key distinctions between competing accounts of cognitive enhancement and moral enhancement and argue that, despite the polarized nature of the bioethical debate, cognitive and moral capacities are intertwined. For example, moral behavior can be improved by enhancing “morally neutral” abilities such as attention span; and cognitive skills can be honed by means of socio-moral interaction. Further, cognitive skill is frequently assigned the abstract status of virtue and treated in the same way as more paradigmatically “moral” traits. We argue that the distinction between moral and cognitive enhancement is more apparent than real, since despite being nominally treated as distinct, cognitive and moral skills are frequently interdependent. As such we present evidence to support the claim that the enhancement of these two kinds of capacities cannot be clearly disaggregated from each other in the way that the theoretical poles of the debate in the literature suggest. We synthesize relevant scientific and bioethical literature and combine it with a line of analysis derived from Peter Hacker to show more clearly the terms of what can be said intelligibly about cognitive and moral skills and their enhancement. As a result of this analysis, we conclude that ethical questions in human bioenhancement are only fully intelligible at the level of persons imbued with feelings, thoughts, intentions, desires, values, and abilities, embedded within a particular social context, rather than at the level of pharmacological modulation of particular cognitive or affective capacities which, though conceptually distinguishable, in the embodied context of moral agency are profoundly intertwined.
... Those who had a best friend at work produced higher quality of work, reported higher well-being, were less likely to get injured on the job, and were 7 times more likely to be engaged in their jobs compared to those who did not report having a best friend at work. 26 In an experiment where workers wore high-tech badges that monitored movement and interactions on a second-by-second basis to determine when workers were most and least efficient, researchers found that even small increases in social cohesion had large influences on better productivity. 27 This was true even when interactions were not work related, suggesting that it wasn't so much about the interaction as it was about having a relationship. ...
... It flourishes in all types of organizations, at all hierarchical levels and between all types of employees (Sias, 2009). Research suggests that employees having friends at work report higher levels of productivity and job satisfaction; feel a profound connection to the work and organization; are less likely to leave the job; and are seven times more likely to be engaged in their work than their friendless counterparts (Methot and LePine, 2016;Rath, 2006). A friendship network provides employees instrumental, emotional and social support to cope with adverse workplace situations (Hobfoll and Shirom, 2001). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between workplace bullying and employee outcomes (intention to quit (ITQ), job satisfaction and work engagement) with psychological contract violation (PCV) as mediator and workplace friendship as moderator. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 835 full-time Indian managerial employees working in different Indian organizations. Findings Results revealed that PCV mediated bullying-outcomes (ITQ, job satisfaction and work engagement) relationship and effects of workplace bullying on proposed outcomes were weaker in the presence of high workplace friendship. Research limitations/implications A cross-sectional design and use of self-reported questionnaire data are a limitation of this study. As the study did not cover all sectors, the results of this study should be interpreted with caution. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is rare attempts to examine the mediating role of PCV and the moderating role of workplace friendship in bullying-outcomes relationships. This study also contributes in terms of its context and sample.
... Given the increasingly social nature of work (Grant & Parker, 2009;Oldham & Hackman, 2010) and the rise of social media as a core means of connecting with colleagues (McFarland & Ployhart, 2015;Ollier-Malaterre et al., 2013), workplace friendships will likely continue to become both more prevalent and complex. High-profile organizations such as Google and Zappos are increasingly promoting cultures rooted in fun and camaraderie, taking for granted the belief that promoting friendships among their employees has uniformly positive effects on organizational outcomes (Dumas & Sanchez-Burks, 2015;Grant & Schwartz, 2011;Rath, 2006;Riordan, 2013). Yet, forging successful friendships at work requires effectively managing the tensions inherent in workplace friendships. ...
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Although many scholars and practitioners have assumed that workplace friendships lead to desirable organizational outcomes, a growing body of research suggests important complexities and downsides associated with workplace friendships. This suggests a need to better understand how and when workplace friendships may lead to harmful outcomes, especially in light of organizational and technological shifts that are changing the way employees connect. Drawing on theories of close relationships, social exchange, and boundary management, we present a theoretical framework that highlights how the four defining features of friendship (informality, voluntariness, communal norms, and socio-emotional goals) are in tension with four fundamental elements of organizational life (formal roles, involuntary constraints, exchange norms, and instrumental goals). We also highlight how mutual self-disclosure and perceived similarity develop and deepen friendships but also lead to downsides for individuals, groups, and organizations. We articulate how specific features of a focal friendship clique (e.g., closeness, maturity, and status of members) may amplify or buffer negative aspects and how social media affect friendship formation and tensions. Our theoretical framework should inform new theory and research on positive relationships at work, boundary management of professional and personal identities, and how changes to work and technology affect workplace relationships.
... An emerging body of research suggests that employees' reactions to workplace situations may vary depending on the availability of resources to them (Hobfoll, 1989;Kay et al., 2008;Lam et al., 2010). Workplace relationships, especially with coworkers and colleagues, constitute a major resource pool for employees (Halbesleben, 2006) and are found to be pivotal in determining employees' reactions to workplace events (Rath, 2006). In this study, we also aim to examine the buffering effects of workplace friendships in the bullyingoutcomes relationship. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of workplace bullying on employee silence (defensive, relational, and ineffectual silence), and to test the mediating role of psychological contract violation (PCV) in this relationship and the extent to which the mediation is moderated by workplace friendship. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 835 full-time Indian managerial employees working in different Indian organizations. Findings Results revealed that workplace bullying positively correlated with silence (defensive, relational, and ineffectual silence). The hypothesized moderated mediation condition was supported as results suggest that PCV mediated the bullying-silence relationship and workplace friendship moderated this mediating pathway, i.e. indirect effects of workplace bullying on employee silence via PCV were weaker for employees with high workplace friendship. Research limitations/implications A cross-sectional design, use of self-reported questionnaires, and gender-blind perspective to examine bullying are few limitations of this study. Practical implications This is the first study examining employee silence in response to workplace bullying and one of the few attempts to examine employees’ passive coping strategies in response to workplace mistreatment. This study is also one of the rare attempts to examine bullying-outcomes relationship in the Indian context. Social implications A well-formulated and effectively implemented anti-bullying policy and management support may encourage employees to combat bullying by raising their voices against it. Originality/value This is the first study examining employee silence in response to workplace bullying. This study is also one of the rare attempts to examine bullying-outcomes relationship in the Indian context.
Article
This exploratory research investigated reasons contributing to the retention of North Carolina Cooperative Extension (NCCE) county program professionals. The authors developed a quantitative methodology using a web-based questionnaire and census to collect data regarding 112 potential reasons that NCCE county program professionals would consider leaving their jobs which were organized into seven research constructs: Recruit Authentically; Expand on New Employees' Experiences and Abilities; Train, Train, Train; Advocate for Both the Employee and the Position; Inspire, Invest in, and Empower Employees; Nurture Connectivity; and, Show Appreciation through Meaningful Recognition. The resulting medium effect size of .08 for all retention constructs by major program area is noteworthy. While the retention constructs explained only 8% of the variance among the major program areas, they are still important in explaining respondents' perceptions. The individual construct of "Advocate for both the employee and the position" by major program area had an overall mean score of 3.1 (SD 1.2) with a medium effect size of .09. Ultimately, the authors seek to utilize this data to develop an empirical model for NCCE county program professional retention that operationalizes contemporary best practice in human resource development and management.
Chapter
A wide friendship network helps us in our daily lives, and there are merits to expanding personal connections. Newly developed communication services have been developed as a means to expand the network of connections, and they enable the building of new relationships on the Internet without meeting people directly. While these tools are spreading, currently in Japan, various warnings and instructions are communicated regarding Internet encounters, and due to interactions of young people via the Internet, many people recognize that it is dangerous to have relationships with unknown partners. We want to alleviate the distrust users have for unknown partners and contribute to relationship-building on the Internet. This paper proposes ComFriends, a communication tool that reduces the resistance of an initial conversation and helps expand friendships more easily and safely. ComFriends provides users with conversations between people who belong to the same community and are in a state of mutual interest, and it supports relationship-building. We first present a ComFriends design approach and then describe its evaluation via a user study.
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Positive psychology offers a number of tools that coaches can use with groups and individuals to raise job satisfaction and engagement. This article describes ways to apply five empirically validated positive interventions: searching for the positive core; intentionally increasing positive emotion; establishing conditions for flow; handling negatives more resiliently; and celebrating positives more effectively. Explanation of each intervention includes its theoretical background, practical ways to adapt it to specific workplace settings, and illustrations from real experience.
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Happiness in the form of pleasant moods and emotions, well-being, and positive attitudes has been attracting increasing attention throughout psychology research. The interest in happiness has also extended to workplace experiences. This paper reviews what is known about the definition, causes and consequences of happiness at work, drawing also on insights from the expanding positive psychology literature on happiness in general. Many discrete organizational behavior constructs arguably belong to a larger family of happiness-related constructs, and share some common causes and consequences. Happiness at work includes, but is far more than, job satisfaction. A comprehensive measure of individual-level happiness might include work engagement, job satisfaction, and affective organizational commitment. Aspects of happiness have been (and should be) conceptualized and measured at multiple levels, including transient experiences, stable person-level attitudes, and collective attitudes, and with respect to multiple foci, such as discrete events, the job, and the organization. At all levels, there is evidence that happiness has important consequences for both individuals and organizations. Past research has tended to underestimate the importance of happiness at work.
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This study purports to investigate the relationship between workplace friendship and organizational effectiveness in general hospitals. Organizational effectiveness was represented by the level of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, stress, and intent to leave. Data were collected from 372 workers at 6 hospitals in Chungbuk Province using self-administered questionnaires from May 1 to 20, 2009, and analysed using t-test, ANOVA, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. The major findings of the study are as follows: First, friendship level of hospital employees is highest in the friendship with colleague, followed by the friendship with subordinates and with superiors. Second, the group of higher level of workplace friendship showed significantly higher level of organizational effectiveness than the group of lower level of workplace friendship. Third, the level of the workplace friendship with superiors and colleagues was found to have a significant positive impact on the job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The level of the workplace friendship with superior was found to have a significant negative effect on the intent to leave and work stress. These results imply that hospital managers should make an effort to create the organizational climate and systems which improve the workplace friendship.
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