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Ecology and conservation of the Jacutinga Pipile jacutinga in the Atlantic forest of Brazil

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Abstract

The jacutinga Pipile jacutinga was formerly one of the most abundant game bird cracids in the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Nowadays this species is vulnerable to extinction due to hunting and habitat loss. The ecology of the jacutinga was studied at Parque Estadual Intervales, São Paulo, Brazil from October 1993 to December 1995 and in adjacent areas. Jacutingas were observed to feed mainly on the sugar-rich fruit of 41 species. We recorded a low index of abundance for the jacutinga (0·018) or c.1·7 birds/km2 at Intervales, one of the best protected areas within their range. Surveys carried out in the Atlantic forest of São Paulo found jacutinga populations in 14 localities. Probably < 1500 birds survive in the best protected areas. The species' stronghold in southeastern Brazil is in the mountains of Serra de Paranapiacaba, an area protected by several parks suffering from hunting and palm heart harvesting and threatened by a hydroelectric project.

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... Black-fronted piping guans are frugivorous and play an important ecological role as seed dispersers, contributing to the maintenance and regeneration of forests (Galetti et al. 1997). They are found in mature primary forests and, less frequently, in secondary forests at different stages of regeneration (Galetti et al. 1997, Guix 1997. ...
... Black-fronted piping guans are frugivorous and play an important ecological role as seed dispersers, contributing to the maintenance and regeneration of forests (Galetti et al. 1997). They are found in mature primary forests and, less frequently, in secondary forests at different stages of regeneration (Galetti et al. 1997, Guix 1997. The species mainly inhabits the forest canopy, occasionally descending to the forest floor to feed or drink water. ...
... Reintroduction of captive-born birds is afforded by the large number of birds present across a number of captive facilities (Silveira et al. 2008). One obstacle to a successful reintroduction project is the scarcity of published data about the ecology and biology of captive or wild Black-fronted piping guans (Schubart et al. 1965, Cominese-Filho et al. 1986, Paccagnella et al. 1994, Galetti et al. 1997, Sick 2001, Bernardo et al. 2011. One of the four previous attempts to reintroduce captive-born Black-fronted piping guans in Brazil had moderate short-term success based on the number of chicks born in the wild recorded during post-release monitoring (RPPN Fazenda Macedônia, CENIBRA 2017). ...
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The black-fronted piping guan, Pipile jacutinga, is an endemic Atlantic Forest cracid currently classified as Endangered in Brazil and globally. We present data on the reproductive and agonistic behaviors of a pair of captive reared Black-fronted piping guans reintroduced in a protected area in Serra da Mantiqueira, São Paulo state, Brazil, as well as opportunistic records of reproductive behavior of Black-fronted piping guan candidates for release that were held inside a pre-release acclimation enclosure. Behavioral data were collected from September 2017 to Oecologia Australis (ISSN: 2177-6199) Ahead of print (https://revistas.ufrj.br/index.php/oa/issue/view/1109/showToc) Article ID: AO#31521 Published online: 28/April/2020 2 February 2018. We conducted 172 h of observations across 97 days of monitoring. Six reproductive behaviors were recorded: 1) Wing Display, 2) Nodding Call, 3) Mating Dance, 4) Male Offering Food to Female, 5) Tail Fanning and 6) Copulation. Two white eggs were seen on the 14 th day of incubation in a natural nest built in a tree fern. Only the female was observed incubating the eggs. The female devoted over 90 % of her time to incubation, the rest mainly to foraging or vigilance. The male spent 48 % of time vigilant nearby of the nest but did not interact with the female or eggs. On the 20 th day, incubation was interrupted following heavy rain. Agonistic interactions related to territory defense were observed between the released male and males inside the pre-release acclimation enclosure. On 88 % of the occasions we observed territorial defense behavior between the reintroduced male and other males inside the enclosure. The observations of the pair of reintroduced Black-fronted piping guans and of the candidates for release, provided valuable information about the reproductive behaviors of this largely unstudied and critically threatened species.
... Las drupas de la palma Mauritiaflexuosa, una comida principal para los tapires de tierra baja en la Amazonia, tienen una pulpa que contiene 53,2% de grasa, 43% de carbohidratos, y 3,8% de proteína (Bodmer 1990b). El arilo de la mirística Virola oleífera, también comido por los tapires de tierra baja, contiene 23% de grasa, 1.72% de proteína y 12% de carbohidratos (por peso, Galetti et al. 1997). Los tapires andinos se alimentan del fruto rico en grasa, de la Palma de Cera Quindiuense (Ceroxylon quindiuense) (Downer 1996), pero la mayoría de los frutos comidos por los tapires no parecen ser especialmente ricos en grasa como los anteriores casos. ...
... Los tapires andinos se alimentan del fruto rico en grasa, de la Palma de Cera Quindiuense (Ceroxylon quindiuense) (Downer 1996), pero la mayoría de los frutos comidos por los tapires no parecen ser especialmente ricos en grasa como los anteriores casos. Por ejemplo, los frutos de la palma Euterpe edulis, comida por tapires de tierra baja, contiene 21% de carbohidratos, 6% de grasa, y 2,3% de proteína (peso húmedo), mientras que los frutos de Cryptocaria moschata, comido por la misma especie, contiene 12,7%) de carbohidratos, 1,2% de proteína, y solamente 0,63% de grasa (Galetti et al. 1997). ...
... As drupas da palmeira Mauritia flexuosa, um alimento básico para as antas comuns na Amazônia, tem uma polpa com 53,2% de gordura, 43% de açúcar, e 3,8%) de proteína (Bodmer 1990b). O arilo da bicuíba Virola oleifera, também consumido pelas antas comuns, é 23% lipídeos, 1,72% proteína, e 12% açúcares por peso (Galetti et al. 1997). Antas da montanha alimentam-se das sementes ricas em óleo da palmeira de cera Ceroxylum quindiuense (Downer 1996), mas a maioria dos frutos consumidos pelas antas não parecem especialmente ricos em lipídeos como os exemplos acima. ...
... Estudos Avançados, São Paulo, v. 13, n. 36, p. 7-59, 1999. ALBUqUeRqUe (TeRBoRGH, 1986;GALeTTi et al., 1997;. Desta forma, a análise da dieta dos cracídeos, bem como a manutenção de suas populações, fornece subsídios para a regeneração florestal e a conservação de áreas protegidas GRAJAL, 1991;. ...
... A mesma característica das sementes nas fezes já foi reportada para Penelope superciliaris , ortalis canicollis (CAziAni; PRoToMASTRo, 1994), Penelope marail (THÉRy et al., 1992), Pipile jacutinga e oreophasis derbianus (GonzáLez-GARCÍA, 1994), sendo apontada como uma importante característica para a eficiência na dispersão de sementes pelos representantes da família. Testes de germinação realizados com sementes obtidas das fezes de Cracidae indicaram a viabilidade das sementes e sua maior taxa de germina-ção (THÉRy et al., 1992;GALeTTi et al., 1997), confirmando a importância destas aves como dispersoras. De fato, algumas sementes encontradas nas fezes de P. jacucaca (Brosimum gaudichaudii, eugenia patrisii, Ximenia americana, Byrsonima sericea e morfotipo 2) estavam germinando no momento da coleta. ...
... estudos posteriores foram realizados, comoMarion (1976) eChristensen et al., (1978), sobre a dieta de ortalis vetula no Texas, Tei-XeiRA; SnoW, (1982) com a dieta de Crax blumenbachii no Brasil,Théry et al., (1992) com Penelope marail na Guiana Francesa,Caziani; Protomastro, (1994) com ortalis canicollis na Argentina eGonzález-García, (1994) com oreophasis derbianus no México.Diversos métodos são utilizados em tais estudos, como a observação direta da alimentação (GonzáLez-GARCiA, 1994), a análise de conteúdo estomacal (MARion, 1976) e a análise de amostras fecais(PACAGneLLA et al., 1994;GALeTTi et al., 1997; RAGUSA-neTTo, 2015;THeL et al., 2015).embora também consumam folhas (SiLVA; STRAHL, 1991), os Cracídeos são primariamente frugívoros (TeiXeiRA; SnoW, 1982; GALeTTi et al., 1997), além de consumirem insetos eventualmente (THÉRy et al., 1992). ...
... These and other observations on C. moccinni, C. volcanalis, and M. insignis fruiting trees (FGG, unpubl. data), suggest this cracid species remembers the location and the time of ripening of individual fruit trees (Galleti et al. 1997). Male and female Horned Guans had significantly different (X 2 ¼ 94.05, df ¼ 5, P , 0.001) diet composition, with males consuming a greater proportion of fruits (91.3% versus 79.5%) and a lower proportion of leaves (7.7% versus 19.8%) than females (Table 2). ...
... The effectiveness of the Horned Guan as a seed disperser remains to be evaluated, because individuals may remain for many hours during consecutive days in the same fruiting trees, and most seeds are defecated below the parent tree (González-García 2005a, 2012. A similar feeding behavior is reported for Pipile jacutinga in Brazil (Galleti et al. 1997). ...
Article
The Horned Guan (Oreophasis derbianus) is endemic to humid montane forests of southern Mexico and Guatemala. This species is considered endangered because of their small populations, the loss and fragmentation of habitat, illegal trade, and overexploitation by subsistence hunters. We update information about the species' diet and foraging behavior by integrating the results generated during two and a half decades of research on the Horned Guan's ecology at the El Triunfo Biosphere Reserve, in Chiapas, Mexico, with additional published information compiled from other areas. Based on nearly 450 hrs of direct observations of free-ranging guans and 530 discrete feeding events, we found that during the breeding season Horned Guans feed primarily on fruits from six species of plants and leaves from one species. Horned Guans were not observed eating animal matter, corroborating its specialized frugivore-folivore habits. Our study increases the known plant taxa found in the Horned Guan's diet in El Triunfo from 40 to 63 (Supplemental Material), and globally to 101 species (Supplemental Material). For 48 taxa in El Triunfo, only fruits were consumed, while for eleven taxa consumption was restricted to leaves, and to flowers for one species; for four taxa both fruits and leaves were consumed. We found significant differences between males and females in the location of foraging on trees and diet composition. Young birds are fed fruits of Citharexylum mocinnii and leaves of Solanum appendiculatum by their mothers, both of which are rare in the diet of adult males. The conservation of the Horned Guan requires the long-term protection of suitable habitat that maintains the plant species important in their diet.
... Populações de grandes mamíferos, tinamídeos e cracídeos tendem a ser mais vulneráveis à caça devido a baixas densidades naturais, alto nível trófico e baixo potencial reprodutivo (Bodmer et al., 1997;Peres, 2000;Cardillo et al., 2004). Devido à dieta basicamente frugívora algumas destas espécies dependem também de habitats preservados com pouca alteração antrópica (Galetti et al., 1997;Henry, 1999;Silman et al., 2003). ...
... A jacutinga (P. jacutinga) espécie outrora de grande distribuição e abundante na Floresta Atlântica (Sick, 1997;Galetti et al., 1997), está provavelmente extinta na Rebio Tinguá. A grande pressão de caça local (MMA/IBAMA, 2006) e a docilidade da espécie (Sick, 1997) sugerem que a exploração humana direta tenha tido forte influência na extinção da jacutinga na Rebio Tinguá, já que a espécie pode manter populações em áreas menores (Peres, 1996;Altrichter & Boaglio, 2004;Altrichter, 2005) foi considerado raro na Rebio Tinguá. ...
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Overhunting has been regarded as a major threat to neotropical large vertebrate populations. An analysis of the literature on hunting in the Neotropical Region showed that, besides local extinctions, high hunting pressure also results in breaking apart ecological interactions which warrant the maintenance of the biological diversity. By its turn, this has negative effects on seed dispersal, recruitment and diversity of arboreal species. However, due to factors such as time lags in ecosystem responses, density compensation, differences in community composition, among others, ecosystem responses to defaunation are variable. Large tracts of undisturbed forests still allow sustainable harvest of large sized and especially of medium sized mammals; fragmented forests harbour species-poor communities and low density populations. Overhunting usually empoverishes the same set of mammalian genera, generating a defaunation pattern which may lead to nested communities, where nestedness is produced by differential vulnerability to hunting pressure. A case study was carried out at Tinguá Biological Reserve, Rio de Janeiro state, with the goal of estimating the influence of ilegal hunting on mammalian and avian populations.Transects were walked within the Reserve with the goal of estimating abundance and density of cinegetic species. Only the howler monkey (Alouatta guariba), the agouti (Dasyprocta leporina), the nine-banded-armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) e the tinamou (Tinamus solitarius) had enough sightings to allow reliable density estimates. The densities of the nine-banded-armadillo and of the tinamou were higher than most densities in Atlantic Forest. Through vestiges left by poachers different degrees of hunting intensity could be established. Variation in tha abundance of medium-sized cinegetic species such as agouti, nine-banded�armadillo and tinamou was not correlated with the variation of hunting pressure, and the total abundance of cinegetic species was also uncorrelated with hunting pressure. Although the results corroborated previous studies which found that species with small size and high reproductive potential are more resilient to hunting, the low sighting rates for ungulates and cracids has probably influenced the result. Through the stock-recruitment model the agouti was regarded as overhunted. However, this result must be taken carefully, as the density regarded as normal refers to semideciduous habitats, which has biotic and abiotic features which may allow a higher carrying capacity for this species.
... Sick (1970) and Teixeira and Snow (1982) identified a number of the fruit species consumed by Crax blumenbachii. González-García (1994) recorded the consumption of 40 plant species by the Horned Guan (Oreophasis derbianus) in Mexico, Caziani and Protomastro (1994) analyzed the diet of the Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) in Argentina, while Galetti et al. (1997) reported the exploitation of 41 plant species by Pipile jacutinga in the Intervales State Park in São Paulo, Brazil. ...
... Mikich (2002) recorded fruits of between 10 mm and 100 mm in size in the diet of P. superciliaris, but a predominance of those 20 mm in size. As in the present study, Théry et al. (1992) reported that most of the fruits consumed by the Marail Guan, Penelope marail were less than 30 mm in length, a pattern also observed in Pipile jacutinga by Galetti et al. (1997). In southeastern Brazil, Zaca (2003) recorded P. superciliaris consuming fruits varying in size from 0.4 mm (Miconia cinnamomifolia) to 22.3 mm (Diospyros inconstans), although most species were between 4 mm and 16 mm. ...
Article
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Guans are large frugivorous birds that inhabit Neotropical forests and play a fundamental role in seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Despite their ecological importance, the natural populations of these birds are increasingly threatened by deforestation and hunting pressure. The present study was conducted in the Araripe National Forest, Ceará (Brazil), with the objective of estimating population parameters (density and total population size) in the Rusty-margined Guan (Penelope superciliaris) and the White-browed Guan (Penelope jacucaca), as well as providing data on their feeding ecology, including seasonal variation and fruit morphology. The study was based on the monthly collection of data between November, 2011, and October, 2012. Population parameters were estimated using line transect surveys, while feeding ecology was studied by direct observation, and the collection of plant and fecal samples. The estimated population density of P. superciliaris was 19.17 individuals/km2 (CV=13.98%), with a mean of 0.13 sightings per 10 km walked. Penelope jacucaca was not encountered during the surveys. A total of 14 plant species were recorded in the diet of P. superciliaris, 12 by direct observation, and two from fecal samples. Fruit diameter varied from 6.3±1.35 mm (Miconia albicans) to 29.9±1.7 mm (Psidium sp.). Yellow was the most frequent fruit color (41.6%, n=5), with two species each (16.6%) providing black, green, and red fruits. Fleshy fruits of the baccate (50.0%, n=6) and drupe (33.3%, n=4) types were the most consumed. The data on population parameters and feeding ecology collected in the present study provide an important database for the development of effective management strategies by environmental agencies for the conservation of the populations of the two guan species.
... Only 9 species have been studied methodically and with some temporal continuity: Penelope perspicax was studied for over 2 years (Muñoz 2003, Kattan et al. in press, Muñoz et al. in prep.), P. obscura for 4 months (Merler et al. 2001) and 1 year (Malzof et al. in press), P. superciliaris for 8 years (Mikich 2002), P. purpurascens for 1 year (Pacheco 1994), Pipile jacutinga for 2 years (Galetti et al. 1997), Oreophasis derbianus for 8 months (González-García 1994), Mitu salvini for 14 months (Santamaría & Franco 2000), Crax alector for 10 months (Jiménez et al. 2001) and C. rubra for 16 months (Sermeño 1997). Information is lacking for the other 14 species, 10 of which are under some threat category (Table 1). ...
... The role of fruit-eating animals as seed dispersers partially depends on the fate of seeds passing through the digestive tract. Penelopinae usually pass seeds intact through their digestive tracts and may act as seed dispersers (Galetti et al. 1997, Merler et al. 2001, Mikich 2002, Muñoz 2003. For example, seeds maintain their germination capacities after passing through the digestive tract of P. marail and P. perspicax, and birds disperse them away from parent trees, depositing them at the edges of treefall gaps and other situations conducive to forest regeneration (Érard & Théry 1994, Théry et al. 1992. ...
Article
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The Cracidae are a Neotropical family of 50 species of galliform birds, many of which are threatened. Through a literature review, we evaluated current knowledge of cracid food habits and established general dietary patterns. Diet has been relatively well documented for 17 species, anecdotal information is available for 19 species, and no information is available for 14 species. Fruit is the most important food category for cracids, and 672 species in all fruit types (e.g., drupes, berries, arillate fruits) are reported. For most species, the most important plant families in their diets are also the most common and diverse families in Neotropical forests. Foliage, flowers and animal foods (invertebrate and vertebrate) are also common items in cracid diets. Consumption of foliage, in particular, is widespread but folivory has not been adequately studied in these birds. Penelopinae usually pass seeds intact through the digestive tract and are potential seed dispersers. Cracinae, in contrast, have strong gizzards and usually feed on large seeds, with only small seeds passing intact. In general, cracids seem to have broad and generalist diets, although restricted diets in response to local conditions have been reported. Few studies have evaluated seasonal and habitat variations in resource availability and cracid responses to such variation. An understanding of patterns of resource use and availability is essential for understanding habitat use, space needs and population dynamics of Cracids.
... P. jacutinga and P. o. bronzina are basically frugivorous (del Hoyo, 1994;Galetti et al. 1997). They inhabit mature and old secondary forests and they are very sensitive to their alteration. ...
... The lack of available fruits could limit the occurrence of the species, but the fact that there are not remarkable variations between the two years suggests that even though fruition phenology can influence the species distribution, it is not the parameter that can best explain differences between areas. Several authors Galetti et al., 1997) point out that possible altitudinal movements in guans depend on the availability of fruits belonging to a wide variety of woody plants, but also that some individuals could remain in their original areas without following fruition. These observations fit our own results, and they could explain the small amount of guans detected in 1998 in low areas where the palmito (and some other trees) had already yielded fruit. ...
... Only 9 species have been studied methodically and with some temporal continuity: Penelope perspicax was studied for over 2 years (Muñoz 2003, Kattan et al. in press, Muñoz et al. in prep.), P. obscura for 4 months (Merler et al. 2001) and 1 year (Malzof et al. in press), P. superciliaris for 8 years (Mikich 2002), P. purpurascens for 1 year (Pacheco 1994), Pipile jacutinga for 2 years (Galetti et al. 1997), Oreophasis derbianus for 8 months (González-García 1994), Mitu salvini for 14 months (Santamaría & Franco 2000), Crax alector for 10 months (Jiménez et al. 2001) and C. rubra for 16 months (Sermeño 1997). Information is lacking for the other 14 species, 10 of which are under some threat category (Table 1). ...
... The role of fruit-eating animals as seed dispersers partially depends on the fate of seeds passing through the digestive tract. Penelopinae usually pass seeds intact through their digestive tracts and may act as seed dispersers (Galetti et al. 1997, Merler et al. 2001, Mikich 2002, Muñoz 2003. For example, seeds maintain their germination capacities after passing through the digestive tract of P. marail and P. perspicax, and birds disperse them away from parent trees, depositing them at the edges of treefall gaps and other situations conducive to forest regeneration (Érard & Théry 1994, Théry et al. 1992. ...
... Sugere-se que diversas espécies de aves frugívoras da Mata Atlântica, como arapongas, jacutingas e certos tucanos, também efetuem deslocamentos sazonais acompanhando a frutificação de algumas plantas (como o palmito Euterpe edulis), mas faltam estudos quantitativos a respeito e a evidência disponível é inconclusiva e.g. (Galetti et al., 1996). Esse desconhecimento acerca dos padrões geográficos de produção de frutos e de deslocamentos sazonais dos frugívoros e dispersores é prejudicial para a adequada conservação das aves e das plantas com as quais interagem. ...
... Estudos que quantifiquem o número e, ou, a biomassa de frutos produzidos também são bastante raros para nossas florestas (e.g. Galetti et al., 1996 para o Parque Estadual Intervales, SP), ainda mais se combinados com a oferta de outros recursos para os animais, como artrópodes (Beisiegel e Mantovani, 2006 para o Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, SP). ...
... The third individual was probably a c.3-month-old juvenile according to descriptions by Delacour & Amadon 6 . In all three observations, individuals were in the same tree, suggesting that A. jacutinga is a year-round resident that does not migrate altitudinally, as also reported by Galetti et al. 8 . ...
... In addition, we emphasise the potential of the region as a study area to understand the population dynamics and ecology of A. jacutinga 2 . With poaching one of the main threats to the species 3,8 , our records highlight the importance of private nature reserves and the need for efficient targeted measures against illegal poaching, including law enforcement and local community awareness and engagement. ...
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Black-fronted piping guan is an endangered Cracidae from the Atlantic Forest. It was formerly widespread but habitat loss and hunting negatively affected its occurrence and distribution. Despite the species conservation interest, little is known about it breeding biology. Here, we report two breeding events of Aburria jacutinga in Southern Brazil, with comments concerning seasonality and behavior.
... Como base para as análises, foi realizado um amplo levantamento fitossociológico, (MARTIN et al., 1993;SOFFIATI, 1998 ;BARBOSA et al., 2004;ROCHA et al., 2004a), onde uma série de estudos sobre ecologia vegetal tem sido conduzida nos últimos anos (e.g., PIMENTEL et al., 2007;SCARANO, 2002;SCARANO et al., 2004SCARANO et al., , 2005 SMALLWOOD, 1982;JANZEN, 1980;PIJL, 1982 incluindo os citados acima (e.g., GALETTI et al., 1997;LAPENTA et al., 2008;PIZO et al., 2002;SICK, 1985), o que pode, em contrapartida, retardar, restringir ou impedir a completa recuperação de trechos degradados (TABARELLI & PERES, 2002). ...
... do SE-S do Brasil com diferentes idades (já os percentuais de espécies com frutos e sementes pequenos e médios mostraram, respectivamente, correlações negativas e positivas com a idade das florestas). Entretanto, quando as classes de tamanho são analisadas em conjunto, observa-se que muitas das espécies das florestas pantanosas do PNRJ possuem frutos (87,3%) e sementes (56,4%) de tamanho médio a muito grande (≥ 0,6 cm), cuja dispersão na Floresta Atlântica está freqüentemente associada a primatas, tucanos, araçaris, grandes cotingídeos e cracídeos (e.g., GALETTI et al., 1997GALETTI et al., , 2000GRESSLER et al., 2006;LAPENTA et al., 2008;PIZO et al., 2002;TABARELLI & PERES, 2002); tais proporções foram ainda maiores em relação aos indivíduos: 90,5 e 74,6%, respectivamente. ...
... cm in width 40,41 . Their seeds are dispersed by two primate species (the southern muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, and the southern brown howler monkey, Alouatta guariba) and one large cracid bird (jacutinga, Aburria jacutinga) 40,42 . Tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) are also thought to disperse C. mandioccana seeds but are likely not a reliable disperser for this species since our study did not identify seed dispersal events despite a quite large sampling effort (see Methods S4 in Supporting Information). ...
Article
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The extinction of large frugivores has consequences for the recruitment of large-seeded plants with potential lasting effects on carbon storage in tropical rainforests. However, previous studies relating frugivore defaunation to changes in carbon storage ignore potential compensation by redundant frugivores and the effects of seed predators on plant recruitment. Based on empirical data of the recruitment success of a large-seeded hardwood tree species (Cryptocarya mandioccana, Lauraceae) across a defaunation gradient of seed dispersers and predators, we show that defaunation increases both seed dispersal limitation and seed predation. Depending on the level of seed predator loss, plant recruitment is reduced by 70.7–94.9% as a result of the loss of seed dispersers. The loss of large seed predators increases the net seed mortality by 7–30% due to the increased abundance of small granivorous rodents. The loss of large seed dispersers can be buffered by the compensatory effects of smaller frugivores in seed removal, but it is not sufficient to prevent a decrease in plant recruitment. We show that the conservation of both seed predators and dispersers is necessary for the recruitment of large-seeded plants. Since these plants contribute substantially to carbon stocks, defaunation can jeopardize the maintenance of tropical forest carbon storage.
... The only species that appear to be fairly insensitive to forest patch area, when compared to other sympatric gamebirds, was Pipile cujubi, a highly frugivorous and widely mobile canopy cracid (Galetti et al., 1997) that often traverses the open-habitat matrix of cattle pastures in our study region (Lees & Peres, 2009). This species can tolerate limited human disturbance and hunting pressure in landscapes dominated by small-scale agriculture as long as large fruiting canopy trees are left intact in nearby forest (Hayes et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Although large-bodied tropical forest birds are impacted by both habitat loss and fragmentation, their patterns of habitat occupancy will also depend on the degree of forest habitat disturbance, which may interact synergistically or additively with fragmentation effects. Here, we examine the effects of forest patch and landscape metrics, and levels of forest disturbance on the patterns of persistence of six gamebird taxa in the southern Brazilian Amazon. We use both interview data conducted with long-term residents and/or landowners from 129 remnant forest patches and 15 continuous forest sites and line-transect census data from a subset of 21 forest patches and two continuous forests. Forest patch area was the strongest predictor of species persistence, explaining as much as 46% of the overall variation in gamebird species richness. Logistic regression models showed that anthropogenic disturbance—including surface wildfires, selective logging and hunting pressure—had a variety of effects on species persistence. Most large-bodied gamebird species were sensitive to forest fragmentation, occupying primarily large, high-quality forest patches in higher abundances, and were typically absent from patches <100 ha. Our findings highlight the importance of large (>10,000 ha), relatively undisturbed forest patches to both maximize persistence and maintain baseline abundances of large neotropical forest birds.
... The only species that appear to be fairly insensitive to forest patch area, when compared to other sympatric gamebirds, was Pipile cujubi, a highly frugivorous and widely mobile canopy cracid (Galetti et al., 1997) that often traverses the open-habitat matrix of cattle pastures in our study region (Lees & Peres, 2009). This species can tolerate limited human disturbance and hunting pressure in landscapes dominated by small-scale agriculture as long as large fruiting canopy trees are left intact in nearby forest (Hayes et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Although large-bodied tropical forest birds are impacted by both habitat loss and fragmentation, their patterns of habitat occupancy will also depend on the degree of forest habitat disturbance, which may interact synergistically or additively with fragmentation effects. Here, we examine the effects of forest patch and landscape metrics, and levels of forest disturbance on the patterns of persistence of six gamebird taxa in the southern Brazilian Amazon. We use both interview data conducted with long-term residents and/or landowners from 129 remnant forest patches and 15 continuous forest sites and line-transect census data from a subset of 21 forest patches and two continuous forests. Forest patch area was the strongest predictor of species persistence, explaining as much as 46% of the overall variation in gamebird species richness. Logistic regression models showed that anthropogenic disturbance—including surface wildfires, selective logging and hunting pressure—had a variety of effects on species persistence. Most large-bodied gamebird species were sensitive to forest fragmentation, occupying primarily large, high-quality forest patches in higher abundances, and were typically absent from patches <100 ha. Our findings highlight the importance of large (>10,000 ha), relatively undisturbed forest patches to both maximize persistence and maintain baseline abundances of large neotropical forest birds.
... The consumption of melastome berries extends well-beyond small-sized passerines. Bird species feeding on melastome berries encompass a much wider range of clades, body sizes, and functional groups, including toucans (Galetti et al. 2000;Parrini and Pacheco 2011), curassows (Galetti and Stotz 1996;Hawes and Peres 2014), guans, and chachalacas (Galetti et al. 1997;Zaca et al. 2006;Muñoz et al. 2007;Acosta-Rojas et al. 2012). Species considered mostly as granivorous, including parrots and parakeets (Allenspach and Dias 2012;Kessler-Rios and Kattan 2012;Maruyama et al. 2013), pigeons and doves (Ikuta and Martins 2013;Darosci et al. 2017), and trumpeters (Erard et al. 2007), also consume melastome berries. ...
Chapter
Melastomataceae species successfully colonize, and in many cases dominate, ecosystems ranging from forest to open vegetation, from sea level to mountain summits, and isolated islands. This wide distribution is likely related to species dispersal ability. The dispersal mechanisms are diverse, with various fruit types. Dry and fleshy fruits evolved several times during the radiation of melastomes, and these shifts were accompanied by transitions between forests and grasslands. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the dispersal ecology of Neotropical Melastomataceae. First, we revisit the biology of dry-fruited species and their main dispersal mechanisms. Second, we explore the dispersal ecology of berries, which are keystone resources for a wide diversity of animals. We discuss the traits that contribute to their widespread consumption, provide an assessment of the consumer assemblage, and link frugivory to seed dispersal by evaluating the animal effects on germination outcomes. We argue that Melastomataceae species are excellent models to advance our knowledge of seed dispersal ecology.
... Frugivory interactions were compiled from (Carvalho 1961;Silva 1988;Bonvicino 1989;Silva et al. 1989;Brozek 1991;Motta-Jr 1991;Galetti 1992;Moraes 1992;Rodrigues et al. 290 1993;Chiarello 1994;Figueira et al. 1994;Galetti and Morellato 1994;Hasui 1994;de Figueiredo and Perin 1995;Masteguin and Figueiredo 1995;Ferrari et al. 1996;Galetti and Pizo 1996;Kindel 1996;Laps 1996;Pizo 1996;Zimmerman 1996;Galetti et al. 1997;Heiduck 1997;Correia 1997 ;Argel de Oliveira 1999;Sabino and Sazima 1999;Galetti et al. 2000;Lopes 2000;da Costa Gondim 2001;Galetti 2001;Silva and Tabarelli 2001;Valente 2001;Zimmermann 2001;Alvarenga al. 2008;Marques and Oliveira 2008;Alves et al. 2009;Athiê 2009;Catenacci et al. 2009;Cortes et al. 2009;Lapate 2009;Novaes and Nobre 2009;Oprea et al. 2009;Parrini et al. 2009;Reys et al. 2009;Vasconcellos-Neto et al. 2009;Brito et al. 2010 Plant traits: We focused on compiling information on those plant traits that are known to affect the success of frugivorous interactions and their potential outcomes for successful seed dispersal (fruit and seed length and diameter, plant geographical distribution, seed dispersal syndrome, fruit color, lipid concentration). We compiled this information from the literature (Martius et al. 1840(Martius et al. -1906Mez 1963;Cowan 1967;Berg 1972;Prance 1972;Rogers and Appan 1973;Landrum 325 1981; Pennington et al. 1981;Kaastra 1982;Kubitzki and Renner 1982;Forero 1983;Lima and Lima 1984;Sleumer 1984;Hopkins 1986;Landrum 1986;Hekking 1988;Mori et al. 1990;Pennington 1990;Gentry 1992;Rohwer 1993;Delprete 1999;Henderson 2000 Animal traits. ...
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The dataset provided here includes 8320 frugivory interactions (records of pairwise interactions between plant and frugivore species) reported for the Atlantic Forest. The dataset includes interactions between 331 vertebrate species (232 birds, 90 mammals, five fishes, one amphibian and three reptiles) and 788 plant species. We also present information on traits directly related to the frugivory process (endozoochory), such as the size of fruits and seeds and the body mass and gape size of frugivores. Data were extracted from 166 published and unpublished sources spanning from 1961 to 2016. While this is probably the most comprehensive dataset available for a tropical ecosystem, it is arguably taxonomically and geographically biased. The plant families better represented are Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Moraceae, Urticaceae and Solanaceae. Myrsine coriacea, Alchornea glandulosa, Cecropia pachystachya, and Trema micrantha are the plant species with the most animal dispersers (83, 76, 76 and 74 species, respectively). Among the animal taxa, the highest number of interactions is reported for birds (3883), followed by mammals (1315). The woolly spider monkey or muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, and rufous-bellied thrush, Turdus rufiventris, are the frugivores with the most diverse fruit diets (137 and 121 plants species, respectively). The most important general patterns that we note are that larger seeded plant species (>12 mm) are mainly eaten by terrestrial mammals (rodents, ungulates, primates and carnivores) and that birds are the main consumers of fruits with a high concentration of lipids. Our dataset is geographically biased, with most interactions recorded for the southeast Atlantic Forest. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... 'Jacutingas' have been referred to Campos dos Goitacazes in the 18 th and 19 th centuries (Reys 1997;Papavero & Teixeira 2000). The species was recorded in São Fidélis (Wied-Neuwied 1820-1821), "Rio de Janeiro" (Spix 1824(Spix -1825, Magé (Spix & Martius 1823-1831, Vassouras (Saint-Hilaire 1830); Serra dos Órgãos (Gardner 1846;Goeldi 1894Goeldi -1900Sick 1997), Cantagalo (Ihering 1900), Itatiaia (Miranda-Ribeiro 19051923;Pinto 1954;Barth 1957), Angra dos Reis (Sick 1969;Collar et al. 1992), Paraty (Sick & Teixeira 1979) and Desengano (Galetti et al. 1997). Hunters in Tinguá and Desengano knew the species in the 1980s. ...
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We reviewed the local current status and summarized the suspected causes of rarity, and presumed major threats to the 84 rarest bird speciesin the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. We have focused on the bird species that have not been recently recorded or have fewer than 10records in the last five decades in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Of these, 24 species are considered globally threatened or near threatened, and at least about 30 species are actually common or abundant elsewhere in their distribution. More than half of these species are forest birds inhabiting mainlylowland forests, but less than one-fifth of these species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest. The trophic guilds with the highest numbers of species were omnivores and insectivores. The main habitats used by the rarest bird species were wetlands, lowland forest canopy, secondary forest canopy and secondary forest edge. Bird species using two or more habitats were more represented among rare species than those using only a single habitat. Ninespecies were considered locally extinct, 11 probably Extinct, 27 Critically Endangered and 13 considered Data Deficient in Rio de Janeiro which are of increased conservation concern in the region. Although included among the rarest birds found in the state of Rio de Janeiro, 24 species were not classified as locally threatened because they are naturally rare migrants or vagrants in the region, without evidence of significant population sizereduction in the state in recent decades. Fifteen species had their conservation status considered threatened in the state for the first time. Forty-four species had their local conservation status uplisted, while only five species were downlisted. The major causes of rarity and threats to these species in the region are habitat loss and hunting/trapping, but nearly one-third of them have unknown causes of rarity.
... citam já se conhecer até o momento 93 espécies de mamíferos que consomem frutos de 126 espécies de palmeiras na região Neotropical. O palmito-juçara (Euterpe edulis), por exemplo, uma palmeira de ocorrência natural do Bioma Mata Atlântica, destaca-se com relação à sua importância energética na alimentação de diversos animais frugívoros (GALETTI et al, 1999), e em interações ecológicas interespecíficas com animais ameaçados de extinção deste bioma, como a jacutinga (Pipile jacutinga) (GALETTI et al., 1997), sendo ainda mais importantes em pequenos fragmentos, terras altas e em áreas com uma baixa riqueza de frutos carnosos (GALETTI e ALEIXO, 1998). GALETTI et al. (2013) destacam ainda o efeito da defaunação de certos grupos funcionais de animais sobre processos evolutivos do palmito-juçara, ao identificar uma associação entre a falta de grandes pássaros dispersores com a redução do tamanho das sementes, o que afeta negativamente a regeneração da espécie. ...
... Temporary concentrations of guans at Gameleiras during the dry season of some years confirms this. Short-range movements are also reported for Sickle-winged Guan Chamaepetes goudotii and Black-fronted Piping Guan Pipile jacutinga 6,10,15 . Because of the availability of food and water at Gameleiras, one might expect that in those years in which guans were present, they would remain until the onset of the rains (January), but this was not so. ...
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Jacus-verdadeiros Penelope jacucaca foram estudados na reserva particular RPPN Mãe-da-lua no interior semi-árido do Estado do Ceará no nordeste do Brasil. Durante vários meses da estação seca de 2007, 2008 e 2010, numerosos jacus visitaram regularmente um olho d'água e um comedor adjacente na reserva. Em outros estações e / ou anos, os jacus quase não frequentavam o olho d'água e o comedor, e parece que uma grande parte da população permaneceu em lugares distantes, dentro ou fora da RPPN. Estes achados confirmam que P. jacucaca faz migrações locais, e são relevantes para a conservação desta espécie, em particular para o planejamento e manejo de reservas. Outras pesquisas seriam necessárias para mostrar os motivos e o alcance dos deslocamentos. Observei os jacus durante muitas sessões no campo, frequentemente usando um esconderijo ('blind') que as aves aproximavam a uma distância de poucos metros. Nesta publicação, presento informações sobre: vocalizações; comportamento no comedor; aparência dos jovens; hábitos de empoleirar, e frequentes mudanças dos locais para passar a noite. No início da estação chuvosa, aves 'rufando as asas' foram gravadas em duas ocasiões. Jacus-verdadeiros foram também registrados em outras localidades do Ceará, fora de unidades de conservação, em mata úmida (Maranguape) e em uma fazenda na caatinga (Pentecoste). O registro da fazenda sugere que pelo menos no norte do Ceará, a vegetação secundária madura nas regiões agricultores da caatinga pode ser suficiente para a especie sobreviver e reproduzir.
... This was ®rst demonstrated by showing that females may increase their level of parental care when paired with preferred males 10,11 (but see ref. 12). However, females may also alter their investment much earlier in reproduction; in some species, females lay more eggs when paired with preferred males than when paired with less preferred males 13,14 . A problem arises if females instead alter their primary reproductive effort in ways that in¯uence offspring quality rather than offspring quantity, for example, by laying larger eggs or increasing the nutritional content of eggs when paired with more attractive males. ...
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Estimates of species extinction due to human impact on tropical forests have previously been based on the relationship between species number and area. Here we use a different approach to estimate loss of tree species in the Atlantic forest of northeast Brazil. We evaluate the characteristics of plant species, their avian dispersers and the distribution of the forest remnants on the landscape to estimate that about 33.9% of tree species in this region will become extinct on a regional scale. Because northeast Brazil is the most threatened sector of South American Atlantic forest, our results highlight the need to change the current conservation paradigm for this region. Rather than focus on the creation of isolated reserves in any medium-to-large forest remnant, a bioregional planning approach is urgently required to rescue this unique biota from extinction.
... The Atlantic Forest of eastern Brazil and neighbouring Argentina and Paraguay is among the most imperilled biomes in the world. At least 188 bird species are endemic to it, and 70 globally threatened birds occur there, most of them endemics 4,8 . The Atlantic Forest is not homogeneous and both latitudinal and longitudinal gradients account for diverse associations of discrete habitats and associated bird communities. ...
... Nuestras observaciones sugieren una dieta frugívora para la Pava Negra con consumo esporádico de hojas, un comportamiento alimentario que ya ha sido registrado para varios miembros de la familia Cracidae (Chalukian 1997, Galetti et al. 1997, Jiménez et al. 2000, Santamaria & Franco 2000, Muñoz 2003. En zonas cercanas al SFFOQ entrevistamos a 10 cazadores de los cuales ninguno admitió cazar actualmente Pava Negra, y la describieron como una espacie escasa. ...
Article
Patterns of spatial distribution and population density of species depend on their intrinsic properties, interactions with other species, and availability and distribution of resources. Patterns of space use and population densities of Cracids, particularly montane species, are poorly documented. The Wattled Guan (Aburria aburri) is considered rare throughout its geographical distribution and is classified as near threatened. Between October 2002 and September 2003 we conducted monthly surveys along six transects, and made ad libitum observations to estimate population densities and obtain information on spatial distribution, breeding period and diet of the Wattled Guan. This study was carried out in a 489-ha forest in the central Andes of Colombia. We estimated a total density of 0.87 ind/km2 and ecological density of 2.6 ind /km2. We obtained few visual detections throughout the year and all of them took place in a particular area. Our results suggest an aggregated distribution in this guan. We did not observe fluctuations in abundance or evidence of altitudinal migration. Based on song patterns, we established a reproductive period between January and June, estimating the presence of two adult males in the study area. The available information suggests that the Wattled Guan has low population densities and that its habitat is dramatically reduced. These characteristics make this species extinction prone. It remains to be tested if this species is rare at larger scales and throughout its distribution range.
... To analyze the effect of hunting on population density, we first used studies in which hunted and nonhunted forests were paired together at the same site. Three Galetti et al. 1997, Guix et al. 1997 The Condor: Ornithological Applications 118:24-32, Q 2016 Cooper Ornithological Society studies presented comparative data (Table 2). Begazo and Bodmer (1998) collected data from hunters at 3 sites classified as ''protected area, '' ''moderately hunted, '' and ''heavily hunted. ...
Article
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Understanding the factors that determine population densities is critical for conserving viable populations of threatened species. Half of the 50 species in the family Cracidae have experienced population declines. We conducted a literature review to explore the relations of population densities of cracids with body size, habitat, season, and hunting. We compiled 103 density data points for 27 species in 37 localities from Mexico to Argentina. There was no correlation between body mass and density. The larger cracines tended to have lower densities than penelopines, but densities in both subfamilies spanned a similar range of values. Intraspecific and interspecific densities varied among sites over 2 orders of magnitude (1-100 birds km-2). Some cracids exhibited plasticity in habitat use, with variable densities among habitats. There is evidence that some species performed local movements related to seasonality in rainfall or resource availability, leading to aggregations around water sources during the dry season or around seasonally abundant food sources. Hunting had a negative effect on population densities, but in some cases low to moderate hunting did not cause a decrease in density in comparison to nonhunted sites. Despite having similar ecologies, densities of cracid species are very variable, and each population seems to respond idiosyncratically to local factors, which requires care if data are extrapolated across populations or species. Future studies that aim to characterize cracid populations for conservation purposes should take into account possible intraspecific density variations related to seasonality, local movements, and habitat heterogeneity.
... Fleshy fruited melastome species typically possess traits related to generalized seed dispersal systems (Howe 1993), producing copious amounts of small, water-and sugar-rich berries with numerous small seeds (Silveira et al. 2013). Indeed, their fruits are consumed by diverse bird assemblages, which range from small passerines (Stiles and Rosselli 1993;Loiselle and Blake 1999;Maruyama et al. 2013) to large avian frugivores, such as toucans and guans (Galetti et al. 1997(Galetti et al. , 2000. In the present study, we investigated the interactions between the Neotropical treelet M. irwinii (Melastomataceae) and its avian seed dispersers in Brazilian campo rupestre. ...
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The extent of specialization/generalization continuum in fruit-frugivore interactions at the individual level remains poorly explored. Here we investigated the interactions between the Neotropical treelet Miconia irwinii (Melastomataceae) and its avian seed dispersers in Brazilian campo rupestre. We built an individual-based network to derive plant degree of interaction specialization regarding disperser species. Then, we explored how intraspecific variation in interaction niche breadth relates to fruit availability on individual plants in varying densities of fruiting conspecific neighbours, and how these factors affect the quantity of viable seeds dispersed. We predicted broader interaction niche breadths for individuals with larger fruit crops in denser fruiting neighbourhoods. The downscaled network included nine bird species and 15 plants, which varied nearly five-fold in their degree of interaction specialization. We found positive effects of crop size on visitation and fruit removal rates, but not on degree of interaction specialization. Conversely, we found that an increase in density of conspecific fruiting neighbours both increased visitation-rate and reduced plant degree of interaction specialization. We suggest that tracking fruit-rich patches by avian frugivore species is the main driver of density-dependent intraspecific variation in plants' interaction niche breadth. Our study shed some light on the overlooked fitness consequences of intraspecific variation in interaction niches by showing that individuals along the specialization/generalization continuum may have their seed dispersed with similar effectiveness. Our study exemplifies how individual-based networks linking plants to frugivore species that differ in their seed dispersal effectiveness can advance our understanding of intraspecific variation in the outcomes of fruit-frugivore interactions. Link: http://rdcu.be/vA89
... Seeds of Myrtaceae were the most frequently found in the DAE area, in agreement with the pattern of high species richness of this family in the Atlantic forest (Rochelle et al., 2011;Tabarelli and Mantovani, 1999) and with the importance of this item to cracids (Galetti et al., 1997;Guix et al., 2001;Théry et al., 1992). In the DAE, the sighting time of dusky-legged guans was shorter since they were in constant motion looking for scattered food. ...
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Frugivorous birds are important seed dispersers and influence the recruitment of many plant species in the rainforest. The efficiency of this dispersal generally depends on environment quality, bird species, richness and diversity of resources, and low levels of anthropogenic disturbance. In this study, we compared the sighting number of dusky-legged guans (Penelope obscura) by km and their movement in two areas of Serra do Japi, one around the administrative base (Base) where birds received anthropogenic food and a pristine area (DAE) with no anthropogenic resource. We also compared the richness of native seeds in feces of birds living in these two areas. Although the abundance of P. obscura was higher in the Base, these individuals moved less, dispersed 80% fewer species of plants and consumed 30% fewer seeds than individuals from DAE. The rarefaction indicated a low richness in the frugivorous diet of birds from the Base when compared to the populations from DAE. We conclude that human food supply can interfere in the behavior of these birds and in the richness of native seeds dispersed.
... Much of the hunting literature in the neotropics has focused on mammals, and the susceptibility of species such as tapirs, peccaries, and large ateline primates to declines. Birds, however, have received less attention, though hunting is recognized to be a major threat to several neotropical species (BirdLife International, 2017a;Galetti, Martuscelli, Olmos, & Aleixo, 1997), and some communities prefer their meat over that of mammals (Mena et al., 2000;Santos-Fita et al., 2012). Most ethnozoological studies on the use of birds have additionally focused on their use as pets or on their cultural importance (Haenn, Schmook, Reyes, & Calme´, 2014;Nascimento Rodrigues, Czaban, & No´brega Alves, 2015;No´brega Alves, De Farias Lima, & Araujo, 2012;Rolda´n-Clara`, Ló pez-Medellı´n, Espejel, & Arellano, 2014), and not their role as game. ...
Article
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Subsistence hunting of neotropical birds is common and widespread in the tropical forests of Latin America. Although its sustainability under different scenarios is subject to debate, hunting has already contributed to the decline and local extirpation of several taxa and is considered to be a significant threat to a range of large-bodied species. Gaining a better understanding of the variability of hunting patterns, as well as the factors that can potentially be used to predict them, is important if we are to develop conservation strategies that target the species most likely to be experiencing declines. In this article, we examine the avian hunting profiles of 65 communities in the neotropics. We describe their variability and look at the relationship between a hunting profile and (a) its geographical location, (b) the community’s age, (c) the community’s population size, and (d) the year in which the survey was carried out. We find that there is a significant but weak relationship between a community’s geographic location and the composition of its bird hunting profile, and that prey profiles can be considerably different even among close neighbors. We found no relationship between a community’s age or size and the mean biomass of bird prey hunted. Our results challenge the assumption that older and larger settlements have a predictable impact upon avian prey communities and suggest that cultural preferences or the starting availability of prey species can change rapidly over short distances.
... Studies of the population genetics of O. catharinensis have revealed high levels of genetic diversity (Martins et al. 2014;Montagna et al. 2018), even among remaining populations. It may be related to its seed dispersal syndrome, which is made by monkeys (e.g., Lagothrix lagotricha) and birds (e.g., Aburria jacutinga), even when there is habitat fragmentation (Galetti et al. 1997;Moraes & Paoli 1999;Martins et al. 2014). The high genetic diversity of O. catharinensis, especially in a population from Reserva Biológica do Tinguá (RBT), may be related to the presence of long-lived trees within populations (Martins et al. 2014). ...
Article
Ocotea catharinensis occurs mainly in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and is highly threatened by timber logging, forest fragmentation, and habitat loss. The remnant populations of this species are genetically rich, which may be related to the presence of long-lived trees, and so it is imperative to understand their growth and age. In this study, we analyzed trees of O. catharinensis from dense ombrophylous forest, its dendrochronological potential, the period of cambial activity and dormancy, and the influence of climate on annual growth. The species showed distinct annually-formed tree-rings, with cambial activity during summer and autumn, and cambial dormancy during winter and spring. A tree-ring width chronology was built from 1852–2015. The estimated age of the sampled trees varied from 40 to 164 years. O. catharinensis in our study site does not show a strong age–diameter relationship, hence similar diameters at breast height resulted in differences in ages by as much as 50 years. The resulting tree-ring width chronology is positively correlated with March precipitation, the transition month between rainy and dry seasons. This study brings valuable contributions to the understanding of the growth of O. catharinensis , which is a novelty for this species and important to the maintenance of these long-lived trees in natural forests.
... Muitas são as evidências que sustentam seu status de 'espécie com grande importância ecológica', como os longos períodos de oferta de frutos maduros, o poder nutritivo dos frutos (Galetti 1996), e as consideráveis quantidades de frutos produzidos (170 kg.ha -1 [Galetti & Aleixo 1998] a 460 kg.ha -1 [Silva 2011]). Ademais, seus frutos são consumidos por uma gama de animais -pelo menos 37 espécies de aves e 18 espécies de mamíferos (Galetti et al. 1997, Fadini et al. 2009, Leite et al. 2012. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, we presented the population structure and genetic diversity of 13 widely used species that are also endowed with great conservation value. Most of these species are found in national- and state-level threatened species lists, namely, Apuleia leiocarpa, Araucaria angustifolia, Butia catarinensis, Butia eriospatha, Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela fissilis, Dicksonia sellowiana, Euterpe edulis, Ocotea catharinensis, Ocotea porosa, Ocotea odorifera, and Podocarpus lambertii. Myrocarpus frondosus is not included in any threatened species list, despite the fact that this species produces timber with commercial value and was heavily exploited in the past. The majority of the aforementioned species still present moderate to high levels of genetic diversity for both reproductive and regenerant populations, even after the historical timber exploitation and the ongoing habitat fragmentation. Two of them presented reduced genetic diversity: C. brasiliense and P. lambertii. C. brasiliense was classified into the rarity form 2 according to the IFFSC data; it is exclusive to forests occurring in Santa Catarina’s coastal plains, which are currently being diminished by the expansion of real estate developments. In turn, the results regarding regenerant populations revealed that most of the studied species are able to pass their genetic diversity to the next generations. However, this was not observed for O. catharinensis; indeed, there is an imminent risk of genetic diversity loss for this species. About 20 to 50 trees of O. catharinensis would be found per hectare in old-growth Dense Ombrophylous Forest stands. However, according to the IFFSC data, approximately five trees per hectare may be found nowadays. This is a result of the heavy exploitation the species suffered because of its valuable wood. Species such as A. angustifolia, E. edulis, and O. catharinensis, still present increased frequency and density in part of their occurrence areas. Nevertheless, they are usually represented by shorter and thinner individuals than the ones expected in developed populations. Associations among landscape metrics and genetic diversity indices varied substantially among species. Notwithstanding, they brought up insights on conservation strategies, especially for C. fissilis and O. porosa. It was found that most species are closely dependent on animals for pollination and seed dispersal. Therefore, conserving them is crucial for maintaining gene flow, especially in the fragmented forests of Santa Catarina. The gathered data on genetic diversity and population structure may be useful to identify and establish areas for collection of seeds with satisfactory genetic diversity. Pure or mixed plantations, or even the enrichment of native forest stands, seem to be a win-win approach that would lead to genetic diversity conservation and economic growth. Ex situ conservation by means of urban afforestation and landscaping stand as feasible ways to promote gene flow, as well as to strengthen the relationship among the civil population and these emblematic species of the state of Santa Catarina.
... Its pollination was not specifically studied; however, a study with O. porosa, a congener species, found the thrips Frankliniella gardeniae as the single floral visitor and pollinator (Danieli-Silva and Varassin 2013). Its fruits are consumed by endangered species like Brachyteles arachnoides (Moraes and Paoli 1995) and Pipile jacutinga (Galetti et al. 1997). Ocotea catharinensis is predominantly outcrossing, with apparent outcrossing rate of 1.0, has high levels of genetic diversity and low rates of fixation indexes, and presents moderate genetic divergence between populations (Tarazi et al. 2010). ...
Article
In this study, we broadly characterized the genetic diversity of two endangered tree species, Euterpe edulis and Ocotea catharinensis. These species represent different ecological characteristics and different landscape situations, and they were selected within a wide sampling network in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, aiming to elucidate the conservation status of both species and suggest conservation strategies. To accomplish this, we used isoenzyme markers to genotype 20 and 19 reproductive populations and 9 and 12 seedling populations for E. edulis and O. catharinensis, respectively. We also estimated metrics of the sampled fragments and constrained the variation of genetic diversity indexes to these metrics through redundancy analysis. High levels of genetic diversity were found for both species/cohorts. These levels and their fluctuations within species' cohorts were not significantly affected by the fragments metrics, suggesting that ecological characteristics may have greater importance in this context. This study shows that limitations to the gene flow and maintenance of allelic exchanges are crucial to define conservation efforts, even though fragmentation and exploitation can significantly impact the loss of diversity. As further conservation strategies, we suggest the use of E. edulis fruits and actions to increase population sizes for O. catharinensis.
... The last two species are considered endangered and vulnerable, respectively (IUCN 2014). Absence of cracids in tropical forests can affect several ecological processes since they are important seed dispersers and are therefore very important component in the community to maintain forest ecosystem (Brooks & Fuller 2006, Galetti et al. 1997. ...
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The Bare-faced Curassow Crax fasciolata (Cracidae:Cracinae) is a vulnerable species that was classified as critically endangered by the São Paulo State -Brazil, in 2008. Specialists recommended "searches for areas where there may be a few remaining populations and protection of the last remaining semideciduous forest in the State". Protected areas were investigated in the Cerrado and semideciduous forest in São Paulo State by camera trapping to evaluate the presence of the Bare-faced Curassow. Eight protected areas in Cerrado biome were investigated, but the Bare-faced Curassows was recorded only at Furnas do Bom Jesus State Park (2,069 ha), São Paulo State despite the large sampling effort in larger protected areas such as the Santa Bárbara Ecological Station (2,712 ha) and Jataí Ecological Station (9,074 ha); the largest protected area of Cerrado biome in São Paulo State. This record of C. fasciolata is important for the Conservation Action Plan for the Cracid family and shows the importance of monitoring biodiversity and conserving even relatively small remnants of native vegetation for the conservation of this species.
... 9 Hunting and habitat loss are the main threats to this species, which is very sensitive to environmental changes and thus can be used as a bioindicator species to monitor the quality of the forests. 7 Hematology allows researchers to assess the health and physiological status of avian species, which is particularly important for threatened species. In addition, it is a useful tool in rehabilitation and provides health surveillance of a population. ...
Article
The black-fronted piping-guan (Aburria jacutinga) is and an endangered cracid species and little is known about its health. Hematology allows researchers to assess the health and physiological status of a population, but, to our knowledge, reference intervals are not available in the literature for A. jacutinga. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the hematological reference intervals of 31 captive black-fronted pipingguan adults in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from brachial vein and stored in heparinized tubes to be processed. The red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts were performed in a hemocytometer, and hemoglobin (HGB) concentration was obtained by the spectrophotometric cyanmethemoglobin method; packed cell volume (PCV) was determined by microhematocrit technique, and the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were calculated according to a previously established formula. The heterophil: lymphocyte ratio was calculated by dividing the number of heterophils by the number of lymphocytes. Determination of the 95% reference intervals and 90% confidence intervals were performed in accordance with American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology guidelines using Reference Value Advisor (version 2.0). The results obtained were as follows: RBC, 1.4-2.8 × 10 6 /μl; PCV, 34.3-51.2%; HGB, 8.0-12.6 g/dl; MCV, 157.3-261.4 fl; MCHC, 22.0-26.7 g/dl; WBC, 2.3-33.1 × 10 3 /μl; heterophils, 12.1-16.3%, 0.5-14.4 × 10 3 /μl; lymphocytes, 19.8-69.0%, 1.4-16.4 × 10 3 /μl; monocytes, 0.7-17.3%, 0.1-2.8×10 3 /μl; eosinophils, 0.4-12.8%, 0.0-3.9 × 10 3 /μl; basophils, 0.8-12.0%, 0.0-1.9 × 10 3 /μl; and the heterophil: lymphocyte ratio, 0.2-3.0. The present study fills gaps in the literature on hematological values for A. jacutinga, which can be used to assess the health of the species populations. In addition, it contributed to establishing the health status of captive black-fronted piping-guans, indicating the possible welfare of the birds.
... Icon was obtained from www.divulgare.net. in their faeces. Studies about other species from this family have confirmed the viability of seeds and their higher germination rate after passing through bird digestive tracts (Th ery et al. 1992;Galetti et al. 1997), confirming the importance of this group in seed dispersal. In fact, we found faeces of P. superciliares with E. punicifolia seeds that were germinating. ...
Article
We studied the reproductive attributes (reproductive phenology, pollination and seed dispersion) of understory woody species from a rainforest area in the Araripe‐Apodi National Forest (FLONA), NE Brazil. The FLONA has a representative number of fauna and flora species that are important for the local climatic, hydrological and ecological equilibrium of the region. The community was composed of 68 species distributed in 43 genera and 26 plant families. Melastomataceae was the family with the highest species richness. Most species (61.76%) shared floral traits that promoted bee pollination, for example white, dish type, medium‐sized flowers with pollen as the main resource. Zoochory was the most frequent dispersion system (76.47%), followed by autochory (16.17%) and anemochory (7.35%). Resource distribution (flowers and fruits) was uniform throughout the year, and pollination and dispersion networks were significantly modular, composed of five and four modules, respectively. In the pollination network, bees occurred in almost all modules, but flies, hummingbirds, butterflies and hawk moths were more restricted to certain modules, partially highlighting the idea of pollination syndromes. In the dispersion network, the modules were composed of birds from different families; only one module was comprised of all sampled mammals. Our results show that most species depend on the action of biotic vectors during their reproductive processes (pollination and dispersal). Those interactions are fundamental for maintaining biological diversity in different tropical ecosystems.
... They are important components of avian biomass in Neotropical bird communities (Terborgh 1986;Strahl et al. 1997), and provide substantial amounts of protein for riverine and indigenous human populations (Silva and Strahl 1991;Vickers 1991;Thiollay 1994). Cracids are sensitive to hunting and deforestation, and are among the most threatened avian groups in Latin America (Collar et al. 1992;Galetti et al. 1997;Strahl et al. 1997); thus, they can be used as indicators of these two forms of human activity (Silva and Strahl 1991;Strahl and Grajal 1991). ...
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Cracids comprise a large proportion of avian biomass in Neotropical rainforests. Their diet can vary seasonally, and they can be important agents of seed dispersal. Wattled Curassow (Crax globulosa) inhabits várzea forests of western Amazonia and is considered to be globally threatened. We detail the diet of C. globulosa based on our own field observations, as well as interviews with local people and analysis of stomach contents, in the Juruá River region of Brazil. The species was observed using 51 different species of plants from 23 families. It consumed mostly fruits/seeds (69%), followed by flowers and leaves. Only 13% of direct observations were of birds foraging on the ground, with groups of up to eight individuals feeding together. Crax globulosa was observed consuming a greater variety of species of plants in the high-water season (29 species). The stomach contents of ten individuals showed that the species also feeds on invertebrates and ingests pebbles. The species has a more diverse diet in the low-water season, but still maintains a preference for fruits/seeds. As the species remains in várzea forest throughout the year, a larger supply of fruits during the high-water season is important for the species and may be one of the reasons it remains in this type of environment.
... Much of the area is federally or state protected and consists of large, continuous tracts of native forest vegetation. While there are some instances of poaching (Galetti et al. 1997;Cullen et al. 2000), these areas are free from agricultural development and heavy land-use interference. Sites in the semi-deciduous Atlantic Forest occur in the landlocked interior of southeastern Brazil and experience more seasonality in weather patterns. ...
Article
White-lipped peccaries (WLPs; Tayassu pecari, Tayassuidae, Cetartiodactyla) are forest-dwelling ungulates critical to maintaining healthy Neotropical forest ecosystems through key aspects of their dietary behaviors, including seed predation and dispersal. Land-use change and deforestation threaten WLP access to food resources, and thus knowledge of how WLP diet varies spatially is necessary to frame conservation efforts for the species. Here, we use stable carbon (δ¹³C) and nitrogen (δ¹⁵N) isotopes from WLP hair and food resources to assess whether WLP diet varies among four regions in three Brazilian biomes: the Pantanal, the Cerrado, and the Atlantic Forest (semi-deciduous and ombrophilous), each varying in forest canopy cover, climatic characteristics, and degrees of agricultural impacts. We find that in all regions WLPs are consuming primarily C3 resources, with mean δ¹³C values ranging from −28.7‰ to −26.9‰. In the heavily fragmented semi-deciduous Atlantic Forest, δ¹³C values are the highest, and may indicate that some individuals are consuming a small amount of C4 crops or demonstrating increased levels of insectivory. A through-time comparison of WLP hair in the semi-deciduous Atlantic Forest suggests the recorded slight departure from an exclusive C3 diet may be a recent phenomenon, as hairs collected prior to the year 2000 have lower δ¹³C values than those collected in 2016. While some individual WLPs may slightly alter diet in heavily anthropogenically modified areas, C4 crops are not a main component of WLP diet. Our results suggest that WLPs are still highly dependent on forest resources, even in human-altered landscapes, and conservation and management plans for the species must consider these dietary needs in order to be successful. Queixadas (Tayassu pecari, Tayassuidae, Certartiodactyla) são ungulados florestais essenciais na manutenção das florestas Neotropicais, dado que sua dieta e comportamento de forrageio afetam a dispersão e predação de sementes e plântulas. A ocupação do solo e o desmatamento ameaçam populações de queixada e seu acesso a fontes de alimento. Dessa forma, informações mais detalhadas sobre a variação espacial da dieta de queixadas são importantes para guiar planos de conservação da espécie. No presente estudo, utilizamos isótopos estáveis de carbono (δ¹³C) e nitrogênio (δ¹⁵N) provenientes de amostras de pêlo de queixada e de recursos alimentares obtidos nas mesmas localidades para avaliar como a dieta de queixadas varia em quatro regiões de três biomas brasileiros: Mata Atlântica (ombrófila e semi-decídua), Cerrado e Pantanal, cada um representando valores distintos dentro de um gradiente de cobertura vegetal, características climáticas e graus de impacto antrópico. Nossos resultados revelam que, em todas regiões e biomas amostrados, queixadas consomem essencialmente recursos provenientes de plantas C3, com valores médios de δ¹³C variando de −28.7‰ a −26.9‰. Na Mata Atlântica semi-decídua, região mais fragmentada pela agricultura, resultados das amostras de pêlos apresentaram os valores mais altos de δ¹³C, indicando que alguns indivíduos podem estar consumindo pequenas quantidades de plantas C4 des plantações ou um aumento nas taxas de insetivoria. Uma análise temporal dos dados provenientes da Mata Atlântica semi-decídua sugere que o aumento nos valores de δ¹³C é um fenômeno recente, uma vez que os valores de δ¹³C de amostras de pêlos coletadas antes do ano 2000 são significativamente mais baixos do que as coletadas em 2016. Apesar desses indícios de que alguns indivíduos de queixada estejam alterando levemente sua dieta em regiões dominadas por monoculturas, estas não são o componente principal de sua dieta. Nossos resultados sugerem que queixadas ainda são altamente dependentes de recursos provenientes dos remanescentes florestais, mesmo em paisagens altamente modificadas, e planos de conservação e manejo da espécie devem considerar estas necessidades de sua dieta para que tenham sucesso.
... These predominantly frugivorous birds play an important ISSN On-Line: 1807-0205 ISSN Printed: 0031-1049 ISNI: 0000-0004- role in the dispersal of large seeds (Galetti et al., 2013); therefore, their local extinction may have drastic impacts on the maintenance of forest structure, health, and ecosystem services such as carbon storage over time (Bello et al., 2015). As several cracids have become locally extinct, conservation and reintroduction efforts have been undertaken to rescue their populations (Galetti et al., 1997;Francisco et al., 2021). However, basic knowledge about their reproduction that could help develop efficient management strategies is still very limited. ...
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Knowledge of the reproductive biology of Barefaced Curassows (BFC) from their natural habitats is very limited. Our study covers a two-and-a-half year breeding phenology on BFC in the northern Pantanal (Mato Grosso State, Brazil) with the main objective of collecting information on reproduction biology to contribute to future conservation management strategies of this cracid, which received a recent status of "High Conservation Priority". The study was conducted at the SESC Pantanal, Baía das Pedras, Mato Grosso, Brazil (16°29′55″S, 56°24′46″W), a private protected area of approximately 4,200 ha. Between July 2015 and December 2017, 37 sampling locations were monitored with camera traps placed in a regular grid with a spacing of 1 km. Offspring were detected at least once at 8 locations, namely,, always together with parent(s). Territorial overlap between different family groups was detected. The camera trap dataset was supplemented by data from Citizen Science Projects (i.e., eBird) and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Based on feather developmental stages and body size, offspring were classified into different age classes. Age determination indicates that breeding occurs year-round in the northern Pantanal region, supported by eBird and GBIF data. The use of a grid-based design for future camera-trapping studies of BFCs is strongly recommended. Our study is of biological relevance for conservation management projects since data were collected in an area with low anthropogenic disturbance and intact ecosystem services.
... La Yacutinga o Jakú-apetí (Aburria jacutinga; Fig. 1) es un Crácido endémico de la selva Atlántica del sudeste de Brasil, el este de Paraguay, y la provincia de Misiones en Argentina. Sería una importante dispersora de semillas, destacándose en la cultura local, y dando su nombre a varios arroyos y poblados de los tres países (Galetti et al. 1997, Pizo 2002, López et al. 2007, Chebez 2008). Lamentablemente, la caza y la destrucción extensiva de la selva Atlántica la han extirpado de la mayor parte de su anterior rango (BirdLife International 2010). ...
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The Black-fronted Piping-Guan (Aburria jacutinga) is a globally endangered species endemic to the Atlantic forest of Brazil, Paraguay, and the province of Misiones in Argentina. Based on 7 years of bird surveys and interviews in Misiones, we present 18 localities with recent records. The Black-fronted Piping-Guan appears to be extirpated from the southern half of the province, but has strongholds in the north (Parque Nacional Iguazú, Parque Provincial Urugua-í, and Establecimiento San Jorge, especially Arroyo Uruzú) and central-east (Reserva de Biosfera Yaboty). Hunters in Misiones prefer the Black-fronted Piping-Guan above all other birds. Nevertheless, few primary school students recognized the species and none mentioned eating it, although they recognized other native birds like parrots, toucans, pigeons and woodcreepers, and mentioned having eaten other native wildlife including deer and armadillo. To conserve the Black-fronted Piping-Guan in the western part of its range, it is important to control hunting and protect native forest in the Reserva de Biosfera Yaboty (currently only partially protected). Unprotected land within the Reserva de Biosfera Yaboty should be purchased for conservation, and park rangers should be adequately trained, equiped, supplied, and encouraged to extend their coverage to prevent hunting at all key sites.
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Frugivory, that is feeding on fruits, pulp or seeds by animals, is usually considered a mutualism when interactions involve seed dispersal, and an antagonism when it results in the predation and destruction of seeds. Nevertheless, most frugivory interactions involve both benefits and disadvantages for plants, and the net interaction outcomes thus tend to vary along a continuum from mutualism to antagonism. Quantifying outcome variation is challenging and the ecological contribution of frugivorous animals to plant demography thus remains little explored. This is particularly true for interactions in which animals do not ingest entire fruits, that is in seed-eating and pulp-eating. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of Neotropical palm–frugivore interactions, with a focus on how frugivore consumption behaviour (i.e. digestive processing, fruit-handling ability and caching behaviour) and feeding types (fruit-eating, pulp-eating and seed-eating) influence interaction outcomes at different demographic stages of palms. We compiled a total of 1043 species-level palm–frugivore interaction records that explicitly captured information on which parts of palm fruits are eaten by animals. These records showed consumption of fruits of 106 Neotropical palm species by 273 vertebrate species, especially birds (50%) and mammals (45%), but also fish (3%) and reptiles (2%). Fruit-eating involved all four taxonomic vertebrate classes whereas seed-eating and pulp-eating were only recorded among birds and mammals. Most fruit-eating interactions (77%) resulted in positive interaction outcomes for plants (e.g. gut-passed seeds are viable or seeds are successfully dispersed), regardless of the digestive processing type of vertebrate consumers (seed defecation versus regurgitation). The majority of pulp-eating interactions (91%) also resulted in positive interaction outcomes, for instance via pulp removal that promoted seed germination or via dispersal of intact palm seeds by external transport, especially if animals have a good fruit-handling ability (e.g. primates, and some parrots). By contrast, seed-eating interactions mostly resulted in dual outcomes (60%), where interactions had both negative effects on seed survival and positive outcomes through seed caching and external (non-digestive) seed dispersal. A detailed synthesis of available field studies with qualitative and quantitative information provided evidence that 12 families and 27 species of mammals and birds are predominantly on the mutualistic side of the continuum whereas five mammalian families, six mammal and one reptile species are on the antagonistic side. The synthesis also revealed that most species can act as partial mutualists, even if they are typically considered antagonists. Our review demonstrates how different consumption behaviours and feeding types of vertebrate fruit consumers can influence seed dispersal and regeneration of palms, and thus ultimately affect the structure and functioning of tropical ecosystems. Variation in feeding types of animal consumers will influence ecosystem dynamics via effects on plant population dynamics and differences in long-distance seed dispersal, and may subsequently affect ecosystem functions such as carbon storage. The quantification of intra- and inter-specific variation in outcomes of plant–frugivore interactions – and their positive and negative effects on the seed-to-seedling transition of animal-dispersed plants – should be a key research focus to understand better the mutualism–antagonism continuum and its importance for ecosystem dynamics.
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RESUMO-A caça foi proibida no Brasil em 1967, pela lei que ficou conhecida como "Lei de Proteção à Fauna". Desde então, nenhuma política efetiva de gestão de fauna foi estabelecida no país. As consequências são graves, uma vez que a caça nunca foi plenamente controlada, e continua sendo comumente praticada em todas as regiões do Brasil. Além disso, o país falhou em educar a população para entender a fauna como recurso importante e valioso, e também em proporcionar seu uso sustentável. As universidades nunca estabeleceram um currículo acadêmico de gestores de fauna capacitados a manejar populações, já que, com a proibição, esse perfil profissional nunca foi considerado uma demanda relevante. O resultado é que a lista de espécies ameaçadas de extinção aumenta a cada nova versão, sendo a caça ilegal uma das principais causas desse processo. O maior país tropical do mundo carece da implantação de uma política abrangente e moderna de gestão de fauna e que seja governada por decisões de cunho técnico-científico e estratégico, ao invés da lógica "tudo é proibido", que prevalece até hoje. Os objetivos deste artigo de opinião são estimular uma reflexão sobre a situação da caça no Brasil e apontar a necessidade de um sistema de gestão de fauna mais efetivo. Palavras-chave: Caça; legislação; gestão de fauna.
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Mutualistic interactions between frugivorous birds and fleshy fruited plants are key processes for both natural plant regeneration and the maintenance of birds relying on fruit resources. However, seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE) has been frequently studied only from the plant's perspective, i.e. the contribution of animals to plant fitness. Using a sample of Atlantic rainforest avian frugivores, this study presents a first comparative, empirical study of fruit effectiveness as a nutritional food resource for seed dispersing birds through the use of Resource‐Provisioning Effectiveness (RPE) models. RPE is the product of the amount of fruits a frugivore can consume (quantity component) and the quality of the ingesta in terms of energy and nutrients obtained (quality component). Our results show wide variation in Resource‐Provisioning Effectiveness among fleshy‐fruited plant species. Energy‐rich fruits consistently show a smaller quantity component, while energetically‐poor fruits are consistently the most consumed, with fruit species spanning a gradient from these two extremes. The specific RPEi resulting from a pairwise fruit‐frugivore interaction is positively correlated to the total RPE (RPET) that a given fruit species has for the whole frugivore assemblage. RPE therefore appears to be a characteristic feature of the fruit species, rather than of the specific frugivore partner. Only the fruit's specific energy content showed a significant phylogenetic signal, suggesting potential constraints for free covariation between RPE and SDE of fruits and frugivores. Synthesis: We analyze variation in the effectiveness of fleshy fruit food provisioning to avian frugivores by explicitly redefining Resource‐Provisioning Effectiveness within the Seed Dispersal Effectiveness framework. We found ample variation in RPE among plant species, showing differences in both quantity and quality components of fruit resources rewards for the frugivores. Our findings help unravel how seed‐dispersing birds may discriminate among alternative fruit resources and to understand the configuration of mutual dependencies among mutualistic partners.
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RESUMO-A caça foi proibida no Brasil em 1967, pela lei que ficou conhecida como "Lei de Proteção à Fauna". Desde então, nenhuma política efetiva de gestão de fauna foi estabelecida no país. As consequências são graves, uma vez que a caça nunca foi plenamente controlada, e continua sendo comumente praticada em todas as regiões do Brasil. Além disso, o país falhou em educar a população para entender a fauna como recurso importante e valioso, e também em proporcionar seu uso sustentável. As universidades nunca estabeleceram um currículo acadêmico de gestores de fauna capacitados a manejar populações, já que, com a proibição, esse perfil profissional nunca foi considerado uma demanda relevante. O resultado é que a lista de espécies ameaçadas de extinção aumenta a cada nova versão, sendo a caça ilegal uma das principais causas desse processo. O maior país tropical do mundo carece da implantação de uma política abrangente e moderna de gestão de fauna e que seja governada por decisões de cunho técnico-científico e estratégico, ao invés da lógica "tudo é proibido", que prevalece até hoje. Os objetivos deste artigo de opinião são estimular uma reflexão sobre a situação da caça no Brasil e apontar a necessidade de um sistema de gestão de fauna mais efetivo. Palavras-chave: Caça; legislação; gestão de fauna.
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Full-text available
RESUMO-A caça foi proibida no Brasil em 1967, pela lei que ficou conhecida como "Lei de Proteção à Fauna". Desde então, nenhuma política efetiva de gestão de fauna foi estabelecida no país. As consequências são graves, uma vez que a caça nunca foi plenamente controlada, e continua sendo comumente praticada em todas as regiões do Brasil. Além disso, o país falhou em educar a população para entender a fauna como recurso importante e valioso, e também em proporcionar seu uso sustentável. As universidades nunca estabeleceram um currículo acadêmico de gestores de fauna capacitados a manejar populações, já que, com a proibição, esse perfil profissional nunca foi considerado uma demanda relevante. O resultado é que a lista de espécies ameaçadas de extinção aumenta a cada nova versão, sendo a caça ilegal uma das principais causas desse processo. O maior país tropical do mundo carece da implantação de uma política abrangente e moderna de gestão de fauna e que seja governada por decisões de cunho técnico-científico e estratégico, ao invés da lógica "tudo é proibido", que prevalece até hoje. Os objetivos deste artigo de opinião são estimular uma reflexão sobre a situação da caça no Brasil e apontar a necessidade de um sistema de gestão de fauna mais efetivo. Palavras-chave: Caça; legislação; gestão de fauna.
Data
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Plant families with fleshy-fruited species likely or possibly dispersed by birds. First column lists families alphabetically within the four larger groups. Second column lists percentage of genera and species (separated by /) in the family that are documented or possibly dispersed by birds (* > 50%, ** > 90%). Genera columns list the number of genera with at least one species documented to be eaten (and presumably dispersed) by birds and number of genera with characteristics similar to other documented species and thus possibly dispersed by birds. Last column lists number of species within the documented and possible genera that could be dispersed by birds.
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The Atlantic Forest, a biodiversity hotspot, is the second largest tropical rainforest in South America. It harbors the greatest number of threatened and endemic bird species in Brazil. Serra de Paranapiacaba is one of the best-preserved and largest forest remnants, inserted within the Serra do Mar massif. Despite its undoubted importance for bird conservation, ornithological knowledge in the region is still scattered across different studies. The aim of this article is to report bird species richness in the Serra de Paranapiacaba and to compare it with 19 other well-preserved and well-sampled Atlantic Forest localities via multivariate analysis to synthesize ornithological knowledge in the region. We compiled bird records from the literature and provide our own records based on surveys and non-systematic observations at three localities between 2010 and 2017. We performed a Hierarchical Cluster and a Principal Coordinate analysis with bird communities to infer avifauna affnities of Serra de Paranapiacaba and other Atlantic Forest regions with different vegetation types. Overall, we compiled records for 479 species, 144 of which are endemic to Atlantic Forest and 15 which are threatened at global level. The Serra de Paranapiacaba bird community is more similar to that of localities where vegetation is montane ombrophilous dense forest and mixed ombrophilous forest and, to a lesser extent, to semi-deciduous and restinga forest. Our study corroborates a division of southern and northern counterparts of some bird species along Serra do Mar as proposed by other authors. We suggest the Guapiara Plateau and Paranapiacaba Ridge, in São Paulo state, as barriers of these assemblages. Finally, we confirm the importance of the region for the conservation of Atlantic Forest birds and updated the data used to classify it as an Important Bird Area (IBA).
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The diet of the Marail guan was studied in a pristine lowland rainforest along the Arataye River, French Guiana. This guan preys only occasionally upon insects or other invertebrates and feeds almost exclusively on fruits the seeds of which it disseminates. It looks for fruits both in the canopy and in the understorey. Most ingested fruits are black or yellow, soft-skinned, thick fleshy or with a juicy soft pulp, and <30 mm wide. They are mostly drupes or berries which enclose 1-4 seeds <15 mm wide and protected within a very hard envelope. They belong to high standing crop plants that are frequent to abundant in the forest. Four plant species account for 75% of its diet (two of them representing 60%) which includes 23 plant species. -from English summary
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The diet of the Scaly-headed Parrot (Pionus maximiliani) was studied during three consecutive years in a 250 ha semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil. The parrots showed a generalist and seasonal diet. Seeds composed 70.4 percent of the diet of parrots, followed by flowers (20.3%), corn from plantations that surround the forest (7.7%) and fruit pulp (1.6%). In the dry season flowers constituted 38 percent of the diet and leguminous fruits comprised 41.2 percent of its diet. Parrots are important predispersal seed predators and have a high impact on the fitness of plants in semideciduous forests, due to their high consumption of seeds and flowers.
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Several tropical forest legume species producing hard and brightly-colored seeds, which apparently evolved as mimics of fleshy fruit and arillate-seed models, have been presumed to be dispersed by avian frugivores through non-mutualistic interactions involving sensorial deception. Here we examine the interactions between a typical so-called "mimetic seed" species and its potential dispersers in an Amazonian forest site, and propose that such interactions are best interpreted as mutualistic. Ormosia lignivalvis (Leguminosae: Papilionaceae) is a relatively rare but widespread canopy tree producing naked seeds with a conspicuous, bicolored (scarlet and black) hard seed coat, containing no nutrient rewards to its putative dispersers. Mature seeds are gradually released from dehiscent pods in a piecemeal fashion, during an extended fruiting period of up to 8 months, but may be retained by persistent funicles throughout the year. Intact Ormosia seeds were found in stomach contents of large-bodied terrestrial birds - including one tinamou, one trumpeter, and two cracid species - which appear to be the main dispersers. On the other hand, a total of 185 h of vigils of 5 fruiting tree crowns failed to result in any observed cases of seed removal by arboreal frugivores. Laboratory measurements of seed resistance, elasticity, and hardness showed that Ormosia seeds are extremely hard, and could, therefore, aid in the mechanical breakdown of softer seeds which make up a large proportion of the diet of these terrestrial granivores. We argue that the hard, non-elastic O. lignivalvis seeds, and perhaps a number of other so-called mimetic-seed species, can function as similarly shaped and sized mineral grit universally swallowed by large gallinaceous birds, in that they help to crush and grind the mostly pliable seeds digested by their dispersers. This interaction is thus best described as a mutualism in that (1) Ormosia germination is greatly enhanced by the abrasive gut treatment of avian granivores, and (2) such birds would otherwise find no adequate gizzard grit substitutes in environments conspicuously lacking small pebbles, such as the lowland rainforests of sedimentary river basins of Amazonia.
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Behavior of Horned Guam (Oreophasis derbianu~) in the El Triunfo Bio-sphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico, from February to May in 1982 and 1983, including preen-ing, dustbathing and foraging behavior during the breeding season, is described. Horned Guam devote most of their daytime activity to preening and comfort behavior. To dustbathe, they use treefall gaps and only bathe once a day. Dustbathing seems to be an important factor during courtship. Horned Guans are mainly arboreal and consume mostly fruits and green leaves. Received 13 April 1993, accepted I Sept. 1993. Most populations of the Horned Guan (Oreophasis derbianus) are im-periled as a result of intense hunting and rapid destruction of the cloud forest in the species' restricted geographical range in southern Mexico and Guatemala (Collar et al. 1992). Behavioral and ecological information about the Horned Guan, however, is scanty. A few studies deal with the taxonomy and distribution of this species (e.g.,. However, there is little field information concerning its behavior and natural history (see Andrle 1967; Gonzalez-Garcia 1984, 1988). Here I provide detailed observations on preening, dustbathing, for-aging, and other behaviors of Horned Guans in the Sierra Madre de Chia-pas during the breeding season.
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Large frugivorous forest birds are among the most endangered avian groups in the Neotropics. Despite this fact, there has been little field work on members of these groups or on other large Neotropical forest birds. While current studies of Neotropical forests are beginning to provide data for reserve management at the ecosystem level, we lack information for management of particular species or habitats. Throughout Latin America, large forest frugivores are economically important as food, as pets or in local crafts. They can also be important seed dispersers and can be used as indicator species of habitat disturbance in protected areas. The conservation status of these birds demands more attention and commitment from conservation organizations and the scientific community in general. Further field research should focus on the basic ecology and natural history of endangered and non-endangered species. These studies will aid in developing badly needed long-term management and monitoring plans both for populations of large forest frugivores and their habitats.
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The avifauna of a pristine lowland Atlantic forest in south-east Brazil was studied over 2 years. A total of 234 species was recorded, of which 190 species (81.54%) occured in forested habitats. Thirty one species are listed as threatened or near-threatened and information on habitat and abundance is described for each species. The Parque Estadual Intervales holds one of the last pristine lowland Atlantic forests and it is one of the few reserves that encompasses a large altitudinal gradient. In the past few years the protection of the reserve has been threatened by palm harvesting, hunting, dams and mining. A avifauna de uma regiao de Mata Atlântica de baixada no sudeste do estado de São Paulo foi estudada por um periodo continuo de 2 anos. Foram observados um total de 234 espécies de aves sendo que 190 espécies (81,54%) ocorreram predominantemente em ambientes florestais primários e perrubados. Trinta e uma espécies São consideradas ameaçadas ou vulneráveis e informações sobre hábitat e abundância são fornecidas. Nos últimos anos a proteção da reserva está ameaçada pelo corte do palmito, caça, construções de hidroéletricas e mineração.
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From June through December, data were collected on the diet and ranging patterns of moustached (Saguinus mystax) and saddle-back (Saguinus fuscicollis) tamarin monkeys in the Amazon Basin of northeastern Peru. During this 7-month period, insects and nonleguminous fruits accounted for 83% of tamarin feeding and foraging time. Despite marked seasonal variation in rainfall and forest productivity, patterns of habitat utilization, day range, dietary diversity, resource exploitation, and activity budget remained relatively stable throughout the year. Moustached and saddle-back tamarins appear to solve problems of food acquisition and exploit patchily distributed feeding sites using a relatively limited set of foraging patterns. In general, these primates concentrate their daily feeding efforts on several trees from a small number of target plant species. These feeding sites are uncommon, produce only a small amount of ripe fruit each day, and are characterized by a high degree of intraspecific fruiting and flowering synchrony. Trees of the same species are frequently visited in succession, and individual feeding sites are revisited several times over the course of 1–2 weeks. This type of foraging pattern occurred during both dry and wet seasons and when exploiting fruit, nectar, legume, and exudate resources. Seasonal variation in the percentage of feeding and foraging time devoted to insectivory was also limited. In this investigation, there was no consistent evidence that temporal changes in overall forest fruit production had a major impact on the feeding, foraging, or ranging behavior of either tamarin species.
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To help fill the gap in detailed knowledge of avian community structure in tropical forests, we undertook a census of a 97-ha plot of floodplain forest in Amazonian Peru. The plot was censused over a 3-mo period spanning the 1982 breeding season. The cooperative venture entailed @?12 person-months of effort. Conventional spot-mapping was the principal method used, but several additional methods were required to estimate the numbers of non-territorial and group-living species: direct counts of the members of mixed flocks, saturation mist-netting of the entire plot, opportunistic visual registrations at fruiting trees, determination of the average size of parrot flocks, color banding of colonial icterids, etc. Two hundred forty-five resident species were found to hold territories on the plot, or to occupy all or part of it. Seventy-four additional species were detected as occasional-to-frequent visitors, wanderers from other habitats, or as migrants from both hemispheres. By superimposing territory maps or the areas of occupancy of individual species, we determined that point (alpha) diversities exceeded 160 species in portions of the plot. About 1910 individual birds nested in 100 ha of this floodplain forest, making up a biomass conservatively estimated at 190 kg/km^2. The total number of breeding birds was equivalent to that in many temperate forests, but the biomass was about five times as great. Predominantly terrestrial granivores contributed the largest component of the biomass (39%), followed by largely arboreal frugivores (22%). Considering only insectivores, the biomass (34 kg/km^2) is somewhat less than that in the forest at Hubbard Brook, New Hampshire (40 kg/km^2), although it is greater (55 kg/km^2) if one includes omnivores. The number of insectivores was considerably less than at Hubbard Brook, due to their 60% larger average body size (32 vs. 20 g). Even though a large majority of the species were patchily distributed, the 97-ha plot was found to include 99% of the bird species that regularly occupy mature floodplain forest at Cocha Cashu. The most abundant species occupied territories of 4-5 ha, and 84 species (26%) had population densities of @<1 pair per square kilometre. Of these, 33 (10% of the total community) were judged to be constitutively rare (i.e., having low population densities everywhere), rather than being merely locally rare. Many of these are predicted to be vulnerable to forest fragmentation and disturbance. Comparison of these results with those from other tropical forests proved difficult due to a lack of standardized methodology.
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Chaco Chachalacas (Ortalis canicollis) in the semi-arid Chaco forest region of northern Argentina fed mainly on herbaceous leaves (37% of the dry mass of its diet) and fleshy fruits (25%). Leaves and fruit were consumed year round. The rest of the diet consisted of caterpillars and flowers. The Chaco Chachalaca consumed all the fruit species available to it during this study period. Fruits most frequently eaten were: (1) fruit thickly bunched on the plant with long availability, even though of lower quality and (2) fruit of good quality (judged by pulp and total solids content). Low quality fruits not clumped together were less used in spite of their abundance in the forest. Received 24 Feb. 1993, accepted I Mar. 1994. Guans (Penelope) and chachalacas (Ortalis) feed on leaves and fruit and probably are seed dispersers (Delacour and Amadon 1973, Terborgh 1986, Strahl and Grajal 1991). Marion (1976) found that fleshy fruit makes up approximately half of the diet of the Plain Chachalaca (0. vetula), a species also described as herbivorous-frugivorous by Christian-sen (1978). Similarly, the Crested Guan (P. purpurascens) is one of the dispersers of wild nutmeg (Virola surinamensis), whose seeds it regur-gitates (Howe and Vande Kerckhove 1980). In the forests of Northwest Argentina (El Rey National Park), the Dusky-legged Guan (P. obscuru) feeds on various species of fleshy fruit in both summer and autumn (Brown 1986). The Chaco Chachalaca (0. canicollis) inhabits the thorny Chaco forest of Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina where it is relatively abundant. There are no previous records of its feeding habits. In the woodlands of the western Argentine Chaco forest, the fruit supply is markedly seasonal and is most concentrated in the wet spring-summer season (Protomastro 1988). Winter is a time of shortage, both of water and of fruit and insects. The Chaco Chachalaca is the only fruit-dispersing bird living in the Chaco woodland throughout the year, Its diet is comprised mainly of plant leaves and fleshy fruits. Seeds pass through its digestive system intact and are probably viable at dispersion.
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In a lightly populated area of W Brazilian Amazonia, habitats surveyed were unlogged forest, selectively logged forest, "capoeira' (scrub regenerating on cleared land), cropfields, and an isolated 35 ha forest "island'. Many bird species occurred in all or most habitats, although the similarity of the species assemblages dropped with increasing levels of disturbance of the natural vegetation. Certain understorey insectivores common in unlogged forest were rarely observed in other habitats; disturbed areas contained higher numbers of flycatching insectivores or birds feeding on both insects and fruit, some of which were open-country rather than forest species. The avifauna of the forest island was more similar to that of regenerating scrub than to that of tall forest; the persistence of forest species was attributed to their ability to move to and from nearby continuous forest areas. -from Author
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A 100-ha quadrat of primary rainforest in French Guiana was ccnsused over two consecutive years by the mapping method, and a 24-ha core area was intensively mistnetted at the same time. More extensive surveys were conducted in successively larger areas including up to a large part of the forested interior of the country. From a total of 441 resident species found in the rainforest zone, 248 were regularly recorded within the 100-ha plot, 157 of which had mean densities of more than 1 pair km ⁻² . The total estimated density of birds was at least 829 pairs km ⁻² . Only two dominant species exceeded 20 pairs km ⁻² , while 52% of all the species were represented by less than 2 pairs km ⁻² . The distribution of body masses and niche characteristics among the bird community is given as well as the sample bias of the mistnet captures. Rare species were a key component of this primary rainforest community. Several patterns of rarity were described and no marked and constant relationships were found between rarity and body size, habitat, diet, foraging behaviour or social system. Among a wide set of environmental constraints, the population of each species may be limited by a different combination of factors. Habitat heterogeneity, low, irregular and seasonal food availability, interspecific competition or heavy predation pressure were prominent and likely causes of the low density of most species which in turn facilitated the high species richness.
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As habitat loss continues, natural protected areas will become islands in human-modified landscapes; maintenance of functional communities and ecosystems will depend on properly designed protected areas. We demonstrate that incorporating regional habitat linkages that allow for seasonal migrations of intratropical resident species must be a major design criterion for establishing protected areas. Using radiotelemetry, we monitored the seasonal movements of one such migrant, the Resplendent Quetzal (Pharomachrus mocinno), a large, frugivorous bird, one of many tropical residents known to migrate altitudinally within Mesoamerica. Based on three years of data we determined that quetzals followed a complicated local migration that linked four montane life zones. Using this species as an indicator revealed that the configuration of the Monteverde reserve complex in the Tilaran Mountains in west-central Costa Rica lacked sufficient habitat distribution to conserve montane biodiversity. On the basis of these results, we propose that the three-step process proposed by Soulé and Simberloff (1986) for estimating minimum sizes of reserves be amended to include a fourth step: The critical habitats used throughout the annual cycles of target or keystone species must be identified and adequately protected. Natural protected areas can be considered adequately designed only when sufficient area with a full complement of ecologically linked habitats is included.
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Disperser effectiveness is the contribution a disperser makes to the future reproduction of a plant. Although it is a key notion in studies of seed dispersal by animals, we know little about what determines the effectiveness of a disperser. The role of the present paper is to review the available information and construct a hierarchical framework for viewing the components of disperser effectiveness.Effectiveness has both quantitative and qualitative components. The quantity of seed dispersal depends on (A) the number of visits made to the plant by a disperser and (B) the number of seeds dispersed per visit. The quality of seed dispersal depends on (A) the quality of treatment given a seed in the mouth and in the gut and (B) the quality of seed deposition as determined by the probability that a deposited seed will survive and become an adult. In this paper I review the ways disperser behavior, morphology and physiology can influence these major components of disperser effectiveness, and when data permit present preliminary analyses of relationships among components.
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The Brazilian Atlantic forest constitutes a unique biome characterised by a high species diversity and a high level of endemism. A long history of land clearing for crops, pastures, timber and firewood has resulted in over two centuries of widespread destruction. Today, less than 6·8% of the total area of the Atlantic forest of Minas Gerais has any form of forest cover and forests in primaeval state are not far from becoming extinct. The remaining forest patches are small, isolated and unprotected. In order to preserve some of the original diversity of the Atlantic forest, urgent efforts must be channelled toward protecting the remaining forest fragments.
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Lipid decomposition studies in frozen fish have led to the development of a simple and rapid method for the extraction and purification of lipids from biological materials. The entire procedure can be carried out in approximately 10 minutes; it is efficient, reproducible, and free from deleterious manipulations. The wet tissue is homogenized with a mixture of chloroform and methanol in such proportions that a miscible system is formed with the water in the tissue. Dilution with chloroform and water separates the homogenate into two layers, the chloroform layer containing all the lipids and the methanolic layer containing all the non-lipids. A purified lipid extract is obtained merely by isolating the chloroform layer. The method has been applied to fish muscle and may easily be adapted to use with other tissues.Lipid decomposition studies in frozen fish have led to the development of a simple and rapid method for the extraction and purification of lipids from biological materials. The entire procedure can be carried out in approximately 10 minutes; it is efficient, reproducible, and free from deleterious manipulations. The wet tissue is homogenized with a mixture of chloroform and methanol in such proportions that a miscible system is formed with the water in the tissue. Dilution with chloroform and water separates the homogenate into two layers, the chloroform layer containing all the lipids and the methanolic layer containing all the non-lipids. A purified lipid extract is obtained merely by isolating the chloroform layer. The method has been applied to fish muscle and may easily be adapted to use with other tissues.
Human impact on popula-tions of chachalacas, guans, and curassows (Galliformes, Cracidae) in Venezuela In Neotropical wildlife: use and con-servation
  • J L Silva
  • S D Strahl
Silva, J. L. and Strahl, S. D. (1991) Human impact on popula-tions of chachalacas, guans, and curassows (Galliformes, Cracidae) in Venezuela. In Neotropical wildlife: use and con-servation, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, pp. 36-52. SOS Mata Atlfintica and INPE (1992) Atlas da evolucdo dos remanescentes florestais e ecosistemas associados do dommio da Mata Atldntica no periodo de 1985-1990. Fundaq~o SOS Mata Atlfintica, S~o Pauio.
Esti-mas de las densidades poblacionales de especies de aves y mamiferos forestales de medio y gran tamanho
  • S Mafiosa
  • J Gonzfilez-Solis
  • J C Guix
Mafiosa, S., Gonzfilez-Solis, J., Guix, J. C. et al. (1995) Esti-mas de las densidades poblacionales de especies de aves y mamiferos forestales de medio y gran tamanho. In Memoria de resultados del segundo viaje de reconocimiento cientifico a regiones poco conocidas del Parque Estadual lntervales, Estado de Sdo Paulo, BrasiL ed. Mateos y S. Mafiosa, pp. 13-34. Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (microfilmed).
Key areas for threatened birds in the neotropics
  • Wege
Wege, D. C. and Long, A. J. (1995) Key areas for threatened birds in the neotropics. Birdlife Conservation Series, No 5. Cambridge.
Threatened birds of the Birds to watch 2. Birdlife Conservation Series The anual cycle of plants, mosquitos, birds and mammals in two Brazilian forests
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Collar, N. J., Gonzaga, L. P., Krabbe, N., Madrofio-Nieto, A., Naranjo, L. G., Parker, T. A. and Wege, D. C. (1992) Threatened birds of the Americas. ICBP, Cambridge. Collar, N. J., Crosby, M. J. and Stattersfield, A. J. (1994) Birds to watch 2. Birdlife Conservation Series, No 4. Cambridge. Davis, D. E. (1945) The anual cycle of plants, mosquitos, birds and mammals in two Brazilian forests. Ecol. Monogr. 15, 243-295.
La mrthode des indices ponctuales d'abondance (I.P.A.) ou des relev~s d'avifaune par 'stations d'~coute'
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Blondel, J., Ferry, C. and Frochot, B. (1970) La mrthode des indices ponctuales d'abondance (I.P.A.) ou des relev~s d'avifaune par 'stations d'~coute'. Alauda 38, 55-71.
Official methods of analysis, 12th edn. Asso-ciation of Official Analytical Chemists
  • W Horwitz
Horwitz, W. (1975) Official methods of analysis, 12th edn. Asso-ciation of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
Observa~6es sobre Pipile jacutinga Spix 1825 (Aves, Cracidae) no Parque Estadual de Carlos Botelho
  • S G Pacagnella
  • Antonelli Filho
  • R Lara
  • A I Scherer-Neto
Pacagnella, S. G., Antonelli Filho, R., Lara, A. I. and Scherer-Neto, P. (1994) Observa~6es sobre Pipile jacutinga Spix 1825 (Aves, Cracidae) no Parque Estadual de Carlos Botelho, S~o Paulo, Brasil. lheringia 76, 29-32.
(in press) Conservation of the avi-fauna in a lowland Atlantic forest in south-east Brazil. Bird Conserv. Intern. Almeida-Scabbia, R. (1996) Fitosociologia de um trecho de Mata Atlfintica no sudeste do Brasil
  • A Aleixo
  • M Galetti
Aleixo, A. and Galetti, M. (in press) Conservation of the avi-fauna in a lowland Atlantic forest in south-east Brazil. Bird Conserv. Intern. Almeida-Scabbia, R. (1996) Fitosociologia de um trecho de Mata Atlfintica no sudeste do Brasil. MSc thesis, UNESP, Rio Claro.
Algumas considerações sobre a proteção a natureza no Brasil e sobre a fauna da reserva florestal do alto da Serra de Paranapiacaba
  • Luederwaldt
Luederwaldt, H. (1929) Algumas considera~6es sobre a prote~o a natureza no Brasil e sobre a fauna da reserva florestal do alto da Serra de Paranapiaca.ba. Rev. Museu Paulista. 16, 1-11.
Fruits and Frugivores in a Brazilian Atlantic forest
  • Galetti
Galetti, M. (1996) Fruits and Frugivores in a Brazilian Atlantic forest. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.
Curassows and related birds American Museum of Natural History Handbook of the birds of the world
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Delacour, J. and Amadon, D. (1973) Curassows and related birds. American Museum of Natural History, New York. del Hoyo, J., Elliot, A. and Gardatal, J. (1994) Handbook of the birds of the world, Vol. 2. New Worm vultures to Gui-neafowl. Lynx, Barcelona.
Some observations of black-fronted piping guan in Misiones Province
  • P Benstead
  • R Hearn
Benstead, P. and Hearn, R. (1994) Some observations of black-fronted piping guan in Misiones Province, Argentina. WPA News 46, 17-18.
Notes on endangered Brazilian cracidae
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Teixeira, D. M. and Antas, P. T. Z. (1981) Notes on endan-gered Brazilian cracidae. In Primer Simposio International de la Familia Cracidae. Universidade Nacional Autonoma de M6xico, pp. 176-186.
Observações sobre Pipile jacutinga Spix 1825 (Aves, Cracidae) no Parque Estadual de Carlos Botelho, São Paulo, Brasil
  • Pacagnella
La méthode des indices ponctuales d'abondance (I.P.A.) ou des relevés d'avifaune par ‘stations d'écoute’
  • Blondel
Handbook of the birds of the world, Vol. 2. New World vultures to Guineafowl
  • del Hoyo
Estimas de las densidades poblacionales de especies de aves y mamiferos forestales de medio y gran tamanho
  • Mañosa
Behavior of horned guans in Chiapas, Mexico
  • Gonzales-Garcia
Fitosociologia de um trecho de Mata Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil
  • Almeida-Scabbia
Some observations of black-fronted piping guan in Misiones Province, Argentina
  • Benstead
Implication of intratropical migration on reserve design
  • Powell
Quantity, quality, and the effectiveness of seed dispersal by animals
  • Schupp