Effect of Polysaccharide from Auricularia auricula on Blood Lipid Metabolism and Lipoprotein Lipase Activity of ICR Mice Fed a Cholesterol‐Enriched Diet

ArticleinJournal of Food Science 73(6):H103-8 · September 2008with 566 Reads 
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Abstract
Polysaccharides from Auricularia auricula (AAP) extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol were chemically well defined, including 42.5% total carbohydrate, 19.6% uronic acids, 15.8% sulfate groups, 1.7% N, and 20.3% ash. Gas chromatography analysis demonstrated that the neutral sugars were mainly composed of rhamnose, xylose, and glucose and smaller amounts of mannose, galactose, and arabinose. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant capacity of AAP on blood lipid metabolism and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in ICR mice fed cholesterol-enriched diet (CED) for the 1st time. Furthermore, the relationship between the atherosclerotic index (AI) and LPL activity to total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was studied. Thirty-six ICR mice were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=12). The mice in control group (NG) received regular diet and the mice in model group (MG) received CED; these 2 groups were provided with distilled water by oral gavage. The experimental group (EG) was fed CED with oral gavage of AAP (120 mg/kg/d body weight) for an 8-wk period. After 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) levels of the serum were determined by enzymatic methods. The results indicated that the polysaccharides significantly lowered the concentrations of serum TC and LDL-C compared with the CED control group (P<0.05). Moreover, oral administration of polysaccharides significantly improved TAC, LPL activity, and decreased MDA level, as well as AI. These conclusions revealed the beneficial effects ofAAP on the preventive actions against hypercholesterolemia.

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  • ... In addition, from extracts of cultured mycelia of C. sinensis, a 210 kDa polysaccharide with antioxidant and hypoglycemic properties was obtained that contained glucose, mannose, and galactose in a ratio of 1:0.6:0.75 (Li et al. 2003(Li et al. , 2006. Chen et al. (2008) have extracted and characterized a hypolipidemic polysaccharide from fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Auricularia auricula (AAP), which was found to contain 42.5% total carbohydrate, 19.6% uronic acids, 15.8% sulfate groups, 1.7% total nitrogen, and 20.3% ash. The neutral sugar components were mainly rhamnose, xylose, glucose, and smaller amounts of mannose, galactose, and arabinose. ...
    ... Interestingly, Selol also induced a 2.5-fold increase in the formation of the exopolysaccharide. Other antioxidant mushroom polysaccharides include the polysaccharides from water-soluble extracts of A. auricula and C. militaris fruiting bodies, which showed free radical-scavenging, chelating, and reducing power properties, and an increase in the total antioxidant capacity (Chen et al. 2008, Luo et al. 2009, Wu et al. 2011). ...
    ... In recognition of the dietary fiber effects of Pleurotus mushroom, the National Mushroom Development and Extension Centre in Bangladesh recommends a daily dosage in human diet, which ranges from 5 to 10 g of dried mushroom for healthy individuals to 20 g for patients with diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular complications, or cancer (Asaduzzaman and Mousumi 2012). Chen et al. (2008) studied the hypolipidemic effects of polysaccharides extracted from A. auricula in hypercholesterolemic mice after a daily oral administration of 120 mg/kg body weight. Their results pointed out that the polysaccharides significantly lowered the concentrations of serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, improved lipoprotein lipase activity, and reduced lipid peroxidation and atherosclerotic index, showing a prophylactic activity against hypercholesterolemia. Similar hypolipidemic effects were also obtained by Luo et al. (2009) after an oral administration of 300 mg/kg/ day of A. auricula polysaccharide in hyperlipidemic mice. ...
    Chapter
    Full-text available
    Mushrooms have been used for centuries in Asian and other traditional cuisine and traditional medicines due to their culinary and medicinal properties, but their properties remained unknown to the wide scientific community for a long time. In the last few decades, a large amount of research has focused on the types, sources, biosynthesis, and medicinal properties and applications of many mushrooms, mainly members of the Basidiomycetes family. The most common active ingredients in these higher fungi are their extracellular, intracellular, or cell wall polysaccharides, which exhibit immunostimulating, antitumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, prebiotic, hypoglycemic, and hypocholesterolemic effects. In the last few years, some of these mushrooms or their biopolymers have been commercialized in pharmaceutical applications, but their application in food and nutraceuticals is still at an early stage. However, the fact that many of these mushrooms are edible (and thus nontoxic) as well as tasty makes them, or their polysaccharides, potentially ideal ingredients for the formulation of novel functional foods and nutraceuticals. However, their biological properties might be affected after addition to food, due to food processing and/or interaction with food ingredients. This chapter describes the most important and studied types and sources of bioactive mushroom polysaccharides, the biosynthesis and bioprocess conditions used for the production/cultivation in solid or liquid media, the relation between molecular/structural characteristics and bioactivity, their medicinal properties, and their existing or potential applications in human nutrition. View full chapter at : http://books.google.gr/books?id=e-fMAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA171&lpg=PA171&dq=Polysaccharides+from+medicinal+mushrooms+for+potential+use+as+nutraceuticals&source=bl&ots=JWa2W2b8U1&sig=YnOX59kTgwi4rrrKmxN42hxKAxg&hl=el&sa=X&ei=4o0AVPiwEvP07Aaq6IGICQ&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Polysaccharides%20from%20medicinal%20mushrooms%20for%20potential%20use%20as%20nutraceuticals&f=false
  • ... In particular, the anti-coagulant (Yoon et al. 2003), anti-inflammatory (Ukai et al. 1983a, Kiho et al. 1985, anti-microbial (Gbolagade & Fasidi 2005), antioxidant (Sun et al. 2010, Bandara et al. 2017a), anti-tumor (Misaki et al. 1981, Ukai et al. 1983b), anti-viral (Nguyen et al. 2012a), and immunomodulatory (Sheu et al. 2004) activities of Auricularia have been demonstrated. In addition, Auricularia has the potential to treat both hypoglycemia (Yuan et al. 1998a) and hypolipidemia (Reza et al. 2015), as well as lowering cholesterol levels (Table 5) (Misaki & Kakuta 1995, Chen et al. 2008, Zhao et al. 2015. Furthermore, research has shown that Auricularia mushrooms have the ability to modulate interstitial microbiomes; for instance, A. auricula had a negative impact on Fusobacteriales and a positive impact on Bifidobacteriales and Bacteroidales, two of the most important probiotics (Zhao et al. 2018). ...
    ... However, the proven anti-viral properties of many fungal species within Basidiomycota in inhibiting a wide range of viruses including BoHV-1, H1N12, HBV, HCV, HIV, Influenza, Polio, and Vaccinia highlight the potential for Auricularia species to provide similar defenses against these viruses, and their potential applications in treating a wide range of viral diseases (Linnakoski et al. 2018). , Ma et al. 2018, anti-diabetic (Yuan et al. 1998b, Lu et al. 2018b), anti-hypercholesterolemic (Chen et al. 2008, Zhao et al. 2015, anti-microbial (Cai et al. 2015, Xiong et al. 2016, Chang et al. 2019, antioxidant (Wu et al. 2010, Avci et al. 2016, Hu et al. 2017, anti-viral (Nguyen et al. 2012a) and immunomodulatory (Nguyen et al. 2012b, Zhang et al. 2018a properties of polysaccharides from Auricularia species. ...
    ... Similarly, hypercholesterolemic rats fed with an A. auricula diet in dry powder form had reduced levels of serum LDL cholesterol, as well as lower fecal neutral steroids and bile acids, all of which suggest its effectiveness in reducing hypercholesterolemic activity (Cheung 1996). Further evidence for the hypocholesterolemic capacities of Auricularia was provided when hot water-extracted polysaccharides from A. auricula were orally administered to hypercholesterolemic mice, and total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly reduced (Chen et al. 2008). ...
    Article
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    Bandara A.R., Rapior S., Mortimer P.E., Kakumyan P., Hyde K.D. et Xu J. 2019. A review of the polysaccharide, protein and selected nutrient content of Auricularia, and their potential pharmacological value. Mycosphere 10 (1), 579-607. doi :10.5943/mycosphere/10/1/10_____Auricularia is a key genus among edible macrofungi, sourced as either wild or cultivated mushrooms. Auricularia species are utilized as nutrient-rich foods and medicinal resources, with particular prominence in Traditional Asian Medicine. Cultivated Auricularia species can be grown under a wide range of conditions, allowing for production volumes worldwide. Although Auricularia species are used predominantly within the food industry, there is strong potential for their use in the production of therapeutic drugs, thus making it necessary to identify relevant bioactive compounds and further our understanding of its pharmacological properties. Carbohydrates are the major nutritional constituent of edible Auricularia species in addition to proteins, fat, fiber, ashes vitamins and minerals. This review discusses polysaccharides as one of the major active compounds found in edible Auricularia species in relation to their nutritional value, extraction methods, and pharmacological properties. Current methods of evaluating the pharmacological effects of compounds derived from Auricularia include in vitro assays, in vivo animal models, as well as several human clinical trials. Potential medical applications for these compounds include the production of novel therapeutic drugs for treating diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders.
  • ... Main phenols in AP were gallic acid, tannic acid, and protocatechuic acid [13]. Tannins [26,27]. ...
    ... Higher amount of phenols in AP than in AA may elevate HDL-C by activating lipoprotein lipase activity [28]. Active components in AP may possess a CETP-inhibiting action to increase HDL-C [27], further research must clarify. Our results indicate AP as an ideal health food material for lipid regulation. ...
    Article
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    Background: Amelioration effect of Auricularia polytricha water extract (AP) on hepatic injury in an animal model of NAFLD was investigated. Methods: Forty six-week-old Wistar rats were housed and thirty-two fed ten percent lard high-fat diet to induce NAFLD. After eight weeks of induction, animals were divided into five groups of eight rats each: normal control, high-fat diet, RN (reversion to a normal diet), 1× AP (normal diet plus 0.75% AP, w/w), and 2×AP (normal diet plus 1.5% AP). Animals were sacrificed four weeks later. Results: Rats receiving either 0.75% or 1.5% AP exhibited effective interruption of NAFLD progression, as evidenced by decreased lipid accumulation and elevated antioxidative status. Histological examination proved AP anti-inflammatory function and lower level of related markers for tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6. Besides abundant polysaccharides against lipid accumulation, AP had a specific high level of phenolic compounds and tannins thus may be a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidative agent. Conclusion: Findings suggest that under normal diet recovery, AP supplement may represent novel, protective material against NAFLD by attenuating inflammatory response, oxidative stress and lipid deposition.
  • ... [1][2][3] The consumption of A. auricula may potentially contribute to the decreased risk of hypercholesterolemia and improve heart function. [4,5] Much attention has been paid to the bioactive compounds isolation, identification, and characterization in A. auricula, due to their numerous health beneficial effects. [4,[6][7][8][9] With the development of modern chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, bioactive compounds in A. auricula has been analyzed easier than before [10][11][12][13] , but the regulation of this metabolic process is poorly understood and will require targeted, well-designed and appropriately research to gain more information. ...
    ... [4,5] Much attention has been paid to the bioactive compounds isolation, identification, and characterization in A. auricula, due to their numerous health beneficial effects. [4,[6][7][8][9] With the development of modern chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, bioactive compounds in A. auricula has been analyzed easier than before [10][11][12][13] , but the regulation of this metabolic process is poorly understood and will require targeted, well-designed and appropriately research to gain more information. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Auricularia auricula is one of the most popular edible mushrooms in China. Limited information is available regarding genes and proteins related to A. auricula development from mycelium to mature fruiting body and response to environmental stimuli. With the development of proteomics, this technology platform for addressing this problem is available. A critical step of a good proteome is protein extraction which can gives the best quality and a wide coverage of total proteins. To establish an effective protein extraction protocol suitable for proteomics analysis in mycelium and fruiting body of A. auricula, four previously reported protein extraction protocols including direct extraction, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation, TCA/acetone precipitation and phenol-based extraction, were compared based on the protein yield and 2-DE patterns. The efficiency of the four methods was evaluated by comparing protein yield and 2-DE patterns. Of the four methods, both TCA precipitation and phenol-based extraction method for A. auricula mycelia protein extraction yielded the good protein separation pattern and higher number of protein spots in 2-DE analysis. Furthermore, phenol-based extraction is superior to the other tested methods for A. auricula fruiting body proteome analysis .
  • ... Fruit bodies of Auricularia auric-ula-judae are rich in carbohydrates, protein and minerals (Ca, P and Fe). Polysaccharides from Auricularia auriculajudae extract include carbohydrate mainly composed of rhamnose, xylose and glucose and smaller amount of mannose, galactose and arabinose, uronic acids, sulfate groups, N and ash (Chen et al., 2008) and its active constituents are beta (1-3) and (1-6) D glucans. Polysaccharide and methanol extracts from Auricularia auricula-judae have been reported to have antitumor activity, anticoagulant, anti-lipidemic and anti-cholesterol, and antiplatelet aggregation (Chen et al., 2008;Misaki et al., 1981;Yoon et al., 2003). ...
    ... Polysaccharides from Auricularia auriculajudae extract include carbohydrate mainly composed of rhamnose, xylose and glucose and smaller amount of mannose, galactose and arabinose, uronic acids, sulfate groups, N and ash (Chen et al., 2008) and its active constituents are beta (1-3) and (1-6) D glucans. Polysaccharide and methanol extracts from Auricularia auricula-judae have been reported to have antitumor activity, anticoagulant, anti-lipidemic and anti-cholesterol, and antiplatelet aggregation (Chen et al., 2008;Misaki et al., 1981;Yoon et al., 2003). However, the reports on antitumor activities of different solvent fractions of Auricularia auricula-judae extracts are scarce. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the antitumor activity of different solvent fractions (ethanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water) of the Auricularia auricula-judae 70% ethanol extract on the P388D1 macrophage and sarcoma 180 cells. A dose-dependent antitumor activity of each solvent fraction (from 0.01 mg/ml to 0.3 mg/ml) was shown against both cell types. These cytotoxic effects of all the tested fractions were confirmed on the MTT and SRB assays, without statistical differences each other. IC50 value of dichloromethane fraction was 94.2 μg/ml against sarcoma 180 cells lower than any other solvent fractions. The potent antitumor effect of the dichloromethane (DCM) fraction was also found against solid tumor in BALB/c mice. The splenomegaly and higher splenic index were found in tumor-bearing mice, with the DCM fraction returning to the negative control values. Thus, the results indicated the dichloromethane fraction may have potential ingredients as antitumor candidates.
  • ... W ich składzie stwierdzono: 42,5% węglowodanów, 19,6% kwasów uronowych, 15,8% reszt siarcznowych, 1,7% azotu. Popiół stanowił 20,3% masy [14]. Do najczęściej wymienianych cukrów prostych COOH OH Fot. 1. Auricularia auricula -Uszak bzowy (fot. ...
    ... W kolejnych badaniach zaobserwowano, że dodatek do diety wysokotłuszczowej polisacharydów (120 mg/kg/dobę) powoduje u myszy zmniejszenie poziomu całkowitego cholesterolu, frakcji LDL oraz poprawę stanu antyoksydacyjnego osocza, obniżenie poziomu malodylodialdehydu i obniżenie wskaźnika miażdżycowego w porównaniu do myszy na diecie bez dodatku polisacharydów. Stwierdzono również zmniejszenie aktywności osoczowej lipazy lipoproteinowej [14]. Porównano także efekt hipolipidemiczny biopolimerów wyizolowanych z pożywki hodowlanej, grzybni i owocnika uszaka. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
  • ... Previous studies have also shown that A. auricula polysaccharides have similar biological activities as A. auricula. Many nutritionists probed into A. auricula polysaccharide components (Aletor 1995 ), conformational change of A. auricula polysaccharides (Zhang et al. 1995a), molecular weights of A. auricula polysaccharides (Zhang et al. 1995b), improvement of production of A. auricula polysaccharides (Wu et al. 2006) and impact on lipid metabolism (Chen et al. 2008). Most recently, some health-promoting diet formulae have been developed using A. auricula as the major ingredient with combination of other nutritional herbal foods (Luo et al. 2009a, b). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The cholesterol-lowering properties of Auricularia auricula are commonly attributed to the presence of polysaccharides based on previous research. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of A. auricula (AAE) on hypercholesterolemia in ICR mice. AAE contained more than 16% (g/g) polyphenolic compounds, excluding other interfering factors such as polysaccharides, water-soluble fibre and protein. Thirty-six mice were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 12). The experimental group was fed cholesterol-enriched diet (CED) with oral administration of AAE (150 mg/kg/d b.w.) for 8-week, normal control group and CED control group received either a regular diet (RD) or CED along with oral administration of equal volume distilled water. Serum lipid profiles and antioxidant status were measured in addition to fecal neutral cholesterol and bile acids. AAE showed a remarkable hypocholesterolemic effect, improving antioxidant status, decreasing the level of total cholesterol and atherosclerosis index, increasing the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fecal excretion of bile acids. No apparent effects on serum triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fecal excretion of neutral cholesterol and feeding efficiency were observed among all groups. These results indicated that A. auricula functional components, which prevented hypercholesterolemia contained polyphenolic compounds, in addition to polysaccharides.
  • ... 8,9 The nutritional content of dried fungus includes 293.1 Kcal per 100 g, 64.82% carbohydrate, 9.69% proteins, 1.22% fat, and 7.87% ash. 10 Recently, the many biological activities of A. auricula-judae extracts have become an interest in medical therapies. Hypoglycemic, 11 prevention of liver damage, 12 anticoagulant, 13 anti-complementary, 14 in vivo hypolipidemic, 15 antioxidant, 16,17 and prevention of ischemia 18 effects have been reported. Previously, the antitumor activity of A. auriculajudae aqueous extract was also determined in animal models. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The present study compares the antitumor activity of extracts from Auricularia auricula-judae, Phellinus gilvus, Ganoderma lucidum, and 100 Korean wild plants in the P388D1 macrophage cell line. The antitumor activity of A. auricula-judae extract (44.21%) did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) from those of Ph. Gilvus (39.46%) and G. lucidum (36.64%) at 1 mg/mL of concentration. Among 100 wild plants, Morus bombycis f. kase, Draba nemorosa var. hebecarpa, Sedum oryzifolium, Lotus corniculatus var. japonicus, and Auricularia auricula-judae 70% ethanol extracts inhibited the viability of tumor cells by 41.85%, 37.31%, 30.29%, 31.98%, and 25.40% at 3 mg/mL of concentration, while inhibition concentration (IC50) values were 1.81, 1.49, 1.05, 1.10, and 0.72 mg/mL, respectively. In Sarcoma 180, NCI H358, and SNU 1 cell lines, the inhibitory activities of A. auricula-judae extract were 65.71%, 69.76%, and 68.01%, respectively. Taken together, the results obtained from the present study indicated that four plant extracts (4% of tested wild plants) and A. auricula-judae extract with similar levels of Ph. Gilvus and G. lucidum extracts may be new potential antitumor agents.
  • ... Our previous study developed a novel dietary formulation of these three functional components, named as AHP, which has been suggested as a multifaceted dietary intervention against dyslipidemia in vivo through improving lipids profile and modulating activities of antioxidant enzymes [8]. The functional formula of AAP and HPC has also been investigated for its potent antioxidative property to inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro and hypolipidemic effect in vivo [9]. However, whether the dietary intervention of AHP is able to inhibit LDL oxidation as well as ox-LDL induced proliferation of VSMCs are still unknown. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The functional formula diet AHP, containing polysaccharides from Auricularia auricular, polyphenolic compounds from Hawthorn (Crataegus) and Pueraria radix, has been recently developed as a dietary intervention against dyslipi-demia in our previous study. In the present study, its antioxidant activities and protective effects against proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were investigated. AHP possessed the potent radical-scavenging effects against hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and also the inhibitory effects against peroxidation of low density lipoprotein in-duced by Cu 2+ in vitro. The protective effects of AHP against proliferation of VSMCs were evaluated through the me-thodology of serum pharmacology. The serum containing AHP significantly inhibited the proliferation of VSMCs in-duced by oxidized low density lipoprotein in a time-and dose-dependent manner, and also promoted the nitric oxide production of VSMCs. Our study indicated that this functional formula diet would be a potent alternative as a function-al diet to prevent atherosclerosis at early stage.
  • ... The administration of the fruiting bodies reduced the plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and atherogenic index to a higher degree as compared to the other experimental objects. Afterwards, Chen et al. (2008) showed that oral administration of A. auricula-judae polysaccharides significantly improved the total antioxidant capacity and lipoprotein lipase activity, while decreasing the malondialdehyde level and the atherosclerosis index in ICR mice. These conclusions revealed the beneficial effects of such polysaccharides on the preventive actions against hypercholesterolemia. ...
    Article
    Mushrooms have been known for their nutritional and culinary values for ages. Nowadays, many species are recognized as functional dietary supplements. Among them, cultivated species of the genus Auricularia (A. auricula-judae, A. polytricha, A. fuscosuccinea) are primarily considered, because of their economic importance, especially in Asian countries, as well as the wide spectrum of their pro-health properties, including antitumor, cholesterol-lowering, anticoagulant, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial. Pharmacologically active compounds in Auricularia spp. include non-starch polysaccharides, polysaccharide-protein and polysaccharide-peptide complexes. In this paper, the current state of knowledge on nutritional value and active compounds characteristics, together with extraction methods and pharmacological activity of cultivated Auricularia mushrooms is discussed. Biological characteristics and folk medicine usage of the species are also presented. This review supports the hypothesis that polysaccharides extracted from mushrooms have significant therapeutic potential and represent a rich source of novel compounds of pharmacological value for future investigations.
  • ... Besides its nutritional attributes, A. auricula-judae has been used as medicine to treat angina, diarrhea, gastrointestinal and hemorrhoids upsets [2] for many centuries in China and other parts of Asia. In recent years, A. auricula-judae has been reported to have the functions of lowering blood cholesterol and triglycerides [3], preventing strokes and heart attacks [4], and effective in treating diabetes [5] and certain cancers [6]. It also exhibits antioxidant activities [7]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Phenotypic traits (physiological characteristics and somatic incompatibility) and genotypic traits (target region amplification polymorphism TRAP) were used to study the diversity of 32 main cultivars of Auricularia auricula-judae in China. Twenty seven important and stable physiological indexes were evaluated; somatic incompatibility test (SIT) reaction was described from three aspects: type, pigment, and intensity; 16 pairs of TRAP primer combinations produced 535 unambiguous and reproducible DNA fragments, of these 524 (97.9%) were polymorphic. Dendrograms were constructed by Unweighted Pair-group Method with Arithmetic Averages (UPGMA) method, and the principal coordinate analysis (PCO) of the three methods (physiological characteristics, SIT intensity and TRAP) exhibited similar clustered patterns, revealing that all the tested strains could be divided into three distinct groups, each of which was correlated with different geographical regions. Most strains originated from the same area were with a narrow genetic basis and could possibly be domesticated from the local wild-type strains, some strains were suspected to be synonymous. The grouping information obtained in the present work provides significant information for further genetic improvement of A. auricula-judae. Keywords Auricularia auricula-judae –Physiological characteristics–Somatic incompatibility test–TRAP–Phenotypic diversity–Genetic diversity
  • ... The administration of the fruiting bodies reduced the plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and atherogenic index to a higher degree as compared to the other experimental objects. Afterwards, Chen et al. (2008) showed that oral administration of A. auricula-judae polysaccharides significantly improved the total antioxidant capacity and lipoprotein lipase activity, while decreasing the malondialdehyde level and the atherosclerosis index in ICR mice. These conclusions revealed the beneficial effects of such polysaccharides on the preventive actions against hypercholesterolemia. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Mushrooms have been known for their nutritional and culinary values for ages. Nowadays, many species are recognized as functional dietary supplements. Among them, cultivated species of the genus Auricularia (A. auricula-judae, A. polytricha, A. fuscosuccinea) are primarily considered, because of their economic importance, especially in Asian countries, as well as the wide spectrum of their pro-health properties, including antitumor, cholesterol-lowering, anticoagulant, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial. Pharmacologically active compounds in Auricularia spp. include non-starch polysaccharides, polysaccharide-protein and polysaccharide-peptide complexes. In this paper, the current state of knowledge on nutritional value and active compounds characteristics, together with extraction methods and pharmacological activity of cultivated Auricularia mushrooms is discussed. Biological characteristics and folk medicine usage of the species are also presented. This review supports the hypothesis that polysaccharides extracted from mushrooms have significant therapeutic potential and represent a rich source of novel compounds of pharmacological value for future investigations.
  • ... The administration of the fruiting bodies reduced the plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and atherogenic index to a higher degree as compared to the other experimental objects. Afterwards, Chen et al. (2008) showed that oral administration of A. auricula-judae polysaccharides significantly improved the total antioxidant capacity and lipoprotein lipase activity, while decreasing the malondialdehyde level and the atherosclerosis index in ICR mice. These conclusions revealed the beneficial effects of such polysaccharides on the preventive actions against hypercholesterolemia. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    This paper presents the characteristics of the species Ganoderma lucidum in terms of health-promoting properties. This species is rare in Poland, and is subject to strict protection. Reishi is classified as a medicinal mushroom which fruiting bodies are characterized by a content of active substances with diverse positive effects on human health. G. lucidum is particularly rich source of bioactive compounds, which are obtained from fruiting bodies, mycelium and spores of this species. The therapeutic effect of G. lucidum extracts has been demonstrated in many scientific studies. The most important pharmacological and physiological effects include: immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-atherosclerosis, antidiabetic and anti-aging. Reishi has also a beneficial effect on liver cells and the cardiovascular system and protects in case of stomach ulcers. Due to its properties G. lucidum can be used in the prevention and treatment of life-threatening diseases, such as cancer, stroke and heart diseases.
  • ... We found that RGAP administration reduced the levels of both obesity and hyperlipidemia, indicating that RGAP may diminish the levels of TG through the activation of LPL. Similar results were found with other polysaccharides such as Auricularia auricularderived polysaccharides and fucoidan [38,39]. Therefore, these results suggest that the administration of RGAP in mice may modulate obese conditions by upregulating the degradation enzyme LPL activity. ...
    Article
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    Objectives: The present study investigated the anti-obesity activities of red ginseng acidic polysaccha-ride (RGAP) from Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced mice. Methods: Forty mice were divided randomly into four group (n=10, respectively): normal control (NC), high-fat-diet (HFD), HFD plus RGAP300mg/kg, HFD plus RGAP500mg/kg. The normal control was fed a normal diet and the other groups were fed an HFD. HFD mice were made obese by high-fat diet (35% fat) feeding for 6 weeks. The test mice were given red ginseng acidic polysaccharide orally at a single dose per day. Body weights of the mice were measured at weekly intervals. The effects of RGAP on obesity functions were assessed by measuring the serum lipid profiles and biomarkers of obesity. In addition, abdominal fat volumes were measured at the end of the experiment by using Micro X-ray CT. Results: Mice in the HFD group showed an increase in body weight and food efficiency ratio, which means body weight gain per food intake. However, RGAP significantly reduced these values when compared with the normal control group. The RGAP group also showed significantly decreased epididymal fat mass. An increase in the serum levels of triglyceride and LDL/HDL ratio were observed in the HFD group, but RGAP administration reduced these serum levels. Serum levels of hepatic function markers such as AST and ALT, which were elevated by HFD-feeding, were also significantly reduced in the RGAP group. Levels of leptin, adiponectin, and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, were impaired by HFD. RGAP brought these levels back to near normal levels. In addition, it was confirmed by Micro X-ray CT that the abdominal fat masses increased by the HFD were reduced by RGAP. Conclusion: This study showed that RGAP protected mice from obesity in the HFD-fed group. RGAP exerts anti-obesity effects in mice via the activation of lipoprotein lipase and improvement of leptin and adiponectin, which carry out critical functions in energy and lipid metabolism. These results suggest that red ginseng acidic polysaccharide might be a preventative functional food for these metabolic disorders.
  • ... 16 In addition, antilipidemic and anticholesterol effects of A. auricula-judae extract in animal models have been reported. 11,17 However, there are no data to elucidate the possible mechanism of action of A. auricula-judae extract. Thus, in this study, we aimed to investigate the prevention of hypolipidemic and hepatic steatosis by A. auricula-judae extract in vivo and to elucidate the in vitro mechanisms. ...
    Article
    Obesity, a rapidly growing threat to human health worldwide, is responsible for a large proportion of the total burden of disease. Therefore, obesity control could be a vital scheme to prevent many diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the activities and mechanism of Auricularia auricula-judae 70% ethanol extract (AAE) in preventing hypolipidemic and hepatic steatosis. A normal diet (ND) and a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without 0.1% (w/w), 0.3% (w/w), and 1% (w/w) AAE were given to male C57BL/6 mice. Plasma lipids and liver enzymes were measured and tissue sections of liver were examined. Further mechanistic studies of mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes were performed in vitro by verifying triglyceride, glycerol, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and messenger RNA expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification. Body weight and adipose tissue mass were significantly reduced in mice fed an ND and a HFD plus AAE compared with mice fed an HFD. In AAE-supplemented groups, plasma lipids and liver enzymes decreased dose-dependently. AAE suppressed the expression of adipogenic/lipogenic genes (PPARγ, C/EBPα, FAS) in 3T3-L1 cells without cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that AAE may reduce the risk of hepatic steatosis by modulating plasma lipids via the regulation of adipogenic/lipogenic transcriptional factors. AAE may have interesting applications to improve plasma lipids and liver enzymes.
  • ... Gelatinous mushrooms are believed to be of high nutritional value since it has the high content of carbohydrates, amino acids, trace elements and vitamins, thus to be processed into a variety of foods (Fan et al., 2006). In previous studies, polysaccharides of gelatinous mushroom were found to have the potent antioxidant activity in both in vitro (Fan et al., 2006;Kho et al., 2009) and in vivo assay (Chen et al., 2008a(Chen et al., , 2008b(Chen et al., , 2008cWu et al., 2010). ...
    Article
    White variety of Auricularia fuscosuccinea is a newly cultivated gelatinous mushrooms which is found only in Taiwan. In this study, total phenolic and total flavonoid content of methanol extract of white variety of A. fuscosuccinea was estimated, and in vitro antioxidant properties and antioxidant enzyme activities were also evaluated. When compared with two other common gelatinous mushrooms, A. polytricha and Tremella fuciformis , white variety of A. fuscosuccinea had the highest total phenolic [7.88 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g] and total flavonoid [1.60 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g]. Among all methanol extracts analyzed, white variety of A. fuscosuccinea had the lowest EC 50 value on reducing g power (0.305 mg/ml) and scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (0.150 mg/ml) had the highest total sugars [44.73 mg dextrose equivalents (DEX)/g] and the lowest EC 50 value on chelating effect on ferrous ions (0.427 mg/ml). The methanol extracts from white variety of A. fuscosuccinea possessed the highest superoxide dismutase activity (2.10 U/mg) and total antioxidant capacity (2.26 mM/g). The glutathione reductase activity (7.97 U/g) of A. polytricha was the highest. The analyses of the antioxidant contents phenolic compounds are mainly responsible for the antioxidant effect of gelatinous mushrooms. Keywords: Auricularia fuscosuccinea , antioxidant activity, reducing power, scavenging effect, chelating effect.
  • ... Other selected CM prescriptions for DN treatments and their respective molecular mechanisms are shown in Table 2. In particular, single herbs (e.g., Auricularia auricula, hei-mu-er) and CM prescriptions (e.g., Danggui Buxue Tang and Gui Qi Mixture) produced better beneficial effects than conventional anti-DN drugs by regulating blood lipid metabolism and lipoprotein lipase activity through the regulation of blood glucose based on their complex compound matrices [65][66][67]. The changes in blood glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were reversed by Gui Qi Mixture, but not by the ACE inhibitor benazepril in diabetic rats [68]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a severe micro vascular complication accompanying diabetes mellitus that affects millions of people worldwide. End-stage renal disease occurs in nearly half of all DN patients, resulting in large medical costs and lost productivity. The course of DN progression is complicated, and effective and safe therapeutic strategies are desired. While the complex nature of DN renders medicines with a single therapeutic target less efficacious, Chinese medicine, with its holistic view targeting the whole system of the patient, has exhibited efficacy for DN management. This review aims to describe the experimental evidence for Chinese medicines in DN management, with an emphasis on the underlying mechanisms, and to discuss the combined use of herbs and drugs in DN treatment.
  • ... Mushroom extracts have shown the ability to decrease plasma cholesterol (hypolipidemic activity) on experimented rats 68 . Hypolipidemic effects of edible mushrooms Auricularia polytricha, Agaricus bisporus, Ganoderma lucidum and Auricularia auricular-judae have been reported in various studies 69,70 . ...
    Article
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    Mushrooms have become more popular due to their nutraceuticals antitumor and antiviral potential. The emergence alternative source of antibiotics to overcome drug resistance challenges. edible mushrooms have good taste and are nutritious with high protein and fibre contents. They contain all essential amino and fatty acids vital to humans. They are research describes them as therapeutic foods, with the pressure, and cancer. Mushroom extracts contain bioactive constituents such as phenolic compou lactones, sterols, glycoproteins and polysaccharides. Their biological effectiveness has been traditionally exploited to immunity, improve the health of long ill people, prescribed as a tonic for gastro constipation, stomach ulcers and used as skin ointment to treat skin diseases. Furthermore, they have been used to enhance the quick recovery of childbirth mothers and improve milk production to breastfeeding mothers. The present aimto appraise traditional uses, nutritional significance and the nutraceutical value of edible mushrooms of Tanzania for the improvement of human health and livelihood.
  • ... Monosaccharide composition of A. auricula biomass is presented in Table 2. Contents of glucose, mannose, xylose and galactose were determined in the fungus biomass. Glucose and mannose are the major components (15.0 and 10.7 g /100 g of dry matter, respectively) typical of black fungi polysaccharides, but xylose content is lower and mannose content is higher than those ranging in A. auricular reported by [31]. [26] ; c [27]; d [29]; e [28]. ...
    Article
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    Chemical composition of Auricularia auricula-judae fungus, used as a raw material for producing therapeutic and medicinal agents and as a food material has not been reported yet. Main components of this cultivated fungus (ash, protein, fat, total carbohydrate), water-soluble polysaccharide, cellulose, chitin, pectin, uronic acids, amino acid and mineral element contents, as well as neutral sugar composition were determined. This fungus contains 3.6% of ash, 12.5% of protein, 1.7% of fat and a large amount of carbohydrates (66.1%) per dry matter. Gas-liquid chromatography demonstrated the following monosaccharide composition of dry biomass: glucose (15.0%), mannose (10.7%), xylose (1.5%), galactose (0.6%). A. auricula-judae was shown to be a good source of almost all essential amino acids (34.7% of total) as compared to plant proteins, with the umami taste aminoacids present in content typical of mushrooms (25%). Its average calorific value is 327.7 kcal/100 g of dry matter. Results showed this fungus is a good source of healthy nutrients.
  • ... They also increased the antioxidant capacity and exhibited potential cardioprotective, anti-atherosclerotic and antithrombotic properties. Moreover, the polysaccharides exhibited anti-inflammatory activity, which corresponds to the traditional use of the mushroom (Chen et al. 2008a). ...
    Book
    Full-text available
    Medicinal mushrooms have been used in traditional medicine and human diet for thousands of years. Nowadays, medicinal mushrooms and their active compounds are being increasingly recognised by conventional medicine, since more and more scientific studies support their therapeutic value. In this book, therapeutic properties and applications of 16 most popular medicinal mushrooms are concisely presented based on scientific research, including clinical trials. In addition, the use of medicinal mushrooms for the treatment of companion, domestic and sport animals is also described.
  • ... 1,3-1,6-β-D-glucans include, among others, lentinan isolated from Lentinus edodes, schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune, and pleuran from Pleurotus ostreatus [2]. Polysaccharide extracts from Auricularia auricula-judae have proven anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cardioprotective properties [4,11]. These species have been considered medicinal due to their significant amounts of total β-glucans as well as 1,3-1,6-β-D-glucans [2]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Background: Macrofungal β-glucans are mainly represented by compounds with β-1,3- and β-1,6 glycosidic bonds. They have been shown to have immunomodulatory, anticancer, and antioxidant properties. Although there are many reports on the bioactivity and structure of fungal glucans, studies on the quantitative assessment of these compounds are sparse. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine total β-glucans and 1,3-1,6-β-D-glucan contents in selected species of wild-growing edible Polish mushrooms. Material and methods: Eight species of wild-growing edible mushrooms Boletus pinophilus, Hydnum repandum, Craterellus cornucopioides, Suillus variegatus, Suillus granulatus, Gyroporus cyanescens, Tricholomopsis rutilans, and Auricularia auricula-judae and one species of cultivated mushroom for comparison purposes Agaricus bisporus, were analyzed. Quantitative analysis of 1,3-1,6-β-D-glucans was done using a colorimetric method in accordance with Nitschke et al. Result: Mean total β-glucan content varied from 13.5 g/100 g dry mass in A. bisporus (portobello variety) to 40.9 g/100 g dry mass in T. rutilans. Mean 1,3-1,6-β-D-glucan content in the analyzed fruiting bodies ranged from 3.9 g/100 g dry mass in Agaricus bisporus (cremini) to 16.8 g/100 g dry mass in Auricularia auricula-judae (wood ear). The following mushrooms demonstrated the greatest percentage of 1,3-1,6-β-D-glucan contents in relation to the total β-glucan content: Gyroporus cyanescens (54%), Suillus granulatus (49.8%), Auricularia auricula-judae (47.9%), and Suillus variegatus (40.6%). Conclusions: Among the analyzed species, wild-growing mushrooms had a generally higher average 1,3-1,6-β-Dglucan content compared with cultivated mushrooms such as A. bisporus. The highest average content of these polysaccharides was observed in medicinal mushroom Auricularia auricula-judae. Comparable 1,3-1,6-β-D-glucan content, in relation to this mushroom species, was found in Gyroporus cyanescens, Suillus granulatus and Suillus variegatus, which points to the possibility of the use of these species of mushrooms as medicinal foods.
  • ... These show that aAAP-1 was an acidic heteropolysaccharide mainly composed of Man, GlcUA, Glc, Gal, and Xyl, with molar ratio of 80.63:9.88:2.25:1:31.13. The aldehyde acid of aAAP-1 was glucuronic acid but not galacturonic acid [44], which is consistent with Zhang et al. [45]. The monosaccharide composition and molar ratio of aAAP-1 was different from other polysaccharides extracted from A. auricula-judae [26,46], which indicated that the differences in the extracting conditions, separation, and purification influence the composition of polysaccharides from the same resource. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    To explore Auricularia auricula-judae polysaccharides (AAP) as natural anticoagulants for application in the functional food industry, ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) was optimized for the extraction of AAP by using a response surface methodology (RSM). The maximum extraction yield of crude AAP (14.74 mg/g) was obtained at the optimized extraction parameters as follows: Extraction temperature (74 °C), extraction time (27 min), the ratio of liquid to raw material (103 mL/g), and ultrasound power (198 W). Furthermore, the acidic AAP (aAAP) was precipitated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) from crude AAP (cAAP). aAAP was further purified using ion exchange chromatography with a DEAE Purose 6 Fast Flow column to obtain aAAP-1. Additionally, according to the HPLC analysis, the aAAP-1 was mainly composed of mannose, glucuronic acid, glucose, galactose, and xylose, with a molar ratio of 80.63:9.88:2.25:1:31.13. Moreover, the results of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT) indicated aAAP-1 had anticoagulant activity, which was a synergic anticoagulant activity by the endogenous and exogenous pathway.
  • ... Polysaccharides from A. auricula very closely similar to A. polytricha also reduced the serum concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in mice receiving a diet enriched in cholesterol and improved lipoprotein lipase activity and total antioxidant capacity 67 . A water-soluble crude polysaccharide from A. auricular mycelia grown under solid-state fermentation lowered serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in a high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic mice 60 . ...
    Article
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    Fatty liver (FLD) disease is a consequence of metabolic syndrome, which is a health problem worldwide with a phenomenal rise in prevalence. In this study, two hepatoprotective polysaccharide-peptides were extracted from the mushroom Auricularia polytricha followed by chromatographic fractionation of the extract on the ion exchanger DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex-200 to yield two purified fractions: APPI and APPII. The monosaccharide compositions, FT-IR, N-terminal sequences, internal peptide sequences and molecular weights of the two fractions were determined. Furthermore, their hepatoprotective effect on human hepatoma HepG2 cells in vitro and in an animal model of fatty liver disease was evidenced by the findings that APPI and APPII diminished lipid deposit in cells, blood and the liver, increased cellular antioxidant activity and viability, and protected the liver against injury. The mechanistic study revealed that APPI and APPII activated the adiponectin pathway, up-regulated expression of genes controlling free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation, such as AMPK, CPTl, ACOX1 and PPARα genes, enhanced lipid metabolism, preserved hepatic function, promoted the antioxidant defense system and reduced lipid peroxidation. Hence the bioactive compounds of A. polytricha could serve as therapeutic agents in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
  • ... ). The polysaccharide extract of A. auricula-judae exhibited hypoglycemic(Yuan, He, Cui, & Takeuchi, 1998), hypocholostemic(Chen, Luo, Li, Guo, Li, Su, & Xiao, 2008), anticomplement(Jeong, Cho, Yang, Gu, Jang, Huh, & Song, 2004), antioxidant (QuelKho, Vikineswary, Abdullah, Kuppusamy, & Oh, 2009;Fan, Zhang, Yu, & Ma, 2007;Luo, Xiao, Wang, Li, & Ji, 2011), antitumor(Misaki, Kakuta, Sasaki, Tanaka, & Miyaji, 1981;Reza, Jo, & Park, 2012); Reza, Hossain, Lee, Yohannes,Damte, Rhee, & Jo, 2014), hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory ...
    Article
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    This paper is a review on the chemical constituents and biological activities of the fruiting bodies of seven edible and two inedible mushrooms with reported anticancer properties found in the Philippines. We previously reported the chemical constituents of the dichloromethane extracts of the fruiting bodies of these mushrooms, which were cultured at Central Luzon State University, bought from the Mushroom Burger and Metro Manila supermarkets, and collected from Mt. Makiling. These studies yielded ergosterol (1) ergosterol peroxide (2) cerevisterol, dilinoleoyloleoylglycerol, and a mixture of linoleic acid (3) palmitic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid from Pleurotus florida; 1, triacylglycerols (4) and fatty acid methyl esters from Pleurotus djamor; 1 and 4 from Flammulina velutipes; 1 and trilinolein (5) from Pleurotus eryngii and Lentinula edodes; 1, 3, 5 and brassicasterol from Agaricus bisporus; 2 from Auricularia auricula-judae; 2-4 and 3β-linoleyloxyergosta-7,22-diene from Coprinopsis lagopus; and 2 and 4 from Phellinus gilvus (Schwein.) Pat. Compounds 1-5 were reported to exhibit anticancer properties, which may contribute to the anticancer activities of these mushrooms. Other studies revealed that the anticancer principles of some of these mushrooms are polysaccharides and proteins.
  • ... The fruit bodies of A. auricula are a kind of blackbrown fungus with high contents of carbohydrates (approximately 630 g kg -1 in dried fruit bodies) [7], and this species is the fourth most important cultivated mushroom that is used by humans all over the world [8]. Nowadays a great number of studies on fresh and dried Auricularia auricula-judae polysaccharides have confirmed that they possesses a large variety of biological functions, including hypoglycemic [9][10][11], antitumor [12], hypolipidemic [13][14], antiviral [15], anticoagulant [16], antioxidant [17][18][19] and immuno-enhancing [20] activities. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    A model of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using high-fat diet and low-dose STZ was established to assess the antidiabetic effects of Auricularia auricular polysaccharides simulated hydrolysates (AAPHs) obtained from the dried fruiting body of A. auricular. AAPHs were administered intragastrically (i.g.) at the dose of 0.15 g/kg b. W. to diabetic Wistar rats for 4 weeks. Results show that AAPHs was demonstrated to exhibit significant diminution in T-CHO and LDL-C levels (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) compared to the diabetic control group. In addition, the secretion level of GLP-1 were different with the diabetes model group from 0 to 30 min, and had a tendency to alleviate weight loss. The current study suggests that AAPHs might be incorporated as a supplement in diabetic agents or combined with other health-care foods.
  • Article
    The anti-diabetic effect of the Auricularia auricular polysaccharides simulated hydrolysates (APSHs) obtained from the dried fruiting body of Auricularia auricular was studied in this paper. The APSHs were administered intragastrically (i.g.) at the dose of 0.15g/kg b.w. to the streptozotocin (STZ) -induced diabetic male SD rats for 7 weeks. The results showed that fasting blood glucose level was significantly reduced (p<0.05), whereas the glucose tolerance was remarkable improvement in STZ-induced diabetic rats through APSHs administration, and loss in body weight was also prevented in diabetic mice (p<0.05). Moreover, APSHs could increase hepatic glycogen and pancreatic insulin level (p<0.01), as well as decrease the levels of serum TG and LDL-C compared to the diabetic control group (p<0.05). APSHs had no significant effects on the total cholesterol and HDL-C levels. APSHs were composed of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, galactose and glucosamine with the molar ratio of 1.91: 0.52: 2.89: 1.00: 0.67: 0.23. These studies suggest that APSHs exerts marked antidiabetic effect in experimental diabetes mellitus, thus justifying the potential treatment for diabetic mellitus.
  • Article
    Influence of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) to the characterization and corresponding antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Auricularia auricula (AAP) was determined. According to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, high performance size exclusion chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, partial acid hydrolysis, periodic acid oxidation, Smith degradation, methylation analysis and atomic force microscopy, AAP was a heteropolysaccharide (composed of glucose, galactose, mannose, arabinose and rhamnose at the molar ratio of 37.53:1:4.32:0.93:0.91) with the molecular weight of 2.77 × 104 Da, observed as a spherical lump, and the backbone of AAP was mainly composed by glucose with (1→3) linked. Moreover, AAP exhibited significant in vitro antioxidant activity in scavenging free radicals (ABTS, DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals), in lipid peroxidation and reducing power assays. The present result suggested that AAP by MAE had low molecular weight and remarkable antioxidant capability.
  • Article
    Polysaccharide was extracted from Auricularia auricular-judae with hot water (AP). AP consisted mostly of carbohydrates (72%) and proteins (8%). The monosaccharide compositions mostly are Glucose (62%), Mannose (33%) and a small amount of Galactose (5%). The extracellular polysaccharide dispersions showed shear-thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior and its pseudoplasticity was more pronounced for 2% polysaccharide dispersion. The Power-law model was used to evaluate the viscosity curves of AP and both its viscosity and consistency indices changed as the concentration increased. The viscosity of polysaccharides dispersion decreased with the addition of salt and also at extreme pH values. AP dispersion behaved as a weak gel in the concentration of 0.5% and 1% and as a true gel at higher concentration (e.g, 2%). The addition of 1 M CaCl2 to AP and changing dispersion pH to acid or alkali decrease its gel strength. AP exhibited excellent thermal stability as assessed by rheology and DSC, suggesting the material could be used in food system which requires heat tolerance.
  • Article
    Adverse side effects reported for the use of statin drugs provided insights to develop potential anti-dyslipidemic derivatives from natural origin. The objective of the work was to develop the marine-derived polysaccharides attenuating 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), and as prospective natural anti-dyslipidemic leads. Physical and chromatographic purification methods were used to isolate the polygalactofucan from the marine macroalga Sargassum wightii and β-(2-deoxy)-amino-substituted glucopyrananan from a marine crustacean. Glycosidic linkage analysis by the process of methylation was used for structural elucidation of the polygalactofucan, and the methylated and partially methylated alditol acetates were characterized using extensive spectroscopic experiments. The polysaccharide composite constituting the titled polysaccharide motifs showed significant HMGCR inhibitory potential (IC90 0.12 mg mL⁻¹) and an increase in HMG-CoA/mevalonate ratio (1.68 mg dL⁻¹) compared with the high-fat diet (HFD)-treated animals (1.04 mg dL⁻¹), which recognized its hypo-lipidemic efficacy. In vivo results demonstrated about 70% reduction in the triglyceride levels with the concomitant increase (~39%) of hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in the HFD-fed Wistar rats treated with 500 mg kg⁻¹ body weight. The results illustrated the use of marine-derived polygalactofucan composite as potential anti-dyslipidemic agent.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    aBSTRaCT β-Glucan in oat is widely considered as the main ingredient for the anti-hypercholesterol effects; however, phenolic compounds in oat are also regarded to possess potential activities against dyslipidemia. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms thor-oughly, it is of great significance to evaluate and compare the hypolipidemic properties exerted by oat phenol-rich extract (PE) and β-glucan extract (GE) in hyperlipidemic ICR mice induced by high-fat diet. The study was conducted for 12 weeks. Both PE and GE showed a significant hypocholesterolemic action by reducing the concentration of serum total cholesterol (TC), low density lipopro-tein cholesterol and hepatic TC. Only PE reduced the hepatic triacylglycerol (TG), inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary CoA reductase activities and improved the hepatic antioxidant defense system. However, GE significantly increased fecal excretion of neutral cholesterol and bile acids. This study demonstrated that not only β-glucan but also oat phenolic acids contributed to a preven-tive effect on hyperlipidemia. Based on the cholesterol metabolism and antioxidant defense system, the effects of the two functional components of oat were exerted in different ways.
  • Article
    This paper reports on a water-soluble polysaccharide (AAP I-a) extracted from Auricularia auricular with assistance from ultrasonics, and purified by anion-exchange and gel-permeation chromatography. Additional further structural characteristics were determined from high-performance liquid chromatography/gel permeation chromatograph (HPLC/GPC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer and gas chromatography–mass spectrophotometer (GC–MS). AAP I-a is composed of l-rhamnose, l-arabinose, d-xylose, d-mannose, d-glucose, and d-galactose in a molar ratio of 0.2:2.6:0.4:3.6:1.0:0.4. After 35 days of AAP I-a oral administration (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg once a day), the AAP I-a significantly decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) activities in mice where ageing is induced by d-galactose (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our results indicated that AAP I-a possessed potent antioxidant activity.
  • Article
    The present objective of the investigation is to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic activity of the aqueous fruit pulp extract (APE) of Copernicia prunifera (Miller) H. E. Moore (Arecaceae family). Various chemical characterization methods like thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ¹ H and ¹³ C NMR, and molecular weight by gel permeation chromatography have been employed to characterize the extracted pectin. The present study demonstrated that hypercholesterolemic diet (HD) created hypercholesterolemia, caused significant increases in body weight, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein, and caused decreases in high-density lipoprotein in serum compared with SD group. Two doses (APE 150 and 300 mg/Kg b.w./day) were administered to hyperlipidemic mice for 90 days. APE reversed body weight changes, changed serum lipids to normal values, and significantly inhibited the changes of lipid peroxidation and inflammation in the liver tissues. The renal parameters analyzed (urea and creatinine) altered by diet were reverted to normal values. Our results revealed that aqueous fruit pulp extracts of carnauba reduced hypercholesterolemia showing a potential preventive effect against cardiovascular diseases without side effects cause.
  • Article
    Mushrooms are macroscopic fungi which can be either epigeous or hypogeous and is estimated to be 140,000 on earth, yet only 10% are known. Since ancient time, it played a diverse role in human history for mycolatry, mycophagy and as medicine in folklore and religion. Many Asian and western countries consider mushrooms as panacea for a large number of diseases and utilized for consumption as a gourmet food for its taste as well as flavor. In recent years, scientific research fraternities have confirmed that various extracts and metabolites of mushrooms used traditionally are able to treat a wide range of diseases due to their balanced modulation of multiple targets thereby providing a greater therapeutic effect or equivalent curative effect to that of modern medicine. Medicinal mushrooms especially those belonging to higher basidiomycete groups are reservoir of bioactive compounds with multiple therapeutic properties. The present review provides historical importance as well as an updated information on pharmacologically relevant higher basidiomycetes belong to the genus Agaricus, Auricularia, Phellinus, Ganoderma, Pleurotus, Trametes and Lentinus and their biologically active secondary metabolites. This will help the researchers to understand various type of secondary metabolites, their therapeutic role and related in vivo or in vitro work at a glance. The mounting evidences from several scientific community across the globe, regarding various therapeutic applications of mushroom extracts, unarguably make it an advance research area worth mass attention.
  • Article
    Two novel polysaccharide fractions, named WP1 and WP3, were extracted and purified from wampee [Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels] seeds. Their physicochemical properties, in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities were investigated. Results indicated that both WP1 and WP3 were acidic heteropolysaccharides with uronic acid content of 45.35% and 56.79%, respectively. The molar ratio of rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, arabinose of WP1 was 5.01:1.50:39.53:1:10.76:23.50 while WP3 was 5.76:1.73:27.27:1:4.72:8.77. Furthermore, WP3 not only exhibited stronger in vitro antioxidant activities than WP1, but also more significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) level in serum of SD rats induced by high-fat diet.
  • Article
    The hypolipidemic activities of high and low molecular weights of chitosan nanopowders (HMW-chitosan-NP: 315kDa; LMW-chitosan-NP: 51kDa) prepared by ultrafine milling were evaluated in rats. The results showed that the hypolipidemic activity of chitosan nanopowder was better than ordinary chitosan, and LMW-chitosan-NP was superior to HMW-chitosan-NP in hypolipidimic activity. Compared with ordinary chitosan, chitosan nanopowder increased the fecal lipids and the activities of serum and liver lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) of rats. Rats receiving LMW-chitosan-NP excreted less lipids in feces, but showed higher serum and liver LPL and HL activities compared with those fed HMW-chitosan-NP. These results suggested that compared with ordinary chitosan, the increased hypolipidemic activity of chitosan nanopowder might be attributed to its ability on increasing fecal lipid excretions and stimulating LPL and HL activities, and the better stimulation of LMW-chitosan-NP in activities of these lipases might help it to exceed HMW-chitosan-NP in hypolipidemic activity.
  • Article
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    The consumption of mushrooms has been linked with protection against dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), by several biological pathways including inhibiting beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1), which is responsible for releasing toxic β-amyloid peptide in the brain. We have investigated the capacity of several medicinal mushroom species-Auricularia polytricha (wood ear mushroom), Agaricus bisporus (button mushroom), Flammulina velutipes (winter or enoki mushroom), and Lentinus edodes (shiitake mushroom)-in the regulation of BACE1. Mushrooms were subjected to a generic food-compatible processing method to detect process-stable or process-modified products; the effects of processing were interpreted to infer the chemical classes associated with bioactivity. We have shown previously that in addition to enzyme inhibition, in the presence of the BACE1 proenzyme, heteropolymeric species such as heparin can activate BACE1 by modulating access to the catalytic site. We observed both inhibitory and activating components of the various mushrooms. Only BACE1 inhibitory species were detected in unprocessed and processed forms of A. polytricha, whereas the dominant extracted species from A. bisporus, F. velutipes, and L. edodese were activators of BACE1. It is not known whether activating species were masking the presence of inhibitory species in A. bisporus, F. velutipes, and L. edodes. Inhibitory species were attributed to hispidin-derived polyphenols, whereas activating species were attributed to soluble polysaccharides and possibly low-mass Maillard products produced during processing. Larger molecular BACE1-activating species are unlikely to be bioavailable to brain in contrast with possible brain bioavailability of smaller, lipophilic hispidins.
  • Article
    Mushrooms have a great potential for the production of useful bioactive metabolites. To explore the bioactive compounds from edible mushrooms for interfering with the development of macrophage-derived foam cells, which is recognized as the hallmark of early atherosclerosis, eight types of mushrooms polysaccharides had been selected to be tested. Consequently, different mushrooms polysaccharides displayed diverse component profiles. Of polysaccharides that we tested, the Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharide had the strongest inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation. Furthermore, through fractionation of DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100, the polysaccharide from P. eryngii had been successfully purified and identified. By the analysis of IR, GC, and HPLC, the purified polysaccharide was estimated to be 30-38kDa for the average molecular weight with the monosaccharide composition mainly composed of D-types of mannose, glucose and galactose. Findings presented in this report firstly provide direct evidence, which links the purified polysaccharide moiety with the biological function in foam-cell model.
  • Article
    Radiation‐protective effects of sulfated polysaccharides (SNAAP80) from Auricularia auricular were studied. Crude polysaccharides were extracted using ultrasound‐assisted water extraction. Bioactive polysaccharide fragments were screened using ethanol precipitation with an in vitro antioxidant activity test. The chlorosulfonic acid‐dimethylformamide method was used to obtain the sulfated polysaccharide. Monosaccharide composition and molecular weight were determined using GC‐MS and HPLC‐GPC, respectively. IR, UV, and SEM were used for structural characterization. The antiradiation effect of SNAAP80 was studied using a ⁶⁰Co‐γ radiation model in mice. The results showed that the SNAAP80, with a degree of substitution of 0.514, was composed of glucose and mannose. A bioactivity analysis showed that the SNAAP80 increased the organ indexes, phagocytosis index, stimulation index, and the superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and lactate dehydrogenase activity. The SNAAP80 decreased TBARS, IL‐2, IL‐12, INF‐γ, protein carbonyls, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. The results suggested that SNAAP80 had an effective radiation‐protective effect. Practical applications Auricularia auricula is a commonly cultivated commercial mushroom in East Asia; it is also called “wood ear” in China and “black fungus” in Russia. Many published studies regarding polysaccharides from A. auricula have shown their beneficial health effects for both humans and animals. A. auricula is acknowledged for its pharmaceutical effects such as inhibiting lipid peroxidation, decreasing liver damage, hypolipidemic properties and so on. Functional activity of polysaccharides is related to their solubility. The activities of polysaccharide NAAP80 from A. auricular were restricted because of its poor solubility. Therefore, it was modified by chlorosulphonic acid‐N,N dimethylformamide to obtain SNAAP80 which has a significantly higher solubility. Antiradiation effect of SNAAP80 has been studied in this paper, and its potential application in antiradiation may be relevant to space exploration, the military, daily health care, and therapeutic medications.
  • Article
    In this study, optimization of combined enzyme extraction (CEE), isolation, characterizationand antioxidant activities of polysaccharides (APs) from Astragalus membranaceus (AM) were investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) and orthogonal experiments were used to optimizethe CEE conditions, which are as follows: combined enzyme concentration of 1.5%, 1% and 0.5% of cellulase, pectase and papain, extraction time of 94.5. min, extraction temperature of 49.9. °C and pH of5.1. The APs were further fractionated using DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow and Sephadex G-200 column to afford three purified fractions of APs-1-1, APs-2-1 and APs-3-1. Their physicochemical properties were investigated by gas chromatography (GC), high-performance gel-permeation chromatography (HPGPC) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that their total sugar, uronic acid content, molecular weight and monosaccharide composition were significantly different. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by various antioxidant assays in vitro. The results showed that all the three polysaccharides possessed good antioxidant properties in a concentration-dependent manner, especially APs-3-1 with the highest uronic acid content and the lowest molecular weight had the strongest antioxidant capacity and free radicals scavenging activity. The present results suggested that APs-3-1 might be exploited as effective natural antioxidant for medical and food industries.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Abstract: Slovenia with its diverse environment is home to more than 2400 fungal species out of which especially many macromycetes have for millennia been used worldwide as natural remedies. These species of mushrooms were in the past picked from the nature, but today can be cultivated as fruiting bodies or fungal biomass on different substrates. They possess immunomodulating, antiviral, antibacterial and anticancer activities and can be used against allergies, dementia, Alzheimer disease and in many other diseases. They represent a vast potential as natural remedies with no or very little adverse effects and can be processed into food supplement or further developed into medicines. These mushrooms are a natural treasure, which enables us to be more self-sufficient if we cultivate them for medical and certain species for nutritional purposes as well.
  • Article
    Previous study has verified the polysaccharide from the fruiting body of Pleurotus eryngii (PEPE) is capable of decreasing the lipid content in both of cell-line and mouse model. However, little is known about underlying mechanisms and whether this bioactive polysaccharide exists in submerged culture. Here, we verified the excreted polysaccharides EP and EP-1 from submersion culture of P. eryngii have the remarkable inhibitory effects on lipid accumulation in macrophage-derived foam cells. Structure analysis indicates EP-1 consists of d-types of glucose, galactose and mannose with the main β(1 → 3)-glucan glycosidic linkage branched at O-6 by α-d-glucose while EP digested by β-1,3-glucanase fails to decrease the lipid accumulation, suggesting that the special structure is essential for its function. Expression analysis suggests that EP is able to cause the down-regulation of the scavenger receptor-CD36 on both transcription and protein levels. Most importantly, EP can be obtained by fermentation in a mass-production.
  • Chapter
    The use of mushrooms in medicine dates back to the ancient Egyptians and Chinese cultures that used them to promote general health and longevity.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Obesity, a rapidly growing threat to human health worldwide, is responsible for a large proportion of the total burden of disease. Therefore, obesity control could be a vital scheme to prevent many diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the activities and mechanism of Auricularia auricula-judae 70% ethanol extract (AAE) in preventing hypolipidemic and hepatic steatosis. A normal diet (ND) and a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without 0.1% (w/w), 0.3% (w/w), and 1% (w/w) AAE were given to male C57BL/6 mice. Plasma lipids and liver enzymes were measured and tissue sections of liver were examined. Further mechanistic studies of mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes were performed in vitro by verifying triglyceride, glycerol, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and messenger RNA expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification. Body weight and adipose tissue mass were significantly reduced in mice fed an ND and a HFD plus AAE compared with mice fed an HFD. In AAE-supplemented groups, plasma lipids and liver enzymes decreased dose-dependently. AAE suppressed the expression of adipogenic/lipogenic genes (PPARγ, C/EBPα, FAS) in 3T3-L1 cells without cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that AAE may reduce the risk of hepatic steatosis by modulating plasma lipids via the regulation of adipogenic/lipogenic transcriptional factors. AAE may have interesting applications to improve plasma lipids and liver enzymes.
  • Article
    beta-(1,3)-Polyglucuronic acid sodium salt produced by the regioselective oxidation of beta-(1,3)-glucan have been studied for its biological impact as putative slimming agent. This beta-(1,3)-polyglucuronic acid sodium salt was synthesized using the conventional 2,2,6,6,-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)/NaBr/NaClO systems at pH 10 and 4 degrees C. A transcriptomical study using DNA microarray analysis, demonstrated that this heparan like sodium salt locally induced an over-expression of the gene Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4 or fasting induced adipose factor (FIAF)) leading to the increase in Adipokine ANGPTL4 synthesis and the inhibition of Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL). In vitro analysis using 3T3-L1 cells have clearly revealed that beta-(1,3)-polyglucuronic acid sodium salt could act in key steps of lipid metabolism by inhibiting the differentiation of pre-adipocytes to mature adipocytes.
  • Article
    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious microvascular complication in diabetes mellitus patients and 30–45% of DN patients progresses to end-stage renal disease, imposing a heavy burden on the society. Unfortunately, the pathogenesis of DN remains unclear, and effective and safe therapies are in great demand. Rather than conventional medicines that concentrate on delaying renal failure by controlling blood sugar and/or ameliorating microalbuminuria, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) emphasize on the patients' whole inner system and devote to repair the kidney with consideration of overall health. Since many TCM herbs are edible, edible plants from TCM as diet therapy would be a promising alternative for DN management. To date, remarkable progresses have been made on the therapeutic effects of TCM edible plants for DN. In this review, the pathogenesis and experimental models of DN are firstly discussed. Thereafter, the structures of active components from TCM edible plants are summarized followed by discussion of recent research on TCM edible plants as functional food for diet therapy. Additionally, the necessity for safety evaluation of TCM edible plants for DN treatment is addressed.
  • Article
    Porphyran is a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from Pyropia, a genus of marine red algae. In this study, the biological activity of porphyran from Pyropia yezoensis as an oral hypolipidemic agent in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice was investigated. Porphyran lowered serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio 28 days after administration. Porphyran at a dose of 200 mg kg−1 d−1 can decrease the percentage of body weight gain (BWG) and serum lipid profiles of mice significantly, similar to Zhibituo (a hypolipidemic drug approved by the China Food and Drug Administration in 2009). The mice that have taken porphyran showed an obvious increase in the fecal TC and TG compared with the blank control group. The liver weight, lipid composition (TG and TC), liver damage index (serum alanine aminotransferase, ALT; aspartate aminotransaminase, AST; and alkaline phosphatase, ALP), and hepatocyte morphology results in mice on a high-fat diet imply that dietary administration of porphyran can alleviate liver damage induced by the diet. Therefore, porphyran may be useful as a functional food additive, hypolipidemic, and liver-protective agent.
  • Article
    Mushroom is a kind of fungus that has been popular for its special flavour and renowned biological values. The polysaccharide contained in mushroom is regarded as one of the primary bioactive constituents and is beneficial for health. The structural features and bioactivities of mushroom polysaccharides have been studied extensively. It is believed that the diverse biological bioactivities of polysaccharides are closely related to their structure or conformation properties. In this review, the structural characteristics, conformational features and bioactivities of several mushroom polysaccharides are summarized, and their beneficial mechanisms and the relationships between their structure and bioactivities are also discussed.
  • Chapter
    Overwhelming consensus among medical authorities and scholarly bodies on the high susceptibility to chronic ailments such as coronary diseases, cancers, and diabetes and the failure to make any leap forward progress in controlling casualties or even to completely understand their pathology is a frightening reality. To comprehend alterations, additions, and management of diet is a preferable approach not only to prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases but also to precise and enhance treatment measures. Proper application of potential drugs is possible only by establishing a systemic correlation and compilation of the knowledge obtained on the possible bioactive drugs. In this perspective gathering knowledge on the health-promoting potential of mushrooms which are considered as one of the promising sources of potential products that provide cardioprotection is indispensable. While there are several mushrooms traditionally utilized around the world for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), they are also being cautiously evaluated experimentally for the available evidences of ethnopharmacology. Some therapeutic mushrooms have preclinical studies to demonstrate that uptake of these organic dietary supplements and their constituents as a therapeutic alternative or supplement is conceivable, and further evaluations are carried out to help in lessening the prevalence and mortality of CVD by incorporating them either as a population medicine or as a clinical medicine. A few examinations have demonstrated the effect of mushrooms and their bioactive compounds on metabolic markers such as low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, fasting triacylglycerol, and homocysteine levels and on conditions such as hypertension, body hemostasis, oxidative stress, and inflammation which are associated with cardiovascular ailments. The focus of this chapter will primarily be on mushrooms used traditionally for the treatment of CVD.
  • The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of an aqueous alfalfa extract (AAE) on production performance, egg quality and lipid metabolism of laying hens between 28 and 36 weeks of age. Four groups of commercial hens (Hy-Line Brown) were fed with diets containing 0, 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15% AAE. Dietary AAE had no effect on egg production parameters (p > 0.05). Shell strength was increased (linear and quadratic effects; p < 0.05) with gradient addition of AAE. Furthermore, shell strength was notably higher (p < 0.05) in 0.1% and 0.15% AAE groups than the control group. With an exception of serum low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum total triglycerides and liver cholesterol concentration (day 42), lipid indices in yolk, serum and liver were lowered (linear and quadratic effects; p < 0.05) at day 42 and day 56 as AAE in diets increased, as well as the enzyme activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase. In relation to the control group, cholesterol and triglycerides in yolk, liver and serum and serum very low density lipoprotein cholesterol were lower in 0.15% AAE-treated birds at day 42 and day 56. It also significantly decreased activities of ACC, HMG-CoA reductase and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) at day 56. The 0.1% AAE decreased triglycerides in yolk, liver and serum, as well as the activities of ACC and FAS at day 56. These data suggest that dietary AAE could be applied to improve egg shell quality and modify the lipid status of laying hens and eggs.
  • Automatisationdudosagedessubstancespectiquesparlam´ ethode au m´ eta-hydroxydiph´ enyl
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    ThibaultJF.1979.Automatisationdudosagedessubstancespectiquesparlam´ ethode au m´ eta-hydroxydiph´ enyl. LWT Food Sci Technol 12:247–51
  • Chemistryofthe2-thiobarbituricacidtest for determination of oxidative rancidity in foods
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    TarladgisBG,PearsonAM,DuranLR.1964.Chemistryofthe2-thiobarbituricacidtest for determination of oxidative rancidity in foods. J Sci Food Agric 15:602–7
  • Is there a relationship between serum cholesterol and risk of premature death from coronary heart disease and grade? Influence of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) on human serum cholesterol Chemistry of the 2-thiobarbituric acid test for determination of oxidative rancidity in foods
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    Stamler J, Welthwoth D, Neaton JD. 1986. Is there a relationship between serum cholesterol and risk of premature death from coronary heart disease and grade? J Am Diet Assoc 253:2823. Suzuki S, Ohshima S. 1976. Influence of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) on human serum cholesterol. Mushroom Sci 9:463. Tarladgis BG, Pearson AM, Duran LR. 1964. Chemistry of the 2-thiobarbituric acid test for determination of oxidative rancidity in foods. J Sci Food Agric 15:602–7.
  • Automatisation du dosage des substances pectiques par la mé au mé-hydroxydiphé
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    Thibault JF. 1979. Automatisation du dosage des substances pectiques par la mé au mé-hydroxydiphé. LWT Food Sci Technol 12:247–51.
  • Nutritional and medicinal value of specialty mushrooms Review of clinical studies on cholesterol-lowering response to soy protein The hypocholesterolemic effect of two edible mushrooms: Auricu-laria auricula (tree-ear) and Tremella fuciformis (white jelly-leaf ) in hypercholes-terolemic rats
    • Wm Breene
    Breene WM. 1990. Nutritional and medicinal value of specialty mushrooms. J Food Protect 53:883 p. Carroll KK. 1991. Review of clinical studies on cholesterol-lowering response to soy protein. J Am Diet Assoc 91:820 p. Cheung P. 1996. The hypocholesterolemic effect of two edible mushrooms: Auricu-laria auricula (tree-ear) and Tremella fuciformis (white jelly-leaf ) in hypercholes-terolemic rats. Nutr Res 16:1721–5.
  • Article
    The 356 222 men aged 35 to 57 years, who were free of a history of hospitalization for myocardial infarction, screened by the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) in its recruitment effort, constitute the largest cohort with standardized serum cholesterol measurements and long-term mortality follow-up. For each five-year age group, the relationship between serum cholesterol and coronary heart disease (CHD) death rate was continuous, gradecf, and strong. For the entire group aged 35 to 57 years at entry, the age-adjusted risks of CHD death in cholesterol quintiles 2 through 5 (182 to 202, 203 to 220, 221 to 244, and ≥245 mg/dL [4.71 to 5.22, 5.25 to 5.69, 5.72 to 6.31, and ≥6.34 mmol/L]) relative to the lowest quintile were 1.29, 1.73, 2.21, and 3.42. Of all CHD deaths, 46% were estimated to be excess deaths attributable to serum cholesterol levels 180 mg/dL or greater (≥4.65 mmol/L), with almost half the excess deaths in serum cholesterol quintiles 2 through 4. The pattern of a continuous, graded, strong relationship between serum cholesterol and six-year age-adjusted CHD death rate prevailed for nonhypertensive nonsmokers, nonhypertensive smokers, hypertensive nonsmokers, and hypertensive smokers. These data of high precision show that the relationship between serum cholesterol and CHD is not a threshold one, with increased risk confined to the two highest quintiles, but rather is a continuously graded one that powerfully affects risk for the great majority of middle-aged American men.(JAMA 1986;256:2823-2828)
  • Article
    Some polysaccharides extracted from ningyotake, the fruiting body of Polyporous confluens, with hot water (100-degrees-C, FI), 1% ammonium oxalate solution (100-degrees-C, FII), and 5% sodium hydroxide solution (80-degrees-C, FIII) in that order. These polysaccharide fractions were further fractionated by ethanol precipitation and gel filtration on the column of Toyopearl HW-65F with 0.3 M sodium hydroxide solution. A strong antitumor activity were found in five xyloglucan-protein complexes, FI-2-a, -b, -c; FII-2-a, and FIII-2-a. Analyses of physico-chemical properties and IR- and NMR-spectra of these active fractions showed that their main components were (1 --> 3)-;(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranans containing a small amount of xylose residues and 2-3% of protein. A mucilaginous polysaccharide (N-PS) prepared from the liquid cultured mycelial broth of the fungus, consisted of (1 --> 6)-;(1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucopyranan. Antitumor activities were also found in a subfraction that was purified from N-PS by gel filtration. Also, a strong antitumor activity was found in a polyol polysaccharide and in a formolysis product from N-PS.
  • Article
    Cell-wall polysaccharides from the green seaweed Ulva “rigida” were extracted sequentially with oxalate, 1 and 4 M KOH, sodium chlorite and 4 M KOH again. The chemical composition of the soluble and insoluble extracts and of the DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B fractions of the soluble polysaccharide were determined. Three main types of polysaccharide families were solubilized. The major family was composed of sulfated glucuronorhamnoxyloglycans (ulvan) and was essentially extracted with oxalate. Two hemicellulosic fractions were also isolated and consisted of glucuronans and glucoxylans. Minor fractions consisting of sulfated polysaccharides containing glucose, xylose, mannose and protein were also isolated.
  • Article
    The polysaccharide in the fruit bodies of Auricularia auricula (commonly called black woody ear or tree ear) was extracted, lyophilized and ground. Auricularia auricula polysaccharide (AAP) flour blended bread was developed. Physical qualities and antioxidant activities of breads with different levels of substitution of AAP flour for wheat flour were analyzed.The results showed that up to 9% of AAP flour could be included in bread formulation without altering the sensory acceptance of the blended bread. The incorporation of AAP in bread markedly increased the antioxidant property of the bread as tested by DPPH free radical-scavenging method. Breads containing AAP flour can broaden the utilization of the fruit bodies of Auricularia auricula and may be regarded as possible health-promoting functional foods.
  • Article
    The "Joint Committee for the Analysis of Fats, Oils, Fatty Products, Related Products and Raw Materials (GAFett)" has developed the following method for the determination of fat content. It is intended to include this method in Section C, Chapter III of the German Standard Methods3
  • Article
    Acid-heat treatment is not necessary for the condensation of TBA with malonaldehyde nor for maximum colour development. Free malonaldehyde is produced during the oxidative breakdown of unsaturated fatty acids or food products. The amount of free malonaldehyde produced can be measured without acid-heat treatment. The reaction between malonaldehyde and TBA in water or 90% glacial acetic acid has been investigated at different temperatures. The results show that acid-heat treatment of the reaction mixture should be avoided, since the E530M of the coloured complex is considerably affected by the acid. On the contrary, heating without acid accelerates the condensation of TBA with malonaldehyde without affecting the E530M. A modification of the distillation method is proposed, according to which distillates of food products are reacted with TBA without the use of any acid.
  • Article
    Ganoderma tsugae Murrill (Ganodermataceae) were available in the form of mature and baby Ling chih, mycelia and fermentation filtrate. From these four forms, hot water extracted and hot alkali extracted polysaccharides were prepared and their antioxidant properties were studied. Polysaccharides showed good antioxidant activity as evidenced by their particularly low EC50 values (<0.1 mg/ml). At 20 mg/ml, both extracted polysaccharides from mycelia showed reducing powers of 0.41–0.52 whereas reducing powers of other polysaccharides were in the range of 0.87 to 1.14. At 20 mg/ml, scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals increased to 93.7–100%, except for that of the hot water extracted polysaccharide, from filtrate, being 74.9%. At 20 mg/ml, scavenging abilities of both extracted polysaccharides from mycelia on hydroxyl radicals were 13.9 and 24.4%, respectively whereas scavenging abilities of the other polysaccharides were in the range of 39.0–55.2%. At 10 mg/ml, the chelating abilities of polysaccharides from mature and baby Ling chih, mycelia and filtrate were 93.9–100%, 97.6–100%, 85.1–88.0% and 51.2%, respectively. Overall, both extracts of polysaccharides possessed good antioxidant properties except for scavenging ability on hydroxyl radicals and can be developed as a new dietary supplement and functional food.
  • Article
    Ultrasonic technique was employed to extract polysaccharides from longan fruit pericarp (PLFP). The optimal conditions for ultrasonic extraction of PLFP were determined by response surface methodology. Box–Behnken design was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent variables (ultrasonic power, time and temperature) on the recovery and 1,1′-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of PLFP. The correlation analysis of two mathematical-regression models indicated that quadratic polynomial model could be employed to optimize the ultrasonic extraction of PLFP. From response surface plots, ultrasonic power, time and temperature exhibited independent and interactive effects on the extraction of PLFP. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of PLFP could be improved by application of various ultrasonic power, time and temperature, which was possible due to the degradation of polysaccharides to different extent. The optimal conditions to obtain the highest recovery and the strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity of PLFP were 120 W, 22 min and 60 °C, as well as 241 W, 18 min and 51 °C, respectively. Under these optimal conditions, the experimental values agreed with the predicted ones by analysis of variance. It indicated high fitness of two models used and the success of response surface methodology for optimizing PLFP extraction.
  • Article
    The effect of two edible mushrooms, namely Auricularia auricula (Tree-ear) and Tremella fuciformis (White jelly-leaf) of the Heterobasidiae, on serum and liver lipids, fecal neutral steroids and bile acid excretion was investigated in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed two semisynthetic hypercholesterolemic diets (1.5% cholesterol, 5% fat) each containing 5% dried powder of the two mushrooms. After 4 wk of mushroom diet consumption, the serum total cholesterol concentration was significantly decreased in both A. auricula and T. fuciformis diet groups (17 and 19%, respectively). Similar significant decrease in serum LDL cholesterol level was observed (24 and 31%, respectively). There was no significant difference found in serum HDL cholesterol concentration and the amount of liver total cholesterol and total lipids among the two mushroom diet groups and the control group. Only animals fed T. fuciformis diet had a significant decrease in serum triacylglycerol level. Animals fed A. auricula diet had a significant increase in the levels of fecal neutral steriods and bile acids by 39 and 46%, respectively. T. fuciformis diet also increased significantly the fecal excretion of neutral steroids and bile acids in rats by 51 and 36%, respectively. In the present study, both mushrooms had effective hypocholesterolemic activity in rats.
  • Article
    Simple sugars, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and their derivatives, including the methyl ethers with free or potentially free reducing groups, give an orange-yellow color when treated with phenol and concentrated sulfuric acid. The reaction is sensitive and the color is stable. By use of this phenol-sulfuric acid reaction, a method has been developed to determine submicro amounts of sugars and related substances. In conjunction with paper partition chromatography the method is useful for the determination of the composition of polysaccharides and their methyl derivatives.
  • Article
    Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, the key enzyme in bile acid synthesis, has been implicated in atherosclerosis and gallstone disease. The aim of this study was to check if the use of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD), a vehicle for solubilizing cholesterol, augmented the rate of 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol formation in hamster liver microsomes compared to classical assays in which labeled cholesterol was delivered in Tween 80. We observed that [14C]cholesterol carried by HPBCD enhanced the sensitivity of the assay tenfold. However, linearity of 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol formation with time was short because of the rapid transformation of 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol into 7 alpha-hydroxy-cholesten-3-one and 7 alpha,12 alpha-dihydroxy-cholesten-3-one when NADPH alone was present in the incubation medium. In order to avoid the transformation of 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol into 7 alpha-hydroxy-cholesten-3-one, which is essentially NAD(+)-dependent, but is also NADP(+)-dependent, NADPH (1 mmol/l) plus an NADPH-regenerating system must be present in the medium. In this improved assay, the optimal pH was 7.4 and the apparent Km for control and cholestyramine-fed hamsters had a similar value of 315 mumol/l; linearity in the formation of 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol was also apparent after a relatively short time period (10 min), but with a markedly greater slope of the curve. With a short incubation time (6 min), microsomes from livers of hamsters (five and nine weeks old) that were fed with a commercial ground diet yielded rates of 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol formation of 115 +/- 10 and 150 +/- 16 pmol/min.mg protein, respectively, whereas microsomes from hamsters fed with a lithogenic sucrose-rich diet (five weeks old) yielded rates of 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol formation of 77 +/- 7 pmol/min.mg protein, which were significantly lower (-33%) than those of corresponding control hamsters. This improved cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase assay is very sensitive, simple and rapid, and does not necessitate sophisticated equipment. It can be particularly useful for determining cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity in liver biopsies from dyslipidemic or lithiasic patients.
  • Article
    The reaction of lipid peroxides in animal tissues with thiobarbituric acid was dependent on pH of the reaction mixture as was the case for linoleic acid hydroperoxide. The optimum pH was found to be 3.5. Taking this fact into consideration, a standard procedure for the assay of lipid peroxide level in animal tissues by their reaction with thiobarbituric acid was developed as follows. Ten percent ( tissue homogenate was mixed with sodium dodecyl sulfate, acetate buffer (pH 3.5), and aqueous solution of thiobarbituric acid. After heating at 95°C for 60 min, the red pigment produced was extracted with n-butanol-pyridine mixture and estimated by the absorbance at 532nm. As an external standard, tetramethoxy-propane was used, and lipid peroxide level was expressed in terms of nmol malondialdehyde. Using this method, the liped peroxide level in the liver of rats suffering from carbon tetrachloride intoxication was investigated. The results were in good agreement with previously reported data obtained by measuring diene content.
  • Article
    This work was undertaken to investigate the concentrations of free amino acids in blood after food was withheld from growing, male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-free, low fat (1 g corn oil/100 g) diets with casein or soybean protein for 2 wk. A diet containing 22.5 or 23.5 g/100 g of soybean protein was hypocholesterolemic compared with a diet containing 20.0 g casein/100 g diet. A comparison of serum amino acids in soybean protein-fed vs. casein-fed rats showed that, whereas concentrations of many amino acids were lower in the soybean protein-fed rats compared with the casein-fed groups, glycine was the only amino acid having a higher concentration. Further, alanine was significantly lower in the soybean protein-fed rats compared with the casein-fed rats, and the protein-induced differences in glycine and alanine concentrations of unfed rats were reproducible. When diets containing 15.0% casein or 30.0% soybean protein, a casein diet supplemented with glycine and a soybean protein diet supplemented with methionine were compared, the changes in serum glycine and alanine correlated with the changes in serum cholesterol. Concentrations of several amino acids, particularly valine, leucine and tyrosine, also changed when serum cholesterol concentrations varied, but these effects could not be explained by our experiments. The results suggest that a change in serum concentration of glycine and alanine of unfed rats may be related to the change in serum cholesterol concentration.
  • Article
    Experiments on animals have shown that soybean protein has hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic properties. In human beings, substitution of soy protein for dietary animal protein or addition of soy protein to the diet lowers total and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels in individuals with hypercholesterolemia. Reductions of 20% or more have been obtained with diets high in protein (about 20% of total energy) and relatively low in fat. Triglycerides are also decreased, particularly in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia, but soy-protein diets appear to have little effect on high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Responses are similar in men and women, but may be greater in younger than in older subjects. The hypocholesterolemic effect is thought to be mainly attributable to the protein itself rather than to nonprotein components of soy-protein preparations. The mechanism of action is not known, and it may not be possible to explain the observed effects in human beings and in experimental animal models by the same mechanism. Although the hypocholesterolemic response to dietary soy protein has been observed by a number of European research groups, substitution of soy protein for animal protein in North American diets has generally had little effect, for reasons that are still not clear.
  • Article
    This chapter describes protocols for purification of the enzyme from bovine milk and human postheparin plasma. It also presents a versatile assay procedure that can be adopted for tissue extracts, column effluents, cell cultures, postheparin plasma samples, and adipose tissue biopsy specimens. The enzyme has attracted considerable clinical interest as various causes of hypertriglyceridemia have been associated with impairment of its function. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in adipose tissue has been implicated as a major regulator of fat cell size. After the introduction of affinity chromatography on heparinagarose, several purification procedures adopting that technique have appeared and made it possible to purify the enzyme to homogeneity and to investigate its chemical and functional properties in more detail. LPL requires the presence of a specific protein cofactor, also called activator, to hydrolyze a triglyceride emulsion at an optimal rate. Maximal enzyme activity requires a sufficient concentration of triglyceride substrate and an optimal concentration of activator. The assay described herein is designed by that principle using a serum activator and radioactive triolein emulsified with lecithin.
  • Article
    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in postheparin plasma of 38 normolipidemic volunteers was related to the magnitude of postprandial lipemia after a fat meal, to triglyceride content of high density lipoprotein2 (HDL2), to hepatic lipase (HL) activity, and to HDL2 levels. LPL activity correlated indirectly with lipemia, triglyceride content of HDL2, HL activity, and levels of HDL2 but not of HDL3. HL activity correlated directly with lipemia and indirectly with HDL2 levels. Triglyceride content of HDL2 correlated directly with lipemia and indirectly with HDL2 levels. In HDL2, abundance of apolipoprotein (apo) A-II and the apoA-I/apoA-II ratio varied widely. The latter correlated positively with LPL activity and HDL2 levels, and, inversely, with HL activity, lipemia, and triglyceride content of HDL2. The study suggests that HDL-cholesterol is not an independent parameter of lipid transport, but is strongly affected by triglyceride metabolism through lipolytic enzymes, as exemplified by postprandial lipemia that affect both composition and plasma levels of HDL2.
  • Article
    The turbidimetric method of Dodgson and Price has been modified for chondrosulfatase assay. The method involves removal of undegraded chondroitin sulfates with cetylpyridinium chloride, modification of the barium chloride-gelatin reagent, and substitution of 0.2N hydrochloric acid for the 3% trichloroacetic acid of the original method.By using this modified method, the presence of chondrosulfatase activity was demonstrated in the liver of the squid, Ommastrephes sloani pacificus.
  • Article
    Anti-inflammatory assays on the carrageenin-induced edema and scald-induced hyperalgesia in the hindpaw of rats were studied on polysaccharides obtained from the fruit bodies of various fungi (polysaccharide AC, BC: Tremella fuciformis;MEA, MHA, MCW-A, MCW-N: Auricularia auricula-judae; T-2-HN: Dictophora indusiata;G-A: Ganoderma japonicum). The purified polysaccharides MHA, MCW-A, G-A and T-2-HN exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on carrageenin edema. Among these polysaccharides, T-2-HN (partially O-acetylated alpha-D-mannan) also showed the marked inhibitory effect on scald hyperalgesia. We have found that T-2-HN has more potent anti-inflammatory activity than phenylbutazone in the above two inflammatory models. Since the purified polysaccharide is free from protein and lipid, it is clear that anti-inflammatory effect arises from the polysaccharide itself. The polysaccharides (T-2-HN, locust bean gun, xanthan gum) had little effect on the metabolism of arachidonic acid in canine platelets. The mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of the polysaccharide remains obscure.
  • Article
    Antitumor activities of two (1 goes to 3)-beta-D-glucans, isolated from the fruiting body of Auricularia auricula-judae ("kikurage", an edible mushroom), and other branched polysaccharides containing a backbone chain of (1 goes to 2)-alpha-D-glucosidic or (1 goes to 3)-alpha-D-mannosidic linkage [and their corresponding (1 goes to 3)-D-glycans, derived by mild, Smith degradation] were compared. Among these polysaccharides, a water-soluble, branched (1 goes to 3)-beta-D-glucan (glucan I) of A. auricula-judae exhibited potent, inhibitory activity against implanted Sarcoma 180 solid tumor in mice. The alkali-insoluble, branched (1 goes to 3)-beta-D-glucan (glucan II), a major constituent of the fruiting body, showed essentially no inhibitory activity. When the latter glucan, having numerous branches attached, was modified by controlled, periodate oxidation, borohydride reduction, and mild, acid hydrolysis, the resulting, water-soluble, regraded glucan, having covalently linked polyhydroxy groups attached at O-6 of the (1 goes to 3)-linked D-glucosyl residues, exhibited potent antitumor activity. Further investigations using the glucan-polyalcohol indicated that the attachment of the polyhydroxy groups to the (1 goes to 3)-beta-D-glucan backbone may enhance the antitumor potency of the glucan. On the other hand, partial introduction of carboxymethyl groups into glucan II (d.s., 0.47--0.86), which altered the insolubility property, failed to enhance the antitumor activity. The interrelation between the antitumor activity and the structure of the branched (1 goes to 3)-beta-D-glucan is discussed, on the basis of methylation and 13C-n.m.r. studies of the periodate-modified glucans.
  • Article
    The clinical events resulting from atherosclerosis are directly related to the oxidation of lipids in LDLs that become trapped in the extracellular matrix of the subendothelial space. These oxidized lipids activate an NF kappa B-like transcription factor and induce the expression of genes containing NF kappa B binding sites. The protein products of these genes initiate an inflammatory response that initially leads to the development of the fatty streak. The progression of the lesion is associated with the activation of genes that induce arterial calcification, which changes the mechanical characteristics of the artery wall and predisposes to plaque rupture at sites of monocytic infiltration. Plaque rupture exposes the flowing blood to tissue factor in the lesion, and this induces thrombosis, which is the proximate cause of the clinical event. There appear to be potent genetically determined systems for preventing lipid oxidation, inactivating biologically important oxidized lipids, and/or modulating the inflammatory response to oxidized lipids that may explain the differing susceptibility of individuals and populations to the development of atherosclerosis. Enzymes associated with HDL may play an important role in protecting against lipid oxidation in the artery wall and may account in part for the inverse relation between HDL and risk for atherosclerotic clinical events.
  • Article
    A large body of literature indicates that protein from soybeans reduces blood cholesterol concentrations in experimental animals as well as in humans. The mechanism and component of soy responsible has not been established fully. Some suggest that when soy protein is fed, cholesterol absorption and/or bile acid reabsorption is impaired. This is observed in some animal species, such as rabbits and rats, but not in humans nor when amino acids replace intact soy protein. Others propose that changes in endocrine status, such as alteration in insulin:glucagon ratio and thyroid hormone concentrations, are responsible. The metabolic changes that have been observed on soy protein feeding in a variety of animal models, and in some cases humans, include increased cholesterol synthesis, increased bile acid synthesis (or fecal bile acid excretion), increased apolipoprotein B or E receptor activity and decreased hepatic lipoprotein secretion and cholesterol content, which are associated with an increased clearance of cholesterol from the blood. One hypothesis suggests amino acid composition or proportionality of soy causes changes in cholesterol metabolism (possibly via the endocrine system). Others have proposed that nonprotein components (such as saponins, fiber, phytic acid, minerals and the isoflavones) associated with soy protein affect cholesterol metabolism either directly or indirectly.
  • Article
    The first purely nutritional investigation into experimental atherosclerosis was carried out by Ignatowski in 1908. Believing that a toxic metabolite of animal protein led to atherosclerosis, he fed meat to adult rabbits and milk and egg yolk to weanling rabbits and caused atherosclerosis. For the next two decades experimental efforts from many laboratories were directed at determining which, if any, animal protein was the most atherogenic. The discovery in 1912 that dietary cholesterol per se was atherogenic turned attention to fat and cholesterol, eclipsing work on dietary protein. In 1926 Clarkson and Newburgh showed that the amount of cholesterol present in the animal protein they fed was insufficient to be atherogenic, demonstrating that some factor other than lipid determined atherogenicity. In 1940 Meeker and Kesten showed that animal protein (casein) was more atherogenic that plant protein (soy). Carroll and his co-workers showed that most proteins of animal origin were more cholesterolemic for rabbits than were proteins of vegetable origin, although there was some overlap. Cholesterol turnover is slower and fecal excretion of cholesterol is reduced in rabbits fed casein as opposed to those fed soy protein. The mechanisms underlying this effect are moot.
  • Article
    The function of lipoprotein lipase (LpL) and hepatic lipase (HL) has been related to atherogenesis by several authors in the past, but convincing experimental and epidemiological evidence to support this hypothesis has been obtained only in the last years. For both enzymes, next to their role in the hydrolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, a second important function has been described recently. Both lipases can mediate the binding and subsequent uptake of lipoproteins into cells. Although this function has been clearly demonstrated in vitro for various cell types, the physiological or pathophysiological relevance remains hypothetical until final elucidation in vivo.
  • Article
    The hypoglycemic effect of water-soluble polysaccharide(FA) from fruiting bodies of Auricularia auricula-judae Quel. was investigated on genetically diabetic mice (KK-Ay) from 10 to 14 weeks of age. Male mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group and FA-fed group having free access to the control diet or FA diet (30 g of FA/kg of diet). The food-restricted group had restricted access to the control diet at the level of the diet consumed by the FA-fed group. Compared with the control group, FA supplementation had a significant effect in lowering plasma glucose, insulin, urinary glucose, and food intake. FA administration also increased the tolerance to intraperitoneal glucose loading and the hepatic glycogen content. In the food-restricted group, the reduced food intake slightly lowered the plasma and urinary glucose levels, but did not improve hyperinsulinemia and glucose tolerance. This study shows that FA had a hypoglycemic effect on KK-Ay mice, and the reduced food consumption was not a major factor which contributed to the hypoglycemic action of FA.
  • Article
    Experimental hypercholesterolemia and its modulation by some natural dietary supplements (pectin, garlic and ginseng) and by the drug gemfibrozil were studied. Experimental hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding rabbits a 2% cholesterol-enriched diet for 28 days. Hypercholesterolemic rabbits were classified into five groups. One group did not receive treatments and served as a control hypercholesterolemic group. The other four groups were fed the cholesterol-enriched diet in conjunction with either 10% pectin, 2% garlic, 2% ginseng or 135 mg g-1 b.w gemfibrozil in a daily oral dose. A normal group of rabbits fed a plain chow diet was also included in the study. The hypolipidemic effect of the above treatments was examined by estimating serum triglycerides (TG), total-, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol. Post-heparin total and hepatic lipase activities were estimated in post-heparin plasma obtained 10 min after an intravenous injection of heparin (200 IU kg-1 b.w). In order to evaluate the antioxidant status of the rabbits, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. After killing, aorta from all rabbits were subjected to histopathological examination. Results of the study demonstrated that feeding the cholesterol-enriched diet caused a significant increase in total-, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol, plasma MDA and post-heparin total and hepatic lipase activities. On the other hand, serum TG and erythrocyte SOD were not changed. Histopathological examination revealed marked alteration in the aortic wall with the appearance of large multiple atheromatous plaques. Both garlic and pectin were successful in a significant reduction of the hypercholesterolemia in a way comparable to gemfibrozil. Garlic was the only treatment that has antilipid peroxidative property. Erythrocyte SOD activity was not affected by hypercholesterolemia or by any of the treatments. Also, none of the treatments were able to modify the significant elevation of post-heparin lipolytic activities associated with the hypercholesterolemia or to significantly affect the serum triglycerides level. Finally, among the hypercholesterolemic groups that received treatments, the least changes in the aortic wall were shown in the animals of the gemfibrozil group. Slight degeneration was observed in the aorta of animals treated with pectin or garlic. Ginseng administration failed to exert any significant protection from the remarkable hypercholesterolemia or atherosclerosis associated with the cholesterol- enriched diet.
  • Article
    Free radicals are highly reactive species that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Reactive oxygen species can initiate lipid peroxidation and DNA damage leading to mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and cell death, if the antioxidant system is impaired. This study was undertaken to examine the prevalence of oxidative stress and the role of antioxidant defence in untreated leukemia patients. The generation of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide by leukocytes, plasma malondialdehyde levels, red cell copper zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities were determined in 30 patients with different types of leukemias prior to therapy. The superoxide anion generation by polymorphonuclear leukocytes was found to be significantly increased in leukemia patients especially those with acute lymphocytic and nonlymphocytic leukemias, while the hydrogen peroxide levels were comparable to the control values. Plasma lipid peroxidation products in untreated leukemia patients were in the normal range. Red cell Cu-Zn SOD and GSH-PX activities were significantly increased and showed no correlation with the hemoglobin content. Although superoxide generation was high, lipid peroxide levels were normal in these patients. This might be due to the increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH-PX) which counteract lipid peroxidation. Increased free radical generation, especially superoxide anion in leukemia patients and increased antioxidant defence enzymes, which is an adaptive protective response, are indicative of mild oxidative stress. There were no significant differences for the parameters cited above between different types of leukemias, suggesting that the changes are not specific to the type of leukemia.
  • Article
    Reactive oxygen species are produced by all aerobic cells and are widely believed to play a pivotal role in aging as well as a number of degenerative diseases. The consequences of the generation of oxidants in cells does not appear to be limited to promotion of deleterious effects. Alterations in oxidative metabolism have long been known to occur during differentiation and development. Experimental perturbations in cellular redox state have been shown to exert a strong impact on these processes. The discovery of specific genes and pathways affected by oxidants led to the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species serve as subcellular messengers in gene regulatory and signal transduction pathways. Additionally, antioxidants can activate numerous genes and pathways. The burgeoning growth in the number of pathways shown to be dependent on oxidation or antioxidation has accelerated during the last decade. In the discussion presented here, we provide a tabular summary of many of the redox effects on gene expression and signaling pathways that are currently known to exist.
  • Article
    Oxidative stress has traditionally been viewed as a stochastic process of cell damage resulting from aerobic metabolism, and antioxidants have been viewed simply as free radical scavengers. Only recently has it been recognized that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are widely used as second messengers to propagate proinflammatory or growth-stimulatory signals. With this knowledge has come the corollary realization that oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are related, perhaps inseparable phenomena. New pharmacological strategies aimed at supplementing antioxidant defense systems while antagonizing redox-sensitive signal transduction may allow improved clinical management of chronic inflammatory or degenerative conditions, including Alzheimer's disease. Introduction of antioxidant therapies into mainstream medicine is possible and promising, but will require significant advances in basic cell biology, pharmacology, and clinical bioanalysis.
  • Article
    An acidic polysaccharide with anticoagulant activity was isolated from the edible mushroom Auricularia auricula using water, alkali or acid extracts. The alkali extract showed the highest anticoagulant activity and was thereby further purified using gel filtration chromatography. Specific anticoagulant activity of the purified polysaccharide was 2 IU/mg and its average mass was approximately 160 kDa. The polysaccharide from this species of mushroom contains mainly mannose, glucose, glucuronic acid and xylose but no sulfate esters. Its anticoagulant activity was due to catalysis of thrombin inhibition by antithrombin but not by heparin cofactor II. Inhibition of Factor Xa by antithrombin was not catalyzed by the polysaccharide. The glucuronic acid residues were essential for the anticoagulant action of the mushroom polysaccharide since the activity disappeared after reduction of its carboxyl groups. In ex vivo tests using rats orally fed with the polysaccharide, we observed an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation as observed with aspirin, a well-known antiplatelet agent. The polysaccharides from these mushrooms may constitute a new source of compounds with action on coagulation, platelet aggregation and, perhaps, on thrombosis.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activities of Auricularia auricula showed significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and potent hydroxyl radical scavenging activity when compared with standard drug catechin. IC5o value of crude, boiled and ethanolic extracts of A. auricula represented 403, 510, and 373 microg/ml respectively in case of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and 310, 572 and 398 microg/ml respectively in case of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, crude, boiled and ethanolic extracts also increase significantly nitric oxide production (664, 191 and 850 pmole/mg dry wt/hr respectively) over the control. The present results revealed that A. auricula had potential therapeutic use.
  • Article
    Coronary arterial diseases are responsible for more deaths than all other associated causes combined. Elevated serum cholesterol levels leading to atherosclerosis can cause coronary heart disease (CHD). Reduction in serum cholesterol levels reduces the risk for CHD, substantially. Medicinal chemists all around the world have been designing, synthesizing, and evaluating a variety of new bioactive molecules for lowering lipid levels. This review summarizes the disorders associated with elevation of lipids in blood and the current strategies to control them. The emphasis has been laid in particular on the new potential biological targets and the possible treatments as well as the current ongoing research status in the field of lipid lowering agents.