The effects of hormone replacement therapy on postmenopausal breast cancer biology and survival

Department of Surgery and the Center on Outcomes Research and Education, NorthShore University Health System, Evanston, and Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.
American journal of surgery (Impact Factor: 2.29). 03/2009; 197(3):403-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2008.11.014
Source: PubMed


The goal of this study was to compare the characteristics of breast cancers and survival rates in HRT users versus nonusers.
Data were analyzed for 1055 patients > or = 50 years of age who had definitive therapy for breast cancer from 1994 through 2002.
There were 471 (45%) HRT users. The median age at diagnosis was 61.0 years for HRT users and 68.0 years for HRT nonusers (P < .001). HRT users more often had tumors that were <1 cm (P = .007), node negative (P = .033), and grade I (P = .016). HRT users had a decreased risk of death versus nonusers (hazard ratio = .438, 95% confidence limit = .263 to .729, P = .002).
HRT users developed breast cancer at a younger age than nonusers; HRT use was associated with the development of biologically more favorable cancers than those that developed in nonusers; and overall and disease-free survival rates were higher in HRT users than nonusers.

Download full-text


Available from: David Winchester, Nov 04, 2014

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Menopause (New York, N.Y.)
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on Lepidium meyenii (maca), a cruciferous plant (Brassicaceae family) which is cultivated exclusively at an altitude of 4,000-4,500 m in the Peruvian Central Andes. Maca is traditionally used for its nutritional and presumed medicinal properties. Over the past 20 years, interest in maca has increased in many parts of the world, and since 2005 maca is considered one of the seven Peruvian flag products. Maca is exported as powder, capsules, pills, flour, liquor, and extracts. There are different types of maca with differ-ent colors ranging from white to black. We have studied the pharmacological effects of 3 types; yellow, black, and red maca. Evidence from experimental studies indicates effects of maca on nutrition, fertility, memory, and mood. Black maca has better effects on sperm production than yellow maca which has only moderate effects. Red maca, however, has no effect on sperm production. However, red maca has been shown to reduce prostate size in rats in which prostate hyperplasia had been induced with testosterone enanthate; yellow maca has shown moderate effects here, whereas black maca has not shown any effects. Randomized clinical trials have shown that maca has favorable effects on energy and mood, may decrease anxiety and improve sexual desire. Maca has also been shown to improve sperm production, sperm motility, and semen volume. Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, LH, FSH, and prolactin were not affected. The exact mechanisms of action are still unclear, but so far research clearly indicates that various bioactive constituents contribute to the clinical effects reported.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Forschende Komplementärmedizin / Research in Complementary Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxidative stress by investing oxidatively damaged DNA AS Formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) -sensitive sites, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities reduced glutathione (GSH) level and nitrite level as satble end product of in women receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT). 127 healthy postmenopausal women receiving HRT and 25 healthy control postmenopausal women were included in this study. Women receiving HRT, comprised surgical menopausal women who underwent surgery for benign conditions and received conjugated equine estrogen, 0.625 mg/day for 1 year (group 1), 5 years (group 2) and more than 10 years (group 3), spontaneous postmenopausal women received conjugated equine estrogen, 0.625 (Premarin) mg/day and medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.5 mg/day (Premelle) for 1 year (group 4), 5 years (group 5) and more than 5 years (group 6).We investigated in the present study the effects of HRT on nitrite level and GSH level, activities of SOD and GPx and oxidative damage to DNA by comet assays by measuring levels of Fpg-sensitive sites. Although no significant differences were found in the SOD activities, in total group receiving HRT, increased DNA oxidation (P<0.001) together with an increased GPx activity (P<0.001) and nitrite level (P<0.001) as well as a decreased GSH level (P < 0.05) as compared with controls were observed. Estrogen alone or oestrogen in combination with progesterone and duration of use did not significantly alter the results. We evaluated that caused oxidative stress by investigating oxidative DNA damage as Fp-sensitive sites and GSH.NO levels in women receiving HRT.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Indian Journal of Medical Sciences
Show more