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Potential health benefits and problems associated with antinutrients in food

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Abstract

Antinutrients commonly found in plant foods have both adverse effects and health benefits. For example, phytic acid, lectins, phenolic compounds (tannins), saponins and enzyme (amylase and protease) inhibitors have been shown to reduce the availability of nutrients and cause growth inhibition, while phytoestrogens and lignans have been linked with infertility problems. However, phytic acid, lectins, phenolic compounds, amylase inhibitors and saponins have also been shown to reduce the blood glucose and insulin responses to starchy foods and/or the plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. In addition, phytic acid, phenolics, saponins, protease inhibitors, phytoestrogens and lignans have been related to reduced cancer risks. Because antinutrients can also be mitigating agents, they need re-evaluation and perhaps a change in name in the future.

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... In healthy older individuals, malnutrition decreases quality of life and increases the risk of sarcopenia and bone fragility [5], while obese people are exposed to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and renal dysfunction [6][7][8][9]. An essential problem in assessing nutrient intake its interaction with antinutrients [10], heavy metals [11], mycotoxins [12][13][14][15], and pesticides [16] that, depending on their size [17][18][19], can be found in macroscopic clusters or nanoparticles. Thus, a more holistic approach for assessing exposures has recently been advocated, one that estimates intakes and interactions between particular food components [20]. ...
... It ensures the implementation of ethical manufacturing and good hygiene practices that guarantee quality technological processes and healthy and safe products. In this way, nutrient intake and its interactions with antinutrients [10], heavy metals [11], (myco) toxins [12][13][14][15], and pesticides [16] are monitored; thus, a holistic approach to the assessment of exosomes (which has advocated lately) is conducted [20,55]. ...
... 10Distribution of users according to body mass index (BMI ) shown in absolute and relative terms. ...
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Nutritional status is a series of related parameters collected using different available methods. In order to determine the nutritional status of elderly populations and ensure nutritional support based on an individual approach, the implementation of the increasingly used foodomics approach is available; this approach plays a key role in personalized diets and in the optimization of diets for a population group, such as an elderly population. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) method and the Nottingham Screening Tool (NST) form were used on 50 users in a home for the elderly in northwest Croatia. A loss of body mass (BM) was statistically significantly higher for those who had the following: decreased food intake in the last week and users who had complete and partial feeding autonomy. Additionally, the obtained data on drug intake, fluid, individual nutrients, and physical activity are based on an individual approach. The available documentation provides insight into nutritional values and food preparation in an attempt to satisfy a holistic approach in the evaluation of exposure while trying to achieve as many elements of foodomics as possible.
... ey are negatively charged structure due to which they attract the positively charged substances like minerals (Zn, Ca), forming insoluble complexes that are unavailable for digestion and absorption. Also, phytic acid reacts indirectly with the negatively charged group of proteins mediated by a positively charged mineral ions, which make protein undigestible to some amount [38]. Various studies indicate phytate cannot be digested by people nor nonruminant beings; therefore, it cannot be considered a source of inositol or phosphate when consumed directly. ...
... e majority of condensed tannins are flavan-3-ols, which are catechins, or flavan 3 : 4 diols, which are leucoanthocyanidins, whereas the majority of hydrolysable tannins include glucose or polyhydric alcohol esterified with gallic acid (gallotannins) or hexahydrodiphenic acid (ellagitannins). Ellagic acid is the stable dilactone of the latter [38]. Protease inhibitors, like trypsin inhibitors, generate pancreatic hyperplasia, which affects sulphur metabolism, hence lowering protein digestibility due to the ineffective utilization of other amino acids [2]. ...
... e sensitivity of tannins for different proteins varies, with proteins rich mostly in imino acid proline, like collagen of animal tissues as well as the alcohol-soluble reserve proteins of plant origin. As these proteins lack essential amino acids, tannins have a less detrimental impact on protein digestion than when tannins bind nonpreferentially or primarily to proteins rich in essential amino acids [38]. e tannin compounds are widely distributed in a variety of plants, and they are used as insecticides and in-plant growth regulators, as well as to guard against predators. ...
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Kodo and little millet (Kutki) have a variety of phytochemical constituents including derivatives of hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxycinnamic acids, myricetin, catechin, luteolin, apigenin, daidzein, naringenin, kaempferol, and quercetin with vast health benefits and thus can be utilized as functional food ingredients. Millet-based foods and their food products have physiological and health-promoting impacts, notably antidiabetic, anti-obesity, and cardiovascular disease, and based on the actions of phytochemicals, it plays a major role in the body’s immune system. However, antinutrients (tannins, oxalate, trypsin inhibitor, and phytates) present in these millets restrict their utilization since these factors bind the essential nutrients and make them unavailable. Therefore, this review suggested overcoming the effects of antinutrients in these millets, thereby opening up important applications in food industries that may promote the development of novel functional foods. Various methods were discussed to eliminate the antinutrient factors in these millets, and hence, the review holds immense significance to the food industry for effectively utilizing these millets to develop value-added RTE/RTC products/functional food/beverages.
... Phytate is a negatively charged structure that can bind with positively charged metal ions such as zinc, iron, magnesium and calcium in the digestive tract to form mineral complexes and reduce their bioavailability, eventually leading to mineral deficiency [64]. Thompson (1993) stated that consumption of a 10-60 mg/g phytate diet over a long period resulted in decreased bioavailability of minerals in monogastric animals [65]. Therefore, the phytate composition of all instant porridge powders might not pose a health hazard. ...
... Phytate is a negatively charged structure that can bind with positively charged metal ions such as zinc, iron, magnesium and calcium in the digestive tract to form mineral complexes and reduce their bioavailability, eventually leading to mineral deficiency [64]. Thompson (1993) stated that consumption of a 10-60 mg/g phytate diet over a long period resulted in decreased bioavailability of minerals in monogastric animals [65]. Therefore, the phytate composition of all instant porridge powders might not pose a health hazard. ...
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Undernutrition and mineral deficiencies negatively impact both the health and academic performance of school children, while diets high in phytic acid and some phenolics inhibit the absorption of minerals such as iron and zinc. This study developed instant porridge powders rich in iron and zinc using pregelatinized chickpea flour (PCPF) and pregelatinized foxtail millet flour (PFMF) and assessed the potential of utilizing roselle calyx powder (RCP) as a source of organic acids to enhance its iron and zinc bioaccessibility. Physical properties, nutrients, mineral inhibitors and in vitro iron and zinc bioaccessibility of different proportions of PCPF, PFMF and RCP in instant porridge powders were evaluated. Three instant porridge powder formulations including instant chickpea powder (ICP) using PCPF, instant composite flour (ICF) using PCPF and PFMF and instant pulse porridge powder (IPP) using PCPF, PFMF and RCP were developed. Results show that all instant porridge powders were accepted by sensory evaluation, while different ingredients impacted color, consistency and the viscosity index. Addition of RCP improved the bioaccessibility of iron (1.3–1.6-fold) and zinc (1.3–1.9-fold). A 70 g serving of these instant porridge powders substantially contributed to daily protein, iron and zinc requirement for children aged 7–9 years. These porridge powders hold potential to serve as school meals for young children in low-to-middle income countries.
... Saudi Arabian fenugreek seeds have cancerfighting capabilities that are equivalent to seeds from other parts of the world. Fenugreek seeds are consumed in most Asian nations (Thompson, 1993) and are imported from Saudi Arabia. ...
... Apoptosis is a type of cell death, and drugs that may cause apoptosis in tumors to have the potential which could be utilised as an anti-tumor treatment. Flavonoids have a wide spectrum of biological effects, and their ability to induce apoptosis has been established in a number of previous investigations (Thompson, 1993). Flavonoids and catechins were the first to be discovered as apoptotic in human cancer cells. ...
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Systematic review and meta-analysis criteria were used to plan and conduct this systematic review (PRISMA). Different literature of reviews explicit that Fibers, flavonoids, polysaccharides, and saponins are the principal chemical components of Trigonella foenum-graecum. Some of the components may have mitogenic actions, which result in immune-competent cells being restored. Some of these ingredients are also antioxidants and may have immune-stimulant characteristics. In vitro, the extract from the seeds of the fenugreek seed was found to be cytotoxic to numerous cancers, including T-cell lymphoma, but not to normal cells. Breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer cell lines showed growth inhibition after being treated with a specific amount of the extract. Diosgenin suppressed MCF-7 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, according to in vitro tests. Diosgenin's effect on a human mammary carcinoma cell line, as well as its therapeutic potential for N-nitroso-N-methyl urea-induced breast cancer. Fenugreek extracts and their isolated constituents have been revealed to have anti-cancer activities in several investigations. Trigonelline, Diosgenin, Protodioscin, and Dioscin were found to be the most potent anticancer ingredients in fenugreek. Furthermore, fenugreek seeds are high in many essential chemicals, which show asignificant role in the suppression and inhibition of various malignancies. In addition, studies on the estrogenic effects of fenugreek seeds in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated its potential as an HRT alternative.
... Phytates are generally found in the outer layer of the aleurone or endosperm (Deshpande & Cheryan, 1984). The phytates form insoluble complexes with minerals, especially essential minerals such as iron, zinc, magnesium and calcium, exhibiting 'chelating effect' and rendering them biologically unavailable for absorption, which may lead to severe mineral deficiency in human and animals (Thompson, 1993). Phytic acid also forms complex with proteins and decreases protein solubility. ...
... Phytic acid also forms complex with proteins and decreases protein solubility. Therefore, phytates reduce activities of key digestive enzymes, such as lipase, α-amylase, pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin (Thompson, 1993). It is also reported that phytic acid binds with starch through phosphate linkages (Muzquiz et al., 2012) and may also affect the starch digestibility by forming a ternary complexes of protein-phytate carbohydrates (Thompson et al., 1986). ...
Article
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Pulses are a rich source of protein and minerals particularly for the vegetarian and vegan population. However, several anti‐nutritional compounds, such as trypsin inhibitor, phenolic compounds, phytates, cyanogenic compounds, lectins and saponins are also found in the legumes. Most of the anti‐nutritional compounds of the pulses are present in the seed coat. Most of these compounds are sensitive to heat and can be substantially reduced by milling, cooking, germination, fermentation and heat processing. This review paper summarizes anti‐nutritional compounds present in different pulses including their fractions, significance and beneficial and adverse effect on human health. The aim of this paper is to enlighten the readers about the anti‐nutritional compounds present in the pulses and possible processing methods to enhance utilization of pulses.
... Antinutrients are the naturally occurring products present in plant foods, which reduce the nutritional availability in the body. They are secondary and tertiary metabolites produced by the plants as part of their natural defense mechanism [14][15][16]. Despite the few advantages of their presence, they are generally undesirable in food products [15]. ...
... They are secondary and tertiary metabolites produced by the plants as part of their natural defense mechanism [14][15][16]. Despite the few advantages of their presence, they are generally undesirable in food products [15]. Both conventional and novel thermal processing methods were found to be highly effective in alleviating both pathogens and antinutrients present in food, and this effectively dealing with the food safety concern [4,14,17]. ...
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There is increasing demand among consumers for food products free of chemical preservatives, minimally processed and have fresh-like natural flavors. To meet these growing demands, the industries and researchers are finding alternative processing methods, which involve nonthermal methods to obtain a quality product that meets the consumer demands and adheres to the food safety protocols. In the past two decades’ various research groups have developed a wide range of nonthermal processing methods, of which few have shown potential in replacing the traditional thermal processing systems. Among all the methods, ultrasonication (US) and pulsed electric field (PEF) seem to be the most effective in attaining desirable food products. Several researchers have shown that these methods significantly affect various major and minor nutritional components present in food, including proteins and enzymes. In this review, we are going to discuss the effect of nonthermal methods on proteins, including enzymes. This review comprises results from the latest studies conducted from all over the world, which would help the research community and industry investigate the future pathway for nonthermal processing methods, especially in preserving the nutritional safety and integrity of the food.
... known as haemagglutinins are an important group of biologically active proteins or glycoproteins naturally found in lentils, with an ability to bind and agglutinate red blood cells (Wang et al., 2021;Sahu et al., 2020;Mejia and Prisecaru, 2005). Lectins are specific to binding to both sugars and their toxicity on the cell membranes (Sarup Singh et al., 2016;Thompson, 1993). The ability of lectins from lentils to reduce the risk of certain cancers and for the treatment and prophylaxis of retroviral infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, make it a suitable candidate to be used as functional foods in food as well as pharmaceutical industries (Benayad and Aboussaleh, 2021;Faris et al., 2013). ...
... including tannins and tannin related compounds, occur in noticeable amounts in the testa of lentils, and form complexes with proteins by reacting with lysine or methionine, thus reducing the digestibility of protein and decreasing the availability of amino acids (Thompson, 1993). On the other hand, the degree of polymerization of these polyphenols into condensed tannins plays a key role in protein digestibility and availability (Cirkovic Velickovic & Stanic-Vucinic, 2018;Pal et al., 2017). ...
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Lentil (Lens Culinaris Medikus subsp. culinaris) occupies a key position in the plant protein-based vegetarian diet. Being an excellent source of human nutrition, potential applications of lentils as a food source has not yet been explored scientifically due to their lower digestibility, presence of anti-nutritional constituents, and poor cooking characteristics. Commonly used lentil processing techniques involving thermal treatment have been extensively overworked, however, since they are associated with various undesirable changes, thus, alternative non-thermal processing techniques have been gaining increased research attention. This paper reviews the current knowledge and recent findings on the effect of treatment conditions on anti-nutrient compositions of lentils, using various non-thermal processing techniques such as milling, soaking, elicitation, germination, fermentation, high-pressure processing, radiation processing, ultrafiltration and isoelectric precipitation, and ultrasonication followed by understanding their underlying mechanisms. To exploit the potential of lentils to harness the emerging global demand of plant proteins, these non-thermal techniques are being extensively researched along with the changes associated their anti-nutritional profiles. Based on the review of present literature, it can be concluded that non-thermal processing would be an effective way to increase the digestibility of lentil nutrients with minimal change to lentil antinutrient composition, thereby enabling the consumers to even utilize the health benefits of these antinutrients.
... These antinutritional compounds are present in various types of plants and in different amounts. 99,100 Tannins, for example, are phenolic compounds that are bitter in taste and that can bind or precipitate protein and various other organic compounds, such as amino acids and alkaloids. Thus, tannins are said to reduce protein digestibility in animals and humans. ...
... 37 Phytic acid causes a decrease in the bioavailability of several essential minerals and forms complexes with protein through direct interaction or mediated with metal ions. 100 Binding thermodynamic analyses between phytate and various divalent metal ions reveal dissociation constants in the micromolar range, especially for Fe 2+ and Ca 2+ . The binding constants were found to be dependent on pH. ...
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With the steadily growing world population, effective methods are needed to alleviate food shortages. One possible strategy could be to utilize agro-waste materials that accumulate in large quantities at every stage of the economic chain during harvesting, food production, and consumption. Peel-based agro-waste consists of promising materials that can be utilized to potentially substitute commonly used raw materials in products traditionally made from wheat, tapioca, and rice flours. In this systematic review, we aim at establishing prospective proximate components as basic nutrients and their valorization potential as substitutes in traditional flour products (bread, biscuits, etc.). Generally, the peel contains high levels of fiber and relatively low digestible carbohydrates, providing a healthier food ingredient. In terms of protein, it should be pointed out that seeds such as wheat utilize insoluble gluten as their major storage protein, while proteins in peel were found in quite high percentage although they were not yet well characterized. However, the general effect of using peel to substitute wheat in food products are the reduction of dough elasticity, increased hardness of the end-products, faster water absorption rate of the products, and in some cases, bitter taste and darker colors. The latter two could have been contributed by the secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds. On the other hand, substitution of peel into food products can have valuable health benefits, e.g., retention of antioxidant activity due to the phenolic compounds or simply adding fiber. In this review, literature on the composition of promising agro-waste raw materials is being discussed in the relationship with physical properties and appearance of potential end-products. Antinutritional compounds and pretreatment processes are also being considered. It is hoped that a critical discussion will lead to a better understanding and higher acceptance of the incorporation of peel into food products.
... Ethanolic stem extracts of C. dichogamus were seen to contain phytosterols like b-sitosterol that lower the serum cholesterol levels in humans and animals by preventing the endogenous and exogenous cholesterol absorption [32] . The methanolic stem extract of C. dichogamus was reported to contain saponins with an amphiphilic structure that bind with dietary cholesterol and with bile acids to prevent cholesterol absorption [10] . ...
... Hypolipidemic outcome was observed in assay with trans dehydrocrotonin from one Croton species, C. cajucara [4] . Pharmacological studies have also linked the hypocholesteremia activity to Croton species to the presence of clerodane diterpenoids, acetyl aleuritolic acid [4] , saponins and polyphenols [32] . This has substantiated the folkloric use of C.dichogamus in the management of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease [10] . ...
Article
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Croton dichogamus Pax (Euphorbiaceae) has been used widely in traditional ethnopharmacological practices against a wide number of ailments. The pharmacological activities, phytochemical composition and its safety aspects have been covered in a number of articles. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive literature overview regarding botanical description, phytochemical composition, local uses, pharmacology and toxicological effects of crude extracts, fractions and isolated compounds obtained using different solvent systems. The review was compiled through a thorough literature search from authentic resources using Google, Google Scholar, Medline, PubMed, Chemical abstracts, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, peer reviewed articles, books and thesis. Croton dichogamus is an important ethnomedicinal plant used traditionally for the treatment of tuberculosis and other respiratory tract infections, stomach ache, fever, sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis and gonorrhea, impotence, arthritis, tooth ache, infertility and malaria. Pharmacological and toxicological studies performed on the fresh plant parts and crude extracts prepared using different extraction solvents validates the ethnomedicinal utilization of Croton dichogamus. Studies performed validate the use of Croton dichogamus extracts in antimicrobial, antioxidative and antiproliferative therapy. Information on therapeutic validation in analgesia, hypertension, wound healing, gastrointestinal motility and diabetes mellitus is scanty. To further advance the local use of Croton dichogamus in the above-mentioned illnesses, there is an urgent need for further studies to validate the traditionally reported anecdotal efficacy and safety. Data on safety of various crude extracts of Croton dichogamus is also scanty. However, the available information on toxicology of Croton dichogamus suggests it is safe. The current review supports in part, the ethnomedicinal use of the medicinal plant. However, in-depth studies aimed at efficacy and safety evaluation, in addition to identification of compounds responsible for the reported activities is required. This information will support steps towards discovery of novel ligands with activity against illnesses reported above.
... The problem with phytates in food is that it can bind some essential mineral nutrients in digestive tract and (cucurbita maxima duch ex lam) Obtained from Duvu Mubi South Adamawa State, Nigeria can result in mineral deficiencies [6]. The phytates composition of the sample might not pose any health hazard when compared to phytates diet of 10 -60 mg/100 g which if consumed over a long period of time that has been reported to decrease bioavailability of minerals in mono gastric animals [35] The concentration of cyanide in the seed was 0.026 ± 0.00% and 0.062 ± 0.00% for peels flour and unpeeled seed flour respectively while in peeled seed kernel cyanide was not detected. This shows that the level of the acid in the sample is within the acceptable range for human consumption. ...
... Tannins in fruits impart astringent taste that affects palatability, reduce food intake and consequently body growth. Phytate consumption (10-60 mg/g) over a long period of time has been reported to decrease bioavailabilty of minerals in monogastric animals (Thompson, 1993). Oxalate binds calcium, thus, preventing its absorption in the body. ...
Article
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Background: Lesser known fruits are often poorly consumed compared to the imported variety and we do not have data base of their nutritive contents. Materials and methods: The brix, pH, titratable acidity, proximate, vitamin, mineral content and antioxidant activity a of juice from ten local lesser known and imported fruits: Solanum melongena L (Eggplant), Annona muricata (Soursop), Citrus reticulata (Clementine), Ribes uva-crispa L (Gooseberry), Cucumis melo (Golden melon), Vitis vinifera (White grape), Actinidia chinensis (Kiwi), Litchi chinensis (Lychee), Prunus persica (Peach), Prunus domestica (Plum) and Punica granatum (Pomegranate) were evaluated. Results: The pH varied from 2.55-5.85; S. melongena L had the lowest brix and carbohydrate but highest protein contents (3.88±0.18%, 4.91 ±0.83% and 4.61± 0.13%) respectively. The ash content ranges from 0.52±0.14% in V. vinifera to 1.46 ±0.12% in S. melongena L. Lipids levels were very low (0.29±0.05%-1.31±0.13%). All juice samples had low fibre and high moisture contents. Vitamins concentrations varied Ascorbic acid (9.18±0.52-32.06±1.28 mg/100ml), vitamin E (0.11±0.03-1.95±0.21 mg/100ml), vitamin A (0.45±0.13-7.01±0.28 mg/100ml), β-carotene (7.34±1.20-152.96±10.55 µg/g), riboflavin (0.06±0.02-0.54±0.08 mg/100ml) and thiamine (0.27±0.04-2.22±0.17 mg/100ml). All the fruit juices contained Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, K and Zn except C. reticulata which was lacking in Cu and Zn. C. melo had the lowest while P. granatum had the highest antioxidant Conclusion: Generally, all the samples had poor reducing power ability, iron chelating ability and DPPH radical scavenging ability. All fruits showed excellent total antioxidant activity and A. muricata had the highest value. S. melongena had low brix and high fibre content.
... Sorgam has anticarcinogenic properties and antimutagenic property due to presence of tannins and polyphenoals (Grimmer et al., 1992). Millet grains are rich in phenolic acids, tannins, and phytate that act as "antinutrients" (Thompson 1993). A recent study has showed that phenolics of millets may be effective in the prevention of cancer initiation and progression in vitro (Chandrasekara and Shahidi 2011). ...
Article
Raising population at global level needs solving the problems related to food and health due imbalance use of fast foods of high calories. The problems of obesity, diabetes, cardiac arrests, porous bones, depressions etc. are so called general diseases of modern era. So many cereals are available which economically feasible and tasty but not healthy. At present people are very conscious with health. Millets are one of the best solution to found highly nutritious and health benefits in pandemic era. Researchers are proving that millet has a better option to other cereals. It contains energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. Value added products of millets are possible to solve negative effect of agriculture and food security. So the review focused on millet nutritive value, health benefits, processing techniques with their value added products to enhance consumption of health.
... High levels of saponins reduce the biological availability of micronutrients, but positive effects have also been reported (Thompson 1993). Oligosaccharides and hemagglutinin are substances responsible for indigestion induced after consumption (Fleming 1981). ...
Chapter
Lentil is an ancient legume crop cultivated thousands of years for its nutritious seeds, its ability to improve soil colonized by nitrogen fixing symbiotic bacteria, and providing income to local farmers at semiarid areas. During the centuries, numerous landraces and traditional varieties have been developed, providing a wealth of genetic material for lentil cultivation and use by local communities worldwide. However, current improved lentil varieties suffer from many biotic and abiotic challenges, and breeding new cultivars should exploit the breadth of genetic potential reserved within the Lens gene pool. Landraces and wild relatives are more tolerant to adverse environmental conditions and can provide valuable genes to develop improved varieties in modern agriculture, adapted to environmental abiotic and biotic stresses, suitable as well for other industrial non-food uses, such as biomass production and use as energy crop. Molecular tools to assist breeding efforts in lentil are less well developed in comparison with other crops, although progress has been made in germplasm characterization using molecular markers. Genomic research is delayed by the large (4.3 GB) lentil genome size, and progress towards the release of the complete lentil genome sequence is expected to accelerate breeding efforts. In this chapter we review current knowledge on lentil domestication and landrace distribution, cultivar improvement and breeding, efforts to characterize abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, the research strategies and major advancements made by modern molecular technologies for identification and utilization of important markers/QTLs in lentil breeding, and future prospects for this important legume crop.
... High levels of saponins reduce the biological availability of micronutrients, but positive effects have also been reported (Thompson 1993). Oligosaccharides and hemagglutinin are substances responsible for indigestion induced after consumption (Fleming 1981). ...
Chapter
Lentil is an ancient legume crop cultivated thousands of years for its nutritious seeds, its ability to improve soil colonized by nitrogen fixing symbiotic bacteria, and providing income to local farmers at semiarid areas. During the centuries, numerous landraces and traditional varieties have been developed, providing a wealth of genetic material for lentil cultivation and use by local communities worldwide. However, current improved lentil varieties suffer from many biotic and abiotic challenges, and breeding new cultivars should exploit the breadth of genetic potential reserved within the Lens gene pool. Landraces and wild relatives are more tolerant to adverse environmental conditions and can provide valuable genes to develop improved varieties in modern agriculture, adapted to environmental abiotic and biotic stresses, suitable as well for other industrial non-food uses, such as biomass production and use as energy crop. Molecular tools to assist breeding efforts in lentil are less well developed in comparison with other crops, although progress has been made in germplasm characterization using molecular markers. Genomic research is delayed by the large (4.3 GB) lentil genome size, and progress towards the release of the complete lentil genome sequence is expected to accelerate breeding efforts. In this chapter we review current knowledge on lentil domestication and landrace distribution, cultivar improvement and breeding, efforts to characterize abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, the research strategies and major advancements made by modern molecular technologies for identification and utilization of important markers/QTLs in lentil breeding, and future prospects for this important legume crop.
... Simple processing methods like soaking, germination, steaming, fermentation (Sripriya et al. 1997), malting (Platel et al. 2010;Rateesh et al. 2012), decortication (Dharmaraj and Malleshi 2010) and popping improve the bioavailability of various abundant micro-nutrients of finger millet grains. However, polyphenols, phytates and tannins which were once considered as "anti-nutrients" due to their metal chelating and enzyme inhibition activities (Thompson 1993) are nowadays termed as nutraceuticals. ...
Article
Main conclusion Diverse gene pool, advanced plant phenomics and genomics methods enhanced genetic gain and understanding of important agronomic, adaptation and nutritional traits in finger millet. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) is an important minor millet for food and nutritional security in semi-arid regions of the world. The crop has wide adaptability and can be grown right from high hills in Himalayan region to coastal plains. It provides food grain as well as palatable straw for cattle, and is fairly climate resilient. The crop has large gene pool with distinct features of both Indian and African germplasm types. Interspecific hybridization between Indian and African germplasm has resulted in greater yield enhancement and disease resistance. The crop has shown numerous advantages over major cereals in terms of stress adaptation, nutritional quality and health benefits. It has indispensable repository of novel genes for the benefits of mankind. Although rapid strides have been made in allele mining in model crops and major cereals, the progress in finger millet genomics is lacking. Comparative genomics have paved the way for the marker-assisted selection, where resistance gene homologues of rice for blast and sequence variants for nutritional traits from other cereals have been invariably used. Transcriptomics studies have provided preliminary understanding of the nutritional variation, drought and salinity tolerance. However, the genetics of many important traits in finger millet is poorly understood and need systematic efforts from biologists across disciplines. Recently, deciphered finger millet genome will enable identification of candidate genes for agronomically and nutritionally important traits. Further, improvement in genome assembly and application of genomic selection as well as genome editing in near future will provide plethora of information and opportunity to understand the genetics of complex traits.
... The seeds also contains Ca (344 mg/100 g), phytates (0.48%), polyphenols, tannins (0.61%), trypsin inhibitors and dietary fiber. Due to their enzyme inhibition activities are called as antinutrients (Thompson, 1993). But nowadays they are termed as neutraceuticals have an antioxidant activity which is beneficial for aging, health and metabolic diseases (Bravo, 1998). ...
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Induced mutations is the best method to improve genetic variation within short time. Creation of genetic variation by induced mutations proved best for strengthening crop improvement programmes and represents a more efficient source of genetic variability than the gene pool protects by nature. In the present investigation seeds of finger millet were treated with different doses of gamma rays (GR) ranging from 200, 300 and 400Gy, varying concentration of ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4% and Sodium azide (SA) 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04%. Variations in the germination percent of seeds, seedling height, seedling injury and survival of plant at maturity of finger millet were recorded in M1 generation. The effects of the mutagenic treatments on quantitative traits resulting in reduction in traits such as percent seed germination except 200Gy (85.16%), 0.2% EMS (83.53%) and 0.02% SA (86.65%), seedling height except 200Gy (6.59cm), 0.2%EMS (6.54cm) and 0.02%SA (6.98cm) while survival of plant at maturity except 200Gy (79.26%), 0.2% EMS (78.41%) and 0.02%SA (81.54%) but increases seedling injury except 200Gy (-01.86%), 0.2% EMS (-01.08%) and 0.02%SA (-07.88%) was observed in treated M1 generated plants.
... In addition, saponins also affect the permeability of the small intestinal mucosal cells and subsequently influence active nutrient transport.Potential health benefits from the consumption of food saponins include a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and cancers. Dietary saponins also have inhibit in vivo human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity (Thompson, 1993). ...
Chapter
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Plants synthesize a large variety of secondary metabolites which have no apparent direct metabolic functions but these substances are produced as to fulfil specific ecological functions and act as natural pesticides in plants. Plants are important source of food for many animals, pathogenic microorganisms and herbivores. Therefore, to protect themselves, plants have evolved several strategies that make them indigestible or poisonous. Many plants protect themselves by producing toxic proteins, glycosides, alkaloids, isoprenoids, and phenylpropanoids which impair the digestion of herbivores. The consumption of these substances by farm or domestic animals or humans may cause adverse physiological effects. The term antinutritional factors or antinutrients or phytochemical or natural pesticide have been widely employed in food and nutritional literature to describe these defence metabolites. They interfere with the absorption of minerals, vitamins and other nutrients. These compounds Trends & Prospects in Processing of Horticultural Crops 302 are very specific and showing their biological effects which mainly depends upon the structure of individual compound. They have range from toxic proteins, protein or peptide inhibitors to oligosaccharides and amino acids. A large section of world's population depends on pulses and legumes as their main source of protein. The limiting factors of its utilization potential include presence of anti-nutrients (trypsin, chymotrypsin, α-amylase inhibitors, phytic acid, flatus factors saponins and lectins etc.). These factors influence the bioavailability and absorption of nutrients by humans and also in animals when used as feed. Some of these anti-nutrients have been shown to be harmful to human-beings and animal's health but they had health benefits also when consumed in appropriate amounts after adequate processing. However, substances which are toxic for animals are also toxic for humans. Therefore, toxic or inedible secondary metabolites from pulses and legumes have been removed or decreased by several approaches. This chapter will focus on antinutritional factors found in pulses and legumes and different processing methods for reducing them.
... In contrast, hemp seeds contain some anti-nutrients, most remarkably phytic acid and trypsin inhibitors [154]. Owing to the contradictory effects of these compounds on the human digestive system, their utilization in the food system has been controversial [155,156]. Hemp seed is also rich in polyphenols, primarily hydroxycinnamic and lignanamide. Several chemical and in vitro experiments show the anti-radical potential of these compounds [157][158][159]. ...
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Dietary fiber (DF) has wide applications, especially in the food and pharmaceutical industries due to its health-promoting effects and potential techno-functional properties in developing functional food products. There is a growing interest in studies related to DF; nevertheless, there is less focus on the fractionation and characterization of DF. The characteristics of DF fractions explain their functionality in food products and provide clues to their physiological effects in food and pharmaceutical industrial applications. The review focuses on a brief introduction to DF and methods for its fractionation. It discusses the characterization of DF in terms of structural, physicochemical and rheological properties. The potential sources of DF from selected defatted oilseeds for future studies are highlighted.
... Nowadays, people are paying increasing attention to the impact of diet on their overall wellness. Plant-based foods contain numerous phytochemical compounds, which play a key role in enzymatic and chemical reactions during food processing and thereby may affect human health in both positive and negative ways (Karak, 2019;Thompson, 1993). One of the most promising categories of these compounds is flavonoids and their derivatives. ...
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Flavonoids are a ubiquitous group of phytochemicals with diverse bioactivities. They are widely distributed in numerous plant-based foods with potential health benefits. Humans directly consume flavonoid-rich foods or ingest them after food processing or cooking. These processes may exert either a positive or negative impact on the stability and bioactivity of flavonoid compounds. In this review, the impacts of different food processing methods on flavonoid contents in various food sources were systematically summarized. Moreover, the influence of the structural characteristics on the stability of flavonoids was also discussed. Notably, according to the recently reported studies on flavonoid-rich foods subjected to some nonthermal treatments, the increased retention of flavonoid contents and improved antioxidant activities can be found. The current review focusing on variations of flavonoids under different processing conditions can provide a theoretical reference for maintaining flavonoid compounds in the food matrix during food processing.
... They are cheap, easy to cook and are rich sources of macro-and micronutrients. Consistent consumption of vegetables is also recommended for better health and for management of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular complications, diabetes and cancer [22,23]. ...
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Background Wild edible plants (WEPs) have an important role for rural communities in safeguarding food security, nutritive variation and continued earnings. Their significance, management and utilization are not fully documented. Objectives are to identify and document wild and semi-wild edible plants (WSWEPs) and their conservation status in Berek natural forest, Oromia special zone. Methods Various data collection tools were employed to gather data on WSWEPs. Ethnobotanical data were collected from 142 household representatives (77 men and 65 women) being at least 14 years old. Most of them (73.9%) had not received formal education. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, preference ranking, paired comparison, direct matrix ranking and informant consensus factor. Results A total of 34 useful WSWEP species belonging to 32 genera and 24 families were collected and identified. The family Rosaceae had the highest number of species (five species, 14.7%), followed by Anacardiaceae and Solanaceae with three species (8.8%) each. Growth form analysis showed that the majority of the species were trees (14 species; 41.2%), followed by herbs and shrubs (10 species each, 29.4%. These edible plants were available in different seasons; 15 (44%) of the plant species reached maturity in spring season while seven species (20.6%) were found in all seasons and eight (23.6%) species were able to reach maturity in autumn and winter. Although most of the local communities have an intimate relationship with their natural environment, there are common threats to WSWEPs and their habitat, particularly through overgrazing, fragmentation of the vegetation for agricultural expansion, introduction of exotic species, selective logging for construction purpose and charcoal making. Conclusion WSWEPs are valuable resources for improving the environment, food and nutritional security and income of households in rural areas. Moreover, to sustainably use edible plant species of the study area local communities and the Forest Administration should collaborate in managing these resources before becoming critically endangered.
... In this study, the evaluated diets presented reduction not only of Ca and P, but also of ME and CP. It is known that phytate dephosphorylation reduces chelating capacity and increases digestibility not only of Ca and P, but also of energy and amino acids , in addition to nutrients such as Ca, Fe, Zn (Carnovale et al., 1988), and proteins (Thompson, 1993;Slominski, 2011) in the digestive tract of monogastric animals (Slominski, 2011). Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of phytase, alone or in combination with other enzymes, to provide bird performance and uniformity when subjected to nutrient-deficient diets (Ravindran et al., 2000;Cowieson and Adeola, 2005;Jlali et al., 2020). ...
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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the reduction of calcium (Ca), crude protein (CP), metabolizable energy (ME), and available phosphorus (aP) in the nutritional matrix of Brazilian commercial broiler diets supplemented with both phytase superdosing (1500 FTU/kg) or conventional doses (500 FTU/kg) on the feed cost and profitability, performance, bone mineralization, and carcass yield of broiler from 1 to 42 d. A total 1200 one-day-old chicks (Cobb 500) were randomly distributed in a commercial feeding program composed of a positive control diet and three diets with reduction of Ca, aP, CP, and ME in the nutritional matrix supplemented with 500, 1000, and 1500 FTU/kg of phytase. The broilers subjected to diets with phytase superdosing presented similar performance, bone ash, and carcass yield, among the treatments. There was a linear effect in the total nutrition cost, gross margin, and estimated net margin per bird with the increase of dietary inclusion of phytase in all purposed scenarios. Thus, for each 500 FTU/kg of dietary phytase included in the diet with reduction of Ca, P, ME, and CP in the nutritional matrix, the total nutrition cost decreased R$ 0.072/bird,
... It is stored in cereals, legumes, and other plant tissues such as roots (Reddy et al. 1989;Luo et al. 2002;Huang et al. 2006). Some studies have reported the anti-nutritional effects of phytic acid due to its high chelating properties (Thompson 1993;Tambe et al. 1994). Under the physiological conditions, multiple negative charges on the surface of phytate are able to chelate metal ions and proteins in feeds and foods. ...
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Heat- and pH-stable phytase efficiently hydrolyzes phytic acid. In this research, heat- and pH-stable mutant phytases, T83R, L287R, and T83R/L287R were generated by site-directed mutagenesis from Yersinia intermedia. After the induction and expression of recombinant wild-type and mutant phytases in E. coli BL21, the enzymes were purified using nickel sepharose affinity chromatography, and characterized kinetically and thermodynamically using spectroscopy methods. The mutants showed optimum activity at pH 5.15 and 55–61 °C. The catalytic efficiencies of T83R, L287R, T83R/L287R, and wild-type phytases were calculated to be 2941, 29346, 4906, and 6917 mmol/L−1s−1, respectively. Moreover, after the incubation of T83R, L287R, wild-type, and T83R/ L287R phytases at 100 °C for 1 h, the enzymes retained 22, 5, 4, and 2% of their initial activities, respectively. In addition, T83R, T83R/L287R, L287R, and wild-type phytases retained 82, 44, 16 as well as 11% of their initial activities after 1 h at pH 5.15, respectively. Among these mutants, T83R mutant showed 18% increase in thermal stability, 71% increase in pH stability, and +0.103 KJ/mole increase in ΔΔG, while the catalytic efficiency and ΔΔG value of L287R mutant increased by 4 times and +0.0903 KJ/mole, respectively. Thus, the mutants have the potential to be used in feed industries to increase the bioavailability of minerals while decreasing soil and water pollution.
... antinutritional factors of ragi like phytic acid and tannins have their own health benefits. Dietary phytate was reported to prevent kidney stone formation (Grases et al., 2000), protect against diabetes mellitus (Thompson, 1993), caries (Kaufman & Kleinberg, 1971), atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (Jariwalla, Sabin, Lawson, & Herman, 1990) as well as against a variety of cancers (Vucenik & Shamsuddin, 2003). Tannins exhibit antioxidant and anti-fungal properties (Siwela, 2009). ...
Article
The main aim of this study was to prepare thekua with the incorporation of germinated finger millet also known as ragi, flour and to perform its sensory as well as physicochemical analysis. The wheat flour and finger millet (ragi) flour were mixed with variation at the proportion of 87.5:12.5, 81.25:18.75, 100:0, 75:25 and 93.75:6.25 labeled as samples A, B, C, D and E respectively., while semolina (20 g), sugar (30 g), oil (20 g) and water (20 g) were kept constant for every formulation. The FFA and acid value of the oil used was found to be 0.110±0.02 and 0.221±0.03 respectively. The moisture content of sugar used was found to be 0.16±0.01. Sample ‘E’ was considered best as per the acceptability by panelists and had crude fiber (%), calcium content (mg/100g), tannin (mg/100g), phytate (mg/100g), carbohydrate and total energy (Kcal/100g) of 0.24±0.01, 18.6±0.02, 27.03±0.86, 135.97±1.15, 64.42±0.04 and 512.41±0.07 respectively. Increase in fiber content and minerals was seen in best sample product with the incorporation of germinated finger millet (ragi) flour.
... Finger millet is also known to possess tannins (0.61%), polyphenols (0.2-3.0%) and phytates (0.48%). [105] It is also rich in methionine, an essential amino acid that is missing in the diets of most of the poor population of the country and thus, suggesting the use of millets for treating the malnutrition in vulnerable sections of society. ...
Article
Wheat is a widely consumed crop across the world. Its flavour, aroma, and taste has been successful in attracting people to include this cereal as a part of their staple diet. However, wheat gluten protein primarily consisting of gliadin and glutenin limits their consumption in certain susceptible population. Various gluten disorders that has been associated with their consumption suggests the introduction of gluten-free breads and other baked products in the diet. However, the structural, functional, and rheological properties offered by gluten to the dough could not be replaced, and hence, this study suggests the use of millets as an alternative diet. Millets not only protect from gluten sensitivities but also provide all other essential micro- and macronutrients required for the growth and metabolism of the body. They also hold potential in eradicating the malnutrition owning to their high nutritional, phenolic, and other antioxidant elements, indicating their probability to help in achieving a major sustainable goal related to good health and well-being. Despite offering a wide variety of health benefits, the consumer acceptability of millets is quite low at the moment. This paper is a wake-up call for the researchers and farmers to gear up in popularizing millets and their associated products and in improving the limitations associated with the shelf life of certain millets. Different physical processing technologies in the production of traditional and modern millet based food products are also discussed in this paper, providing an overview of how various major millets can be used in promoting the health security with lesser dependency on environmental conditions for their growth and production.
... Millet grains are rich with phenolic compounds like phenolic acids, flavonoids, and tannins which make it antinutrients [68] that reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer in animals [2,69]. In an in vivo study [70] explained the anti-cancer property of a novel 35kD protein named Fibroin-modulator-binding protein (FMBP) extracted from foxtail millet supresses the growth of colon cancer cells inducing G1 phase arrest and through the loss of mitochondrial trans membrane potential that results in apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the colon cancer cells through caspase activation. ...
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In the era of 21st century, rapid urbanisation, climate change, increased population, scarcity of water and increased dry land are the factors responsible for the worldwide agricultural and nutritional challenges. As a widely cultivated popular grain in arid and semiarid regions across the globe, Millets can act as a multifaceted solution to the above global challenges because of their rich vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and anti-oxidant content. In addition to vitamins, Millets are the rich source of flavanoids such as apigenin, catechin, daisein, orientin, isoorientin, lutolin, quercetin, vitexin, isovitexin, myricetin sponarin, violanthin, lucenin-1, and tricin. Further, the presence of essential amino acids enriches the nutritive potential of Millets. The rich anti-oxidant content in Millets reduces oxidative stress in human and animal models by significantly minimizing Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation. Several bioactive principles in Millets are known to decrease cardiovascular risk, diabetes, ageing and even cancer. However, nutritive and therapeutic potentials of bioactive compounds found in Millets are underexplored and a systematic review encompassing available data in literature is grossly missing. The aim of this review is to compile the recent advances that have been carried out covering nutritional properties, processing technologies and their effects in reducing anti-nutritional factors enhancing nutrient bioavailability along with the potential health benefits of millets. Consumption of various traditional and modern millet based food and studies conducted in examining the bioavailability of minerals after consuming millet based food is also discussed in this review.
... El ácido fítico también disminuye el riesgo de cáncer, debido a la quelación del Fe 3+ y la supresión de la formación En niveles de 0.2 a 9% de ácido fítico en la dieta se reducen significativamente los niveles plasmáticos de colesterol y triglicéridos (Jariwalla, 1999). Esto parece estar relacionado con la capacidad del ácido fítico de unirse al Zn disminuyendo los niveles séricos de Zn y la razón Zn/Cu, ya que altos valores en esta relación tienden a predisponer al hombre a enfermedades cardiovasculares, por ejemplo, hipercolesterolemia (Thompson, 1993). ...
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Colon cancer is a multifactorial disease whose progression is associated with the gradual accumulation of genetic and epigenetic mutations, besides exogenous factors such chronic inflammation, oxidative stress or eating habits. It has been proposed that plant-based foods like fruits, cereals, and legumes can inhibit carcinogenesis, especially colon carcinogenesis, due to the presence of fiber, protein, and various secondary metabolites, which can inhibit carcinogenic lesions in early stages, induce apoptosis, increase the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the colon. As well as modulate the metabolism of carcinogenic compounds. In this work, a compilation of the advantages of the consumption of legumes and some of the compounds present in them that can prevent chronicdegenerative diseases and specifically colon cancer was made.
... It has the highest calcium content among all cereals (344 mg/100 g). However, the millet also contains phytates (0.48%), polyphenols, tannins (0.61%), trypsin inhibitory factors, and dietary fibre [2]. Phytates, polyphenols and tannins can contribute to antioxidant activity of the millet foods, which is an important factor in health, aging and metabolic related diseases [3]. ...
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Introduction Climate change, water scarcity, increasing population, rising food cost, and other socioeconomic impact are expected to generate a great threat to agriculture and food security worldwide. These pose a greater challenge to researchers and nutritionists to scrutinise the opportunities to produce, process and utilize others potential food sources such as small millets to fight against hunger and poverty. In this context, small millets are an important source of nutrients with wider adaptability to changing climate. These Small millets are small seeded crops belonging to grass family and they include six crops viz., Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), Kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumentacea) and little millet (Panicum sumatrense). Among small millets, finger millet is one of the most nutritious crop, which contains about 5-8% protein, 1-2% ether extract, 65-75% carbohydrates, 15-20% dietary fibre and 2.5-3.5% minerals [1] markedly higher than those of wheat (1.2 % fibre, 1.5% minerals) and rice (0.2% fibre, 0.6% minerals). It has the highest calcium content among all cereals (344 mg/100 g). However, the millet also contains phytates (0.48%), polyphenols, tannins (0.61%), trypsin inhibitory factors, and dietary fibre [2]. Phytates, polyphenols and tannins can contribute to antioxidant activity of the millet foods, which is an important factor in health, aging and metabolic related diseases [3]. The higher fibre content of it helps in many ways as it prevents constipation, high cholesterol formation and intestinal cancer. Hence, people suffering from diabetics are advised to eat finger millet and other small millets instead of rice [4]. Thus, the demand for finger millet as increased due to its health benefits. Traditionally, it is consumed in variety of forms, such as unleavened bread (roti), mudde, thin or thick porridge, and fermented porridge, and also used in brewing. However, the dark colour of grains has been the major hindrance for its acceptability by children. In this preview a thought on white finger millet has arisen. Among both brown and white grain types, white grain types are preferred because of their high protein, low fibre, low tannins and higher consumer acceptability [5].
... This association reduces the digestive activity of amylase, and ultimately digestion of carbohydrates slows down, which results in lowering of glucose levels in blood. Tannins are also reported to have binding ability to glucose molecules, thus reducing their availability for absorption in blood (Thompson 1993). ...
Chapter
Dandelion is prominently known as a weed. Several records have revealed its existence to live on a global basis. Dandelion acts as an excellent diuretic as well as blood and liver cleanser. It imparts numerous health benefits such as protection from ailments such as anaemia, liver cirrhosis and rheumatism apart from acting as potent anticancerous and anti-coagulatory agent. It grows on temperate regions of the world, along the roadsides, banks and prominently in areas with damp soils. The leaves of dandelion have received tremendous attention from researchers owing to the various chemical and pharmacological properties exhibited by them. It works as a folk medicine for the treatment of boils, fever and sore throat. Dandelion has shown widespread adaptability by surviving in manifold conditions. It has been also reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties which are attributed mainly to phenolics that are mainly more concentrated in the leaves than in the roots. There is sufficient data which have highlighted the significance of extracts from various species of dandelion such as Taraxacum officinale, Taraxacum coreanum and Taraxacum mongolicum to be utilized as an anti-inflammatory.
... The higher level anti-nutrients of phytate and tannins could affect the bioavailability of nutritional compounds which affect the digestion process. The adequate amount of phytate is 10-60 mg/g in a day and high concentrations of tannins (76-90 g/kg) may cause some side effects [39,40]. The antinutritional composition of fruit is presented in Table 1. ...
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The wild edible fruits are basic food sources and these contain potential dietary compounds which provide a healthy diet. Such wild edible fruits play an important role in supplementing the diet and livelihood of rural/tribal communities. Thus, the present study determined the nutritive values of Phoenix loureiroi fruit by screening the phytochemical compounds, organic acids and polyphenolics along with the evaluation of cytotoxic activity. The nutritional composition revealed high contents of total proteins (36.30 mg BSAE/g dry fruit), total free amino acids (6.15 mg LE/g dry fruit), reducing sugars (85.40 mg GE/g dry fruit), vitamin E (2.50 mg TE/g dry fruit) and sodium (1.26 mg/g dry fruit) at Rutab stage of maturation. Anti-nutritional compositions of fruit were found to be chymotrypsin inhibitors (3.31 CIU/mg protein), trypsin inhibitors (0.01 TIU/mg protein) and phytate (0.42 g phytate/100 g dry fruit) contents. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) separation demonstrated that fruit contains a high amount of essential (tryptophan, 41.30 mg/g dry fruit) and non-essential (tyrosine, 25.70 mg/g dry fruit) amino acids. The total phenolics concentration was found to be 49.68 mg GAE/100 g dry fruit. Liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the fruit contained high amounts of fructose (0.12 mg/g dry fruit), ascorbic acid (2.80 mg/g dry fruit), catechin (3.78 mg/g dry fruit) and succinic acid (1.57 mg/g dry fruit). The bioactive compounds of fruit extract inhibited the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (IC50 = 8.51 µg/mL). The cell viability value (65.87%) on fibroblast L929 cell lines indicates fruit extract was safe up to 1000 µg/mL concentration. The results revealed that the P. loureiroi fruit was rich in nutraceutical compounds and could be used for the development of safe natural products.
... Millets have about 0.61% of tannin, 0.48% of phytic acid, 0.2-3.0% of polyphenol, and trypsin inhibitors (Thompson, 1993), out of which phytic acid is a matter of concern. Although the level of phytic acid in millet is far less than that in wheat flour, brown rice, barley, and whole corn, it is still important to reduce the phytic acid content to enhance the bio-accessibility of major nutrients. ...
... The level of phytates observed in this study is lower than phytate content (10-60 mg/g) which could pose a health problem to humans. [29] The result showed that all the processing methods significantly reduced phytate, tannin, and oxalate contents in haricot beans, among which germination followed by autoclaving were the most effective. Autoclaving partially affected phytate content due to the thermal stability of phytate. ...
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ABSTRACT Four improved varieties of haricot bean flour prepared by soaking, autoclaving, germination, and germination followed by autoclaving were investigated. The objective was to obtain information on the effect of varieties, processing methods and their interactions on flour quality. The moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash, and carbohydrate contents of flours were from 8.05 to 9.72%, 23.11 to 27.96%, 1.33 to 2.87%, 3.82 to 5.97%, 3.45 to 5.52%, and 51.79 to 57.14%, respectively. The flour produced through germination followed by the autoclaving method showed a significant reduction in tannin, phytate, and oxalate contents with less acceptability by the consumer while the one that produced through germination increased in total flavonoids (2.79 to 3.69 mg QE/g), total phenol content (0.72 to 1.04 mg GAE/g) and DPPH scavenging activities (EC50). Germination showed increased foaming and emulsifying capacity; however, autoclaving and germination followed by autoclaving noticeably reduced foaming capacities.
... However, the millet also contains neutraceuticals viz. phytates (0.48 %), polyphenols, tannins (0.61 %), trypsin inhibitory factors, which were once considered as 'anti-nutrients' due to their metal chelating and enzyme inhibition activities (Thompson, 1993). ...
... Glucosinolates are sulphur containing compounds responsible for the bitter tastes of several vegetables especially cruciferous vegetables including Brassica napus, Brassica compestris, Brassica juncea and more. Although glucosinolates have been reported to have adverse health effects, it helps to increase the liver's ability to neutralize potentially toxic substances and also prevent breast and ovarian cancer (Thompson 1993). Glucosinolate hydrolyzation products have great industrial interest due to their positive effects on human health (Alexandre et al. 2020). ...
Article
Bamboo shoot is highly nutritious and contains a plethora of health-promoting bioactive compounds. It is a valuable source of food for Asiatic countries but it contains some antinutrients such as cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, tannins, oxalates and phytates which deter its consumption due to safety issues. The most predominant antinutrient in bamboo shoot is cyanogenic glycosides. It causes increase in blood glucose and lactic acid levels and a decrease in the ATP/ADP ratio indicating the shift from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. The anti-nutrients such as phytate can cause vitamins and minerals deficiencies. Though anti-nutrients may have deleterious effect when present in high concentration, they may also exert beneficial health effects at low concentrations. In order to eliminate or reduce the level of anti-nutrients to barest minimum, appropriate processing techniques such as soaking, boiling, drying and fermentation can be used. The cyanogen content in bamboo shoots range from 36.32 to more than 1000 mg/kg. Impact of different processing techniques revealed that, fermentation is the best method for reducing the antinutrient content and improving the quality of bamboo shoots as well as increasing the shelf life of the shoots.
... In view of this, efforts had been made towards the production of varieties of wine from the combination of different local fruits; however, the benefits associated with pawpaw-pineapple wine with respect to alleviation of malnutrition and food insecurity are yet to be unravelled. The combination of local fruits for wine production could probably result in an additional increase in anti-nutritional factors, whose excess consumption has been linked with health disorders such as infertility problems, kidney irritation, liver damage (Lilian, 2003) etc. Consequently, Ifemeje et al. (2014 advocated moderate consumption of these phytochemicals to forestall them from serving as anti-nutrients to our bodies. ...
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Fermenting blended fruits has been observed to have positive cumulative health benefits. Pawpaw and Pineapple have well-known nutritive and health benefits. This study evaluated the role of fermentation on the nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of pawpaw-pineapple juice blends using single and mixed starter cultures. Fermentation of pawpaw-pineapple juice blends in varying ratios: 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1 tagged Samples A, B, and C respectively was performed for five days after which the nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions were analyzed using standard methods. The findings revealed an increase in the concentration of all the proximate parameters except carbohydrate. The results also showed that sample A was better in nutritive quality than sample B and C by 8.55% and 3.92% respectively. The mono-cultural fermentation of sample A by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yielded the highest nutritional value (30.12%) as compared to mixed (25.35%) and single culture fermentation of Lactobacillus delbreukii (23.40%) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (21.13%). The mineral composition of sample A (37.60%) with respect to organism was also observed to be significantly higher than sample B (28.82%) and C (33.58%). Overall, the single culture of S. cerevisiae gave the highest mineral output in all the blended ratios. The levels of the anti-nutrients were better reduced by a single culture of S. cerevisiae. Furthermore, the mono-cultural fermentation of sample A by S. cerevisiae produced the highest alcoholic content. Mono-cultural fermentation of pawpaw-pineapple juice in ratio 1:1 by S. cerevisiae is most efficient in obtaining the highest nutritional value and alcoholic content in pawpaw-pineapple wine.
... The phytate in food can bind some essential mineral elements such as Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe in the digestive tract and render them not bioavailable (Bello, 2008). Consumption of this grass may have effect on the bioavailability of minerals in monogastric animals (Thompson, 1993). Protein and starch solubility digestion was also reported to be affected by phytate. ...
Article
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The grass Pennisetum pedicellatum is an ornamental-like grass that is widely used in northern Nigeria as a source of animal feed especially by local animal farmers. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional content of the grass and, hence, quantify their contribution to the animal feed so as to curb the unavailability of animal feed during the dry season. Both macronutrients and micronutrients were determined using flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrometric methods of analysis. The research investigates the mineral and anti-nutrients contents of Pennisetum pedicellatum grass. The anti-nutrients were determined using standard methods of food analyses. The mineral content of the sample showed a composition (mg/100gDW) of 11167 ± 3.82 sodium, 10850 ± 229.13 potassium, 108.3 ± 0.03 calcium, 28.3 ± 0.03 magnesium, 315.7 ± 0.03 phosphorus, 0.58 iron, 5.81 chromium and 4.07 nickel. However, copper, zinc and manganese were not detected in the sample. The anti-nutrient composition (mg/100 g DW) for oxalate, phytate, saponins, cyanide and tannins were 1.00 ± 0.0008, 3474 ± 0.0223, 56.00 ± 0.0035, 11.00 ± 0.0014 and 10.00 ± 0.0025, respectively. The anti-nutritional analysis reveals that the grass contains high amount of phytate and saponins and low oxalate content. The results revealed that the oxalic acid content of the grass is below the critical level while the phytate of the grass is above the critical level.
... Millets have about 0.61% of tannin, 0.48% of phytic acid, 0.2-3.0% of polyphenol, and trypsin inhibitors (Thompson, 1993), out of which phytic acid is a matter of concern. Although the level of phytic acid in millet is far less than that in wheat flour, brown rice, barley, and whole corn, it is still important to reduce the phytic acid content to enhance the bio-accessibility of major nutrients. ...
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Millets are nutritionally superior indigenous staple crops packed with high protein, vitamins, and minerals. However, anti-nutrients such as phytic acid, tannins, and polyphenols present in the millets tend to reduce the bio-accessibility of minerals (iron and zinc), due to which the millet diets are greatly compromised. Although most of the cereals, such as wheat flour, brown rice, and barley, contain phytic acid to a level far more than that of the millets, it is important to develop feasible household methods to reduce the level of phytic acid so as to enhance nutrient absorption. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of traditional processing on nutrient and anti-nutrient retention of three majorly consumed millets, namely, sorghum, finger millet, and pearl millet. These millets were traditionally cooked and then fermented overnight with water and curd. The results show that this type of simple, traditional household-level process significantly reduced the phytic acid content by 62.9% in sorghum, 34.1% in finger millet, and 29.35% in pearl millet. There is a considerable decrease in phytic acid–zinc molar ratio by 71.38, 61.15, and 33.47% and in phytic acid–iron molar ratio by 73.52, 48.07, and 66.39% in sorghum, finger millet, and pearl millet, respectively. Among the macronutrients, the protein and ash contents were significantly increased. A high retention of water-soluble vitamins was observed in the processed millets. Overall, the traditionally cooked millet, fermented overnight and then added with curd, enhanced many essential macro- and micronutrients and concurrently reduced phytic acid, thus forming a sustainably simple household method for improving dietary nutrients.
... In contrary to their nutritive values, certain anti-nutritional factors are found in hemp seed meals, for instance trypsin inhibitors and phytic acid (Pojić et al. 2014), have inhibitory effects on the human digestive system; thus, the use of these compounds in the food system has been controversial (Sánchez-Chino et al. 2015;Thompson 1993). Furthermore, some potential allergenic peptide sequences in hemp seed protein isolate can be eliminated through the production process, supporting the use of hemp protein isolate as an ingredient for hypoallergenic foods (Mamone et al. 2019). ...
Article
The excellent health benefits of oil extracted from seeds have increased its application in foods, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. This trend leads to a growing research area on their by-products, oilseed meals, to minimize environmental and economic issues. Examples of these by-products are soybean, peanut, kenaf seed, hemp, sesame, and chia seed meals. It is well known that soybean meals have wide applications in food and non-food industries, while other seed meals are not well established. Most oilseed meals are rich in health beneficial compounds and are potential sources of plant protein, dietary fiber, and antioxidants. Many studies have reported on the valorization of these by-products into value-added food products such as bakery and meat products to increase their nutritional and functional properties. These efforts contribute to the sustainability, development of novel functional food and support the zero-waste concept for the environment. This review aims to provide information on the composition of selected oilseed meals from soybean, peanut, hemp, kenaf, sesame and chia seeds, their potential applications in the bakery, meat, beverage, pasta, and other food products, and to highlight the issues and challenges associated with the utilization of oilseed meals into various food products.
... It has been reported that phytate formed a complex with protein by the actions of cations, usually calcium, zinc, or magnesium, which act as a bridge between the negatively charged protein carboxyl groups and the former (Omosaiye and Cheryan, 1979). The phytate composition of the sample might not pose any health hazard when compared to a phytate diet of 10-60 mg/g which if consumed over a long period of time that has been reported to decrease bioavailability of minerals in monogastric animals (Thompson, 1993). The concentration of Hydrocyanic acid in the seed is 0.18 mg/100g this shows that the level of the acid in the sample is within the acceptable range for human consumption. ...
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The proximate, minerals constituents and anti-nutritional factors of Hura crepitans seeds were evaluated. The results of the proximate analysis showed that 3.13%, 4.00%, 7.83%, 33.17%, 17.30%, 8.17%, 29.53% were the percentage composition of moisture, ash, crude lipid, crude protein, fibre and carbohydrate respectively. The calorific value was obtained to be 485.85±7.22 kJ/kg. The anti-nutritional analysis showed that phytate had the highest concentration of 20.28±0.90 while oxalate has the lowest concentration of 0.017±0.15 mg/100g dry weight respectively. The mineral analysis of Hura crepitans seed also indicates that K has the highest value of 238.33 mg/100g dry weight while Cd with a value 0.71±0.01 mg/100g dry weight has the least. The result shows that the H. crepitans seeds if properly utilized can serve as good source of minerals.Keywords: Anti-nutritional, Hura crepitans, Proximate, Mineral, Nutritional
... The second group is represented by non-protein ANCs, which includes saponins and other glycosides, alkaloids, phytic acid or phenolic compounds such as tannins [135][136][137][138][139][140]. Other studies, however, have demonstrated that the use of ANCs in specific amounts can help in the prevention of different diseases like cancer and coronary diseases [141][142][143]. ...
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The development of new food products obtained by extrusion processing has increased in recent years. Extrusion is used by the food industry to produce a wide variety of food products, such as ready-to-eat foods (e.g., snacks), among others. Pulses have also gained popularity as novel food ingredients in the formulation of a variety of food and food products, due to their high content of macro and micronutrients, and bioactive compounds that improve the nutritional and functional properties of the final food products. In this review, the impact of extrusion variables on proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, phenolics and antinutritional compounds in pulses and pulse-based formulations are highlighted. Particularly, the impact of the specific mechanical energy. Also, the preservation, increase and/or reduction in those functional compounds, as a consequence of different extrusion processing conditions, are discussed.
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The family of Fabaceae has been fundamental into the traditional nutrition in South America, including Chile, however in this country has reduce consumption of legumes between children in school age. This investigation pursued establish the impact over nutritional and no nutritional composition of chilean beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) exposed to cook and germination. The results obtained has shown the cooked samples has decreased the contain of iron and also diminished in total minerals from ashes analysis, instead the germinated samples increased both. Total proteins determined by Kjeldahl method exhibit no change for cooked and germinated beans in relation to control without treatment, while phytic acid increased and lectins decreased with the action of cook or germination of P.vulgaris . All the analysis was supported by statistical assessment and suggest the beans germination is a good alternative to improve the variety of recipes available to prepare beans in other attractive presentations on the subject of promote the children intake.
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Millets are drought-tolerant crops, extensively grown in Asia and semi-arid tropics of Africa. Millets are important nutritious minor cereal food crops and can ensure nutritional security. However, a decline is seen in the consumption of minor millets over the last few years. Millets are rich sources of minerals, vitamins, proteins, fatty acids, fiber, and other phytonutrients. Millet proteins have a balanced amount of essential amino acids, especially sulfur (S) containing amino acids. Millets are also enriched with several positive health attributing phytochemicals, including lignans, phytosterols, polyphenols, phyto-oestrogens, and phytocyanins. Processing and milling of millets remove the germ and bran and layers that are rich sources of fiber and phytochemicals. The millets are rich sources of antioxidants like glycated flavonoids and phenolic acids. Millets also serve as prebiotics and can enhance the effectiveness of probiotics. The nutritional significance of different millet cultivars are very useful in developing value-added products. Presences of highly valuable nutraceuticals components in millets are supportive in prevention of various lifestyle illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, low and high blood pressure, and diabetes. Because of their significant involvement in nutritional security and possible increasing health effects, millet is now addressing an important area of research for food scientists. The nutritional quality of millets can be further improved by adopting suitable and effective processing methods. Value addition and product development from millets might be helpful in avoidance and management of nutrition-related disorders. Advancement in these high-value and nutritious products will increase the immunity, health, and socioeconomic status of the consumers.
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Millets or nutri-cereals are high-energy foods; that were domesticated and cultivated as early as 10,000 years ago. The millets cultivation is taken up usually in degraded and marginal lands that receive very less rainfall and are poor in soil nutrient content. Seven important millets cultivated globally are finger millet, pearl millet, foxtail millet, barnyard millet, proso millet, kodo millet, and little millet. Overdependence on cereals after the green revolution and the present-day sedentary lifestyle of people has proliferated health-related disorders like obesity, diabetes, coronary diseases, gastrointestinal disorders and risk of colon, breast, and oesophageal cancer. The only way to fight back is through the introduction of nutritionally rich millets in our daily diets. Millets are unique for their richness in dietary fibers, antioxidants, minerals, phytochemicals, polyphenols, and proteins; that act as elixir to fight against health-related disorders. Recent global phenomenon of climate change has lead to a decrease in the yield of major staple cereals and has paved path for introduction of millets into agriculture production system to formulate climate resilient cropping systems because millets are C4 plants with very superior photosynthetic efficiency, short duration, higher dry matter production capacity, and a high degree of tolerance to heat and drought. Keeping the above advantages of millets, the efforts have hastened to collect, conserve, and utilize germplasm of millets in breeding programs. Of late, several private and government agencies have ventured into value addition of millets to manufacture food and non-food products. But, the governments have a key role in formulating policies to promote cultivation and consumption of millets.
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Saponin is a biopesticide used to suppress the growth of the golden apple snail population. This study aims to determine the stabilized conditions for saponin storage. The maceration process was used for saponin extraction, and for saponin concentration, progressive freeze concentration (PFC) was used. Afterwards, stability analysis was performed by storing the sample for 21 days in two conditions: Room temperature (26 °C) and cold room (10 °C). The samples kept in a cold room were sterilized samples that undergo thermal treatment by placing the sample in the water bath. The non-sterilized samples were kept in room temperature condition for 21 days. The results showed that saponin stored in the cold room (sterilized sample) has low degradation with higher concentration than those stored at room temperature in stability analysis with the highest saponin concentration (0.730 mg/mL) at a concentration temperature of -6 °C and concentration time of 15 min. The lowest saponin concentration obtained by saponin stored at room temperature (non-sterilized sample) is 0.025 mg/mL at a concentration temperature of -6 °C and concentration time of 10 min. Thus, the finding concluded that saponin is sensitive to temperature. Hence, the best storage condition to store saponin after thermal treatment is to keep it in a cold room at 10 °C.
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Context: Consuming whole grain food has been motivated due to numerous health benefits arising from their bioactive components. Aims: This study aims to study whether the active compound extracted from Proso and Barnyard millets inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cell line. Materials and methods: Cell proliferative effect was assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay using MCF-7 cell line. Cytotoxicity was determined by release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme from cells. Apoptotic morphological changes in MCF-7 cells were observe under fluorescence microscope using double staining of Hoeschst 33342/propidium iodide (PI). Induction of apoptosis was analyzed using Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/PI through flow cytometry. Results: In this study, cell proliferative effect of the bioactive compounds from proso millet (Compound 1) and barnyard millet (Compound 2) was evaluated using MCF-7 cell line. Both the compounds significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells after treated with 250 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml concentration for 48 h. Cytotoxic activity of compounds was assessed by the release of LDH showed that these extracted compounds were not toxic to the cells. Apoptosis was confirmed by Hoechst 33,342/PI dual-staining, Annexin V-FTIC/PI staining, and flow cytometry results of cell cycle analysis shows that there was a significant cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase and increased the apoptotic cells in sub-G0 phase in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: This study suggests that the extracted vanillin compound from these millets have effectively induced apoptotic cell death in breast cancer cell line.
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This purpose of the present study is to study the medicinal and dietary properties of Cicer arietinum. Cicer arietinum is found to have many pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, cardiovascular, anticancer, antimicrobial activities. Carbohydrates, Protiens, Amino acid, phytosterls, phenolic compounds, tannins, amino acids and flavonoids. The present review also focuses on the active ingredients of Cicer arietinum which impart the plant with with its medicinal and dietary properties.
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The root of Morinda citriforia L. (Noni) was used to extract Damnacanthal (Damna), an anthraquinone compound. In this study, Damna was successfully incorporated in N-phthaloylchitosan-grafted poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether (PhCS-g-mPEG) to form Damna nanospheres (Damna-NS) with the particle size 298 nm and the incorporation efficiency 36.30%. A bioluminescent yeast-reporter system was used to assess Damna-NS’s estrogenic or toxic effects. The initial screening results revealed that both Damna and Damna-NS themselves showed no estrogenic effect. They showed strong effects when treated with a S9 fraction or liver microsomes, showing that their metabolites are estrogenic. Toxicity tests demonstrated that Damna and Damna-NS are harmful when used alone; however, they showed no toxicity when treated with S9 mix. In conclusion, the findings showed that Damna-NS, when taken as an oral phytoestrogen for hormone replacement treatment, has the potential to endanger human health by producing estrogenic effects and minimizing harmful effects in the liver.
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Phytohemagglutinin (PHA), derived from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), can induce malabsorption and diarrhea when fed to rats. In this study, we determined the effect of PHA on ion transport in the rabbit ileum in vitro. Compared with control tissues, PHA (1 mg/ml) added to the mucosal solution increased short-circuit current (1.1 ± 0.2 μEq/cm2 · h, p < 0.001), decreased net Na (−1.0 ± 0.5 μEq/ cm2 · h, p < 0.02) and Cl (−1.2 ± 0.6 μEq/cm2 · h, p < 0.0250) absorption, and decreased tissue conductance (−1.8 ± 0.5 mS/cm2, p < 0.001). Serosal addition of PHA had no effect on the short-circuit current or tissue conductance. Mucosal PHA did not increase mucosal levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate or cyclic guanosine monophosphate. Removal of serosal calcium did not affect the increase in short-circuit current induced by mucosal PHA. Utilizing fluorescent microscopy, rhodamine-labeled PHA was found to bind to the luminal border of villus cells, but not to crypt cells, in the ileum. In the descending rabbit colon, PHA did not affect either the short-circuit current or conductance, and rhodaminated PHA did not bind to the epithelial surface. Using the increase in short-circuit current as an indicator of absorption, PHA did not affect Na-coupled glucose or amino acid absorption in the ileum. This study suggests that dietary lectins may play a role in regulating intestinal fluid and electrolyte transport.
Chapter
Much of the current interest in the blood glucose responses to food evolved as a natural consequence of earlier dietary fiber studies. Considerable impetus has also come from the need to find sustained release or lente carbohydrate foods that would fit the requirements for the diabetic diet, where an increase in carbohydrate intake has been recommended [Committee of the American Diabetes Association on Food and Nutrition, 1979; Special Report Committee, 1981 (Canadian Diabetes Association); Nutrition Sub-Committee of the British Diabetic Association’s Medical Advisory Committee, 1982)]. Such studies, therefore, have focused attention on the differences among the foods and on those factors, including fiber, that were responsible for these differences. Investigation of the physiological effect of foods has proceeded in a similar fashion to what was applied to the screening of dietary fibers. Foods have been tested to determine whether there were in fact differences in digestibiity and whether the rate of nutrient release from the gastrointestinal tract might be a factor in determining the glycemic response (Jenkins et al., 1982, 1984c; 0’Dea et al., 1981). In turn, the glycemic responses to a range of foods have been studied in both normal and diabetic individuals and the foods analyzed for fiber, macronutrients, and selected antinutrients to assess whether these could account for the observed differences.
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A hemagglutinin isolated from field pea was glycoprotein in nature and contained glucose as the only carbohydrate moiety. The hemagglutinin was low in sulphur containing amino acids and rich in aspartic acid, threonine and valine. Intraperitoneal injection of the hemagglutinin (fraction FP III) at the level of 50 and 100 mg protein/kg body weight proved fatal to mice. The hemagglutinin was also observed to reduce the absorption of amino acid from the intestine.
Article
The inhibitory effects of 18 synthetic phenolic compounds added to the diet on benzo(a)pyrene-induced neoplasia of the forestomach of female ICR/Ha mice have been determined. Seven of the compounds showed suppression of neoplasia. The most potent inhibitors were p-methoxyphenol, 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole [the minor isomer of 2(3)-tert-butyl-4-hydrox and 3 A second group of compounds with a weaker inhibitory activity consisted of 3,5-di-terf-butylphenol, 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole [the major isomer of 2(3)-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole] 2-tert-butylhydroqui and 2-tert-butylphenol. In additional experiments, three naturally occurring phenolic derivatives of cinnamic acid, i.e. o-hydroxycinnamic acid, 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid (caffeic acid), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid (ferulic acid), were investigated. All three suppressed benzo(a)pyrene-in-duced neoplasia of the forestomach. Humans ingest a variety of phenols. Data as to the inhibitory capacities of members of this group of compounds are of importance for evaluating the role that they play in determining the reaction to exposure to chemical carcinogens. © 1980, American Association for Cancer Research. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Glycosides which produce a foaming aqueous solution are generally named saponins. They also have hemolytic properties and a poisonous effect against fishes and shells. Formation of precipitates with cholesterol in alcohol is also referred to as a characteristic nature of saponins. The crude drugs which contain saponins are generally used for their detergent properties, and some of them which give less irritating effects on oral administration are employed as expectorant and antitussive agents. A great number of species of saponins are distributed in higher plants, while some marine animals, such as seaslug and starfish, also produce saponins. Thus there are many crude drugs which consist of seeds, leaves, stembark, roots and rhizomes of higher plants containing conisderable amount of saponins, whose biological and pharmacological activities, however, have not fully been clarified so far, though the saponins might possibly be playing an important role in such drugs.
Phytic acid is present in many plant systems, constituting about 1 to 5% by weight of many cereals and legumes. Concern about its presence in food arises from evidence that it decreases the bioavailability of many essential minerals by interacting with multivalent cations and/or proteins to form complexes that may be insoluble or otherwise unavailable under physiologic conditions. The precise structure of phytic acid and its salts is still a matter of controversy and lack of a good method of analysis is also a problem. It forms fairly stable chelates with almost all multivalent cations which are insoluble about pH 6 to 7, although pH, type, and concentration of cation have a tremendous influence on their solubility characteristics. In addition, at low pH and low cation concentration, phytate-protein complexes are formed due to direct electrostatic interaction, while at pH > 6 to 7, a ternary phytic acid-mineral-protein complex is formed which dissociates at high Na+ concentrations. These complexes appear to be responsible for the decreased bioavailability of the complexed minerals and are also more resistant to proteolytic digestion at low pH. Development of methods for producing low-phytate food products must take into account the nature and extent of the interactions between phytic acid and other food components. Simple mechanical treatment, such as milling, is useful for those seeds in which phytic acid tends to be localized in specific regions. Enzyme treatment, either directly with phytase or indirectly through the action of microorganisms, such as yeast during breadmaking, is quite effective, provided pH and other environmental conditions are favorable. It is also possible to produce low-phytate products by taking advantage of some specific interactions. For example, adjustment of pH and/or ionic strength so as to dissociate phytate-protein complexes and then using centrifugation or ultrafiltration (UF) has been shown to be useful. Phytic acid can also influence certain functional properties such as pH-solubility profiles of the proteins and the cookability of the seeds.
Chapter
There is a great variation in cancer incidence with diet, as has been recently reviewed (1,2). Epidemiological data suggest that environmental, specifically nutritional, factors play a major role in the etiology of cancer at many different sites (1–3). There are now several epidemiologic studies which suggest that components of vegetables might play a beneficial role in lowering the incidence of cancer (some examples of such studies are given in references 1-4). Although many compounds with anticarcinogenic potential are present in vegetables, it is possible that anticarcinogenic protease inhibitors contribute to the low cancer rates observed in certain human populations with high levels of vegetables in the diet. For example, the low cancer incidence rates in the Japanese and Seventh-Day adventists could be due to high levels of dietary protease inhibitors; it has been estimated that individuals in these populations ingest, on the average, more than 330 mg of protease inhibitors per day (3). There are, however, many other hypotheses which have been presented to explain the low cancer rates in these human populations. So many different variables are present in the diet that the effect of any specific anticarcinogenic agent cannot be distinguished in such epidemiologic studies; however, it is possible to distinguish the effects of specific anticarcinogenic agents in laboratory experiments. In this report, our own laboratory studies on anticarcinogenic protease inhibitors will be summarized and discussed. Although laboratory studies can give much information about the effects of potential chemopreventive agents, ultimately epidemiologic intervention studies must be performed to determine whether candidate chemopreventive agents are truly capable of preventing cancer in human populations. The current evidence that dietary protease inhibitors do have a role in lowering the cancer incidence in human populations has recently been reviewed (6 and 7).
Chapter
During research on experimental rickets in young dogs in the early 1920s Mellanby observed that diets poor in vitamin D and rich in cereals were highly effective in affecting mineralization of bones and teeth. In a series of classical studies it was shown that the rachitogenic effects of cereals depended on cereal type, degree of extraction, ripeness, and extent of germination (reviewed by Gontzea and Sutzescu, 1968). Bruce and Callow (1934) finally demonstrated that the agent responsible was phytic acid (myoinositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis di-hydrogen phosphate), a phosphorus storage compound ubiquitously distributed in the plant kingdom and found in all cereals, many legumes and nuts, and a few fruits, tubers, and roots. The rickets-producing effects of phytate are to this day not fully understood but appear to be due in part to the poor availability of phytate phosphorus and partly to the ability of phytate to bind Ca to form an insoluble complex from which Ca is unavailable for absorption in subjects whose vitamin D status is marginal.
Article
This workshop was organized to discuss the current state of research on anticarcinogenic protease inhibitors with regard to their potential use as human cancer chemopreventive agents. Previous studies have indicated that protease inhibitors can be powerful anticarcinogenic agents for animals and cells in culture and that human populations known to have high concentrations of protease inhibitors in the diet have low overall cancer mortality rates. In the workshop discussions, emphasis was placed on certain dietary protease inhibitors, such as the soybean-derived Bowman-Birk inhibitor and chymotrypsin inhibitor 1 from potatoes and some of the highly purified protease inhibitors of microbial origin provided by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, which have already been shown to contain anticarcinogenic activity in laboratory studies. Potential adverse side effects of dietary protease inhibitors were also considered, specifically, their possible effects on the pancreas and in causing decreased growth rates in young organisms. It was pointed out that the pancreata of a few species, notably rats and chicks, are extraordinarily sensitive to dietary protease inhibitors. Rats fed diets containing high concentrations of soybean-derived protease inhibitors (raw soy flour) had enlarged pancreata; increased pancreatic growth is thought to accelerate cancer development in the pancreas. The effect of rat soy flour on the growth of the rat pancreas has not been shown to occur in most other species tested (examples include hamsters, mice, dogs, pigs, and monkeys) and is not expected to occur in humans. There is no evidence that dietary protease inhibitors have adverse effects on the human pancreas. In fact, it has been observed that human populations with high levels of dietary protease inhibitors have decreased rates of pancreatic cancer. Dietary concentrations of protease inhibitors which have been shown to be anticarcinogenic have not produced decreased growth rates in animals or any type of pancreatic pathology. In general, there was a high level of enthusiasm at the workshop for the further development of protease inhibitors as chemopreventive agents. Recommendations for future research include: (a) research and development of sources of protease inhibitors; (b) analysis of human foods for protease inhibitor content; (c) evaluation of cancer incidence data in relation to protease inhibitor content and characteristics in the diet of human populations; (d) animal studies on the efficacy of protease inhibitors in cancer prevention; and (e) studies on the mechanism of action of anticarcinogenic protease inhibitors.
Article
Weanling Wistar male rats were red casein (control) and a phytate-free Tower rapeseed protein preparation (PF-RPP) at a level of 10% protein in the diet. The biological value (BV) of the phytate-free protein was equivalent to that of casein although true digestibility (TD) and net protein utilization (NPU) were slightly lower. A 3-week growth study was conducted using blends of Tower rapeseed protein concentrate (RPC) and PF-RPP at a level of 15% protein, in which phytic acid varied from 0.01 to 1.24% of the diet, in the presence of 12 ppm mineral zinc supplementation. Performance of rats appeared to be inversely related to the level of phytic acid in the diets with significant differences observed for weight gain (p < 0.01), diet consumption (p < 0.05), and efficiency of protein utilization (p < 0.05). Dietary phytate also had a marked effect (p < 0.01) on serum zinc levels although the most pronounced effect was on femur zinc (p < 0.01) which decreased almost three-fold as phytic acid increased from 0.01 to 1.24% of the diet. This study emphasizes the importance of relating zinc requirement to phytic acid content of the diet.
Article
The effect of factors, other than glucosinolates, on the nutritive value of rapeseed protein was assessed by comparing the protein quality of nine rapeseed meals (RSM), four rapeseed flours (RSF) and three protein isolates (RSI). Protein quality was assessed by rat bioassays for true digestibility (TD), biological value (BV) and net protein utilization (NPU). TD of the protein in the RSM was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that in a soybean flour containing 7.7% nitrogen (mean of 86.3 vs. 90.8, resp.) whereas TD of the protein in the RSF and RSI (mean of 94.4) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that in the soybean flour. BV, however, was appreciably higher for all of the rapeseed preparations than for the soybean flour (mean of 86.1 vs. 64.8, resp.). NPU for all except two of the rapeseed preparations also was higher than for the soybean flour. Unlike TD, there were no consistent differences in BV and NPU values between the RSM and the RSF and RSI. Neither the phytate nor the phenolic constituents of rapeseed had any apparent effect on the utilization of the protein in rapeseed. The low TD for RSM compared to RSF and RSI was associated with the hull fraction.
Article
Growth experiments were conducted in rats and chicks to establish the effect of α-amylase inhibitors supplementing starch-containing diets. The inhibitors were purified from wheat flour and were free of trypsin inhibitor activity. The amount of inhibitors used in the experiments represented about 40% and 200% of the amount present in white wheat flour. The inhibitors did not reduce growth rate in any of the experiments, but a positive growth response was observed for the highest amount of inhibitor used. This was probably due to an increase in available methionine caused by the inhibitor protein replacement in the diet. The pancreas weight of the animals fed on α-amylase inhibitors, showed an increase in percent of the body weight. Histological investigation did, however, show that the pancreas-tissues were quite normal, and that the enlargement was caused by hyperplacia rather than by hypertrophy. These results showed that α-amylase inhibitors from wheat, fed in amounts higher than in any normal human diet, did not affect hydrolysis of dietary starch.
Article
The effects of dietary phytate upon total cholesterol, triglycerides and divalent cation levels in serum of 3-mo-old female Fischer rats were investigated. Elevation of total cholesterol and triglycerides in serum resulting from the administration of 0.6% cholesterol-supplemented diet was accompanied by a 28% decrease in serum copper and a 27% increase in serum zinc/copper ratio. Addition of monopotassium phytate to the cholesterol-enriched diet for 6 w significantly lowered both serum total cholesterol by 32% and triglycerides by 64%, accompanied by decreases in serum zinc of 32% and zinc/copper ratio of 27%. Addition of phytate to the unsupplemented diet reduced total cholesterol by 19% and triglycerides by 65% without significantly affecting the zinc/copper ratio. Addition of phytate to either the cholesterol-supplemented or unsupplemented diet reduced serum levels of calcium and magnesium by about 10%, but did not affect calcium/magnesium ratios.
Article
Haemagglutinins (Iectins) have long been known as toxins naturally present in many legumes, but since they are readily destroyed by cooking they have not previously presented a problem. Recently there have been 25 outbreaks of food poisoning reported in Great Britain, totalling about 100 persons, arising from raw or undercooked red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). A public television programme resulted in 330 letters, totalling 880 cases, apparently from the same cause, indicating the greater spread of this problem than was realised. The legumes containing large amounts of lectins appear, so far , to be restricted to varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris; other legumes contain unimportant amounts and have not give rise to any complaints. The signs of the poisoning are nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea about two hours after consumption of the beans. The toxin is completely destroyed by about 10 min boiling, although there appears to be some variation in the stability of the toxin of different samples of beans. Heating at 80 °C increases the amount of lectin (as determined by in vitro haemagglutination) about fiv e-fold , so that incompletely cooked beans may be more toxic than when eaten raw.