Novakovic B, Sibson M, Ng HK, et al. Placenta-specific methylation of the vitamin D 24-hydroxylase gene: implications for feedback autoregulation of active vitamin D levels at the fetomaternal interface

Developmental Epigenetics, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, and Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 03/2009; 284(22):14838-48. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M809542200
Source: PubMed


Plasma concentrations of biologically active vitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D) are tightly controlled via feedback regulation of renal 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1; positive) and 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1; catabolic) enzymes. In pregnancy, this regulation is uncoupled, and 1,25-(OH)2D levels are significantly elevated, suggesting a role in pregnancy progression. Epigenetic regulation of CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 has previously been described in cell and animal models, and despite emerging evidence for a critical role of epigenetics
in placentation generally, little is known about the regulation of enzymes modulating vitamin D homeostasis at the fetomaternal
interface. In this study, we investigated the methylation status of genes regulating vitamin D bioavailability and activity
in the placenta. No methylation of the VDR (vitamin D receptor) and CYP27B1 genes was found in any placental tissues. In contrast, the CYP24A1 gene is methylated in human placenta, purified cytotrophoblasts, and primary and cultured chorionic villus sampling tissue.
No methylation was detected in any somatic human tissue tested. Methylation was also evident in marmoset and mouse placental
tissue. All three genes were hypermethylated in choriocarcinoma cell lines, highlighting the role of vitamin D deregulation
in this cancer. Gene expression analysis confirmed a reduced capacity for CYP24A1 induction with promoter methylation in primary cells and in vitro reporter analysis demonstrated that promoter methylation directly down-regulates basal promoter activity and abolishes vitamin
D-mediated feedback activation. This study strongly suggests that epigenetic decoupling of vitamin D feedback catabolism plays
an important role in maximizing active vitamin D bioavailability at the fetomaternal interface.

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    • "During pregnancy, maternal 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D levels are elevated [8]. It has been suggested that the physiological feedback regulation is uncoupled during pregnancy due to placenta-specific methylation of the promoter region of the 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1), to allow for an increase in 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D levels during the period of fetal development [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder in pregnancy develops in 2–8% of pregnancies worldwide. Winter season and vitamin D deficiency have been associated with its onset.ObjectiveTo investigate the influence of season on maternal vitamin D status and placental vitamin D metabolism.Methods25-OH vitamin D and 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D were measured in maternal serum obtained during the winter or summer months from 63 pregnant women at delivery (43 healthy, 20 preeclampsia). In a subgroup, mRNA expression of CYP24A1 (24-hydroxylase), CYP27B1 (1α-hydroxylase) and VDR (vitamin D receptor) were quantified by real time PCR in placental samples of 14 women with normal pregnancies and 13 with preeclampsia.ResultsIn patients with preeclampsia,25-OH vitamin D levels were lower, but differed significantly from controls only in summer (18.21±17.1 vs 49.2±29.2 ng/mL, P<0.001), whereas 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D levels were significantly lower only in winter (291±217 vs 612.3±455 pmol/mL, P<0.05). A two-factorial analysis of variance produced a statistically significant model (P<0.0001) with an effect of season (P<0.01) and preeclampsia (P = 0.01) on maternal 25-OH vitamin D levels, as well as a significant interaction between the two variables (P = 0.02). Placental gene expression of CYP24A1, CYP27B1, and VDR did not differ between groups or seasons. A negative correlation between placental gene expression of CYP24A1 and CYP27B1 was observed only in healthy controls (r = −0.81, P<0.0001).SummaryPatients with preeclampsia displayed lower vitamin D serum levels in response to seasonal changes.The regulation of placental CYP24A1, but not of the VDR or CYP27B1 might be altered in preeclampsia.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "In healthy kidney, skeletal muscle, whole blood, brain, skin fibroblasts, and sperm the CYP24A1 promoter is not methylated (Novakovic et al., 2009), although the expression levels are highly variable. In peripheral blood lymphocytes methylation of CYP24A1 was low (5%) (Wjst et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Epigenetic mechanisms play a crucial role in regulating gene expression. The main mechanisms involve methylation of DNA and covalent modifications of histones by methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, or ubiquitination. The complex interplay of different epigenetic mechanisms is mediated by enzymes acting in the nucleus. Modifications in DNA methylation are performed mainly by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins, while a plethora of enzymes, such as histone acetyltransferases (HATs), histone deacetylases (HDACs), histone methyltransferases (HMTs), and histone demethylases (HDMs) regulate covalent histone modifications. In many diseases, such as cancer, the epigenetic regulatory system is often disturbed. Vitamin D interacts with the epigenome on multiple levels. Firstly, critical genes in the vitamin D signaling system, such as those coding for vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the enzymes 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1), 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), and 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) have large CpG islands in their promoter regions and therefore can be silenced by DNA methylation. Secondly, VDR protein physically interacts with coactivator and corepressor proteins, which in turn are in contact with chromatin modifiers, such as HATs, HDACs, HMTs, and with chromatin remodelers. Thirdly, a number of genes encoding for chromatin modifiers and remodelers, such as HDMs of the Jumonji C (JmjC)-domain containing proteins and lysine-specific demethylase (LSD) families are primary targets of VDR and its ligands. Finally, there is evidence that certain VDR ligands have DNA demethylating effects. In this review we will discuss regulation of the vitamin D system by epigenetic modifications and how vitamin D contributes to the maintenance of the epigenome, and evaluate its impact in health and disease.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Frontiers in Physiology
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    • "Both transcription factors facilitate transcription of cyp24a1, yet they inhibit vitamin D3-induced transcription by preventing the vitamin D3-mediated release of the repressive silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors [29]. In addition, cyp24a1 expression might also be affected by DNA methylation [30]. Despite ample evidence for the transcriptional regulation of cyp24a1, little is known about post-transcriptional mechanisms affecting its expression. "
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid alterations in protein expression are commonly regulated by adjusting translation. In addition to cap-dependent translation, which is e.g. induced by pro-proliferative signaling via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-kinase, alternative modes of translation, such as internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent translation, are often enhanced under stress conditions, even if cap-dependent translation is attenuated. Common stress stimuli comprise nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, but also inflammatory signals supplied by infiltrating immune cells. Yet, the impact of inflammatory microenvironments on translation in tumor cells still remains largely elusive. In the present study, we aimed at identifying translationally deregulated targets in tumor cells under inflammatory conditions. Using polysome profiling and microarray analysis, we identified cyp24a1 (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase) to be translationally upregulated in breast tumor cells co-cultured with conditioned medium of activated monocyte-derived macrophages (CM). Using bicistronic reporter assays, we identified and validated an IRES within the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of cyp24a1, which enhances translation of cyp24a1 upon CM treatment. Furthermore, IRES-dependent translation of cyp24a1 by CM was sensitive to phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition, while constitutive activation of Akt sufficed to induce its IRES activity. Our data provide evidence that cyp24a1 expression is translationally regulated via an IRES element, which is responsive to an inflammatory environment. Considering the negative feedback impact of cyp24a1 on the vitamin D responses, the identification of a novel, translational mechanism of cyp24a1 regulation might open new possibilities to overcome the current limitations of vitamin D as tumor therapeutic option.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · PLoS ONE
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