Snacks consumption in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3–17 years
To describe the status of snacks consumption, the characteristics, and the contribution to their diet and nutrients intake in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years.
Chinese health and nutritional survey (1991-2004), Chinese National nutrition and health survey (2002), and 2007 typical survey on snacks in Chinese residents were used in this report. The incidence of snacks consumption and snacking contribution were calculated by consecutive day 3 dietary recalls of the first 2 surveys. At least 1 snacks intake in 3 days was snacking consumption.
The incidences of snacks consumption in Chinese population at the ages of 3-17 years were increased from 1991 (13.2%) to 2004 (19.3%). There were 35.1% of Chinese children and adolescents consuming snacks, 55.7% in urban and 29.6% in rural. Snacks provided 7.7% of total daily energy, 18.2% of fiber, 17.9% of VC, 9.9% of calcium, 9.7% of VE, 6.9% of iron and 6.3% of zinc. The snacks were mainly consumed in the evening. The main reasons were not nutrition of food but good taste, thirsty or hungry and food advertisement. The location of snacking was mainly at home and school. The snacks came from parents or other family members. They also buy snacks themselves. The consumption of candies and chocolate, jelly more than 4-6 day a week had a certain proportion.
It was important to supervise snacks selection and consumption in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years. The limitations of snacks consumption data perhaps lowed underestimate the effects of snacks to dietary intake.
Available from: Zhihong Wang
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ABSTRACT: This study investigates the dynamic shifts in snacking behaviors and patterns in China. Using four waves (1991, 2004, 2006, and 2009) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), with full socioeconomic and demographic data and 3-day, 24-hour dietary recall data, 45,402 individuals age two and older were studied. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to examine the association of social-demographic factors on snacking behaviors. Results show that snacking prevalence, frequency of daily snacking occasions, and percentage of total daily energy intake (EI) from snacks increased significantly across all ages between 1991 and 2009, with a dramatic increase after 2004. Snacking was much more prevalent among children and higher-income, urban, and educated populations over time. Evening was the preferred snacking occasion, and the proportion of total daily EI from snacks varied between 4.1% and 12.3% for all snackers. Fruits, grains, and beverages were the most popular snacks and the highest contributors to snacking EI over all age groups. A marked transition from a tradition of two or three meals per day toward meals combined with snacks is underway. Further research is needed to develop a better understanding of the nutritional implications of Chinese snacking behaviors.
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing rapidly in China. However, research on its modifiable environmental determinants to inform preventive interventions is limited.
This paper reports a cross-sectional study that aimed to identify family and neighborhood environmental correlates of overweight and related health behavior among Chinese primary school-aged children in urban areas.
Routinely collected height and weight data of third year students (8-10 years) from four primary schools in socioeconomically distinct districts of two southern cities of China was obtained. Using the WHO 2007 reference values, children were categorized into overweight/obese or non-overweight. Parents of the same children completed a questionnaire, comprising mainly validated questions, about family and perceived neighborhood environments, parental physical activity habits, and the child's dietary and physical activity patterns. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between these environmental factors and childhood overweight or whether or not the child engages in at least 1 h daily moderate to vigorous physical activity. Multiple linear regression analysis was undertaken to examine the association between environmental factors and the frequency of consumption of unhealthy snacks, fruit, and vegetables in children.
Data on 497 children were available. Children who were mainly cared for by their grandparents were over twice as likely to be overweight/obese (adjusted OR 2.03; 95 % CI 1.19-3.47) and to have higher consumption of unhealthy snacks and sugar-added drinks (B = 2.13, 95 % CI 0.87-3.40), compared with children who were mainly cared for by their parents or other adult. Children who lived with at least two grandparents in the household were at higher risk for being overweight/obese than children who lived without any grandparent (adjusted OR 1.72; 95 % CI 1.00-2.94). No evidence was found for associations between perceived neighborhood environmental characteristics and child's weight status and obesogenic behaviors in this study.
Children's family environment, particularly the living-in grandparents, should be targeted in future preventive interventions among China's southern urban populations.
Available from: Stefanie Vandevijvere
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ABSTRACT: The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) proposes to collect performance indicators on food policies, actions and environments related to obesity and non-communicable diseases. This paper reviews existing communications strategies used for performance indicators and proposes the approach to be taken for INFORMAS. Twenty-seven scoring and rating tools were identified in various fields of public health including alcohol, tobacco, physical activity, infant feeding and food environments. These were compared based on the types of indicators used and how they were quantified, scoring methods, presentation and the communication and reporting strategies used. There are several implications of these analyses for INFORMAS: the ratings/benchmarking approach is very commonly used, presumably because it is an effective way to communicate progress and stimulate action, although this has not been formally evaluated; the tools used must be trustworthy, pragmatic and policy-relevant; multiple channels of communication will be needed; communications need to be tailored and targeted to decision-makers; data and methods should be freely accessible. The proposed communications strategy for INFORMAS has been built around these lessons to ensure that INFORMAS's outputs have the greatest chance of being used to improve food environments.
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