Article

Yielding to Temptation: Self‐Control Failure, Impulsive Purchasing, and Consumer Behavior

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Abstract

Self-control is a promising concept for consumer research, and self-control failure may be an important cause of impulsive purchasing. Three causes of self-control failure are described. First, conflicting goals and standards undermine control, such as when the goal of feeling better immediately conflicts with the goal of saving money. Second, failure to keep track of (monitor) one's own behavior renders control difficult. Third, self-control depends on a resource that operates like strength or energy, and depletion of this resource makes self-control less effective. Trait differences in self-control predict many behaviors. Implications for theory and research in consumer behavior are discussed.

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... For example, a customer's decision to continue waiting despite a long wait may signal one's own preferences (Koo and Fishbach, 2010). Longer waits may also impose higher demands on customers than shorter waits, hindering customers' attempts to exert self-control (Muraven and Baumeister, 2000;Baumeister, 2002;Vohs and Faber, 2007). In addition, longer waits may encourage customers to buy and consume more in order to repair negative feelings (Arnold and Reynolds, 2009) or to compensate for the perceived cost of waiting (Arkes and Blumer, 1985;Thaler, 1985;Ülkü et al., 2020). ...
... However, as mentioned at the start of this paper, other underlying mechanisms could also contribute to the effect of wait duration. One such mechanism is self-control depletion (Muraven and Baumeister, 2000;Baumeister, 2002;Baumeister et al., 2008;Vohs et al., 2008). Long waits impose higher demands on customers than short waits and therefore require more continued self-regulation, which can be expected to deplete customer resources to a greater extent. ...
... Long waits impose higher demands on customers than short waits and therefore require more continued self-regulation, which can be expected to deplete customer resources to a greater extent. Thus, after a long wait, customers' attempts to exert self-control are less likely to succeed (Muraven and Baumeister, 2000;Baumeister, 2002), and they may find it harder to resist the temptation to buy (Vohs and Faber, 2007). Customers' increased investment in longer waits may also encourage them to buy more in order to compensate for the perceived (sunk) cost of their waiting (Arkes and Blumer, 1985;Thaler, 1985;Ülkü et al., 2020;Kazinka et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Waiting is a mundane yet inevitable customer experience. Surprisingly, little research has analyzed the effects of waiting on subsequent customer behavior. The current research explores a counterintuitive effect of waiting times on behavior during a shopping trip: Longer waits, compared with shorter waits, can lead to a larger number of purchases despite generating more negative emotional reactions. Results of a field study and three lab experiments demonstrate this effect in the context of waiting for hedonic products. Consistent with a social-inference account, the experiments further show that the effect of waiting duration occurs when wait times are thought to depend on others’ preferences. This article explores the multifaceted effects of waiting duration on purchase behavior of hedonic products and sheds light on the social cognitions that underlie these effects.
... This research attempts to answer this question by considering theories of self-control and time of day (Baumeister, 2002;Kouchaki & Smith, 2014). People exercise self-control to regulate impulses and desires (Baumeister, 2002). ...
... This research attempts to answer this question by considering theories of self-control and time of day (Baumeister, 2002;Kouchaki & Smith, 2014). People exercise self-control to regulate impulses and desires (Baumeister, 2002). As a limited regulatory resource, self-control is exercised during the day. ...
... Self-control refers to an individual's capacity to alter his or her responses to support the pursuit of living standards or long-term goals (Baumeister, 2002;Baumeister et al., 2007). People exert self-control resources to regulate their thoughts or behaviors according to longterm values and goals (Duckworth et al., 2019). ...
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There is a growing need in the marketing field to understand how consumers can be persuaded to consume healthier products. This research makes novel predictions about the time-of-day effects on (un)healthy product purchases based on self-control theory. We investigated whether and how time of day (morning vs. evening) influences consumers’ (un)healthy product purchases. A field study based on point-of-sales data indicated that consumers tend to buy more unhealthy products in the evening. Two laboratory experiments confirmed that this is due to a decrease in self-control in the evening, which leads consumers to purchase more unhealthy products at this time. A follow-up eye-tracking experiment further revealed potential mechanisms whereby lower self-control causes consumers to focus more on unhealthy products and weakens the effect of attention to healthy products on purchases. The findings provide valuable insights into consumer behavior and marketing decisions for marketing academics, retailers and consumer marketing companies.
... In this context, it is argued that the individual's ability to control himself lies on the basis of impulsive buying behavior. 47 Weun et al 48 state that emotional consumers make more impulsive buying, while cognitive decisionmakers make fewer impulsive purchases. There are studies in the literature that determine that impulsive buying behavior is affected by factors such as people's moods and personalities. ...
... According to Baumeister,47 impulsive buying behavior stems from a lack of self-control. It was deemed that the individual's self-control behavior is related to prefrontal cortex functions. ...
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ABSTRACT Objective: Planning, set-shifting, and inhibition are processes that come into play in people’s decision�making behavior in their daily lives and are components of executive functions. Methods: We investigated whether individual differences in these cognitive abilities could explain impul�sive buying using a comprehensive and verified battery of objective performance measures of executive functions. This research also looks into the role of gender in moderation. The following tests were adminis�tered respectively: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test to measure participants’ set-shifting and problem-solving skills, Stroop Test TBAG Form to measure inhibition, Tower of London Test to measure planning and inhibi�tion. Besides, Impulse Buying Scale was implemented to measure the impulsive buying. The dataset was analyzed through the structural equation model with bootstrap technique by using AMOS 23.0 program. Results: According to results of SEM, planning (β = .37; P = .00, 95% CI [.074, .655]) was significant in directly to predict impulsive buying tendency; however, importance of set- shifting and inhibition were not signifi�cant. According to analysis results, the model was indicated goodness of fit [X2 (22, n = 67) = 24.477, P = .32; x2/df = 1.11; RMSEA = .04; GFI = .92; AGFI = .84; CFI = .99; NFI = .91]. Conclusion: This study is one of few studies examining the relationship between executive functions and impulsive buying, which partially overlaps with the relevant findings in the literature and provides them with new perspectives. In the light of the results obtained, the impulsive buying appearing suddenly with�out planning in the shopping environment is higher in individuals who have low problem-solving skills, fail in spending planning, and cannot resist the distractors caused by the environment.
... Cognitive abilities 3 i.e. financial literacy mold FB and also alters the FW (Xiao and Porto 2017). Non cognitive abilities 4 i.e. self control enable an individual to mold one's own habits and deal with first impulses (Baumeister, 2002;Fujita et al., 2006;and Stromback et al., 2017). More importantly, the brought-up system and surrounding culture of the society also affect the FB (Dawson 1991). ...
... Self-control is individual's ability to mold habits and control desires (Baumeister, 2002). Those who are more able to overcome first impulses are likely to have higher ability to handle problems (Mischel et al., 1989) while others having low self control ability are likely to confront bad decisions in life (Moffitt et al., 2011). ...
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The study proceeded with the objective to construct principal components for Financial Behavior (FB) and Financial Well Being (FW). Also, the study wants to find out the determinants of FB and FW in District Kohat. A survey comprises of different measures of FB, subjective FW, cognitive, non-cognitive, external determinants and demographic variables, was circulated among 306 individuals in District Kohat. Creating Principal Component for the determinants, OLS method was applied to estimate the stated relationships. Furthermore, GMM was applied to get the robust results. All the three types of determinants were monotonically associated with FB and boost it up. Financial literate and optimistic individuals feel less anxious and have better future security, while culturalism promotes financial stress in current financing. Also, the GMM results are in coherence to OLS estimates with little variations.
... For everyday behavior patterns to change to the desirable form, people must control themselves to overcome temptation and impulse [16]. Continued exposure to tempting situations depletes an individual's self-control and makes it difficult to continue ideal goal behavior [17]. Thus, the total amount of personal self-control resources is a major psychological factor required for lifestyle changes along with autonomy. ...
... These results support those of Jang [38], who found that one can better overcome obstacles to change one's behavior in the presence of the initial autonomy. Meanwhile, self-control is an individual's energy resource that is used in all aspects of daily life; when attempting to change to a particular behavioral pattern, self-control repeatedly undergoes consumption, depletion, and recovery when one faces a situation that requires control [17]. Therefore, it can be predicted that when a health behavior goal is set, the changes in lifestyle would be larger in students with greater self-control. ...
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This study aimed to verify the influence of autonomy and self-control as psychological factors on the changes in lifestyles of inactive college students by participating in regular exercise. A total of 188 university students in Seoul, Korea, taking physical fitness classes for 5 weeks held three times a week participated in the surveys. Surveys were conducted in the first session (T1) and 15th session (T2) of the classes. Autonomy in exercise participation and self-control were measured at T1, and healthy lifestyle was measured at both T1 and T2. A paired t-test was used to measure the changes in healthy lifestyle between two time points, and hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of autonomy in exercise participation and self-control measured at T1 on the healthy lifestyle score at T2. According to the analysis, participants’ healthy lifestyles were improved with a statistically significant difference between pre- and post-exercise. Furthermore, the levels of autonomy and self-control before the fitness classes positively influenced the participants’ healthy lifestyle after the classes even when the influence of healthy lifestyle measured before the classes was controlled. Thus, it was confirmed that autonomy for participation and self-control are important to change one’s healthy lifestyle through regular exercise participation.
... Self-control is another consumer-related factor affecting impulse buying. A common cause of impulsive purchasing is a consumer's inability to resist buying temptation or exercise self-control (Baumeister, 2002). Self-control allows individuals to resist impulses and focus on long-term goals (De Ridder & Gillebaart, 2017). ...
... The presence of other people in the shopping environment further influences an individual's impulse buying behaviour. The presence of family members, 1962); Pollay (1968);Willett and Kollat (1968);Kollat and Willett (1969);Dantoni and Shenson (1973);Baumeister (2002); Punj (2011); Verplanken and Sato(2011); Rodrigues et al. (2021) Note: Eight papers have been listed twice in the table as they used multiple studies and different quantitative methods (i.e., both survey and experiment). et al. (2018); Setyani et al. (2019); Zheng et al. (2019); Hashmi et al. (2020); Vazquez et al. (2020); Xu et al. (2020); Zafar et al. (2020); Zhang et al. (2020); Zhu et al. (2020); Djafarova and Bowes (2021); Kimiagari and Malafe (2021); Zafar, Qiu, Shahzad, et al. (2021); Ampadu et al. ...
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This paper performs a comprehensive analysis of academic research on impulse buying following a systematic literature review approach. Drawing on the TCCM framework suggested by Paul and Rosado‐Serrano (2019), we synthesise the impulse buying literature and develop a future research agenda. Accordingly, this review synthesises impulse buying research in terms of theory development, context, characteristics, and methodologies to examine the development of the literature over time. This systematic review shows that impulse buying research is fragmented and still developing due to its transition from a traditional retail environment into different online channels. Furthermore, this paper proposes a conceptual framework based on the literature synthesis, presenting antecedents and mediators of impulse buying behaviour. Finally, this review identifies overlooked areas in impulse buying literature and provides insightful directions to advance research in the domain. Overall, this research effort makes a significant contribution to consumer behaviour literature, specifically to impulse buying literature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... An individual's self-control aims to restrain, override, or alter undesired physiological responses generated from daily habits, learning, or other situations (Tangney et al., 2004). In shopping behavior theory, self-control is essential in resisting uncontrolled buying (Baumeister, 2002;Belei et al., 2012;Dhar & Simonson, 1999;Zemack-Rugar et al., 2012). Many studies have revealed that high self-control could drive consumers' consumption resistance (Haws et al., 2012). ...
... Many studies have revealed that high self-control could drive consumers' consumption resistance (Haws et al., 2012). Some argued that self-control acted more like an antecedent than an indicator of a consumer's resistance to consumption (Baumeister, 2002;Bearden et al., 2006). In contrast, low self-control could mean less resistance to short-term impulsive consumption. ...
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Considering Chinese consumers' long-term orientation (LTO) cultural core values, this work puts forward a model to understand Chinese consumers' impulsive shopping behavior. It conducts an online survey using a convenient national sample by exploring the regulatory effects of hedonic shopping value (HSV), utilitarian shopping value (USV), long-term orientation and self-control on impulsive shopping behavior. The questionnaire survey was distributed online to consumers. The researchers collected a sample of 237 participants between 25 and 44 years old. Cronbach's alphas of LTO, HSV, and USV are 0.89, 0.86, and 0.89, showing high reliability. Using a structural equation model, the data analysis tested the path coefficients between variables. Theoretically, this work provides an alternative model to explain the effects of HSV, USV, and self-control on impulsive online shopping behavior. In addition, the results show a nested model indicating the relationship between HSV and USV. Finally, according to the research prospect, the conclusion is drawn that the regulatory role of HSV is a predictor of Chinese LTO consumers' impulsive behavior.
... Social media intensity can lead to decreased self-control in individuals. Three potential sources of this failure include (1) emotional distress caused by goal conflict; (2) lack of self-awareness due to inability to monitor oneself; and (3) exhaustion of self-control ability due to the exertion of previous self-control (Baumeister, 2002). First, social media provides a deluge of information that can create conflicting standards about expected behavior. ...
... Declining self-awareness often leads consumers to have less control over themselves. Finally, selfcontrol is similar to energy, which can be temporarily depleted and restored (Baumeister, 2002). Therefore, excessive participation in social media consumes self-control. ...
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With the rise of live streaming commerce, the relationship between consumers and content creators on the short-video platforms has become closer, forming a peculiar culture and language in each consumer community, which promotes the short-video platforms to become a natural breeding ground for forming consumer communities. While such communities give birth to its own language and culture from the interaction between content creators and consumers, this kind of co-creation can not only enhance the consumers’ trust to improve commodity premium space, but also strengthen the ties within the community and spread the information outside the communities, and consequently, expand community scale. Based on the view of the value co-creation from the language and culture among content creators and consumers in the communities, this study starts from the point of product type, employs consumers’ Willingness to pay premium (WoPP) as a proxy variable of brand advocacy in the co-creation of cultural and language values in consumer communities, and conducts three single-factor experiments between two groups. By analyzing the experimental results, this study identified the influence under the potential relationship mechanism, social comparison, and found another variable that can moderate the relationship, consumer trust, portrays the relationship between the product types of the live streaming commerce and the consumers’ WoPP, and explores the mediating effect of social comparison and the moderate effect of consumer trust effect. This paper also analyzes and discusses the WoPP caused by the co-creation of cultural and language values co-created by creators and consumer communities.
... They have established habits to which they adhere strictly and feel comfortable in the routine of their daily lives. They exhibit extreme caution in terms of the new and are not willing to take risks and act impulsively (Baumeister, 2002;Baumeister et al. 1998). Past time orientation is also associated with a low level of demand for stimulation and arousal, which correlates negatively with innovativeness and is observed in less innovative consumers (Raju, 1980). ...
... In other words, they are able to make short-term sacrifices for long-term profits (Murrell, Mingrone, 1994;Strathman et al., 1994). The established on an empirical level for this category of consumers low level of a need for stimulation and arousal (Raju, 1980), high self-control (Baumeister, 2002) and low risk tolerance (Lennings, Burns, 1998;. Zimbardo, Keough, Boyd, 1997) reduce the probability that they act impulsively. ...
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This paper presents an empirical study and analysis of corporate entrepreneurship within Serbia public sector. Many authors have pointed that corporate entrepreneurship can be interpreted and measured in many different ways. The research instrument named Corporate Entrepreneurship Assessment Instrument (CEAI), developed in the USA, is used to assess organizational potential for a corporate entrepreneurship. Regarding different characteristics of national cultures, the main aim of this study was to investigate the construct validity of CEAI in case of Serbia. The objective of the study was the attitudes regarding innovation from managers from four public organizations. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS Statistics 19.0. The research findings revealed possible practical implementation of CEAI in Serbian organizations. From a theoretical perspective, the study represents an important step in understanding the internal factors of entrepreneurship in Serbian organizations. The results of research contribute to the literature on corporate entrepreneurship by documenting the existence of an underlying set five stable organizational factors that should be recognized. The study limitations are also suggested.
... Individuals are considered well self-controlled if they control their spending behavior and if they have a good credit history. High self-control levels are linked to spending less and saving more [39], while low self-control levels lead to impulsive spending [40]. Thus, self-control is linked to financial behavior. ...
... Financial behavior and performance during a crisis depend on the individual's financial literacy and self-control. It is also worth noting that financial well-being is better among individuals who have a higher level of financial education and knowledge [5,6,31,32,43] and among those who exercise self-control over their financial decisions [4,39]. ...
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This study investigated the effects of financial literacy, financial self-control, and demographic determinants on individual financial performance and behavior during the Lebanese crisis period between 2019 and 2021. To the best of our knowledge, this may be the first study that compares the determinants of financial behavior for different generations, genders, marital statuses, and education and income levels. To do so, we conducted a comprehensive survey of 328 individuals and performed a logistic regression analysis. The empirical results show that an individual’s financial performance and behavior are positively affected by financial literacy, financial self-control, and demographic factors, in particular education and income levels. In addition, when we focused on the demographic factors, the results reveal that having good financial literacy increases the likelihood of an individual’s financial performance and behavior, in particular for Generations X and Z, males and females, single and married people, low- and high-educated people, and low- and high-income individuals. However, having good financial self-control only increases the likelihood of an individual’s financial performance and behavior at highly educated levels. The results are robust and come from various performed methodologies, and the results have important policy implications. The policies should be focused on enhancing an individual’s financial behavior and helping young adults acquire skills in self-control. Policies could also motivate local financial institutions to offer a variety of financial products and investment opportunities, targeting low-income and low-educated individuals, by providing subsidized funds with parallel mandatory financial studies.
... When people deplete self-regulatory resources, they will experience self-control capacity impairment, a state of not being able to regulate or control their behaviours, attention, emotions, mental states, or impulses (Muraven & Baumeister, 2000;Zhang et al., 2022). According to self-regulation theories, when individuals experience self-control capacity impairment, they are less likely to resist temptations and more likely to engage in impulsive and deviant behaviours that may bring short-term pleasure but long-term costs (Baumeister, 2002;Zhang et al., 2022). ...
... Self-regulation theories suggest that individuals with impaired self-control capacity are less likely to resist temptations and desire and are thus more likely to engage in impulsive and deviant behaviours that bring short-term pleasure but long-term costs (Baumeister, 2002;Zhang et al., 2022). With increased impairment in self-control capacity, employees have fewer regulatory resources with which to control themselves and execute self-discipline. ...
Article
Although past research has found that professional isolation can affect discernible work‐related outcomes (e.g., job performance, turnover) and important job attitudes, researchers have not examined its impact on those less discernible but still costly work behaviors. Drawing on self‐regulation theories, this study examined the effect of professional isolation on employees’ cyberloafing and time theft through self‐control capacity impairment. With longitudinal data collected from 343 U.S. employees across five consecutive weeks at the early stage of the pandemic (i.e., from mid‐March to late April 2020), our results of latent change score modeling analyses found that professional isolation change was positively related with changes in cyberloafing and time theft via change in self‐control capacity impairment. The results increase our understanding of the hidden performance cost of professional isolation. This research also shifts the research focus from a static, between‐person perspective to dynamic, within‐person changes in professional isolation and related outcomes. The findings shed light on the self‐regulation perspective in understanding the harmful consequences of professional isolation. Implications for future research are discussed along with practical implications for organizations.
... Innovative communicators are highly social and are known to be trendsetters as they are instrumental in diffusing product-related information and opinions to other potential consumers (Hazeldine & Miles, 2010). The adoption of new trends in fashion will increase the shopping of new products, as the high arousal of buying results in decreasing the consumer's self-regulation (Baumeister, 2002) and also significantly decreases the thinking ability of person (Tice et al., 2001) it leads the consumer to buy impulsively. Therefore, the impulsive buying of innovative communicators will depend on their environment and social groups they belong to. ...
... Further, investors usually become more sorrowful about keeping and losing stocks for a long period or selling the profitable ones too soon (Forgel and Berry, 2010). Self-control revealed investors' ability to avoid bad habits, resist enticement and overcome first motives (Baumeister, 2002;Fujita et al., 2006). The self-control theory states that investors' financial decisions are determined by their self-control ability. ...
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The behaviour of individual equity investors during pandemics needs to be probed for better decision making. This study investigates the herd mentality amongst equity investors in Saudi Arabia in the context of COVID-19 (March 2020 to June 2021). The study is based on 326 responses and uses regression analysis as the anchor analytical technique. Additionally, the interaction of herding behaviour is probed in relation to overconfidence, emotions and independent decision making through a moderation analysis. The study found a negative moderating influence of age, gender and level of education on the herding behaviour of individual equity investors.
... On the other hand, to control temptations, consumers must arduously construct counterarguments regarding such abstract concepts as the affordability and practicality of the item and the future impact of purchasing it (Malter 1996) and the necessity of the purchase (Shehryar et al. 2001). Other strategies typically include temptation avoidance (Hofmann et al. 2010), powerful distractors (Florsheim et al. 2008), and effortful inhibition of temptation, such as suppressing thoughts or forcing oneself to concentrate (Baumeister 2002), lowering the priority of a specific product on the shopping list, berating the available choice or enhancing the value of a present possession, and postponing the purchase based on more information searching and feedback from others or future deal, product choice, and technology (Shehryar et al. 2001). ...
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Mindfulness practice and mindful consumption have increasingly attracted the interests of academics and the general public worldwide. Despite the fact that mindfulness meditation has its roots in Buddhism, little empirical research has studied mindfulness and mindful consumption from the Buddhist principles and from the perspective of active Buddhists who regularly dedicate themselves to Buddhist practice with the goal of achieving liberation from suffering. This study builds on and extends previous research that established a research agenda regarding how mindfulness could transform consumer behavior and lead to higher levels of well-being. The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of the ways in which active Buddhist consumers living in the city have disengaged from the consumerist culture and altered their lifestyle and consumption behaviors. To grasp the subtle complexity of the experience, fifteen active Buddhist practitioners were interviewed in depth. As a result of this, a Buddhist-based behavioral change model with seven stages is developed. Drawing on behavioral change models, such as the transtheoretical model (TTM) and the stepwise model of behavior change (SMBC), this model aims to demonstrate how active Buddhist consumers have transformed their consumption behavior patterns and overcome temptation without resistance. The transformative mechanism and consumer strategies were also extracted to provide lessons learned and management implications
... Participants were then asked to measure their self-threat. Similar to Study 2, items of self-threat adapted from Baumeister (2002) and Campbell et al. (2003). ...
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Social exclusion can cause negative changes on human beings both in the physiological and psychological aspects. Although considerable efforts have been devoted to study its effects on consumption behavior, little attention has been paid to the consequence that social exclusion might have on consumer’s color preference and the underlying mechanisms. Such social events can change individual’s behavior. This work examines the influence of social exclusion on consumers’ color preference as well as the moderation and mediation effects via three experiments: Experiment 1 studies the impacts of social exclusion on consumer color choice (warm color versus cold color). To further validate the robustness of the results, experiment 2 is designed by replicating the findings of experiment 1 in another product category and instructed the participants to choose products with different colors. Meanwhile, the mediation effect of self-threat is examined. In Experiment 3, the moderation effect of self-construal is investigated via a 2 (exclusion vs. inclusion) × 2 (independent vs. interdependent) × (warm color vs. cold color) between-subjects design. Our results indicate that social exclusion makes people prefer warm colors rather than cold colors. However, these effects would be mediated by self-threat, which could be further moderated by self-construal. The present study establishes the relationship between social exclusion and consumers’ color preference, which is expected to provide guidance for companies to improve product design and promotion strategies to adapt to various contexts.
... On the other hand, to control temptations, consumers must arduously construct counterarguments regarding such abstract concepts as the affordability and practicality of the item and the future impact of purchasing it (Malter 1996) and the necessity of the purchase (Shehryar, Landry, and Arnold 2001). Other strategies typically include temptation avoidance (Hofmann et al. 2010), powerful distractors (Florsheim et al. 2008, and effortful inhibition of temptation, such as suppressing thoughts or forcing oneself to concentrate (Baumeister 2002), lowering the priority of a specific product on the shopping list, berating the available choice or enhancing the value of a present possession, and postponing the purchase based on more information searching and feedback from others or future deal, product choice, and technology (Shehryar, Landry, and Arnold 2001). ...
Preprint
Mindfulness practice and mindful consumption have increasingly attracted the interests of academics and the general public worldwide. Despite the fact that mindfulness meditation has its roots in Buddhism, little empirical research has studied mindfulness and mindful consumption from the Buddhist principles and from the perspective of active Buddhists who regularly dedicate themselves to Buddhist practice with the goal of achieving liberation from suffering. This study builds on and extends previous research that established a research agenda regarding how mind-fulness could transform consumer behavior and lead to higher levels of well-being. The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of the ways in which active Buddhist consumers living in the city have disengaged from the consumerist culture and altered their lifestyle and consumption behaviors. To grasp the subtle complexity of the experience, fifteen active Buddhist practitioners were interviewed in depth. As a result of this, a Buddhist-based behavioral change model with seven stages is developed. Drawing on behavioral change models, such as the transtheoretical model (TTM) and the stepwise model of behavior change (SMBC), this model aims to demonstrate how active Buddhist consumers have transformed their consumption behavior patterns and overcome temptation without resistance. The transformative mechanism and consumer strategies were also extracted to provide lessons learned and management implications.
... This study identified self-control on spending as one of the determinants of savings. As disclosed by Baumeister (2002) self-control is dependent on three things: standards, monitoring process and operational capacity to change one's behavior, which indicated that main ingredient of self-control is the ability to resist the temptation on their impulsive buying tendencies. Aligned with the findings of Zulfaris, et.al (2020) that self-control has negative relationship with money management they the students have lack of control on handling their funds. ...
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Young people are in a crucial situation nowadays since it is very easy for them to purchase everything, especially online selling is now common and rampant; with just a click of the mouse they can buy everything online, so they are prone to over-spending. It is important for college students to have financial knowledge and be conscious of saving money for their future use; if they lack knowledge, who can influence them? This study identified the family and friends as influential factors in the savings behavior of college students. Future concerns, gender, age, and Allowance have an influence on the attitude of the respondents towards savings. In our study, financial knowledge did not affect their savings behavior. This is because certain variables like knowledge of interest and their knowledge of investment avenues were not considered in this study. Thus, this study recommends adding other variables like knowledge of interest, and investment avenues to further investigate the impact of financial knowledge on savings behavior.
... Impulse buying is a consumer's tendency to buy a product spontaneously and immediately (Rook and Fisher, 1995). Meanwhile, according to Baumeister (2002) impulsive buying is a sudden urge to buy a product, this purchase is not planned or there is no initial intention to buy, where consumers will buy products on the basis of encouragement without considering the long-term consequences of the purchase. Impulsive buying behavior occurs suddenly and the individual cannot resist the desire to buy an item even though the item is not a need or purpose. ...
Conference Paper
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There is a vast number of past studies revealed among the factors that affect the achievement of students in mathematics subject are classroom climate, students’ knowledge of cognition and regulation cognition. Therefore, this study aims to determine the mediation effect of knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition on relationship between classroom climate (student cohesiveness, teacher support, involvement, investigation, task orientation, cooperation and equity) and students’ mathematics achievement. This study employed survey method involving a total of 326 form four students from five rural secondary schools via multi-stage cluster sampling. Data were collected using two questionnaires: 1) What is Happening in This Class? (WIHIC) and 2) Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) as well as mathematics form four achievement test. The data was analysed by using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) through Smart PLS version 3.2.8 software. Mediation analysis indicated that knowledge of cognition mediates the relationships between classroom climate (investigation, task orientation and equity) and students’ mathematics achievement, while regulation cognition mediates the relationships between classroom climate (student cohesiveness, investigation and equity) and students’ mathematics achievement. The findings of this study provide valuable insights to the teachers about what they need to prioritise in regard to create a positive classroom climate to develop students’ knowledge of cognition and regulation cognition as well as to improve students’ mathematics achievement. This study contributes significantly to the body of knowledge by developing and empirically testing the relationship connecting to classroom climate with knowledge of cognition, regulation cognition and students’ mathematics achievement within the rural school context in Malaysia
... The economic relevance of impulsive purchases is well documented in the retail sector (Verplanken and Sato, 2011), and Internet shoppers exhibit a higher level of impulsiveness than non-Internet shoppers (Greenfeld and Sutker, 1999;Brashear et al., 2009). Owing to the rapid advancement of technology-which allows for virtually instant gratification through immediate access to goods and services-impulsive consumption on the Internet has become pervasive (Baumeister, 2002;Vohs and Faber, 2007), occurring in about 40% of all online expenditures (Verhagen and Dolen, 2011). In academia, impulsive buying is defined as an unexpected purchase activity influenced by stimuli in the shopping environment, with three typical features: unplanned, illogical, and immediate (Rook, 1987;Lim et al., 2016). ...
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We built a livestreaming impulsive buying model based on stimulus-organism-response (SOR) theory, and we explored the impact of atmospheric cues (ACELS) and sales promotion (SPELS) on impulsive buying (IBI) based on emotions (EOC) and Zhong Yong tendency (ZYT) of online consumers. Combined with holistic orientation, perspective integration, and harmony maintenance, ZYT is a cognitive process involving individual events. We gathered 478 samples using a questionnaire to test the proposed research model. The empirical findings show that as the stimuli in the livestreaming environment, ACELS and SPELS during livestreaming greatly boost EOC while significantly constraining consumers’ ZYT. Among online consumers, positive EOC promotes IBI, whereas ZYT dampens it. In addition, EOC and ZYT mediate the relationship between stimulus factors and response factors in parallel, resulting in four model mediation paths. By incorporating the SOR model, this study provides theoretical underpinnings for the role of cognitive processing in impulsive purchases, as well as useful guidance for e-commerce platforms and streamers to effectively understand Chinese consumers’ purchase behavior, which benefits the development of effective promotion strategies and the creation of powerful marketing tools.
... For instance, Hogan et al. (2014) view binge drinking as a means to destress after a difficult week of work or study. The experience of stress implies regulatory processes and thus requires cognitive resources (Hayes et al., 1999), and people who cope with stress and try to regulate their negative affect may lack the needed resources to resist temptations that require self-control (Baumeister, 2002). Consequently, a willingness to escape through indulgence may arise as a response to stress. ...
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Prior research has established a link between lacking control over one's life, the resulting stress, and the maladaptive outcome of eating disorders. However, such research has left unexamined the exact link among perceptions of control, stress, and unhealthy food choices. This study aims to fill this gap by identifying the exact sequence linking these variables and explaining why stress induced by low control leads to engagement in vice food consumption. Based on self‐licensing theory, we predict that a perceived lack of control indirectly prompts people to engage in vice food and beverage consumption, because a lack of control leads to higher personal stress and, consequently, a need to escape through self‐indulgence. Across one survey‐based study in France and two experiments (in the United States and the United Kingdom), we find consistent support for our hypothesis. The results support the prediction that a perceived lack of control increases the consumption of unhealthy foods and beverages. Specifically, when consumers feel a lack of control over their life, they experience stress, seek an escape from this stress, and end up self‐indulging through the consumption of vice food and beverages. For public policy‐makers and brand managers, the results suggest that having people perceive more control over their life is of particular importance to staying healthy.
... General IBT has been established by previous research as a critical moderator in the relationships between organisms' reactions and IBU (Zafar et al., 2021), as well as between IBU and IBB. Individuals with general high IBT tend to carry other traits, such as weak cognitive planning, low conscientiousness, high action-orientation, and/or weak affective autonomy; thus, such individuals may have a higher tendency to develop stronger urges to act impulsively in purchase situations (Baumeister, 2002;Goel et al., 2022). Based on the theoretical arguments and empirical evidence, IBT is, therefore, included in the research framework as a moderator with the hypotheses formulated as follows. ...
Article
The power of livestreaming commerce to rake in billions of revenues within hours has thrust this nascent commercial model into the global spotlight; that said, despite the prevalence of impulsive buying in livestreaming commerce, the existing knowledge regarding the phenomenon remains relatively scarce. This research seeks to unravel the critical determinants that influence consumers’ impulsive buying in livestreaming. Grounded in the Stimulus-Organism-Response paradigm, a framework is proposed to elucidate the underlying mechanism on how parasocial interaction, social contagion, vicarious experience, scarcity persuasion, and price perception translate into impulsive buying urge and behaviour in livestreaming commerce via the cognitive-affective processing system. A self-administered online questionnaire survey was conducted with 295 respondents. The data collected was validated empirically through a multi-analytical hybrid structural equation modelling-artificial neural network (SEM-ANN) technique. The results reveal that parasocial interaction, vicarious experience, scarcity persuasion, and price perception can drive cognitive and affective reactions, which in turn, induce impulsive buying urge, subject to the boundary condition of impulsive buying tendency. In sum, the findings have drawn some insightful theoretical and practical implications that can facilitate the advancement of livestreaming commerce in the modern business arena.
... High student self-control is also characterized by the attitude taken in determining goals, being consistent in every action that will be desired and holding back if there are obstacles to goals. So, if a student has been able to control himself to be wise in managing finances, it is not difficult for him to make savings or save by reducing consumption activities that must be in accordance with needs (Nyhus & Webley, 2001), (Baumeister, 2002), (Shim et al., 2010), (Lim, Sia, & Gan, 2011), (Biljanovska & Palligkinis, 2016). Financialrelated knowledge is significantly related to behavioural control and plays an important role in predicting indicators of financial behaviour (Shim et al., 2010). ...
Article
Saving behaviour is highly dependent on the surrounding environment. The current behaviour of saving at this time will carry over to their lives in the future. In the era of globalization and technological developments in finance or what is often referred to as financial technology (fintech), it is very difficult for someone to distinguish between needs and wants. This study aims to analyse the factors that influence students' saving behaviour in terms of financial literacy, parental financial education, and self-control. The research method used a quantitative design with an ex post facto approach through path analysis techniques. The research data collection technique used a questionnaire. The population and research sample were students of Vocational High Schools in West Java. Determination of the number of samples using the purposive sampling method. The results showed that financial literacy significantly affected self-control (Sig. ≤ 0.05), financial education from parents significantly affected self-control (Sig. ≤ 0.05), financial literacy significantly affected saving behaviour (Sig. ≤ 0.05), financial education from parents significantly influences saving behaviour (Sig. ≤ 0.05), and self-control significantly influences saving behaviour (Sig. ≤ 0.05). This shows that to form student saving behaviour, financial literacy, self-control, and financial education from parents are needed.
... It is used to regulate one's behaviors to behave in line with higher order goals by overriding, changing, or restraining urges, cravings, desires, impulses, or habitual responses. Self-regulatory challenges occur when people are confronted with short-term temptations that conflict with their long-term goals (Baumeister, 2002;Baumeister, Vohs, & Tice, 2007;de Ridder, Lensvelt-Mulders, Finkenauer, Stok, & Baumeister, 2012;Inzlicht, Werner, Briskin, & Roberts, 2021;Metcalfe & Mischel, 1999;Muraven & Baumeister, 2000). ...
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High-speed internet connections and online streaming services gave rise to the possibility to binge-watch multiple television shows in one sitting. Binge-watching can be characterized as a problematic behavior but also as an enjoyable way to engage with television shows. This study investigates whether self-control explains the valence of binge-watching experiences as measured using the event reconstruction method. The study tests whether lower levels of trait self-control predict higher levels of negative affect and lower levels of positive affect during binge-watching. Additionally, the study tests whether these relationships are mediated by situational aspects of self-control (plans, goal interference, or automaticity). Regression analyses show that participants with higher trait self-control report lower levels of tiredness, boredom, guilt, and sadness when binge-watching compared to less self-controlled participants. These associations are partly explained by binge-watching interfering less with higher order goals for highly self-controlled participants. Lower levels of trait self-control are also associated with a stronger increase in happiness on initiating binge-watching and increased feelings of guilt after binge-watching. Overall, the study suggests that binge-watching is particularly pleasant when it does not interfere with other goals, which is more likely the case for individuals with high trait self-control.
... However, sometimes there are many factors that influence it. The results of this study support the opinions and research results of Baumeister, (2002); Fitriana & Koenjoro, (2009); Dwiputra (2020) which states that self-control has a positive effect on impulsive purchases. This urge is usually in the form of an inability to control yourself when you see a product you like, you are not able to judge logically when you see a product you like, or there is an opportunity for freedom to determine the choice of product to buy. ...
Article
The current era of digitalization makes people shop without using cash, this can then be related to the convenience factor that can encourage consumers to behave impulsively when shopping or without planning. At the same time consumers are also faced with a situation of ability to self control, for example when they see a new product discount and so on. Such a buying process without planning or suddenly without thinking about the benefits and functions of the item or often called impulsive buying. Another factor that can encourage is the ease of transaction. The sample was taken on students, the analysis tool used multiple linear regression analysis. The results of this study show that self-control and ease of transaction affect the tendency to buy impulsively. Therefore it is important that in the future research is carried out on all factors that stimulate impulsive tendencies both externally and internally to consumers.
... The considerable overlap found in the variance accounted for by ES and CR (i.e., about 10%) supports that the two ER strategies likely share some of the same mechanisms in their impact on EF. Specifically, it has previously been suggested that the deleterious impact of ES on EF is due to the depletion of cognitive and physiological resources that are needed for the performance of executively demanding tasks (Baumeister, 2002;Baumeister & Allquist, 2009;Baumeister et al., 1998;Gailliot et al., 2007;Schmeichel, 2007). For example, research has demonstrated that both engagement in ES, and performance of executively demanding cognitive control tasks, result in depletion of blood glucose (Gailliot et al., 2007), which can be experienced as subjective fatigue and decline in motivation (Hagger et al., 2010). ...
Article
Objective: Cognitive reappraisal (CR) and expressive suppression (ES) are two common emotion regulation strategies that share similar cognitive and neural underpinnings. Prior research has consistently shown that recent engagement in ES (both self-reported and experimentally manipulated) is associated with subsequent temporary decrements in executive functioning (EF). Thus far, only one study has examined the association between CR and EF, with null results. However, that study was limited by examining only zero-order correlations and by assessing only the speed, not accuracy, of EF performance. The present study examined multivariate relationships among recent CR, recent ES, and EF (both speed and accuracy), as well as the potential impacts of more chronic engagements in, and trait-level preferences between, the two emotion regulation strategies. Method: Participants were 201 community-dwelling older adults aged 60 to 93 who had participated in three separate studies examining the relationship between self-reported emotion regulation and EF. Results: Recent CR was associated with EF performance accuracy above and beyond chronic CR. Both recent CR and ES contributed to EF performance accuracy uniquely beyond each other and beyond chronic and preferred emotion regulation. Conclusions: Both recent ES and CR appear to have a deleterious impact on EF performance accuracy, potentially due to utilization of similar resources; both should be accounted for when assessing emotion regulation and its impacts on EF.
... El autocontrol se define como la capacidad para inhibir impulsos, deseos, comportamientos y retrasar la recompensa para el logro de objetivos (Baumeister, 2002). Debido a que el autocontrol ha sido premiado socialmente, no se ha prestado especial atención a los problemas y dificultades que puede acarrear un exceso del mismo. ...
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La Terapia Dialéctico Conductual Radicalmente Abierta (RO-DBT) es un tratamiento transdiagnóstico dirigido a pacientes con problemas de sobre-control. Estas personas se caracterizan por presentar inhibición emocional, control de impulsos, necesidad compulsiva de estructura, rigidez cognitiva y conducta gobernada por reglas. Esta terapia centra su trabajo en patologías crónicas y resistentes a tratamiento, como depresión, anorexia nerviosa y trastornos de personalidad del cluster A y C. Para promover el bienestar psicológico, desarrolla la apertura radical y el entrenamiento en déficit en señalización social. El presente trabajo es una revisión bibliográfica sobre la literatura científica de la RO-DBT. Se ofrece una explicación sobre sus fundamentos, objetivos y metodología, con el fin de vislumbrar las novedades que la RO-DBT aporta. Se recogen también diversos estudios sobre la aplicación del tratamiento y los resultados obtenidos.
... Food waste has been linked to buying habits in the past, according to previous studies. Customers are encouraged to purchase a lot of food because they are exposed to marketing methods that encourage them to buy impulsively, according to (Baumeister, 2002). As a consequence of professionally prepared food, people will be motivated to store food or purchase in bulk. ...
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Over the course of the food supply chain, approximately one-quarter of the food produced for human consumption is thrown away. According to the World Food Waste Survey, food waste created at the household level accounts for almost half of the total food waste. Agrowing number of people are becoming concerned about food security and environmental consequences, such as resource depletion and greenhouse gas emissions associated with food waste. This has heightened public awareness of the issue. Despite the fact that food waste happens at every level of the food supply chain, private households have been recognized as being the primary source of food waste production. However, there is currently a lack of studies about the factors that influence consumer food waste behavior. This paper presents a twofold study. In the first section, this paper maps drivers of food waste at household level along with the remedies backed by extensive literature review. In the second section, this study identifies factors which are responsible for food waste in social gathering with special reference to weddings along with solutions to prevent food waste in the context to social gathering through systematically reviewing empirical studies on food waste practices. The results of the study demonstrate that food waste is a complex and multi-faceted issue that cannot be reduced to a single variable; as a result, a more comprehensive integration of multiple academic viewpoints is required. The mapping of the factors of waste creation allows for a more in-depth knowledge of household habits, party organizers’practices, guest behaviors toward food, and the development of food waste control policies. Finally, we connect the factors that have been found with formulation of policy, business, and social responsibilities. This study will be a value addition in the existing pool of literature concerned with responsible consumption and sustainable practices.
... Past-oriented people act and decide in response to recurrent situations of their past experiences. These people do not take chances and tend to be conservative and stick with their existing routines (e.g., familiar product and leisure activities) (Baumeister, 2002;Braun-La Tour et al., 2007). Merchant et al. (2014) found that past TP and future TP negatively affect consumer innovativeness, whereas present TP positively affects consumer innovativeness. ...
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The goal of this study is to examine the roles of Zimbardo’s time perspective along with other individual differences such as promotion focus and innovativeness in perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and attitude toward SNSs (social networking sites) in the technology acceptance model (TAM). A total of 234 participants joined this online study in South Korea. As predicted, past positive time perspective (TP) positively affected promotion focus and innovativeness, whereas past negative TP negatively affected them. Present hedonic TP positively affected innovativeness, and present fatalistic TP negatively affected promotion focus each. Future TP also positively related to promotion focus and innovativeness. In addition, simple and serial mediation effects of perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness independently and sequentially mediated the impact of TP on attitude toward SNSs. By considering TP along with promotion focus and innovativeness in conjunction with beliefs in the TAM, this study identifies psychological underpinnings of how individual differences affect technology adoption attitude and behavior. Research implications and future research suggestions will be discussed in detail.
... Örneğin, Mick ve DeMoss (1990), insanların bazen olumsuz ve somurtkan olduğu bir anda ruh halini yükseltmenin bir yolu olarak kendilerini hediyelerle ödüllendirdiklerini, ayrıca Sneath, Lacey ve Kennett-Hensel (2009), zor koşullar altındaki tüketicilerin kendi kendilerine hediye veya ödül olarak algılanan aktif olarak anlık satın almalara eğilimli olduklarını ileri sürmüştür. Baumeister (2002) insanların kendilerini daha iyi hissettireceğini düşündükleri takdirde, özdenetimden feragat etmeyi ve anlık satın almalar yapmalarına izin vermeyi seçtiklerini öne sürmüştür. Verplanken vd. ...
... Self-control refers to the process of an individual's management of his/her energy (Nepomuceno and Laroche, 2017). Individuals with higher levels of self-control have better personal relationships, stronger and more family ties, fewer psychological issues (somatic behavior, obsessivecompulsive behavior, paranoid thoughts and symptoms), fewer emotional problems (anxiety, anger, frustration and depression) and have better self-acceptance and self-esteem (Baumeister, 2002). However, reduced self-control leads to a depletion of resources (Gino et al., 2011). ...
Purpose This study aims to examine how perceived overqualification (POQ) influences employee knowledge hiding (KH) behaviors. This study further investigates the mediating effect of relative deprivation (RD) and the moderating effect of ego depletion (ED), jointly leading to moderated-mediation analysis. Design/methodology/approach Having used a time lag, a total of 850 hotel employees participated in Time 1, and data was gathered from 732 hotel employees in Time 2. Using PROCESS macro, a moderated-mediation analysis was performed to examine the hypothesized relationships. Findings This study’s findings display that POQ has a positive impact on KH. Moreover, RD plays a mediating role and ED has a moderating role in the direct and indirect associations between POQ and KH. Practical implications The findings suggest that hospitality and tourism (H&T) practitioners need to structure job positions, particularly job descriptions and specifications, by considering employee qualifications. They could encourage qualified employees to participate in the decision-making process which can increase the likelihood of their knowledge sharing and naturally limit KH behaviors. Originality/value In addition to adding to the burgeoning literature on POQ in the H&T sector, this study advances research on the RD and ED theories by statistically analyzing the link between POQ and employee KH. By considering RD as a mediator, a better comprehension is provided concerning “how” POQ associates with employee KH. By introducing ED as a moderator, researchers could better understand “when” POQ significantly associates with employee KH.
... Low energy may be a likely instigator of procrastination because work becomes painful or more difficult to initiate when energy is low (Burka and Yuen, 1983;Baumeister et al., 1994Baumeister et al., , 2000. Low energy may also weaken self-control (Baumeister, 2002), making the individual more susceptible to situational temptations and distractions. In a largescale Norwegian study (N = 50.000), ...
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Academic procrastination – habitually delaying work with academic tasks to the extent that the delays become detrimental to performance, wellbeing, and health – represents a substantial personal, systemic, and societal problem. Still, efforts to prevent and reduce it are surprisingly scarce and often offered as treatment regimens rather than preventive efforts. Based on the principles of functional analysis and a broad examination of factors that are important for academic procrastinatory behaviors, this paper aims to describe a strategy for analyzing individual controlling conditions for procrastination and give parallel advice on how to change those controlling conditions. Both are ideographic, allowing for individual and dynamic analyses of factors responsible for instigating and maintaining procrastination, as well as tailor-made remedies that address controlling conditions in preventive and curative efforts to reduce procrastination. Although functional analysis integrates well with important research findings in the procrastination field, this approach suggests new criteria for identifying procrastinatory behaviors and an alternative model for analyzing their control conditions. We conclude that a functional approach may supplement procrastination research and efforts to prevent and alleviate this detrimental habit.
... It is a problem of intrapersonal choice inconsistency, a conflict between 'multiple selves' or cue-triggered errors, among others [41]. Alternatively, Baumeister et al. [42] described self-control as the capacity to identify and control one's feelings and desires. It could be characterized by the initiation of will, self-discipline, and the capacity for delayed satisfaction. ...
Article
Consumers’ online impulsive buying behavior has become more and more frequent in the digital era. There is increasing concern regarding the adverse consequences that impulsive buying has generated for consumer wellbeing and the sustainability of our society and environment. In search of a way to decreasing impulsive consumption, this article proposes a comprehensive framework to explore the potential determinants of online impulsive buying behavior from the perspective of consumer characteristics grounded on the literature on sustainability, psychology and consumer behavior. Through an online survey, a total of 425 valid responses were obtained. Extroversion and neuroticism in personality, negative emotions, collectivism in culture and the cognitive and affective factors of impulsive buying tendency are found to be positively correlated with impulsive buying behavior, whereas self-control shows a negative impact on impulsive buying behavior. Furthermore, this study identifies the mediating roles that negative emotions and collectivism play. Specifically, in addition to the direct routes, neuroticism, self-control and the affective factor of impulsive buying tendency can indirectly influence impulsive buying behavior through the mediation of negative emotions, whereas extroversion can indirectly affect impulsive buying behavior with collectivism as the mediator. To conclude, theoretical and practical implications of this research are elaborated to promote sustainable consumption from both the micro and macro perspectives.
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Previous research attributes vulnerability to financial hardship either to structural inequities or to poor financial behavior. Less attention has been paid to the role of social psychological factors or to the relative contribution of demographics, behavior, and social psychology in understanding an individual's vulnerability to financial hardship. While studies have examined psychosocial factors in financial outcomes, we argue that these factors represent a missing perspective in the construction of interventions to lessen vulnerability. We further argue that a holistic perspective considering all three factors is needed to address vulnerability to financial hardship. Capitalizing on the richness of the CFPB National Financial Well‐Being Survey data (n = 6,394), we examine the unique contribution of psychosocial factors in explaining an individual's financial vulnerability over and above demographics and behaviors. Using four different measures of financial hardship, we find that all three types of factors play important roles in understanding vulnerability to financial hardship. Our findings suggest that more holistic measures and interventions are needed to enhance consumer financial well‐being. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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It is of commercial interest to stimulate non-impulsive consumers to spend more. Tourism provides a promising context to extend this research to the impulse buying of people who are non-impulsive in daily life. By utilizing two experiments and two post-trip surveys, this study reveals how the time pressure encountered in a tourism environment influences tourists’ impulse buying. The results show a special impact of time pressure in tourism settings, whereby time pressure significantly increases the impulse buying of the non-impulsive tourists; this effect is lacking for impulsive tourists. The rarity perception of current experience, activated implicitly rather than at a conscious level, leads non-impulsive consumers to engage in a rare behavior (i.e., impulse buying) through an unconscious link between perception and behavior. Conclusions reflect the particularity of tourism and provide guidance for practice after COVID-19.
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9.BASKI Prof. Dr. Erdoğan KOÇ Prof. Dr. Erdoğan Koç 20 yılı aşkın bir süredir üniversitelerde lisans, yüksek lisans ve doktora seviyelerinde tüket c davranışı alanında dersler vermektedir. Yüksek cirolu markaların ürün yöneticiliği deney m de bulunan yazar 15 yılı aşkın bir süredir ulusal ve uluslararası şirketlere eğitimler vermekte ve danışmanlık yapmaktadır. Etki değeri yüksek ve saygın uluslararası dergilerde pek çok bilimsel çalışması bulunan yazar aynı zamanda pek çok saygın uluslararası bilimsel dergide editörler kurulu üyeliği ve hakemlik görevlerini de yürütmektedir. K tabın 9. baskısı bu deneyimlerin ışığında, Türkiye'de ve dünyada ortaya çıkan teorik ve pratik gelişmeler ve ihtiyaçlardaki değişimler göz önünde bulundurarak hazırlanmıştır. Kitapta Tüketici Davranışı ve Pazarlama Stratejileri 900'den fazla araştırma sonucu ve 1200' ün üzerinde ilginç örnekle desteklenerek, uygulama esaslı bir yaklaşımla anlatılmaktadır. İşletmenin temel amacı müşteri yaratmak ve müşterileri tutmak olduğu için bir işletmenin iki (ve sadece iki) temel fonksiyonu vardır: pazarlama ve innovasyon (yenilikçilik). Pazarlama ve innovasyon (yenilikçilik) sonuç üretir. Diğer fonksiyonların hepsi maliyet üretir." (Peter Drucker) Tüketici sofistikasyonunun derinleştiği ve marka kalabalıklığının son derece arttığı günümüzde, tüketici davranışını anlamak ve uygun yenilikler pazarlama stratejileri ile hayata geçirmek işletmenin rekabet gücü geliştirmesini etkileyen en önemli unsurlardan biri haline gelmiştir. Araştırma sonuçları göstermektedir ki; i) müşteri memnuniyetindeki %1' lik bir artış yatırım üzerindeki getirinin yaklaşık olarak %12 artmasına ii) mevcut müşterilerin elde tutulma oranındaki %5'lik bir artış ise %25 la %125 arasında kâr artışına neden olmaktadır. iii) müşteri tatminindeki %1'lik bir artış müşteri sadakat oranının %10 artmasına neden olabilmektedir. Yen müşteri kazanmak eskiler muhafaza etmekten 5 kat daha maliyetlidir. Kitabı ders kitabı olarak kullanacak öğretim üyeleri yazar tarafından hazırlanmış sunumları yayin@seckin.com.tr adresinden isteyebilirler.
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This study addresses the issue of saving behaviours among undergraduate students of Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT). With the role that savings play in providing long-term financial security, universities took the initiative to educate and improve the financial knowledge and skills of young students by offering related subjects in financial management and personal finance. Besides education, the influences of family members, friends and communities also play an important role in shaping saving behaviour. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine the key drivers in creating and shaping saving behaviour, including socialisation agent, financial knowledge and personal behaviour of undergraduate students. The data were collected from a self-administered questionnaire with a total of 286 respondents. The data were analysed by using multiple regression analysis. From this study, socialisation agent and personal behaviour were found as the main key drivers that contributed towards the saving behaviour of undergraduate students from UMT. Even though these two factors played an essential role in shaping the saving behaviour of students, the personal behaviour of the students had the most significant influence in cultivating the saving behaviour of the students.
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Extant studies have increasingly investigated the impact of tour guide humor on tourist responses but paid insufficient attention to its effect on tourist pro-environmental behavior. Following the conservation of resources theory, this research examined how tour guide humor influences tourist pro-environmental behavior by identifying tourist relational energy as the mediator and tourist self-construal as the moderator. The theoretical model was tested using data from 476 tourist-matched surveys nested in 28 tour groups. Tour guide humor can stimulate tourists’ perception of relational energy and further motivate tourists to engage in pro-environmental behavior. Tourists’ self-construal can moderate the effect of tour guide humor on relational energy and the indirect effect of tour guide humor on tourist pro-environmental behavior via relational energy. Specifically, the positive association between tour guide humor and relational energy is stronger for tourists with more interdependent self-construal than for those with more independent self-construal. This study contributes to the tourist pro-environmental behavior literature by identifying tour guide humor as a prominent determinant. Valuable recommendations are also provided for destination management organizations to promote tourist pro-environmental behavior from the perspective of tour guide humor.
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Der Kern der Ego-Depletion-Theorie besteht aus der Annahme einer kognitiven Ressource, die begrenzt ist und durch eine Reihe kognitiver Aktivitäten verbraucht wird. Gemeinsames Charakteristikum dieser Aktivitäten ist die Involvierung von Selbstkontrolle. Auch das Treffen von Entscheidungen verbraucht diese Ressource. Das Treffen von Entscheidungen scheint in gleicher Weise „kognitiv anstrengend“ zu sein wie Aktivitäten, bei denen Selbstkontrolle involviert ist. Dies hat Konsequenzen für das Treffen von Entscheidungen. Es wird gezeigt, wie das Treffen von Entscheidungen unter Ego-Depletion beeinflusst wird und wie sich dieser Einfluss im Zeitablauf verändert. In diesem Kapitel werden Arbeiten vorgestellt, die den zugrunde liegenden Mechanismen des Ego-Depletion-Effektes beleuchten, dabei aber unterschiedliche Antworten geben. Es werden auch Arbeiten vorgestellt, die konträre Ergebnisse liefern oder solche, die die Theorie weitgehend modifizieren.
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Does how much self-control consumers exert to choose a goal-consistent action influence their perceptions of goal progress? For example, if you choose to go to the gym when one of your favorite television shows is on (vs. when there is nothing interesting on TV), do you perceive that you have made a differential amount of progress towards your goals, despite completing the exact same workout? In eight studies (N = 7,515), the authors demonstrate that consumers perceive that they have made more progress on their goals when it requires more (vs. less) self-control to choose to complete an identical goal-consistent task. This is because when consumers exert more (vs. less) self-control to choose a goal-consistent task over the goal-inconsistent alternatives, they infer higher commitment to the goal. The higher inferred commitment will, in turn, lead consumers to perceive that future goal-pursuit will be easier. The authors demonstrate this effect across a variety of means of exerting self-control, a variety of tasks, and with both hypothetical scenarios and real-behavior studies.
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This article analyzes impulsive buying behavior in scenarios where the consumer's negative or positive mood, oriented by emotional situations, stimulates an uncontrolled instinct in relation to the purchase. Four experimental studies were carried out to evaluate the influence of the mood state on impulsivity in different scenarios of consumption: online versus face‐to‐face shopping (Study 1); product characteristics – hedonic versus utilitarian product types in online environments (Study 2); the individual characteristic of self‐control in relation to the online purchase (Study 3a); and the individual characteristic of social value in relation to online consumption (Study 3b). The results demonstrate that consumers have greater impulsiveness within the online environment when they are in a positive mood, and that the positive mood maintains greater purchasing impulsiveness when the product is utilitarian, and when the consumer has low self‐control and/or high social value individually.
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An existential-phenomenological description of everday consumer experiences of contempory married women with children as offered. An idiographic case study provides a thick description of this phenomenon and illustrates the hermeneutic process used in the interpretation. Following the case study, three interpretive themes are presented as mutually related aspects of an experiential gestalt that is shaped by the contextual ground of participants' life-world situations. Viewed holistically, the thematic aspects exhibit several dialectical relations that can be understood in terms of the emergent meaning of free choice. The applicability of this experiment gestalt to other life-world contexts is discussed. Copyright 1990 by the University of Chicago.
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This article reports the results of a study meant to portray a detailed picture of self-gift experiences in four contexts, focusing notably on reward and therapeutic self-gifts. Extending prior conceptual discussions, the findings suggest that self-gifts are a form of personally symbolic self-communication through special indulgences that tend to be premeditated and highly context bound. Discussion centers on theoretical implications and future directions for self-gift research. Overall, self-gifts represent a complex class of personal acquisitions that offer intriguing insights on self-directed consumer behavior. Copyright 1990 by the University of Chicago.
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Compulsive buying is framed within the larger category of compulsive consumption, and both quantitative and qualitative data are used to provide a phenomenological description. Results indicate people who buy compulsively are more likely to demonstrate compulsivity as a personality trait, have lower self-esteem, and are more prone to fantasy than more normal consumers. Their primary motivation appears to be the psychological benefits derived from the buying process itself rather than from the possession of purchased objects. Consequences of compulsive buying include extreme levels of debt, anxiety and frustration, the subjective sense of loss of control, and domestic dissension.
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Contends that control theory provides a model of self-regulation that is useful in the analysis of human behavior. As an illustration of the breadth of its applicability, the basic construct of control theory––the discrepancy-reducing feedback loop––is presented, and certain implications for theory in 3 areas of human psychology are discussed. In personality-social, clinical, and health psychology, the construct proves to fit well with known phenomena and with the theories most recently developed to account for the phenomena. Moreover, in each case control theory appears to make a unique contribution to the state of the area. The integrative potential suggested by these illustrations and some issues that should receive attention in future work are noted. (3 p ref)
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Choice, active response, self-regulation, and other volition may all draw on a common inner resource. In Experiment 1, people who forced themselves to eat radishes instead of tempting chocolates subsequently quit faster on unsolvable puzzles than people who had not had to exert self-control over eating. In Experiment 2, making a meaningful personal choice to perform attitude-relevant behavior caused a similar decrement in persistence. In Experiment 3, suppressing emotion led to a subsequent drop in performance of solvable anagrams. In Experiment 4, an initial task requiring high self-regulation made people more passive (i.e., more prone to favor the passive-response option). These results suggest that the self's capacity for active volition is limited and that a range of seemingly different, unrelated acts share a common resource.
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Why do people's impulse controls break down during emotional distress? Some theories propose that distress impairs one's motivation or one's ability to exert self-control, and some postulate self-destructive intentions arising from the moods. Contrary to those theories, Three experiments found that believing that one's bad mood was frozen (unchangeable) eliminated the tendency to eat fattening snacks (Experiment 1), seek immediate gratification (Experiment 2), and engage in frivolous procrastination (Experiment 3). The implication is that when people are upset, they indulge immediate impulses to make themselves feel better, which amounts to giving short-term affect regulation priority over other self-regulatory goals.
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Do people aggress to make themselves feel better? We adapted a procedure used by G. K. Manucia, D. J. Baumann, and R. B. Cialdini (1984), in which some participants are given a bogus mood-freezing pill that makes affect regulation efforts ineffective. In Study 1, people who had been induced to believe in the value of catharsis and venting anger responded more aggressively than did control participants to insulting criticism, but this aggression was eliminated by the mood-freezing pill. Study 2 showed similar results among people with high anger-out (i.e., expressing and venting anger) tendencies. Studies 3 and 4 provided questionnaire data consistent with these interpretations, and Study 5 replicated the findings of Studies 1 and 2 using measures more directly concerned with affect regulation. Taken together, these results suggest that many people may engage in aggression to regulate (improve) their own affective states.
Article
Do people aggress to make themselves feel better? We adapted a procedure used by G. K. Manucia, D. J. Baumann, and R. B. Cialdini (1984), in which some participants are given a bogus mood-freezing pill that makes affect regulation efforts ineffective. In Study 1, people who had been induced to believe in the value of catharsis and venting anger responded more aggressively than did control participants to insulting criticism, but this aggression was eliminated by the mood-freezing pill. Study 2 showed similar results among people with high anger-out (i.e., expressing and venting anger) tendencies. Studies 3 and 4 provided questionnaire data consistent with these interpretations, and Study 5 replicated the findings of Studies I and 2 using measures more directly concerned with affect regulation. Taken together, these results suggest that many people may engage in aggression to regulate (improve) their own affective states.
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Total SAT score, average grade earned in high school, and 32 personality variables are examined via forward multiple regression analyses to identify the best combination for predicting GPA in a sample of 201 psychology students. Average grade earned in high school enters first, accounting for 19% of the variance in GPA. Self-control enters second, and SAT third; these account for 9% and 5% of the variance, respectively. No other predictors accounted for substantial portions of variance. This pattern of results converges with findings reported by other investigators using other measures of personality. It was recommended that the global trait of self-control or conscientiousness be systematically assessed and used in college admissions decisions.
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Three experiments with 180 males examined the effects of alcohol consumption on the self-aware state. Based on a model proposed by J. G. Hull (see record 1982-05684-001), it was predicted that alcohol would reduce self-awareness. In Exp I, Ss consumed either alcohol or tonic and then gave short speeches about themselves. All Ss expected to consume alcohol. The speeches were coded for frequency of self-focused statements. In support of predictions, alcohol reduced the relative frequency of self-focused statements. Exp II replicated this finding and demonstrated that it did not depend on Ss' expectancies regarding the beverage they consumed. Exp III investigated a potential mechanism for these effects. Alcohol was proposed to reduce self-awareness by interfering with the encoding of self-relevant information. Using an incidental-memory paradigm, it was found that high-private self-conscious Ss recalled more self-relevant words than did low-self-conscious Ss under placebo conditions, thus replicating the findings of Hull and A. S. Levy (see record 1980-27166-001). (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In "Losing Control," the authors provide a single reference source with comprehensive information on general patterns of self-regulation failure across contexts, research findings on specific self-control disorders, and commentary on the clinical and social aspects of self-regulation failure. Self-control is discussed in relation to what the "self" is, and the cognitive, motivational, and emotional factors that impinge on one's ability to control one's "self." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined psychological variables that influence individual rates of savings. 98 members of a local credit union (aged 20–61 yrs) responded to a questionnaire assessing individual, demographic and financial characteristics of the Ss. The influence of variables such as, age, sex, self-control, locus of control, total income, marital status, rent or own home, whether or not there was a temporary influence on ability to save, number of dependents, and type of saving was analyzed. 82.5% of the Ss had a long-term saving plan, while 15.5% did not. Ss were divided into 3 groups: High (13.5% savings or more); average (11.9%); and low savers (5.8% or less). It is suggested that understanding of psychological factors that influence savers could be useful in alternating current low rates of saving in US. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined compliance with prohibitive instructions persisting across time and situations. 88 1st-, 2nd-, and 3rd-grade males were initially placed in a temptation situation where instructional consistency, threat intensity, and experimenter surveillance were manipulated (Bender Gestalt Test for Young Children). 21–30 days later, instructional control was assessed in an ostensibly unrelated situation where an unfamiliar experimenter permitted Ss to emit the formerly forbidden behavior. Results show that the extension of prohibitive control across time was significantly reduced by contradictions between instruction-givers. Findings are interpreted in terms of an algebraic-summation model of discriminative functions combined with generalization. The crucial role of establishment of instructional control in the subsequent development of self-control is discussed. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
If self-regulation conforms to an energy or strength model, then self-control should be impaired by prior exertion. In Study 1, trying to regulate one's emotional response to an upsetting movie was followed by a decrease in physical stamina. In Study 2, suppressing forbidden thoughts led to a subsequent tendency to give up quickly on unsolvable anagrams. In Study 3, suppressing thoughts impaired subsequent efforts to control the expression of amusement and enjoyment. In Study 4, autobiographical accounts of successful versus failed emotional control linked prior regulatory demands and fatigue to self-regulatory failure. A strength model of self-regulation fits the data better than activation, priming, skill, or constant capacity models of self-regulation.
Book
Este libro trata principalmente sobre una aproximación al procesamiento de información en el análisis de la conducta humana. Contiene: Antecedentes; La Información y el Uso de Esquemas de Reconocimiento; Atención y Motivación; Esperanza y la Decisión de Retraer la Reafirmación; Implicaciones en Problemas Específicos de Psicología Individual y Social.
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Why do consumers sometimes act against their own better judgment, engaging in behavior that is often regretted after the fact and that would have been rejected with adequate forethought? More generally, how do consumers attempt to maintain self-control in the face of time-inconsistent preferences? This article addresses consumer impatience by developing a decision-theoretic model based on reference points. The model explains how and why consumers experience sudden increases in desire for a product, increases that can result in the temporary overriding of long-term preferences. Tactics that consumers use to control their own behavior are also discussed. Consumer self-control is framed as a struggle between two psychological forces, desire and willpower. Finally, two general classes of self-control strategies are described: those that directly reduce desire, and those that overcome desire through willpower. Copyright 1991 by the University of Chicago.
Article
Self-regulation is a complex process that involves consumers’ persistence, strength, motivation, and commitment in order to be able to override short-term impulses. In order to be able to pursue their long-term goals, consumers typically need to forgo immediate pleasurable experiences that are detrimental to reach their overarching goals. Although this sometimes involves resisting to simple and small temptations, it is not always easy, since the lure of momentary temptations is pervasive. In addition, consumers’ beliefs play an important role determining strategies and behaviors that consumers consider acceptable to engage in, affecting how they act and plan actions to attain their goals. This dissertation investigates adequacy of some beliefs typically shared by consumers about the appropriate behaviors to exert self-regulation, analyzing to what extent these indeed contribute to the enhancement of consumers’ ability to exert self-regulation.
Article
Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of self-attention and public attention to food intake on eating by dieters and nondieters. Female dieters ate the greatest number of candies ad lib after consuming a forced two-milk shake preload; the addition of either self-attention or implied public attention, through the manipulated availability of a waste basket for the disposing of candy wrappers, inhibited eating substantially. For nondieters, the preload itself inhibited candy consumption, which declined further only under conditions of public attention to candy intake. In a second experiment, self- and public attention again inhibited the cookie consumption of preloaded dieters, but preloaded nondieters were not influenced by the attention manipulations, eating minimally in all conditions. Nondieters who were not preloaded, however, did reduce their intake in the two attention conditions. Implications for regulatory self-control were discussed.
Article
Proposed a model of alcohol consumption based on the premise that alcohol serves to decrease an individual's level of self-awareness. According to this analysis, alcohol interferes with encoding processes fundamental to a state of self-awareness, thereby decreasing the individual's sensitivity to both the self-relevance of cues regarding appropriate forms of behavior and the self-evaluative nature of feedback about past behaviors. Insofar as the latter form of information can provide a source of self-criticism and negative affect, alcohol as an inhibitor of self-aware processing is thought to provide a source of psychological relief. It is concluded that the self-awareness-based model establishes a useful framework within which a broad base of alcohol's cognitive, affective, and social behavioral effects and insight to the motivations behind drinking can be conceived. (95 ref)
Article
This study examined the results of repeated exercises of self-control in relation to self-regulatory strength over time. A sample of 69 U.S. college students spent 2 weeks doing 1 of 3 self-control exercises: monitoring and improving posture, regulating mood, or monitoring and recording eating. Compared with a no-exercise control group, the participants who performed the self-control exercises showed significant improvement in self-regulatory capacity as measured by quitting faster on a hand-grip exercise task following a thought-suppression exercise.
Attention and JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH Self-Regulation: A Control Theory Approach to Human Behavior
  • Charles S Carver
  • F Michael
  • Scheier
Carver, Charles S. and Michael F. Scheier (1981), Attention and JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH Self-Regulation: A Control Theory Approach to Human Behavior, New York: Springer-Verlag.
Leader Character: A Model of Personality and Moral Development," unpublished dissertation, Department of Psychology
  • Sally P Cox
Cox, Sally P. (2000), "Leader Character: A Model of Personality and Moral Development," unpublished dissertation, Department of Psychology, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK 74104.
Decision Fatigue: Making Multiple Personal Decisions Depletes the Self’s Resources, unpublished manuscript
  • Jean M Twenge
  • F Roy
  • Dianne M Baumeister
  • Brandon Tice
  • Schmeichel
Twenge, Jean M., Roy F. Baumeister, Dianne M. Tice, and Brandon Schmeichel (2001), "Decision Fatigue: Making Multiple Personal Decisions Depletes the Self's Resources," unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106.
Mind Hunter: Inside the FBI’s Elite Serial Crime Unit
  • James Douglas
Douglas, James (1995), Mind Hunter: Inside the FBI's Elite Serial Crime Unit, New York: Scribner.
Self-Control and Academic Performance, paper presented at the Society for Personality and Social Psychology
  • Stephen M Smith
Smith, Stephen M. (2001), "Self-Control and Academic Performance," paper presented at the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, San Antonio, TX.
Leader Character: A Model of Personality and Moral Development, unpublished dissertation
  • Sally P Cox