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Maritalea myrionectae gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated
from a culture of the marine ciliate Myrionecta rubra
Chung Y. Hwang,1Kyung D. Cho,1Wonho Yih2and Byung C. Cho1
Byung C. Cho
1School of Earth and Environmental Sciences and Research Institute of Oceanography, Seoul
National University, San 56-1, Shillim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea
2Department of Oceanography, Kunsan National University, San 68, Miryong-dong, Gunsan
573-701, Republic of Korea
A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain CL-SK30T, was
isolated from a culture of the marine ciliate Myrionecta rubra. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis
revealed that strain CL-SK30Twas most closely related to Cucumibacter marinus (92.0%
similarity) and next to the type strains of species of the genus Devosia (89.8–91.3% similarities)
in the family Hyphomicrobiaceae. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequences
showed that strain CL-SK30Tformed a robust clade together with C. marinus, but the sequence
divergence value of 8% between them indicated that the novel bacterium represented a distinct
lineage. Strain CL-SK30Tgrew optimally in the presence of 2–5% sea salts at 30–35 6C and
pH 7.2–8.0. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, two
unidentified glycolipids, an unidentified phospholipid and an unidentified lipid. Ubiquinone 10 was
the major quinone. The DNA G+C content was 52.7 mol%. Based on its phenotypic,
chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain CL-SK30Trepresents a novel genus
and species of the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, for which the name Maritalea myrionectae
gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CL-SK30T(5KCCM 90060T5DSM 19524T).
At the time of writing the family Hyphomicrobiaceae com-
prised 15 genera (List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing
in Nomenclature; http://www.bacterio.cict.fr). The family
is diverse in morphology, and many members of the family
are budding and appendaged bacteria (i.e. the genera
Ancalomicrobium, Blastochloris, Dichotomicrobium, Filo-
microbium, Hyphomicrobium, Pedomicrobium, Prostheco-
microbium, Rhodomicrobium and Rhodoplanes; Garrity
et al., 2005). Most species in the family have been isolated
from various non-marine habitats, comprising soil, fresh-
water, groundwater, swamps, rhizosphere of plants, nitrify-
ing inocula, chickens and sewage (Garrity et al., 2005).
Only a few members of the family Hyphomicrobiaceae have
been isolated from marine environments (e.g. Dichoto-
microbium thermohalophilum, Filomicrobium fusiforme and
Hyphomicrobium aestuarii; Garrity et al., 2005). Recently, a
short prosthecae bacterium affiliated to a new genus,
Cucumibacter, was isolated from coastal seawater (Hwang
& Cho, 2008). In this study, a rod-shaped bacterium with
peritrichous flagella was isolated from a culture of the
marine ciliate Myrionecta rubra and subjected to a poly-
phasic taxonomic analysis.
A clonal culture of the marine phototrophic ciliate
Myrionecta rubra MR-MAL01 was established and main-
tained as described by Yih et al. (2004). An aliquot (100 ml)
of the ciliate culture in the exponential phase was taken and
spread on a marine agar 2216 (MA; Difco) plate, and
incubated at 20 uC for 1 week. Strain CL-SK30Twas
isolated and was subsequently streaked onto fresh MA at
20 uC. The purification procedure was repeated four times.
Growth of strain CL-SK30Toccurred faster at 30 uC than at
20 uC. The strain was maintained on both MA at 30 uC and
in marine broth 2216 (MB; Difco) supplemented with 30%
(v/v) glycerol at 280 uC.
For 16S rRNA gene amplification by PCR, DNA was
extracted from a single colony by using a boiling method
(Englen & Kelley, 2000). The crude extracts served as a
DNA template for the PCRs, which included Taq DNA
polymerase (Bioneer) and primers 27F and 1492R (Lane,
1991). The PCR product was purified by using an
AccuPrep PCR purification kit (Bioneer) and the direct
sequence of the purified 16S rRNA gene was determined
Abbreviations: APL, aminophospholipid; DPG, diphosphatidylglycerol;
GL, glycolipid; L, lipid; PC, phosphatidylcholine; PE, phosphatidylethanol-
amine; PG, phosphatidylglycerol; PHB, poly-b-hydroxybutyrate; PL,
The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession number for the 16S rRNA gene
sequence of strain CL-SK30Tis EF988631.
A transmission electron micrograph of a negatively stained cell of strain
CL-SK30Tand two-dimensional thin-layer chromatograms of the polar
lipids of strain CL-SK30Tand Cucumibacter marinus CL-GR60Tare
available as supplementary material with the online version of this paper.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (2009), 59, 609–614
002881G2009 IUMS Printed in Great Britain609
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