Increasing sustainability is one of the core objectives of future supply chain networks. However, the ambitious economic, ecological, and social goals can only be achieved through novel technological frameworks accompanied by disruptive organizational change. The five essays of this dissertation investigate the adoption of sustainability-enhancing technologies and their underlying organizational transformations in order to reduce carbon emissions, improve economical performance, and increase social quality in logistics networks. Established methodologies in the form of case studies, managerial surveys, conceptual developments, Delphi surveys, and quantitative reviews are applied to ground this research empirically and to derive new concepts and research strategies. The results support researchers, practitioners, and politics in driving the adoption of sustainable measures and prepare organizations for future challenges. The first research paper, “Blockchain technology enabling the Physical Internet – A synergetic application framework”, studies the Physical Internet as an upcoming logistics concept that aims for a paradigm shift towards economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable logistics. The concept receives growing interest but requires transformations in infrastructure, technology, and business models, which existing literature intends to answer with centralized platform solutions. The paper demonstrates that centralized solutions do not meet the requirements to efficiently operate open logistics networks. Therefore, a decentralized solution is proposed which builds on a four-layered Blockchain-based framework. The framework describes in detail the configuration of the Blockchain and its integration into the Physical Internet. The implementation of the framework into the Ethereum environment is validated by an application use case that guides researchers for further analysis and practitioners for adoption opportunities. Thus, this scientific work not only contributes to a deeper understanding of the promising Physical Internet concept but also extends the knowledge about applying Blockchain technology in logistics and supply chain management in general. The second research paper, “The bumpy road to the adoption of the Physical Internet – Overcoming barriers from a stakeholder perspective”, empirically grounds drivers and barriers of the Physical Internet through a case study with 14 relevant stakeholders. This approach is distinctive, as the field is so far dominated by conceptual and modeling research. The case study sample consists of logistics service providers, shippers, and includes companies working on Physical Internet products and software. This way, the study holistically embraces the majority of the concepts’ relevant stakeholders. Based on technology adoption theory, insights about stakeholder intentions, organizational and technological readiness as well as enablers and hindrances of the concept are pointed out. As such, the study answers the two research questions regarding how and why relevant stakeholders might adopt the Physical Internet. Due to the expected far-reaching consequences of the concept at the firm level, the study contributes to a better understanding of how innovative concepts and technologies induce organizational transformations. This empirical study is the first, which scientifically investigates stakeholder intentions in the adoption process of the Physical Internet. The third essay, “How organizations prepare for the future: A comparative study of firm size and industry”, analyses future preparedness as a joint construct consisting of a company’s exploitation and exploration capabilities. While previous publications focused their research on large companies and single industries, this essay explicitly differentiates future preparedness strategies between large organizations and small and medium-sized companies, as well as between 12 different industries. Data from a managerial survey with 602 companies of the German economy identify firm size and industry as predictors for future preparedness strategies and implicate that the scope of future preparedness augments with firm size. Next to the managerial implications, which should motivate practitioners to engage in corporate foresight activities and to take a forward view for being prepared for environmental uncertainty, the study extends theory on the upcoming future preparedness phenomenon. The fourth paper, “Technology foresight for sustainable road freight transportation”, examines technological measures to improve the triple bottom line sustainability of road freight transportation. The speed at which the adoption of relevant sustainability technologies in transportation is currently progressing is too slow in order to sufficiently reduce carbon emissions and increase social quality in logistics networks. Hence, this study offers deeper knowledge about the adoption process by examining barriers hindering a broader market penetration. Based on these barriers, expected timeframes are derived answering the question when mass adoption of 14 technologies is expected to occur. Combined with the technologies’ impacts on sustainability, recommendations are made, on which technologies relevant stakeholders might focus on in the future. The study builds on a global Delphi survey with 116 experts from 25 different countries and in particular outlines the crucial role of politics in developing necessary regulative frameworks to drive sustainability in road freight transportation. The fifth paper, “Decarbonizing road freight transportation – A bibliometric network analysis”, extends the findings from the fourth paper by analyzing in detail the literature on environmental sustainability measures in road freight transportation. The study is the first attempt that quantitatively synthesizes the extensive multidisciplinary area of green road freight transportation. In the study, bibliographic coupling and network analysis techniques are leveraged to identify emerging areas and trends of the research field. As such, the study outlines and visualizes key research clusters to understand the underlying knowledge structures regarding strategies, methods, theories, and concepts. As a result, a detailed research agenda and explicit recommendations for decision-makers are derived.