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Abstract

This article describes some of the linguistic mechanisms people use when engaging in disagreements with one another. Unacquainted students discussed an issue on which they had opposing views. These disagreements were then transcribed and examined for the occurrence of politeness strategies. There was evidence for many of the positively polite strategies described by Brown and Levinson, as well as several previously undocumented strategies that appear to function as positive politeness. In addition, participants rated each other on several dimensions, and these perceptions were related to a speaker's degree of positive politeness.
... Using data from discussions between unacquainted research participants on subjects such as abortion, Holtgraves (1997) found the way in which dispreferred turns were described by CA research (see 1.4.2.2) confirmed. He identified seven strategies for conveying positive politeness in disagreement, which included token agreement hedge opinion, personalize opinion, express distaste with one's position, displace agreement, self-deprecation, assert common ground. ...
Thesis
p>This thesis presents a developmental account of facework strategies in L2 argumentative discourse. From an individual perspective, face denotes how speakers want to be seen in terms of their social role(s) and personal qualities; from a social perspective, face is the image that is actually conveyed to others. Data were gathered from learners of German at three different levels of proficiency by means of argumentative discourse tasks and retrospective interviews, and interpreted within the framework of face as well as from a linguistic/psycholinguistic perspective. The results of the analysis show that linguistic limitations and processing constraints cannot alone explain the observed developments. Instead, the desire to be seen as a good L2 speaker appears to be playing an important role. Learners actively tried to make the task easier for themselves by using strategies that contributed to accuracy and fluency, eased processing and helped avoid potential pitfalls. This suggests that learners acted not only within a ‘discussion frame’ in which it would be important to present a positive self-image based on the opinions expressed in the discussion and the manner of their presentation, but also within an overlapping ‘language task’ frame. The thesis contributes to the field of interlanguage pragmatics by providing a theoretical framework for the interpretation of face alongside notions of identity, thereby moving it away from politeness and social appropriateness. By suggesting that learners act according to an internal context that they have set for themselves, it provides an integrated account of psycholinguistic/linguistic and individual/social approaches to second language acquisition.</p
... Queste strategie includono l'uso di una varietà di dispositivi attenuanti e indicatori di posizione pessimistica. Un diplomatico linguisticamente preparato può anche adottare strategicamente un atteggiamento di cortesia positiva, facendo ricorso a complimenti, accordo parziale, battute o pronomi inclusivi (ad esempio, noi e ci) per sottolineare la comunanza di opinioni e la cooperazione (Holtgraves, 1997;Johnson, 2006;Malamed, 2010). Ad esempio, una espressione di disaccordo come Fantastico, questa mi sembra un'idea eccellente, ma penso che potrebbe essere un po' prematuro 15 include una combinazione di strategie di cortesia positiva e negativa (cfr. ...
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Il 26 giugno 2019 il dipartimento di Filosofia e Beni Culturali dell’Università Ca’ Foscari di Venezia organizzò, in collaborazione con il Centro Studi sui Diritti Umani, il Consiglio d’Europa Ufficio di Venezia, e Europe Direct Venezia, il convegno “Le parole dell’odio” che si tenne nell’Aula Magna a Ca’ Dolfin. La giornata non fu scelta a caso: il 26 giugno, infatti, ricorre la Giornata Internazionale a sostegno delle vittime di torture, come stabilito nel 1997 dall’Assemblea Generale delle Nazioni Unite con la Risoluzione 52/149. Le riflessioni proposte dai relatori non mancarono di porre in risalto lo stretto rapporto tra quello che in inglese viene denominato hate speech e i diritti umani, come pure la responsabilità della scuola, e di ogni altra agenzia educativa, nell’affrontare la questione della violenza verbale che nei nostri giorni, con la sua allentante prospettiva di offrire una facile identità, sta sempre più connotando la comunicazione a causa anche dell’effetto moltiplicatore dei social media. Mentre ascoltavo quanti erano intervenuti all’evento, mi chiedevo se noi insegnanti siamo sufficientemente consapevoli del nostro ruolo di educatori dei futuri cittadini del mondo o se, invece, troppo spesso ci limitiamo a curare l’aspetto strettamente attinente alla nostra disciplina. Mi domandavo se facciamo del nostro meglio per seminare il rispetto, la tolleranza, l’accoglienza e se io stessa, insegnante di lingua straniera, abbia fornito ai miei studenti, negli anni, adeguati strumenti linguistici affinché essi siano in grado di rapportarsi con l’alterità sulla base di una buona e corretta comunicazione. Altre domande si affacciavano alla mente: «Ho insegnato come dimostrare rispetto usando la lingua straniera studiata?» E ancora: «Ho evidenziato adeguatamente come, per esempio, l’assenza di un condizionale possa far percepire una mia richiesta rivolta a un interlocutore straniero come invasiva o irrispettosa?». Nel cercare di darmi delle risposte, promisi a me stessa che nei miei futuri interventi formativi non avrei mancato di richiamare l’attenzione dei docenti sulle conseguenze sociali determinate da inadeguate modalità di manifestazione del proprio pensiero facendo riferimento alla Raccomandazione del Comitato dei Ministri del Consiglio d’Europa del 30 ottobre 1997, in cui per la prima volta si tentò di definire il termine hate speech. L’insegnamento delle lingue straniere e della lingua materna (o di studio per chi proviene da altro Paese per compiere gli studi qui in Italia) hanno, dunque, un ruolo determinante per lo sviluppo delle competenze civiche delle future generazioni. Ciò vale anche per tutte le altre discipline presenti del curricolo scolastico perché ognuna concorre alla formazione del futuro cittadino al di là delle abilità e dei saperi pertinenti. Umberto Margiotta, mio riferimento sicuro durante il dottorato e prematuramente scomparso nel 2019, parlava di “obiettivi sociali” della scuola la quale, attraverso l’insegnamento, è in grado di trasformare gli obiettivi di conoscenza in obiettivi formativi: «in ciò sta il proprium dell’azione dell’insegnare» (Il valore formativo delle discipline, Rivista dell’Istruzione, 4, 2016, p. 73). In queste poche righe si concentra, dunque, la ragione del titolo di questo numero della nostra rivista, Il contributo delle discipline nel progetto educativo. Si tratta di una dimensione sulla quale l’ANFIS ha fortemente voluto riportare l’attenzione dei nostri lettori tenendo vivo, così, il lascito di tanti pedagogisti che ci hanno preceduto e che ci hanno indicato la strada, primo tra tutti J. Dewey che, per usare le parole di Cambi (2005), ci ha rappresentato la pedagogia e l’educazione come «chiavi-di-volta di una società democratica» (Le pedagogie del Novecento. Roma-Bari: Laterza, p. 51). Ecco, dunque, come gli Autori che hanno collaborato alla definizione di questo numero di Idee in form@zione analizzano il ruolo delle discipline in relazione allo sviluppo globale dei futuri cittadini. La sezione “Studi e riflessioni” si apre con il contributo di Mario Piatti dal titolo La musica tra educazione e disciplina. Piatti si interroga sulla funzione sociale dell’educazione musicale e propone una visione olistica dello sviluppo delle nuove generazioni. In altre parole, si sfata la centralità delle “materie” cosi da favorire la valorizzazione della dimensione trasversale della formazione e cancellare la gerarchia tra le discipline scolastiche perché è la realtà del mondo la vera unica “materia” di cui la scuola deve occuparsi. Il secondo contributo, scritto da Ivo Mattozzi, si intitola L’insegnamento della storia locale può contribuire all’educazione alla cittadinanza? Nell’articolo l’Autore argomenta le potenzialità formative dello studio della storia a scala locale nel contribuire a sviluppare l’uso intelligente e critico delle tracce, a comprendere i nessi tra presente e passato, a partecipare alla tutela e alla valorizzazione del patrimonio culturale, ad assumere parte attiva e critica nelle storie in corso. La prima sezione di questo numero si conclude con l’articolo di Roberto Castaldo e Rosanna Genni Educare alla complessità: l’umanistica digitale come piattaforma educativa. L’articolo affronta la questione della presunta distanza tra discipline umanistiche e scientifiche, così come tra competenze tecnologiche e competenze linguistiche, personali, relazionali e di cittadinanza. Gli Autori testimoniano la necessità e la possibilità di superare il modello che fraziona la realtà in angusti e ristretti “orti disciplinari” attraverso la presentazione dell’esperienza dell’IIS Europa di Pomigliano d’Arco nell’ambito del percorso Web marketing innovativo-Indirizzo commerciale dei Nuovi Istituti Professionali. La seconda sezione, “Pratica formativa”, si apre con l’articolo Esperienze di didattica delle scienze tra citizen science, student voice e peer-tutoring di Attilio Arces, Orietta Ferronato, Gianfranco Santovito, Salvatore Vicari e Michele Zanata. In questo contributo gli Autori tematizzano il valore delle conoscenze scientifiche applicate alla partecipazione consapevole alle decisioni sociali, anche attraverso l’attivazione di soft skill, e sottolineano quanto l’apprendimento realizzato attraverso la prospettiva della citizen science possa generare esperienze di cittadinanza. Segue l’articolo in inglese di Vincenza Leone e Magdalena Brzezińska Transatlantic Educators Dialogue (TED) Program for Global Citizenship. Le Autrici sono convinte che la cittadinanza locale non debba escludere quella globale e che è fondamentale per gli insegnanti stessi impegnarsi nel dialogo in una dimensione transnazionale. A questo proposito illustrano una esperienza realizzata nell’ambito del programma TED che ha visto sistemi e pratiche educative europee e americane confrontarsi e promuovere con successo la collaborazione transatlantica e l’apprendimento tra pari. Il titolo del contributo di Marzia Bucalossi è Fare arte a scuola. Linguaggi, creatività, espressioni. Il valore dell’esperienza per coniugare il “fare” con il “pensare” per una formazione globale e integrata. Nel contributo l’Autrice discute del valore dei linguaggi espressivi e li rappresenta come straordinaria risorsa educativa perché stimolano e risvegliano capacità intellettuali, affettive e civiche contribuendo alla maturazione di dimensioni trasversali quali la comunicazione, la relazione, la socialità, la riflessione e il senso estetico. La sezione si conclude con l’articolo di Enrica Ricciardi Un libro, perché no? Breve itinerario nel mondo dei libri per ragazzi. L’articolo offre indicazioni sul panorama editoriale contemporaneo e sui possibili percorsi operativi che, in classe, sostengono la pratica della lettura anche come esperienza di cittadinanza L’articolo in inglese a nostra firma Learning to mediate. If not now, when? contenuto nella sezione “Lo scaffale del formatore” esamina la categoria della mediazione che rappresenta una delle principali novità nella nuova e più ampia versione ufficiale del Quadro Comune Europeo di Riferimento per le Lingue (CEFR, 2001), denominata CEFR Companion Volume with New Descriptors (CEFR CV, 2018). In particolare, viene focalizzata la parte dedicata a “Mediare la comunicazione” con l’obiettivo di individuare possibili attività da predisporre per potenziare le competenze comunicative degli studenti. La sezione intitolata “La voce dei docenti in formazione” quest’anno accoglie i contributi di Martina Ghio, Giuseppina Rampazzo e Lisa Foroni. Martina Ghio racconta il momento illuminante in cui è riuscita a cogliere il potenziale educativo del gioco. Giuseppina Rampazzo analizza il suo incontro con l’esperienza di Don Milani proprio nei luoghi fisici che ospitarono la Scuola di Barbiana. Lisa Foroni riflette sulla importanza di dedicare del tempo a se stessi e di riflettere, anche da persone adulte, sulle azioni da intraprendere per governare il nostro percorso formativo lungo tutto l’arco della vita. La sezione “Letti per voi” accoglie le recensioni curate da Eleonora Aquilini, Alberto Gelmi, Carmen Genchi, Elefteria Morosini e Luisanna Paggiaro. Eleonora Aquilini presenta il volume Rinnovare l’insegnamento delle scienze. Aspetti storici, epistemologici, psicologici, pedagogici e didattici di Carlo Fiorentini. Alberto Gelmi offre le sue riflessioni in merito a Sull’attualità di Tullio De Mauro a cura di Ugo Cardinale. Il volume recensito da Carmen Genchi è La Valutazione integrata. Tra discipline e competenze: una guida metodologica e operativa di Alberto Ferrari e Maria Renata Zanchin. Elefteria Morosini illustra Il futuro oggi. Storie per orientarsi tra studi e lavori di Ornella Scandella. Luisanna Paggiaro recensisce un volume in lingua italiana, Cittadinanza globale e sviluppo sostenibile. 60 lezioni per un curriculum verticale a cura di Fernando M. Reimers, Giovanna Barzanò, Loredana Fisichella e Maria Lissoni, e uno in lingua inglese, Language Education in a Changing World. Challenges and Opportunities di Rod Bolitho e Richard Rossner. Infine, nella sezione “Traduzioni”, abbiamo scelto di proporre in italiano un articolo pubblicato nel 2020 da Noriko Ishihara il cui titolo originale è The Language of Respect and Dignity for Intercultural Understanding and Conflict Resolution: Application to Diplomacy and Education. Abbiamo iniziato questo Editoriale proprio ricordando il ruolo determinante della scuola nell’affrontare la questione della violenza verbale. Chiudiamo questo numero di Idee in form@zione con questo articolo perché vi si offre un esempio concreto di come l’educazione alla comunicazione rispettosa possa essere efficacemente realizzata a scuola coinvolgendo più materie scolastiche e perché è un forte richiamo alla riflessione sulle potenzialità formative di tutte le discipline scolastiche che vanno ben oltre i meri saperi disciplinari.
... PR3 no rechaza esa explicación, pero su valoración negativa del trabajo realizado por ET5 se mantiene, dado que los argumentos de la estudiante no justifican todos sus resultados. El turno de PR3 se organiza con la estructura sí, però, que ha sido estudiada en varias lenguas y descrita como un mecanismo de acuerdo parcial con el que se retrasa y atenúa el desacuerdo que llega con el pero (Pomerantz, 1984;Holtgraves, 1997). PR3 usa otros mecanismos de atenuación, como un inciso con una estructura parecida a la descarga de responsabilidad vista en (5): que jo puc estar d'acord. ...
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