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A review of hereditary diseases of the German Shepherd Dog

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Abstract

The German shepherd dog (GSD) is a preferred choice of many law enforcement and military agencies across the world. Unfortunately, the breed is afflicted with approximately 50 hereditary diseases. Seven major diseases afflicting the GSD are described herein: pancreatic acinar atrophy, megaesophagus, hip dysplasia, degenerative myelopathy, hemophilia A, von Willebrand disease, and hereditary multifocal renal cystadenocarcinoma and nodular dermatofibrosis. Also included is a discussion of behavior, a characteristic thought to be inherited in the dog and often problematic in larger breeds such as the GSD. Current clinical and genetic research efforts pertaining to these diseases are reviewed.

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... GSDs are the preferred choice of law enforcement and/or military agencies worldwide [33,34]. Due to extensive training, cost, and their valuable roles, the GSD is maintained in such a way as to provide the high quality of service for the longest possible period. ...
... Due to extensive training, cost, and their valuable roles, the GSD is maintained in such a way as to provide the high quality of service for the longest possible period. Therefore, inherited diseases, such as DM, are one of the most serious problems in GSDs, which can result in various losses [34,35]. According to data (Table S1) from the Japan Kennel Club (JKC) collected over years [36], certified by the Federation Cynologique Internationale [37], an average of 483 (179-865) GSDs are registered annually by the JKC, which constitutes only 0.11% of the total dogs registered (an average of 406,353 per year). ...
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Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is an adult-onset, chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disease reported in multiple canine breeds, including the German Shepherd Dog (GSD). Clinical signs include progressive motor neuron paralysis, which begins in the pelvic limbs and eventually leads to respiratory distress, which may necessitate euthanasia. A common DM-associated mutation is a single nucleotide substitution that causes an amino acid substitution (c.118G>A, p.E40K) in the canine SOD1 gene. This SOD1 mutation and the clinical progression rate of A/A risk genotype in the Japanese GSD population have not been analyzed before. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the mutated allele and analyze the clinical progression rate in the Japanese GSD population. We studied 541 GSDs registered with the Japanese German Shepherd Dog Registration Society between 2000 and 2019. Genotyping was performed using real-time PCR with DNA extracted from the hair roots of each dog. The study revealed 330 G/G dogs (61%), 184 G/A dogs (34%), and 27 A/A dogs (5%), indicating a frequency of the mutant allele of 0.220, which are in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. We analyzed the clinical signs in A/A dogs with an age limit of 10 years based on information obtained from the dogs’ owners. Of the seven A/A dogs older than 10 years, owners reported DM-related clinical signs, indicating a clinical progression rate of 100%. These results, further genotyping, and thorough clinical examinations of SOD1 A/A risk genotype will help control and prevent DM in the Japanese GSD population.
... Out of 50 of the most common breeds in the UK, GSDs were found to have the second highest number (19) of disorders related to or exacerbated by conformation, and the most number (58) of non-conformational inherited disorders (Asher et al. 2009;Summers et al. 2010). GSDs have a predisposition to skin and locomotor diseases but particularly immunological diseases, which are common causes of morbidity and mortality in the breed (Vilson et al. 2013;Wahl et al. 2008). There have been investigations into genetic causes for a few common diseases affecting GSDs (Tsai et al. 2012). ...
... There have been investigations into genetic causes for a few common diseases affecting GSDs (Tsai et al. 2012). However, many other inherited diseases in GSDs require further investigation for causative genes and subsequent changes in metabolite concentrations in affected pathways (Wahl et al. 2008). The inability to effectively identify carriers or affected dogs creates difficulty in formulating breeding strategies to reduce the prevalence of inherited disorders in the breed. ...
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Introduction German shepherd dogs (GSDs) are a popular breed affected by numerous disorders. Few studies have explored genetic variations that influence canine blood metabolite levels. Objectives To investigate genetic variants affecting the natural metabolite variation in GSDs. Methods A total of 82 healthy GSDs were genotyped on the Illumina CanineHD Beadchip, assaying 173,650 markers. For each dog, 74 metabolites were measured through liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (LC–MS and GC–MS) and were used as phenotypes for genome-wide association analyses (GWAS). Sliding window and homozygosity analyses were conducted to fine-map regions of interest, and to identify haplotypes and gene dosage effects. Results Summary statistics for 74 metabolites in this population of GSDs are reported. Forty-one metabolites had significant associations at a false discovery rate of 0.05. Two associations were located around genes which encode for enzymes for the relevant metabolites: 4-hydroxyproline was significantly associated to D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), and threonine to l-threonine 3-dehydrogenase (LOC477365). Three of the top ten haplotypes associated to 4-hydroxyproline included at least one SNP on DAO. These haplotypes occurred only in dogs with the highest 15 measurements of 4-hydroxyproline, ranging in frequency from 16.67 to 20%. None of the dogs were homozygous for these haplotypes. The top two haplotypes associated to threonine included SNPs on LOC477365 and were also overrepresented in dogs with the highest 15 measurements of threonine. These haplotypes occurred at a frequency of 90%, with 80% of these dogs homozygous for the haplotypes. In dogs with the lowest 15 measurements of threonine, the haplotypes occurred at a frequency of 26.67% and 0% homozygosity. Conclusion DAO and LOC477365 were identified as candidate genes affecting the natural plasma concentration of 4-hydroxyproline and threonine, respectively. Further investigations are needed to validate the effects of the variants on these genes.
... Os sinais sistêmicos variam de acordo com o estágio da doença renal, podendo ocorrer hematúria, distensão abdominal, dor secundária a ruptura dos cistos renais, depressão, febre, anorexia, vômito, poliúria e polidpsia (Turek, 2003;Wahl, 2008). A DN pode anteceder em meses ou até anos os sinais de injúria renal induzida pelo tumor, sendo um importante marcador cutâneo de neoplasia renal (Turek, 2003;Wahl, 2008). ...
... Os sinais sistêmicos variam de acordo com o estágio da doença renal, podendo ocorrer hematúria, distensão abdominal, dor secundária a ruptura dos cistos renais, depressão, febre, anorexia, vômito, poliúria e polidpsia (Turek, 2003;Wahl, 2008). A DN pode anteceder em meses ou até anos os sinais de injúria renal induzida pelo tumor, sendo um importante marcador cutâneo de neoplasia renal (Turek, 2003;Wahl, 2008). ...
Article
As síndromes paraneoplásicas correspondem a manifestações clínicas associadas a neoplasias que ocorrem em locais distantes do tumor primário ou de suas metástases, sendo consideradas efeitos indiretos do câncer. Os sinais clínicos destas síndromes podem anteceder ou acompanhar a detecção clínica da neoplasia, promovendo maiores índices de morbidade e mortalidade. A detecção de uma síndrome paraneoplásica permite o diagnóstico precoce e o tratamento eficaz da neoplasia adjacente, melhorando o prognóstico e a qualidade de vida do paciente. O objetivo desta revisão foi descrever os aspectos fisiopatológicos, sinais clínicos, métodos de diagnóstico e tratamento das síndromes paraneoplásicas hematológicas, cutâneas e neuromusculares que acometem cães e gatos.
... The GSD had the highest number of published predispositions to inherited diseases overall among the fifty most commonly registered KC breeds and had the second-highest number of disorders exacerbated by conformation, exceeded only by the Great Dane [9]. Individual disorders with reported predisposition in the GSD include hip dysplasia [17,18], haemangiosarcoma [19], exocrine pancreatic insufficiency [20,21], degenerative myelopathy [17,22,23], anal furunculosis [24] and lumbosacral disease [25,26]. ...
... The GSD had the highest number of published predispositions to inherited diseases overall among the fifty most commonly registered KC breeds and had the second-highest number of disorders exacerbated by conformation, exceeded only by the Great Dane [9]. Individual disorders with reported predisposition in the GSD include hip dysplasia [17,18], haemangiosarcoma [19], exocrine pancreatic insufficiency [20,21], degenerative myelopathy [17,22,23], anal furunculosis [24] and lumbosacral disease [25,26]. ...
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Background The German Shepherd Dog (GSD) has been widely used for a variety of working roles. However, concerns for the health and welfare of the GSD have been widely aired and there is evidence that breed numbers are now in decline in the UK. Accurate demographic and disorder data could assist with breeding and clinical prioritisation. The VetCompassTM Programme collects clinical data on dogs under primary veterinary care in the UK. This study included all VetCompassTM dogs under veterinary care during 2013. Demographic, mortality and clinical diagnosis data on GSDs were extracted and reported. Results GSDs dropped from 3.5% of the annual birth cohort in 2005 to 2.2% in 2013. The median longevity of GSDs was 10.3 years (IQR 8.0–12.1, range 0.2–17.0). The most common causes of death were musculoskeletal disorder (16.3%) and inability to stand (14.9%). The most prevalent disorders recorded were otitis externa (n = 131, 7.89, 95% CI: 6.64–9.29), osteoarthritis (92, 5.54%, 95% CI: 4.49–6.75), diarrhoea (87, 5.24%, 95% CI: 4.22–6.42), overweight/obesity (86, 5.18%, 95% CI: 4.16–6.36) and aggression (79, 4.76%, 95% CI: 3.79–5.90). Conclusions This study identified that GSDs have been reducing in numbers in the UK in recent years. The most frequent disorders in GSDs were otitis externa, osteoarthritis, diarrhoea, overweight/obesity and aggression, whilst the most common causes of death were musculoskeletal disorders and inability to stand. Aggression was more prevalent in males than in females. These results may assist veterinarians to offer evidence-based advice at a breed level and help to identify priorities for GSD health that can improve the breed’s health and welfare.
... The two large canine breeds investigated in this study are breeds with high prevalence of common musculoskeletal disorders such as hip and elbow dysplasia, as reported in the literature [4,5,[11][12][13][14]26]. Such disorders may be linked to conformational and biomechanical features that could cause overloading of the joints and result in clinical problems. ...
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It is widely accepted that canine breeds stand and move differently. The prevalence of various musculoskeletal disorders such as hip and elbow dysplasia is also different between breeds. German shepherd dog (GSD) and Labrador retriever dog (LRD) are two large breeds with different conformations that have high prevalence of these disorders. This study quantifies the movement and standing posture of twelve healthy GSDs and twelve healthy LRDs to identify biomechanical similarities and differences that may be linked to sub-optimal hip and elbow mechanics. A pressure walkway and a motion capture system obtained measures of kinetics, kinematics and conformation during standing and trot. During standing, LRDs carry a greater percentage of the weight on the forelimbs (69%±5% vs. GSDs: 62%±2%, p
... Environmental factors such as overweight or poor exercise area (many stairs and much jumping in juvenile life) will manifest in later life. Other common health problems include elbow dysplasia, bloat, degenerative myelopathy, epilepsy, haemophilia, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and a variety of cancers including osteosarcoma, lymphoma, and melanoma [11][12][13][14][15][16]. ...
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Background The German Shepherd Dog (GSD) is one of the most common breeds on earth and has been bred for its utility and intelligence. It is often first choice for police and military work, as well as protection, disability assistance, and search-and-rescue. Yet, GSDs are well known to be susceptible to a range of genetic diseases that can interfere with their training. Such diseases are of particular concern when they occur later in life, and fully trained animals are not able to continue their duties. Findings Here, we provide the draft genome sequence of a healthy German Shepherd female as a reference for future disease and evolutionary studies. We generated this improved canid reference genome (CanFam_GSD) utilizing a combination of Pacific Bioscience, Oxford Nanopore, 10X Genomics, Bionano, and Hi-C technologies. The GSD assembly is ∼80 times as contiguous as the current canid reference genome (20.9 vs 0.267 Mb contig N50), containing far fewer gaps (306 vs 23,876) and fewer scaffolds (429 vs 3,310) than the current canid reference genome CanFamv3.1. Two chromosomes (4 and 35) are assembled into single scaffolds with no gaps. BUSCO analyses of the genome assembly results show that 93.0% of the conserved single-copy genes are complete in the GSD assembly compared with 92.2% for CanFam v3.1. Homology-based gene annotation increases this value to ∼99%. Detailed examination of the evolutionarily important pancreatic amylase region reveals that there are most likely 7 copies of the gene, indicative of a duplication of 4 ancestral copies and the disruption of 1 copy. Conclusions GSD genome assembly and annotation were produced with major improvement in completeness, continuity, and quality over the existing canid reference. This resource will enable further research related to canine diseases, the evolutionary relationships of canids, and other aspects of canid biology.
... Comfort during transportation may be especially crucial for working dogs of breeds predisposed to diseases in the musculoskeletal system. The German Shepherd, which is a common working dog breed (and the most common breed in the Swedish Police) has a predisposition for degenerative changes in the lumbosacral intervertebral disc (Amort et al., 2012), degenerative myelopathy (Wahl et al., 2008) and hip and elbow dysplasia with subsequent osteoarthritis (Smith et al., 2001;Janutta et al., 2006). It is also known that German Shepherds serving as police dogs have a higher risk of developing skeletal or muscular lesions than those serving as companion dogs, probably because of the high physical demands (Kippenes and Grondalen, 1999;Parr and Otto, 2013). ...
Article
Working dogs often spend a large amount of their time in cars. It has been hypothesized that a larger compartment in the car would be more comfortable for the dog, but that a smaller space could be safer, especially while driving. This presents a potential conflict. In this study, working dogs of the breeds German Shepherd (N = 8) and Springer Spaniel (N = 8) from the Swedish Police and Customs respectively, were each tested in four different car cage sizes; two cages were the minimum size allowed according to Swedish regulations (one of fixed size and one adapted to the size of the dog) and for comparison we tested one larger (fixed sized) and one smaller (adapted sized) cage. These were tested under two different driving phases; normal driving (including turns and changes in speed) and slow cruising (without turning forces and of an even speed). The study was conducted at a test track using an estate car, typical of that used by these organizations. Testing of each cage size involved 30 min in the car, excluding the habituation period. The dogs’ behaviour and heart rate activity was recorded. Statistical analyses used a mixed model and pairwise comparisons. We found a large effect of our two driving phases, for example heart rate was higher and behavioural stress indicators more frequent during normal driving, implying that this was a more demanding situation for dogs compared to the slow cruising. Regarding cage size effects, there were fewer overall movements and body position changes by dogs in the three smaller cages compared to the largest cage size. That this could be a sign of decreased comfort is supported by the finding that dogs could not turn around in these cages without curving their back upwards or lowering their rump in these cages. This could have negative physical effects, especially in German Shepherds which are predisposed to musculoskeletal disease. Furthermore, German Shepherd dogs showed more bracing postures, i.e. more attempts to maintain their balance, in the small fixed cage size. For these dogs this cage size was shorter than their own body length. However, this bracing did not result in them losing their balance any less often, illustrating the importance of space allowance for maintaining balance during transportation and implying that a smaller cage is not necessarily safer.
... Specially, OA is a condition that causes pain, inflammation, and stiffness in many joints and commonly occurs as a consequence of joint dysplasia [2]. Even though the genetic background of select pedigreed breeds, excessive exercise, nutritional imbalances, chronic inflammation, and aging are also linked to the development of OA [2][3][4]. These inflammatory disorders are often treated using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) [1,5,6]. ...
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The health of military working dogs (MWDs) deployed with Korean troops is of prime importance. The aim of our study was to investigate the hematologic and serologic status of Korean MWDs given natural botanical supplements. To do this, 11 natural botanicals were selected based on relevant references and combined to supplement MWDs. Throughout the 16-week experimental periods, there was no significant difference in body weights of individual dogs. The Hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) values were slightly higher in the group given the supplement. On the other hand, the Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) values were slightly lower. Changes in platelet, lymphocyte, and basophil counts were observed in the supplemented group. The median serum IL-6 level did not differ significantly between the supplemented and control groups. However, the mean serum C-reactive protein (CRP) value increased significantly from the start of supplementation to 8 weeks, and then decreased at 16 weeks. Taken together, our result suggests that the health condition of most MWDs supplemented with natural botanicals was gradually improved. Thus, this study may provide support for the development of a feed supplement for MWDs using natural botanicals.
... A Dutch study with purebred dogs with a pedigree certificate reported low disorder prevalences, but did not make the comparison with other subpopulations. Different aspects have been discussed critically by researchers regarding the comparison of prevalences of genetic disorders (Wahl et al. 2008). For instance, the different scoring systems that are used to evaluate the quality of the hips influence the prevalences (Table 2). ...
Article
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Genetic disorders are common in dogs and in the media it is reported that genetic disorders are more frequent in pedigree dogs than in look-a-likes or in mixed-breed dogs. Here, we consider pedigree dogs as purebred dogs (i.e. matching a breed-specific morphology) with a registered and certified pedigree, whereas look-a-likes dogs are dogs without a certification.
Article
An 18‐month‐old female German Shepherd dog, previously reported to be spayed, presented to a referral clinic with a history of progressive haemorrhagic vulvar discharge resulting in clinical anaemia. An abdominal ultrasound showed an enlarged uterus and a retained right ovary; vaginoscopy revealed no obvious haemorrhage from the vagina or cervix, so the dog underwent exploratory laparotomy for ovariectomy and hysterectomy. Prior to surgery, the dog received a 15 ml/kg packed red blood cell transfusion and post‐operatively was given fresh frozen plasma due to significant blood loss into the uterus. Histopathology was consistent with cystic endometrial hyperplasia, suppurative metritis and pyometra. A uterine culture grew Escherichia coli. The dog ultimately made a full recovery.
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scientific literature overview on prevalence data for two genetic disorders (hip dysplasia and elbow dysplasia) in the German Shepherd and the Rottweiler in various countries including the Netherlands
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Here, we consider pedigree dogs as purebred dogs (i.e. matching a breed-specific morphology) with a registered and certified pedigree, whereas look-a-likes dogs are dogs without a certification. Thus, look-a-likes may be non-pure bred or purebred but lacking the supporting evidence.Dutch experts have indicated that more than 40 percent of purebred dogs in the Netherlands suffer from genetic disorders. Uncertainty about the validity of such indications, and if pedigree dogs are at increased risk of genetic disorders, together with societal concerns about the well-being of (pedigree) dogs, incited a Wageningen UR Science Shop project commissioned by the Dutch animal protection foundation Dier&Recht. Genetic disorders are heterogeneous in aetiology and manifestations across dog breeds, which complicates studying them. One feasible approach is to study specific disorders in pre-selected breeds only, as a model for the complex reality. This report, as part of this project’s products, provides a scientific literature overview on prevalence data for two genetic disorders (hip dysplasia and elbow dysplasia) in the German Shepherd and the Rottweiler in various countries including the Netherlands.
Research
Report provides a scientific literature overview on prevalence data for two genetic disorders (hip dysplasia and elbow dysplasia) in the German Shepherd and the Rottweiler in various countries including the Netherlands
Research
scientific literature overview on prevalence data for two genetic disorders (hip dysplasia and elbow dysplasia) in the German Shepherd and the Rottweiler in various countries including the Netherlands
Research
Here, we consider pedigree dogs as purebred dogs (i.e. matching a breed-specific morphology) with a registered and certified pedigree, whereas look-a-likes dogs are dogs without a certification. Thus, look-a-likes may be non-pure bred or purebred but lacking the supporting evidence.Dutch experts have indicated that more than 40 percent of purebred dogs in the Netherlands suffer from genetic disorders. Uncertainty about the validity of such indications, and if pedigree dogs are at increased risk of genetic disorders, together with societal concerns about the well-being of (pedigree) dogs, incited a Wageningen UR Science Shop project commissioned by the Dutch animal protection foundation Dier&Recht. Genetic disorders are heterogeneous in aetiology and manifestations across dog breeds, which complicates studying them. One feasible approach is to study specific disorders in pre-selected breeds only, as a model for the complex reality. This report, as part of this project’s products, provides a scientific literature overview on prevalence data for two genetic disorders (hip dysplasia and elbow dysplasia) in the German Shepherd and the Rottweiler in various countries including the Netherlands.
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Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome characterised by benign skin tumours, renal tumours, and spontaneous pneumothorax. The gene has been mapped to chromosome 17p11.2 and recently identified, expressing a novel protein called folliculin. We report the clinical and genetic studies of four sporadic BHD cases and four families with a total of 23 affected subjects. Haplotype analysis of these families using BHD linked markers showed they did not share the same affected alleles, excluding common ancestry. Mutation analysis of the BHD gene identified two germline mutations on exon 11 (c.1733insC and c.1733delC) in three of four families as well as two of four sporadic cases. A novel somatic mutation, c.1732delTCinsAC, was detected in a BHD related chromophobe renal carcinoma. Our results confirmed the (C)8 tract in exon 11 as a mutational hot spot in BHD and should always be considered for future genetic testing. Our observation also indicated that the second hit (of Knudson’s two hit theory) in some BHD related tumours is in the form of somatic mutation rather than LOH. In a large French family in which eight affected subjects carry the c.1733delC mutation, a phenocopy who has multiple episodes of spontaneous pneumothorax was identified. A total of five mutation carriers (aged between 37 to 66) did not have any evidence of BHD features, suggesting either reduced penetrance or late age of onset of the disease. In addition, six out of eight affected subjects who have positive germline mutation have confirmed neoplastic colonic polyps, indicating that colorectal neoplasia is an associated feature of BHD in some families. Our studies have observed several interesting genetic features in BHD: (1) the poly (C) tract in exon 11 as a mutational hot spot; (2) the existence of phenocopy; (3) reduced penetrance or late age of onset of disease; (4) association with colorectal neoplasia in some families; and (5) somatic mutation instead of LOH as the second hit in BHD tumours.
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• Canine acral lick dermatitis is a naturally occurring disorder in which excessive licking of paws or flank can produce ulcers and infection that require medical treatment. Fortytwo dogs with severe chronic canine acral lick dermatitis were treated in three double-blind crossover comparisons of clomipramine hydrochloride/desipramine hydrochloride, fluoxetine hydrochloride/fenfluramine hydrochloride, and sertraline hydrochloride/placebo. The serotonin uptake blocking drugs were clinically effective, while the other drugs were not. Based on phenomenology and pharmacological response, we propose canine acral lick dermatitis as an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Article
This study investigates if there are relationships between personality and performance of dogs (Canis familiaris) in working dog trials. Data from 2655 dogs of the two breeds German Shepherd dog (GSD) and Belgian Tervuren (BT) were used. The breeds were chosen because of indications of differences in personality between these breeds, and because both breeds are commonly trained for working dog trials. All dogs were tested in a personality test between 12 and 18 months of age. Using a factor analysis, five factors were extracted: “Playfulness”, “Curiosity/Fearlessness”, “Chase-proneness”, “Sociability”, and “Aggressiveness”. Further analyses showed that these factors, with the exception of Aggressiveness, were all related to one higher-order factor, which was interpreted as a shyness–boldness dimension. Because of the risk of confounding variables, the influence of the owners’ previous experience was tested. This showed that owner experience was related to performance, as well as to the shyness–boldness score. Therefore, only data from dogs with inexperienced owners were used in the later analyses. According to their success in working dog trials, the dogs could be categorised as low, middle, or high performing. The results show that the shyness–boldness score is related to the level of performance: high-performing dogs have higher scores (i.e. are bolder) compared to low-performing dogs. This difference was significant in Belgian Tervurens of both sexes, and in female German Shepherds. In general, German Shepherds scored higher than Belgian Tervurens, and males scored higher than females. However, in well-performing dogs there were no breed or sex differences. This indicates a threshold effect; to reach high levels in working dog trials the dog, independent of breed or sex, should have a certain level of boldness. These results imply that a lower proportion of dogs of shyer breeds are able to reach higher performance levels, compared to dogs of breeds that in general score higher on the shyness–boldness axis. In German Shepherds, a relationship was also found between personality and age of success; bolder dogs reached success at a younger age. There were no differences in Boldness score between dogs succeeding in different types of working dog trials (tracking, searching, delivering messages, handler protection), suggesting that the personality dimension predisposes trainability in general. The results might be applied to the selection of breeding dogs in working breeds and in selecting suitable working and service dogs. A test like the one used in this study can give a description of an individual dog’s personality, which also can help matching the dog with adequate training.
Article
The synthesis and the photochromic properties of new phenanthropyran derivative containing styryl substituent are described. The compound 8 showed two-step two-photon photochromism to produce a thermally stable cyclopentaannulated compound 10 through a thermally unstable open keto form intermediate 9.
Article
WHEN reading in NATURE of November .12, 1885, the abstract of Sir John Lubbock's paper ``On the Intelligence of Dogs,'' I called to mind an incident of a little Blenheim spaniel which belongs to my mother.
Article
The behaviour test results of 1310 German shepherds and 797 Labrador retrievers, 450–600 days of age, were evaluated. The purpose was to investigate whether the behaviour tests, previously used at the Swedish Dog Training Centre, could be used to select dogs for different kinds of work and for breeding. Ten behavioural characteristics were scored based on the dogs' reactions in seven different test situations. All tests were conducted by one experienced person.Marked differences in mental characteristics were found between breeds and sexes, but particularly between various categories of service dogs. Regardless of differences in the behaviour profiles of these service categories, there were marked similarities between different categories of service dogs compared with dogs found to be unsuitable for training as service dogs. To interpret the data, an index value was created, based on the test results for each individual dog, and was found to be an excellent instrument for selecting dogs for different types of work.For both breeds the factor analysis resulted in four factors. In comparing the different characteristics, the same pattern was found in both breeds, with the exception of the characteristic prey drive, which seems to be irrelevant for Labrador retrievers. The conclusion is that a subjective evaluation of complex behaviour parameters can be used as a tool for selecting dogs suitable as service dogs. The results also show that the use and correct interpretation of behaviour tests can be enhanced by adjusting the results for each breed and planned service category.
Article
The Swiss German Shepherd Club (SC) has applied a standardised behaviour test for over 50 years. A successful test is a prerequisite for breeding approval. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of external factors like socialisation, husbandry, training and others on the results of the behaviour test, and to verify if these results were still consistent after a year. The tested traits were self-confidence, nerve stability, hardness, sharpness, defence drive, reaction to gunfire, and temperament. Information about husbandry, training, socialisation, and the dog's behaviour in certain situations, etc. was collected by a questionnaire. From a total of 185 owners, 149 handlers with their dogs were willing to take part in this study. After 1 year, 38 dogs were tested a second time and their owners filled out another questionnaire very similar to the first one. Logistic regression analyses were used to measure the association between the results of the behaviour traits and the different external factors.Training of the young dog and contact with school aged children were significantly associated with one or more of the behaviour traits. Significant odds ratios were found for the associations between the puppy training and nerve stability and self-confidence, as well as between young dog training and the same character traits (nerve stability and self-confidence). A further positive association was found between defence drive and the contact of the dogs with school age children. Reproducibilities of the results of the behaviour test varied between traits, so the average scores for sharpness and defence drive significantly increased from the first to the second test, for temperament however, the scores decreased. Lower scores meant a more desired behaviour as rated by the club. The results of the other traits were similar in the two tests.
Article
In humans, delayed ossification of the caput femoris is often seen associated with hip dysplasia in babies. This phenomenon may possibly exist in dogs. In this study, the radiographic appearance of the caput femoris of 13 German shepherd dogs was examined. The dogs underwent pelvic radiography at the age of 14 to 15 days, six weeks, and 12 months. A significant relationship was shown between hip dysplasia and the late appearance of the epiphysis of the caput femoris (P=0–02). At the age of 14 to 15 days it was not possible to see both epiphyses in 54 per cent of the dogs. All of these dogs had hip dysplasia when they were 12 months old. This was in contrast to the six dogs which had both epiphyses visible when they were 14 to 15 days old. At 12 months of age, four of these dogs (67 per cent) did not show any sign of hip dysplasia.
Article
Objective—To develop a radiographic procedure to measure dorsolateral subluxation (DLS) of the femoral head in canine coxofemoral (hip) joints in a weight-bearing position. Study Design—DLS measured on a radiographic projection was compared with DLS measured on computed tomography (CT) images of hip joints in a weight-bearing position. Animals—A total of 24 dogs of varying ages were examined including Labrador retrievers, greyhounds, and Labrador-greyhound crossbreeds. Methods—Anesthetized dogs were placed in sternal recumbency in a kneeling position in a foam rubber mold. The stifles were flexed and adducted with the femora perpendicular to, and in contact with, the table. To test for DLS, dogs were imaged in this weight-bearing position (DLS test) with routine radiography and CT. For each hip, the DLS score was determined by measuring the percentage of the femoral head medial to the lateralmost point of the cranial acetabular rim on the dorsoventral radiographic projection and the lateralmost point of the central, dorsal acetabular rim on the CT image. Higher DLS scores indicated better coverage of the femoral head by the acetabulum. DLS scores were compared with the distraction index (DI) by grouping joints according to their probability of developing osteoarthritis (OA) as predicted by the DI. Results—The DLS score in the new position ranged from 29% to 71% for radiography and 15% to 59% for CT. Joints classified as OA unsusceptible had a mean score of 64%± 1.5% for radiography and 55%± 0.8% for CT (n = 10); hip joints having a high probability of developing OA had a score of 39%± 2.6% for radiography and 26%± 1.9% for CT (n = 8). When the DLS test was repeated on the same dogs at a different time, the intraclass correlation coefficient for the DLS score on the radiographs was 0.85 (left hip) and 0.89 (right hip). There was a strong correlation (r = .89 for both hips) between the DLS score measured on the weight-bearing radiograph and the CT image. A strong correlation also was observed between the DLS score and the DI (r = -.87). The DLS scores for OA unsusceptible joints and joints with a high probability of developing OA were significantly different (P < .05). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The DLS test can be performed with CT or routine radiography to measure variable amounts of DLS in weight-bearing hip joints oriented similarly to those of a standing dog. After additional long-term follow-up studies evaluating the development of OA and breed effects are performed, the DLS method may prove useful in studies of normal and abnormal hip joint development related to canine hip dysplasia.
Article
We investigated the consistency of behaviour over repeated tests in dogs, Canis familiaris. Dogs were tested three times, with an average of 30 and 35 days between tests. The behavioural test used in the study included 10 subtests that exposed dogs to various situations, such as the appearance of an unfamiliar person, play, preylike objects, metallic noise and a suddenly appearing dummy. Studies using the same test with many dogs have revealed five specific personality traits, labelled Playfulness, Chase-proneness, Curiosity/Fearlessness, Sociability and Aggressiveness, and one higher-order, broader dimension, interpreted as a shyness-boldness continuum. We used these traits in the present study. We found significant correlations over the test series in all the specific traits as well as in the Boldness dimension. The magnitude of trait scores for Playfulness, Chase-proneness and Sociability, as well as for the Boldness dimension, was stable between tests. The scores for Aggressiveness and Curiosity/Fe
Article
The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) has been subjected to a huge range of selection pressures during domestication that has resulted in a considerable diversity in morphology and behaviour. This, together with the many uses the dog is put to in our society, makes the dog an interesting model for studies of animal personality. However, only a few attempts have been done to study individual differences in dogs. In this study, behavioural data from 15,329 dogs of 164 different breeds were used to investigate the existence of personality traits in dogs. The data were collected at a personality test that tested the dogs' reactions to strangers, ''fleeing'' prey-like objects, and several potential fear-and aggression-eliciting stimuli. Factor analyses revealed the existence of five narrow traits: ''Playfulness'', ''Curiosity/Fearlessness'', ''Chase-proneness'', ''Sociability'' and ''Aggressive-ness''. Higher-order factor analyses showed that all factors except ''Aggressiveness'' were related to each other, creating a broad factor that influences behaviour in a range of situations. Both narrow and broad factors were found in a dataset including data from a large number of breeds, as well as within eight of Fédération Cynologique Internationale's (FCI's) 10 breed groups. This indicates that the personality dimensions found in the study are general for the dog as a species. The finding of a major behavioural dimension in different groups of dog breeds, together with comparable results previously found for wolves (Canis lupus), suggests that the dimension is evolutionarily stable and has survived the varied selection pressures encountered during domestication. The broad factor is comparable to the shyness–boldness axis previously found in both humans and animals, and to human ''supertraits'' (a combination of Extraversion and Neuroticism). The results of this study can be used to describe and compare individual dogs, as well as breeds. This, in turn, can be used in applications like selection of service dogs and breeding animals, as well as predicting behaviour problems in pet dogs. # 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
In this study, genetic and non-genetic effects on behavioural traits were estimated, based on records of the ®eld behaviour test of the Swiss German Shepherd Dog breeding club. This standardized test has been applied since 1949 and comprised the following seven traits: self-con®dence, nerve stability, temperament, hardness, sharpness, defence drive and ®ghting drive. The analyses were based on the test results of 3497 German Shepherds between 1978 and 2000. Gender, age, judge and kennel had signi®cant effects on all behaviour traits. The heritabilities were calculated using three different methods and ranged between 0.09 and 0.24, with a standard error varying between 0.04 and 0.06. Phenotypic correlations among the traits lay between 0.28 and 0.94, the genetic correlations between 0.34 and 1.0. No signi®cant correlations between hip dysplasia scores and the behavioural traits were found (À0.04 to 0.01). The modest genetic improvement over the last 25 years in the studbook population of the German Shepherd dog (GSD) was due to the low heritabilities of the behaviour traits, but mainly because of the low selection intensities after the test (only 8% failed). Some recommendations were made to improve the test and selection response. # 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
Six specific personality traits – playfulness, chase-proneness, curiosity/fearlessness, sociability, aggressiveness, and distance-playfulness – and a broad boldness dimension have been suggested for dogs in previous studies based on data collected in a standardized behavioural test (''dog mentality assessment'', DMA). In the present study I investigated the validity of the specific traits for predicting typical behaviour in everyday life. A questionnaire with items describing the dog's typical behaviour in a range of situations was sent to owners of dogs that had carried out the DMA behavioural test 1–2 years earlier. Of the questionnaires that were sent out 697 were returned, corresponding to a response rate of 73.3%. Based on factor analyses on the questionnaire data, behavioural factors in everyday life were suggested to correspond to the specific personality traits from the DMA. Correlation analyses suggested construct validity for the traits playfulness, curiosity/ fearlessness, sociability, and distance-playfulness. Chase-proneness, which I expected to be related to predatory behaviour in everyday life, was instead related to human-directed play interest and non-social fear. Aggressiveness was the only trait from the DMA with low association to all of the behavioural factors from the questionnaire. The results suggest that three components of dog personality are measured in the DMA: (1) interest in playing with humans; (2) attitude towards strangers (interest in, fear of, and aggression towards); and (3) non-social fearfulness. These three components correspond to the traits playfulness, sociability, and curiosity/fearlessness, respectively, all of which were found to be related to a higher-order shyness–boldness dimension.
Article
ABSTRACTA questionnaire was sent to veterinary surgeons who had diagnosed exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) by assay of low serum concentration of trypsin-like immunoreactivity in 302 dogs. Two-thirds of cases were German shepherd dogs, in which EPI was found equally in males and females. The disease was also diagnosed in 33 other breeds, most commonly in crossbreeds, spaniels, small terriers and collies, and was more common in females. Detailed replies on 160 cases were returned; 79 dogs were alive and 41 dead, with the remainder lost to long term follow-up. The major reasons for death were euthanasia because of the cost, the prognosis, and failure to respond to treatment. An adequate response to treatment was obtained in 92 per cent of dogs. Uncoated preparations of pancreatic enzyme replacement were found to be more successful, and the use of dietary manipulation and antibiotics were frequently reported to be useful adjunctive therapies.
Article
Abstract—A review of hip dysplasia research in the dog is given and the authors summarize the results of their long term study of hip dysplasia in the German Shepherd.Canine hip dysplasia is compared with congenital luxation of the hip in man. On the basis of this comparison, the authors arrive at the following conclusions regarding hip dysplasia in the dog.The disease cannot be diagnosed at birth. The most severe cases can be picked out at an age of about 14 days. It seems doubtful that the disease is congenital in the dog. There is strong evidence that the primary cause of hip dysplasia is a joint laxity very early in life. This laxity is genetically controlled but environmental factors are responsible for about 50 per cent of the variation of the severity of hip dysplasia. The cause of laxity is unknown and future research has to be focused on this problem.Résumé—Les auteurs donnent un compte-rendu de leurs recherche sur la dystrophic de la hanche chez le chien; ils préentent un résumé de leurs travaux prolongés sur l'hérédité de la dystrophie de la hanche chez la chiens bergers allemands.Celle-ci est comparée à la dislocation congénitale de la hanche chez I'homme. A la suite de cette comparaison ils en tirent les conclusions suivantes.La maladie ne peut pas ěre diagnostiquée a la naissance. Le cas les plus sévères peuvent ěre décelés après environ 14 jours. II semble douteux que la maladie soit congénitale chez le chien. II y a des preuves serieuses que la principale cause de la dystrophie est une laxité de l'articulation. Cette laxité est partiellement génétique, mais, cependant, divers éléments extérieurs sont responsables dans 50 pour cent des cas sérieux. La cause de la laxité est inconnue, et les recherches ultérieures devront ěre concentrées sup ce problème.Zusammenfassung—Eine Übersicht der Untersuchung von Hüften-Mißbildung (Dysplasie) bei Hunden wird gegeben und die Authoren beschreiben die Resultate ihrer langjhrigen Forschung der Genetic von Hüften-Mißbildung bei Deutschen Schferhunden.Hüften-Mißbildung bei Hunden wird mit menschlicher angeborener Hüftverrenkung verglichen. Auf Grund diesea Vergleiches werden folgende Schlüsse gezogen:Der Zustand ist bei Geburt nicht diagnostizierbar. Die schwersten Flle können im Alter von 14 Tagen festgestellt werden. Es scheint zweifelhalf, daß dieser Zustand bei Hunden angeboren ist. Es gibt starke Beweise dafür, daß die Primrursache der Hüften-Mißbildung eine Lockerheit des Gelenkes ist. Diese Lockerheit ist genetisch bestimmt, aber Umgebungsfaktoren sind für ungefhr 50 Prozent der Schwere-Variationen der Hüften-Mißbildung verantwortlich. Die Ursachen der Lockerheit sind nich bekannt und weitere Forschung muß auf diese Frage gerichtet werden.
Article
The purposes of the study reported here were to evaluate the signalment and clinical presentation in 50 dogs with degenerative myelopathy, to evaluate whether mean survival time was significantly affected by various means of physiotherapy performed in 22 dogs, and to determine whether neurologic status, anatomic localization, or age at onset had an influence on survival time in dogs that received physiotherapy. We found a significant (P < .05) breed predisposition for the German Shepherd Dog, Kuvasz, Hovawart, and Bernese Mountain Dog. Mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 years, and both sexes were affected equally. The anatomic localization of the lesion was spinal cord segment T3-L3 in 56% (n = 28) and L3-S3 in 44% (n = 22) of the dogs. Animals that received intensive (n = 9) physiotherapy had longer (P < .05) survival time (mean 255 days), compared with that for animals with moderate (n = 6; mean 130 days) or no (n = 7; mean 55 days) physiotherapy. In addition, our results indicate that affected dogs which received physiotherapy remained ambulatory longer than did animals that did not receive physical treatment.
Article
Von Willebrand's Disease (vWD) in the Scottish Terrier breed is a serious, often fatal, hereditary bleeding disorder. Elimination of the mutated gene by selective breeding is an important goal for the health of this breed. Although the standard protein-based tests are accurate for identification of affected Scottish Terriers, they are not reliable for the identification of carriers of the mutant gene unless multiple replicate assays are performed. A simple, highly accurate test for carriers of the disease is needed so that veterinarians can counsel clients on which animals to use in their breeding programs. The complete coding region of von Willebrand factor (vWF) complementary DNA (cDNA) was sequenced from an affected animal, and a single base deletion in the codon for amino acid 85 of the prepro-vWF cDNA that leads to Scottish Terrier vWD was identified. A highly accurate polymerase chain reaction assay was developed that can distinguish homozygous normal animals from those that are homozygous affected or heterozygous. In a voluntary survey of 87 animals provided by Scottish Terrier owners, 15 were carriers and 4 were affected with vWD, 2 of which had previously been shown to have undetectable vWF. The determination of the complete canine vWF cDNA sequence should facilitate the identification of additional vWD alleles in other breeds and other species.
Article
In order to evaluate the enteropancreatic hormone axis in dogs with pancreatic acinar atrophy, we measured the release of gastric inhibitory polypeptide and pancreatic polypeptide in response to a standard meal and a meal containing pancreatic enzymes in affected dogs and controls. Postprandial release of pancreatic polypeptide was normal in dogs with pancreatic atrophy and was not affected by addition of pancreatic enzymes to the food. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide was not released after a standard meal in affected dogs, but this blunted response was corrected by the addition of pancreatic enzymes to the food. Feeding the enzyme alone did not stimulate a gastric inhibitory polypeptide response. These results, in part, support similar observations previously reported in children with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency associated with cystic fibrosis. We conclude that dogs with idiopathic pancreatic acinar atrophy can be used as an animal model for future study of enteropancreatic hormonal abnormalities that occur in human beings with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.
Article
The behaviour towards other dogs and people was recorded for 102 dogs of four breeds and six crosses. The variation between dogs could be described by the first two principal components, which we have labelled ‘confidence’ and ‘aggression-dominance’. Descriptions based on these two dimensions closely correspond to the descriptions of four social displays in wolves. The two principal components help in the interpretation of these displays. The agonistic behaviour of dogs changes with maturity and also with the nature of the dog with which they are confronted.
Article
A descriptive retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate 250 records of dog bites collected by the Guelph Health Unit during 1986 and 1987. The average reported dog bit rate was 160/100,000 people per year. The lower extremities were bitten in 31.3% of cases, hands 26.5%, face 19.7%, torso 10.4%, and arms received 8.4% of bites. Owners of biting dogs were located 97.6% of the time, and 70% of these dogs were vaccinated for rabies. Incidents occurred 60.1% of the time within the dog's home territory, 14.4% on the street, 13% on a neighboring property, 6.3% in parks, 2.4% around schools, 1.4% at stores, and 2.4% others. Forty-one percent of attacks were unprovoked, but most attacks could be explained by the classifications of canine aggression. Although several breeds had high bite rates, only mixed and German Shepherd breeds had a population attributable fraction in excess of two percent.
Article
The classic study of dog behavior gathered into one volume. Based on twenty years of research at the Jackson Laboratory, this is the single most important and comprehensive reference work on the behavior of dogs ever complied. "Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog is one of the most important texts on canine behavior published to date. Anyone interested in breeding, training, or canine behavior must own this book."—Wayne Hunthausen, D.V.M., Director of Animal Behavior Consultations "This pioneering research on dog behavioral genetics is a timeless classic for all serious students of ethology and canine behavior."—Dr. Michael Fox, Senior Advisor to the President, The Humane Society of the United States "A major authoritative work. . . . Immensely rewarding reading for anyone concerned with dog-breeding."—Times Literary Supplement "The last comprehensive study [of dog behavior] was concluded more than thirty years ago, when John Paul Scott and John L. Fuller published their seminal work Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog."—Mark Derr, The Atlantic Monthly "Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog is essential reading for anyone involved in the breeding of dogs. No breeder can afford to ignore the principles of proper socialization first discovered and articulated in this landmark study."-The Monks of New Skete, authors of How to Be Your Dog's Best Friend and the video series Raising Your Dog with the Monks of New Skete.
Article
Heritability of hip dysplasia was estimated to be about 0.4 to 0.5 when based on the radiographic evaluations of the hip joints of 2,404 German Shepherd Dogs born at The Armed Forces Dog Training Center in Sweden. The material included all dogs in 401 litters born at the Center from 1965 through 1973 that reached the age of 15 months. To be expected with such high heritability, frequency of hip dysplasia in the offspring was shown to be affected by the hip joint status of sire and dam as well as by the hip joint status of their parents and littermates. Even matings between sires with normal hip joints and dams with only slight dysplasia resulted in significantly higher frequency of hip dysplasia in the offspring, when compared with the frequency if both sires and dams had normal hip joints. Frequency of hip dysplasia in the progeny of sires with normal hip joints varied greatly. Since 1973, selection of the breeding stock has been based on hip joint status (phenotype) of the breeding animals and of their relatives as well as on what had become known about frequency of hip dysplasia in the litters already born (progeny testing). In this way, frequency of hip dysplasia in 347 dogs born at the Center during 1975 was lowered to 28%. This figure should be compared with the figure of 50%, which represents the frequency of hip dysplasia in the kennel up to 1970, when selection was not as strict as could be expected in a well-controlled kennel.
Article
The concept that a degenerative neurologic disease in German Shepherd Dogs (designated "German Shepherd Dog myelopathy") represents a dying-back disease process was not substantiated by morphologic and morphometric data derived from central and peripheral nervous system evaluation in 23 dogs. The occurrence of this identifiable disease complex in German Shepherd Dogs suggested a role by genetic determinants.
Article
Using scores taken from pelvic radiographs of 1,186 German Shepherd Dogs, heritability estimates of canine hip dysplasia (CHD) were obtained. As measured by either of 2 scores defined, CHD was found to be 22.0% heritable. In this colony, CHD was a moderately heritable condition. To make progress in selecting against CHD, use of the progeny test to identify superior replacement breeders was stressed.
Article
Additional characterization of von Willebrand's disease (VWD) in a family of German shepherd dogs is presented. Genetic studies of three generations of affected dogs indicate that about 50% of the progeny are affected if one parent has VWD and about 60% if both parents have the defect. Some of these progeny manifested an incomplete form of VWD, suggesting autosomal dominant inheritance with variable expressivity. The disease become progressively less severe with advancing age and repeated pregnancies. Ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation was significantly reduced in VWD dogs as compared with normal, thrombopathic, and hemophilic carrier dogs. Immunodiffusion and electroimmunodiffusion studies with rabbit anticanine factor VII showed the level of factor VII-related antigen to be low in VWD dogs but present in increased amounts in hemophilic dogs. VWD affected dogs had markedly delayed hemostatic plug formation, but their plugs appeared normal by light and electron microscopy. Their platelet nucleotides, ATP/ADP ration, and platelet protein content were normal. Platelet and fibrinogen survival times with [75Se] selenomethionine were also normal, although platelets from VWD dogs incorporated more radioactivity than did those from normal dogs or from dogs with incomplete VWD.
Article
VON WILLEBRAND'S disease (VWD) is an autosomally inherited disorder characterised by low factor VIII activity (antihaemophilic factor, AHF), prolonged bleeding time, reduced retention of platelets in a glass bead column and abnormal distocetin-induced platelet aggregation. The prolonged bleeding time in VWD has been attributed to the absence of a plasma factor, the von Willebrand factor (VWF), as shown by a correction of the bleeding time after infusion of normal and haemophilic plasmas1. Addition of purified factor VIII in vitro specifically corrects the abnormal platelet retention and ristocetin aggregation in VWD2-5, whereas transfusion of similar material into dogs with VWD also corrects the prolonged bleeding time (B.N.B., W. J. Dodds, J. A. van Mourik, J.J.S and W. P. Webster, unpublished). This led to the suggestion that factor VIII is closely related if not identical to VWF, although dissociation of factor VIII procoagulant activity from factor VIII-related antigen (F VIII-RA) is observed in certain conditions6,7. The plasma concentration of F VIII-RA is usually reduced in VWD suggesting a reduced synthesis of factor VIII (VWF)8. In contrast to this we now report the presence of normal concentrations of F VIII-RA in platelets of patients with VWD. This F VIII-RA supported aggregation induced by ristocetin in a washed platelet system9, a property of factor VIII which has been attributed to VWF activity.
Article
Chronic degenerative radiculomyelopathy (CDRM) is the name proposed for the chronic ataxic syndrome of older dogs previously reported as chronic ossifying pachymeningitis. The condition occurs in dogs of 6 years and older and affects large breeds. There is a slowly progressive ataxia and weakness of the hind limbs. Clinical testing demonstrates abnormalities in proprioception and touch and the nails of the affected leg(s) are usually worn. In the present series 70 % of cases had depression or absence of the patellar reflexes. Pain sensation, bladder control and the panniculus reflex are normal. There are degenerative lesions in the lumbar dorsal columns, fasciculus gracilis, lateral cortico spinal tract and around the ventro-median fissure. In many cases the dorsal nerve roots are also involved. The thoraco-lumbar grey matter and nucleus gracilis show marked astrocytic sclerosis. The distribution of the lesions suggests that this is a ‘dying back’ disease confined to the central nervous system.
Article
Canine acral lick dermatitis is a naturally occurring disorder in which excessive licking of paws or flank can produce ulcers and infection that require medical treatment. Forty-two dogs with severe chronic canine acral lick dermatitis were treated in three double-blind crossover comparisons of clomipramine hydrochloride/desipramine hydrochloride, fluoxetine hydrochloride/fenfluramine hydrochloride, and sertraline hydrochloride/placebo. The serotonin uptake blocking drugs were clinically effective, while the other drugs were not. Based on phenomenology and pharmacological response, we propose canine acral lick dermatitis as an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Article
Canine von Willebrand's disease (vWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder of purebred dogs. Optimum treatment of affected dogs is influenced by the presence of concurrent disorders, especially thyroid insufficiency, and the nature of hemostatic stress encountered. Blood component therapy, most specifically the use of cryoprecipitate, provides the most effective transfusion support for severely affected dogs.
Article
Hip dysplasia has been managed conservatively and medically since the initial description of this disease in 1935. However, little factual information is known about the benefits of the various forms of conservative and medical management. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been a mainstay of treatment, with the only real debate being which NSAID to use. Only with the recent anecdotal reports of polysulfated glycosaminoglycan has there been any change in medical management of CHD, and this method of treatment warrants further investigation. Conservative and medical management definitely have a role in the treatment of CHD. It must be remembered, however that CHD is primarily a disease of biomechanical alterations and joint laxity, with the cartilage effects being secondary. With a great enough degree of laxity, coxofemoral incongruency, articular damage, or osteoarthritic change, conservative and medical management will not be effective. At that stage, surgical management must be considered.
Article
The radiographic changes observed in the development of CHD in the dog are complex and not fully understood despite years of research. Moderate to severe CHD is relatively easy to diagnose using standard radiographic views and evaluation techniques. However, early detection of mild or borderline CHD continues to be difficult to reliably detect radiographically. Efforts continue to be made to develop new views, techniques, and evaluation methods that will improve the radiographic evaluation of CHD. Until better methods are proven, the standard ventrodorsal leg extended view, evaluated by an experienced reviewer, will remain the method of choice for radiographic detection of CHD.
Article
DM in the German Shepherd is an immune-related disorder whose clinical signs are explained by a widespread degeneration of the white matter pathways in the thoracolumbar spinal cord. Therapy includes exercise, vitamin supplementation, and EACA medication. Avoiding unnecessary surgical procedures is also important to preclude permanent deterioration that can result following surgery in DM patients. In dogs other than German Shepherds, other identifiable causes should be treated. Additional confirmation of the diagnosis of DM may be assisted by performing cell-mediated immune studies or other serodiagnostic tests as they become available.
Article
In Finland pancreatic degenerative atrophy (PDA) is most commonly diagnosed in two breeds of dogs: the German Shepherd and the rough coated Collie. The incidence of PDA in the Collie breed in Finland is close to 1%. Of the 51 cases diagnosed in the Collie breed 44 could be placed in one composite pedigree. An affected dog in that pedigree had, on average, 17 affected relatives distributed in 11 different litters. This clustering strongly suggests that PDA is a hereditary disease. The pedigree data indicate that PDA could be an autosomal recessive trait, although the estimated proportion of affected offspring within litters (0.13) was lower than the expected Mendelian frequency (0.25).
Article
A questionnaire was sent to 109 owners of German Shepherds suffering from pancreatic degenerative atrophy (PDA) and to 186 owners of German Shepherds with no known history of PDA. Owners were asked questions about their dogs adolescence, e.g. rate of growth, diseases and training. Detailed questions about feeding, intestinal and skin problems were also asked. In the questionnaire for PDA-dogs questions were divided into two parts: before and after the onset of PDA signs. Based on this study no specific early signs of PDA or causative factors could be found. The role of stress as a triggering factor could not, however, be totally excluded. The frequency of typical signs of PDA was outlined and also some signs not previously reported as typical PDA-signs were noted.