Article

Thinking lightly about others: Automatic compo-nents of the social inference process

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Three-Stage Model. One such dual-process theory is Gilbert's (1989) three-stage model of dispositional inference. According to this model, dispositional inferences involve three sequential processing steps that are claimed to require different amounts of cognitive resources: (1) behavioral categorization (i.e., what is the actor doing?), (2) dispositional characterization (i.e., what disposition does the behavior imply?), and (3) situational correction (i.e., what situational determinants might have caused the behavior?). ...
... An important extension of Gilbert's (1989) threestage model was proposed by Krull (1993), who merged Gilbert's (1989) assumptions about the effortfulness of situational correction with previous research on judgmental anchoring in dispositional inference (Quattrone, 1982). Deviating from Gilbert's (1989) assumption that social inferences follow a fixed sequence, Krull (1993) argued that the particular sequence of processes depends on the inferential goal of the perceiver. ...
... An important extension of Gilbert's (1989) threestage model was proposed by Krull (1993), who merged Gilbert's (1989) assumptions about the effortfulness of situational correction with previous research on judgmental anchoring in dispositional inference (Quattrone, 1982). Deviating from Gilbert's (1989) assumption that social inferences follow a fixed sequence, Krull (1993) argued that the particular sequence of processes depends on the inferential goal of the perceiver. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Dual-process theories propose that judgments and behavior can be understood as the product of two (sets of) qualitatively distinct processes, one being characterized by features of automatic processing and the other by features of controlled processing. This chapter provides an overview of dual-process theories in social psychology, integrating both historical and conceptual developments. Distinguishing between three broad classes of dual-process theories, the chapter reviews the most influential examples of (1) domain-specific dual-process theories, which focus on particular phenomena, (2) domain-independent dual-system theories, which identify general principles of information processing, and (3) formalized dual-process theories, which quantify the joint contributions of two distinct processes to behavioral responses. The chapter also discusses critical arguments against each type of dual-process theorizing, which are integrated in a general outlook on future directions.
... Even if a narrator or character tells us something about him or herself or about another character, theoretically, we still must decide that this is a true reflection of the target character, and not simply a reflection of the teller"s strategy in telling it (e.g. they claimed someone was something they are not in order to upset them), before we can ascribe that characteristic. Although we should note that in practice readers are more likely to accept characterising statements at face value in the absence of reasons not to do so, as to do otherwise requires more complex processing (Gilbert 1989; see also Jones 1990: 154, for practical and social justifications). Surprisingly, such fundamental issues have escaped the attention of most literary critics and narratologists, with the notable exception of Uri Margolin (particularly 1983) whose work echoes some of the points I will be making here. ...
... This ties in with what Heider (1958: 54) noted as the tendency of behaviour to be more salient in context: "it tends to engulf the field rather than be confined to its proper position as a local stimulus whose interpretation requires the additional data of the surrounding field -the situation in social perception". Also, it has been noted that the act and actor are more automatically seen as a causal unit and that taking account of situational factors seems to require a more complex kind of processing (Gilbert 1989). Gerrig & Allbritton (1990: 382f.) have used the fundamental attribution error to explain why a predictable plot, such as that of the James Bond books, does not destroy the reader"s interest in the outcomes of events: [...] the illusion that even the most formulaic outcomes are brought about -afresh -by the internal properties of characters [...] readers are so solidly predisposed to find the causes of events in the characters rather than in the circumstances that reflection upon the "formula" plays no role in their immediate experience of the novel: when events can be explained satisfactorily with recourse to dispositions, we have no reason to look elsewhere. ...
... The congruency theory Tushman 1980, 1988) and the two-stage model of behavioural attribution (Gilbert 1989) have long suggested that people tend to have more favourable response to messages consistent with their expectations or prior beliefs than messages that are inconsistent. Literature on CSR has also consistently shown that incongruency, or low fit, between a company and a social cause that the company supports tends to degrade consumer evaluation of corporate motives (Elving 2013;Yoon, G€ urhan-Canli, and Schwarz 2006), which harms CSR message credibility. ...
... The elaboration process may demand substantial cognitive effort and require changes be made to their previous perception. This fosters skepticism toward the CSR motives, which in turn negatively impacts message credibility and company evaluation (Campbell and Kirmani 2000;Gilbert 1989;Kim, Sung, and Lee 2012;White and Willness 2009). ...
Article
Two experimental studies were carried out to investigate the effect of company size and cause proximity on consumer response to CSR initiatives. Findings from Study 1 demonstrated that, for a large company, the national cause led to more favourable attitudes toward the ad and the company, and a more socially responsible corporate image than the local cause. By comparison, for a small company, the local cause produced more positive attitudes toward the ad and the company, and a more socially conscious corporate image than the national cause. Further delving into the cognitive mechanism of this fit effect, Study 2 investigated the mediating role of message credibility and explored how the mediation varied with consumers’ level of cause involvement. A series of moderated mediation analyses showed that when company size and cause proximity were congruent, participants displayed higher message credibility, which led to more favourable attitudes toward the ad and the company and a better corporate image than in an incongruent condition. This research suggests that company size does matter in consumer response to CSR engagement and offers initial explanations for it. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.
... From a social cognition perspective, it is also possible that individuals possess a cognitive prototype of the characteristics of an individual who is HIV positive (e.g., Perloff, 1987;Van der Pligt et al., 1993) and, to the extent that a potential partner is dissimilar, that partner will be judged to be HIV negative. Furthermore, upon initial acquaintance with a potential sexual partner, it is possible that a two-stage decision process of characterization and correction (e.g., Gilbert, 1989) takes place. In such a process, a perceiver makes a relatively automatic, instant inference about another person (e.g., that the person is attractive, has desirable traits, and therefore is not HIV positive) and then, under some circumstances, undertakes a comparatively cognitively effortful process of situational correction (e.g., recalling and taking into account the fact that appearance and interpersonal style are generally not diagnostic of HIV status). ...
... In such a process, a perceiver makes a relatively automatic, instant inference about another person (e.g., that the person is attractive, has desirable traits, and therefore is not HIV positive) and then, under some circumstances, undertakes a comparatively cognitively effortful process of situational correction (e.g., recalling and taking into account the fact that appearance and interpersonal style are generally not diagnostic of HIV status). Gilbert (1989) has shown that perceivers who are cognitively busy because of, for example, interaction demands, frequently make an initial "snap judgment" based on superficial characteristics of the other person, and do not subsequently correct that decision. In the case of HIV prevention, an individual who meets an attractive potential partner may quickly decide that he or she is unlikely to be HIV positive based on external characteristics that are not actually diagnostic of HIV status; such a person may not stop to consider that this decision is based on information that is not actually diagnostic of the partner's HIV risk. ...
Article
Background: Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) continue to be the group most heavily impacted by HIV in the United States. Substantial evidence indicates that up to two-thirds of new HIV infections occur in the context of a main partnership. Couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) has been shown to be a promising and effective strategy for increasing HIV prevention uptake among male couples; however, YMSM who are new to relationships may not have yet developed the efficacy, negotiation, and communication skills to navigate HIV testing in their relationship and communicate around developing a prevention plan. Objective: This study aims to develop and test a relationship skills-focused HIV prevention intervention for YMSM and their partners. The intervention consists of two telehealth-delivered sessions: the first focuses on relationship skills and the second consists of CHTC and prevention planning. Both sessions are attended by both members of the dyad. Methods: This protocol describes the development of the proposed intervention (We Prevent) and pilot test to examine its feasibility and preliminary efficacy. The intervention will include two motivational interviewing-based sessions: session one is a relationship skills-building session, focused on techniques to explore and build communication skills in a relationship, to help YMSM develop and enhance necessary skills for their current and future relationships; the second session is a CHTC session with YMSM and their partners, to help them develop an HIV prevention plan. Through qualitative data collection and a one-arm pilot with YMSM, we will develop and refine a developmentally appropriate relationship skills session as an addition to the current CHTC intervention. We will then conduct a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT), comparing the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary efficacy of the adapted two-session telehealth intervention for YMSM versus a control group receiving one session only-a CHTC session delivered via telehealth. Results: The We Prevent intervention is designed to increase uptake of HIV prevention, shown through self-reported reductions in condomless sex and increases in knowledge and uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis. In addition, the intervention is designed to increase HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. STI incidence is examined as a secondary outcome. A cost-input analysis will examine the costs associated with intervention delivery to inform future scale-up of the intervention. Conclusions: Drawing on theory and existing CHTC protocols delivered with video-based counseling, this proposed intervention affords the opportunity to empower YMSM with the skills necessary to communicate with their partners and protect themselves from HIV in their current and future relationships. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03551938; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03551938 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/73omJCz1a). International registered report identifier (irrid): RR1-10.2196/10370.
... If the use of the height heuristic is a controlled decision, then increasing motivation to make an accurate judgment should reduce the bias and increasing cognitive load should increase the bias. Conversely, if it is automatic, the bias should be robust and less likely to be moderated by ability or motivation manipulations, particularly if height forms the initial input for a volume judgment (e.g., Gilbert 1989). On the basis of prior research that has demonstrated that the use of salient visual cues to make a spatial judgment has an automatic aspect (Raghubir and Krishna 1996), we expect the elongation effect to be robust to motivation and ability manipulations. ...
... A similar anchor and adjust process has been suggested to apply to distance perception (Raghubir and Krishna 1996) and numerosity estimates (Krishna and Raghubir 1997). Similar to Gilbert, Pelham, and Krull (1988), we also propose that the initial anchor may be an automatic input with subsequent adjustment a more controlled process (Raghubir and Krishna 1996). ...
Article
Given the number of volume judgments made by consumers, for example, deciding which package is larger and by how much, it is surprising that little research pertaining to volume perceptions has been done in marketing. In this article, the authors examine the interplay of expectations based on perceptual inputs versus experiences based on sensory input in the context of volume perceptions. Specifically, they examine biases in the perception of volume due to container shape. The height of the container emerges as a vital dimension that consumers appear to use as a simplifying visual heuristic to make a volume judgment. However, perceived consumption, contrary to perceived volume, is related inversely to height. This lowered perceived consumption is hypothesized and shown to increase actual consumption. A series of seven laboratory experiments programmatically test model predictions. Results show that perceived volume, perceived consumption, and actual consumption are related sequentially. Furthermore, the authors show that container shape affects preference, choice, and postconsumption satisfaction. The authors discuss theoretical implications for contrast effects when expectancies are disconfirmed, specifically as they relate to biases in visual information processing, and provide managerial implications of the results for package design, communication, and pricing.
... Again, Americans endorsed individual autonomy items whereas 4 Our view is that such beliefs about the world are constructed from implicit theories but are not equivalent with these theories. Theories may exist in the form of attentional schemata or automatized procedures (Duff & Newman, 1997;Gilbert, 1989) rather than as explicit propositional beliefs. In sum, beliefs are just a different way of measuring the theories of interest, not necessarily a more proximal measure. ...
... Concurrent with our work, Choi et al. (1999) have proposed that cultural influences in attribution can be elucidated in terms of the distinction between dispositional inference and situational adjustment. In stage models of the attribution process, dispositional inference is an automatic, heuristic process, whereas situational adjustment is a more deliberate correction of that initial dispositional inference (for a review, see Gilbert, 1989). Integrating findings from person perception studies, Choi et al. (1999) argued that the source of cultural differences lies in the situational adjustment stage. ...
... How a stereotype is applied to an individual and influences impressions is dependent on the categories a person belongs toe.g., trait impressions of trustworthiness for a male will vary by the individuals' race (Black or White) and the associated stereotypes of black and white men (Kunda and Thagard 1996;Kunda, Miller, and Claire 1990), with minorities generally being stereotyped as less trustworthy (Dovidio et al. 2008;Dovidio and Gaertner 1996). Importantly, political psychologists have found that gender and race are two of the four categories that comprise the basis of political trait inferences (Gilbert 1989). 3 Therefore, if local news discusses candidates in terms of race and gender, voters' trait evaluations may be more heavily influenced by the activated race and gender stereotypes. ...
Article
To better understand the role of local news in voters’ opinions of candidates, we ask whether candidate coverage in local news sources readily activates race and gender stereotypes in voters’ opinions of presidential primary candidates? We conduct an original content analysis of local newspaper coverage of Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama during the 2008 presidential primary season. We code 1,849 news articles in 11 battleground and early primary states to evaluate how local news coverage frames issues of race and gender for each candidate. Then we utilize the 2008 Cooperative Campaign Analysis Project (CCAP) to match primary voters with their local news content. We find considerable variation in local news coverage of candidates’ race and gender across states. While local news coverage frames Obama and Clinton in terms of race and gender issues, we find that race is covered more frequently. In addition, we find that as news coverage of gender issues increases, voters are not less likely to characterize Clinton as a strong leader. However, as local news focuses more readily on Obama’s race, voters are less likely to consider him trustworthy. These findings illustrate the power of local news media to activate stereotypes related to race and gender.
... In particular, have noted moral coupling, moral decoupling, and moral rationalization as robust predictors of consumer attitude toward scandalized athletes. Considering moral reasoning strategy is a deliberate and intentional cognitive process (Bhattacharjee et al., 2013;Haidt, 2001;, the findings of the current study add a spontaneous and automatic cognitive process (i.e., attribution: Bargh, 1989Bargh, , 1994Gilbert, 1989) to the literature as a predictor of consumer response toward scandalized athletes. Additionally, the findings suggest that even the same type of athlete scandal could result in a different assessment of the scandalized athlete depending on attribution patterns. ...
Article
The purpose of the current study, drawing on attribution theory, was to investigate consumers' attribution process and its impact on their responses to a scandalized athlete and endorsement. The results of the experiment indicate that the distinctiveness of an athlete scandal prompts external attribution while having a negative impact on internal attribution. Additionally, the consistency of an athlete scandal triggers internal attribution. Moreover, the results show that internal (external) attribution has direct negative (positive) impact on attitude toward the scandalized athlete. Lastly, the results show that consumers' attribution type indirectly determines the consumer responses toward the troubled athlete and endorsement perception. Findings of the current study provide empirical evidence to explain what informational cues consumers utilize when making causal inferences and how such causal inferences subsequently affect the consumer responses. The current study also provides marketing managers with useful implications to make informed decisions in the athlete transgression context.
... Ebenso lassen sich Dual-Process Theorien anhand ihres Bezugsrahmensdomain-spezifisch oder integrativgeneralisiert -differenzieren. Die ersten Dual-Process Theorien fokussierten ein spezifisches Phänomen, wie beispielsweise Persuasion (Chaiken, 1987;Petty & Cacioppo, 1986), das Verhältnis zwischen Einstellung und Verhalten (Fazio, 1990;Wilson, Lindsey, & Schooler, 2000), Vorurteile und Stereotypenbildung (Devine, 1989), Prozesse der Eindrucksbildung über Andere (Brewer, 1988;Fiske & Neuberg, 1990) oder Zuschreibung von Gemütszuständen (Gilbert, 1989;Trope, 1986). Zunächst nur auf ein spezifisches Phänomen angewendet, lassen sich anhand der phänomenspezifischen Dual-Process Theorien generelle Prinzipien ableiten, die übergreifende Gültigkeit haben und in verschiedenen integrativen Modellen zusammengefasst wurden (Epstein, 1994;Kahneman, 2003;Payne, 2008;Sherman et al., 2008;Smith & DeCoster, 2000). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung In ausgewählten Beiträgen werden Käufer- und Konsumentenentscheidungsprozesse anhand verschiedener methodischer, neurowissenschaftlich fundierter Herangehensweisen empirisch untersucht, um die Entscheidungsprozesse umfassend beschreiben, effektiver unterstützen und erfolgreich vorhersagen zu können.
... Actions are a good starting point because they are highly visible. An actor who performs generous prosocial acts communicates to observers that he or she has high moral character, an effect that has been shown empirically (Funder, 2004;Gilbert, 1989). Observing multiple acts over time may help establish a pattern of behavior consistent with higher versus lower moral character (e.g., Wedekind & Milinski, 2000). ...
Article
Indirect reciprocity – the notion that third-party observers offer rewards to prosocial actors – is known to increase levels of cooperative behavior. Yet we know relatively little about how people decide to grant indirect reciprocity. This process is complex because it relies on assessing moral character, which is unobservable. In the current research, we identify a salient cue in the social environment that observers use to calibrate their indirect reciprocity: power differences. Across three experiments, observers were less likely to offer indirect reciprocity to employees who targeted their generosity toward higher- rather than lower-power co-workers. Indirect reciprocity was measured through the allocation of participants’ own financial resources (Experiments 1 and 2), as well as behavioral intentions (Experiment 3). Experiment 3 also showed that this effect is driven by observers’ perceptions of actors’ motives, which inform assessments of moral character.
... In order for an activated association to impact judgments of an object, that association must be attributed to it (Gilbert, 1989). These attributions can be made automatically (as when someone spontaneously attributes automatic negative affect to one's disaffected partner who just entered the room) or in a deliberative fashion (as when someone wonders, "Why am I feeling this way?"). ...
Article
Full-text available
Dual-process models of cognition distinguish relatively automatic from relatively controlled processes in terms of their interactive impact on perception, judgment, and behavior. Such models have advanced explanation and prediction in a variety of domains across psychology but have yet to be comprehensively applied to the pressing societal and public health problem of suicide. We propose a model of suicide that integrates dual-process models of social cognition with ideation-to-action conceptualizations of suicide. The model specifies: (a) suicide-relevant automatic associations involving the self, others, the future, death, and bodily harm, (b) suicide-relevant motives involving the self, interpersonal relations, the future, and the desire to die, and (c) hypotheses regarding the conditions under which automatic associations and motives individually and interactively impact suicidal ideation and lethal action at various stages of an ideation-to-action framework. The model recasts a number of suicide-relevant variables in terms of the opportunity factor of dual-process theories of attitudes, which encompasses capacity-relevant variables (e.g., time, cognitive resources) that determine whether suicide-relevant judgments and behavior are the result of relatively automatic associations or more controlled, deliberative cognition. Accordingly, the model articulates a number of novel predictions regarding the sources of suicide-relevant automatic associations, motives, and opportunity factors, as well as their interactive influences on suicidal ideation and action. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... . Pittman, Quattrone, and Jones (1985; see also Pittman, 1993) predicted that control-deprived subjects would be less likely to show correspondence bias in this paradigm, particularly at higher levels of inferential generality (Cantor, Pittman, & Jones, 1982;Gilbert & Jones, 1986;Gilbert, Jones, and Pelham, 1987), because of the greater effort they would put into an attempt to construct an accurate representation. Given the underlying two-step correction process that has been identified as a major source of this bias (i.e., making the person attribution and then correcting for situational constraints) and the role that effort might play in the correction step (Gilbert, 1989;Gilbert, Pelham, & Krull, 1988;Quattrone, 1982;Trope, 1986a), the correspondence bias seemed a likely candidate for yielding to increased accuracy motivation. The results of the Pittman, Quattrone, and Jones study did show that control-deprived subjects were less likely to show the correspondence bias, particularly at higher levels of inferential generality. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
... To understand this language and use the living body as a channel of knowledge, we should first recover the ability to read our own organismic variations: knowledge experiences that typically do not reach consciousness, due to the primacy of sensory perceptions. considered superior, such as vision and hearing [128][129], but also because of biases, heuristics and other influences of judgment that alter our original perceptions [130][131][132][133][134][135][136][137][138]. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This research is about the information field class of theories and its experimental test with human beings. Chapter 1 gives an overview of biological communication phenomena, mainly within microorganisms, showing how scientific hypothesis evolved from chemical-electrical schemes to electromagnetic waves and, finally, to quantum field especulations. From another perspective, decades of scientific struggle lead physicists to prove quantum entanglement, paving the road the hypothesis of information fields. Chapter 2 presents two complementary information field theories in the frontiers between Physics, Biology, Psychology and Theory of Knowledge: the semantic field theory, which rises from Meneghetti’s clinical activities in the 70’s, and Rupert Sheldrake’s morphic field theory, which rises from his research in Biology. Chapter 3 presents experimental design, methods and research instruments. In quantum physics, the best equivalent for an “information transduction without energy displacement” is the entanglement phenomenon, considered “bizarre” by Einstein and others (EPR, 1935) and proven only in 1982 by Alain Aspect and his colleagues. Based in their work, an analogous experiment was proposed to investigate the information field phenomenon in the human level. Three precautions had to be taken: (1) eliminating the possibility of the emitter to give instructions to the receptor; (2) randomness relative to the communication moment; and (3) use of dreams as an element akin to represent the energetic state of participants. During measurements, an ETS Lindgren Series 81 Faraday cage and a 250 meters distance were used to ensure subjects were physically distant and electromagnetically isolated. Chapter 4 presents results for 100 measurements conducted with 50 couples of subjects. Pulse Rate, SpO2 and R-R intervals were measured with oximetry equipments and Energy (Joules) was measured using the EPI/GDV technology. A series of statistical analysis were conducted using SPSS© and HRV analysis with the Kubios Standard Software to test the hypothesis of a distant impact in the Autonomic Nervous System of subjects inside the Faraday cage during the moment of communication. It was possible to verify with p < 0.01 that control group behaves quite differently from experimental group in most physiological variables measured and there is also evidence to affirm that images of dreams have a strong relationship with the energetic states of dreamers, considering its impact in the ANS balance. Statistical analysis included ANOVA and Scheffé tests, enriched with graphical analysis to support the discussions conducted in Chapter 5. Future work and Conclusions were presented in the last section. Experiments will be improved in six majour aspects: (a) larger distances between subjects; (b) larger number of subjects; (c) EEG and ENS measurements; (d) procedures to enable “hearing” instead of “reading” dreams; (e) subjects with different levels of nearness and, last, but not least, (f) double blind design.
... Lieberman argued that extraverts are better equipped to handle "cognitive busyness", a term coined by Gilbert (1989) to refer to the effect that carrying out one task has on a second task that needs to be completed. Campbell et al. (2011) looked for associations between extraversion, on the one hand, and on the other inhibition, updating -the ability to maintain information while new information is being processed (Morris & Jones 1990) -and shifting, or the ability to switch between two mental tasks (Miyake & Friedman 2012). ...
Article
Within the world of interpreting, persistent clichés exist about an interpreter’s required personality and cognitive traits. For instance, an interpreter is thought to be communicative, stress-resistant and to have excellent memory skills. Yet, while research has been conducted into interpreters’ personality type and into their cognitive skills, these two aspects have not yet been combined in one research design. In this contribution we will explore whether some of these traits increase the likelihood of a language major opting for a study programme in interpreting and for a language professional opting for an interpreting career. Through a principal component analysis, we identified five latent components (personality, inhibition, updating, shifting, and working memory span) in a battery of personality and cognitive variables. Binary logistic regression showed that personality and working memory span are strong predictors of language majors and language professionals’ choice for a study programme or career path in interpreting.
... There is also no guarantee that consumers empathize with employees' complaints about their organization. Attribution theory (Gilbert, 1989) suggests people typically make internal and dispositional versus external and situational attributions about the cause of other people's behavior, which partially explains why victims are often blamed for their misfortunes (Alicke, 2000). Thus, a complaining employee may elicit little sympathy because they are assumed to have provoked poor treatment, or because they could choose to work elsewhere. ...
... Bolger and Wright (1992) reviewed twenty judgment studies of experts and concluded that experts are variably calibrated when making probability judgments in their areas of expertise. Since the quality of judgments is negatively related to the cognitive processing load (Gilbert, 1989), we can see that the straightforward nature of the pairwise comparison task may facilitate the performance of the person supplying probability judgments. A second advantage of using AHP to elicit probability judgments is that there is no need for the person supplying judgments to explicitly articulate knowledge about the moments of the probability distribution. ...
... However, with the emergence of many irrational energy-saving behaviors, such as the rebound effect (Sorrell 2009) and comparison information (Nolan et al. 2008;Sussman and Chikumbo 2016), researchers have started to relax the rational assumption for interpreting these seemingly irrational behaviors. Some researchers have argued that energy consumers exhibited rationality with inattention (Sallee 2014), that energy-saving behaviors were in accordance with the assumption of bounded rationality (Simon 1982;Herbert A. Simon 1979a;Slovic et al. 1997), and that most energy-saving behaviors were normally executed through intuitive actions rather than deliberative reasoning actions (Gilbert 1989(Gilbert , 2002Epstein 2003;Kahneman 2003). Our study adopted the assumption of bounded rationality but further elucidated the decision-making black box of energy-saving behaviors by using the integrated framework provided in Fig. 1. ...
Article
Full-text available
Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) collectively account for >13% of total global energy demand but have not receive sufficient scholarly attention because of the lack of an integrated framework to investigate the decision-making process of energy-efficiency measures (EEMs) and its crucial influencing drivers. To improve the energy-saving capabilities of SMEs, we developed a framework to integrate notable contextual factors and a core decision-making model from decision essence and characteristics and conducted an empirical study in Taiwan. The integrated framework postulated that energy-saving credo affects the formation of an energy-saving routine, and the routines, in turn, determine the adoption of energy-saving behaviors. Energy-saving knowledge, participation level in energy-saving initiatives, energy-saving barriers, and energy-saving incentives are moderating factors for energy-saving behaviors. In our empirical study, 2001 valid questionnaires were collected from domestic SMEs, the response rate was 80.04%, and a majority of the hypotheses derived from the framework were validated using statistical analysis. Our research provides at least three implications. First, the research proposed the credo–routine–behavior model, a core decision-making processes of SMEs, supported by empirical data. This empirically supported model implies that altering the credo of a company can change its behavior. Second, energy-saving knowledge, incentives, barriers, and initiatives are the contextual factors, and merely manipulating these factors cannot induce expected energy-saving behaviors in SMEs. Third, because SMEs may participate in many energy-saving programs simultaneously, governments should develop a package of energy-saving policies for SMEs that corresponds to their credos and knowledge, not only to their barriers.
... Kennzeichnend für solche Ankerwerte ist, dass wir meist nicht von vornherein mit Sicherheit wissen können, ob sie korrekt oder zumindest dem wahren Wert sehr ähnlich sein könnten. Zumindest für einen Moment ziehen wir das, was uns vorgegeben wird, als korrekte Möglichkeit in Betracht (Gilbert 1989). ...
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel werden drei zentrale Urteilsheuristiken vorgestellt. Heuristiken sind einfache Faustregeln, anhand derer Menschen in kurzer Zeit relativ komplexe Entscheidungen treffen können – und das meist hinreichend genau. Allerdings können sie auch zu systematischen Urteilsverzerrungen führen. Es wird zunächst auf die Repräsentativitätsheuristik eingegangen, bei der Urteile aufgrund der Repräsentativität eines Urteilgegenstands beispielsweise für eine Kategorie getroffen werden. Im Anschluss wird die Verfügbarkeitsheuristik eingeführt. Bei dieser wird insbesondere die Empfindung von Leichtigkeit beim Informationsabruf als Grundlage für Urteile genutzt. Zum Abschluss wird die Ankerheuristik besprochen, bei der ein Urteil an einen Ausgangswert angeglichen wird. Fehleinschätzungen, wie sie aufgrund des Gebrauchs von Heuristiken auftreten können, geben Aufschlüsse darüber, wie Menschen mit begrenzten kognitiven Ressourcen in einer komplexen Welt Entscheidungen treffen.
... Bien que cette approche ait initialement pris place dans certains domaines de la psychologie tels que la persuasion (e.g., Chaiken, 1987 ;Petty & Cacioppo, 1986), les préjudices et les stéréotypes (e.g., Devine, 1989), la formation d'impression (e.g., Brewer, 1988 ;Fiske & Neuberg, 1990) ou l'attribution (e.g., Gilbert, 1989 ;Trope, 1986), cette approche s'est élargie à d'autres thématiques afin de proposer des modèles explicatifs et intégratifs indépendants des domaines d'étude. Ces théories ont en commun l'idée selon laquelle l'ensemble des processus mentaux peut être divisé en deux catégories générales : les processus mentaux qui fonctionnent automatiquement et ceux qui fonctionnent de manière contrôlée (Posner & Snyder, 1975 ;Shiffrin & Schneider, 1977). ...
Thesis
Les labels présents sur les emballages (e.g., « bio », « commerce équitable ») peuvent pousser les individus à sous-évaluer le contenu calorique des aliments, créant ainsi un effet de halo santé. Dans cette thèse, nous défendons l’idée qu’un mécanisme de fausse attribution affective pourrait en partie expliquer cet effet de halo santé. Nous présenterons 11 études ayant pour but de tester empiriquement cette hypothèse. Parmi les principaux résultats, nous avons montré qu’il était possible d’observer cet effet même si les individus ne rapportent pas avoir pris en compte le label dans leur évaluation (Etudes 3) et dans un contexte de double tâche entravant un raisonnement délibéré de leur part (Etudes 4 et 5). Nous avons également pu montrer, par le biais d’une tâche de fausse attribution affective, qu’un stimulus neutre, lorsqu’il est précédé d’un label bio (vs. une image contrôle) est ensuite évalué plus positivement (Etudes 6, 7 et 8). Enfin, nous avons observé une congruence systématique entre la valence de l’amorce (i.e., le label) et la valence de l’évaluation subséquente d’un stimulus neutre (i.e., le contenu calorique d’un produit alimentaire ; Etudes 9, 10 et 11). Ce biais cognitif relatif à nos évaluations caloriques apparaît donc comme un phénomène robuste, ne faisant intervenir que peu d’inférences délibérées de la part des individus et étant guidé par la valence du label (qu’il soit positif ou négatif).
... Lieberman and Kirk (2004) point out that our daily lives are constantly punctuated by implicit or unconscious choices that facilitate us in responding and adapting to our environment. We intuitively make sense of the nonverbal messages in the environment and often reciprocate appropriately without any effort (Ambady and Rosenthal 1993;Chen and Bargh 1999;Word, Zanna, and Cooper 1974); automatically judge objects as more likeable based on previous exposure or their position in a display (Nisbett and Wilson 1977;Zajonc 1968); spontaneously make sense of behavior in terms of intentions and traits (Gilbert 1989;Heider and Simmel 1944;Winter and Uleman 1984); and decide whether to help strangers based merely on the syntax of their requests without careful consideration (Langer, Blank, and Chanowitz 1978). The implication for peace choices is a substantial one: our unconscious processes may have chosen who our allies and enemies are before actually considering all available information. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
When individuals choose to behave peacefully they act to create and maintain non-violent, harmonious, kind and cooperative relationships with themselves and others. Research has produced many definitions of the construct of peace. Anderson (2004) assumes that the decision to adopt peace behaviors needs specific preconditions to be pursued:individuals, families, groups, communities and/or nations must first achieve low levels of violence and be able to engage in mutually harmonious relationships. Several authors have studied the decisionmaking process involved in peace choices. Danesh (1997), with his Integrative Theory of Peace (ITP), states that choosing peace involves psychological, social, political, ethical and spiritual factors and is expressed in intrapersonal, interpersonal, intergroup and international areas of human life. The ITP concerns three sub-theories concerning psychosocial, political and moral levels. The author also states that adopting a unity-based worldview constitutes the prerequisite for creating a culture of peace and healing, and that comprehensive, integrated and lifelong education programs are crucial to develop such a perspective. As Lieberman (2004) points out, during the course of our lives we continuously formulate implicit judgments and decisions that allow us to seamlessly make sense of and navigate our social world. If such decisions - including those related to peace - occur as responses to familiar stimuli, our choices can usually be taken automatically without ever becoming a focus of conscious attention. However, when our expectations are violated, doubt and ambiguity ensue, followed by more explicit (controlled) decision-making processes. The aims of this chapter are: a) to give an overview of existing literature on the antecedents of peace choices and attitudes; b) to evaluate the peace choice with reference to both top-down (controlled) and bottom-up (automatic) cognitive processes; and c) to list and describe some of the most influential interventions devised to promote peace choices among individuals, groups, communities and nations. The conclusions are discussed in the light of peace education choices related to both controlled and automatic processes
... Parmi de nombreux autres facteurs (ex., Kruglanski & Mayseless, 1988 ;Tetlock, 1983 ;Brewer, 1988 ;Yzerbit, Schadron, Leyens, & Rocher, 1994), elle baisse quand l'information accessible est attribuée non pas à ses propres processus de pensée mais à une source perçue comme incidente (Loersch & Payne, 2011;March, Olson, & Fazio, 2018;Payne et al., 2005;Ruys, Aarts, Papies, Oikawa, Oikawa, 2012). Bien que le processus d'attribution causale est souvent automatique (ex., Gilbert, 1989), il arrive que l'on se trompe (Gawronski, 2004;Jones & Harris, 1967 ;Ross, 1977). Ainsi, nous attribuons parfois des informations accessibles à notre propre processus de pensée alors qu'en fait elles sont d'origine étrangère. ...
... Ebenso lassen sich Dual-Process Theorien anhand ihres Bezugsrahmensdomain-spezifisch oder integrativgeneralisiert -differenzieren. Die ersten Dual-Process Theorien fokussierten ein spezifisches Phänomen, wie beispielsweise Persuasion (Chaiken, 1987;Petty & Cacioppo, 1986), das Verhältnis zwischen Einstellung und Verhalten (Fazio, 1990;Wilson, Lindsey, & Schooler, 2000), Vorurteile und Stereotypenbildung (Devine, 1989), Prozesse der Eindrucksbildung über Andere (Brewer, 1988;Fiske & Neuberg, 1990) oder Zuschreibung von Gemütszuständen (Gilbert, 1989;Trope, 1986). Zunächst nur auf ein spezifisches Phänomen angewendet, lassen sich anhand der phänomenspezifischen Dual-Process Theorien generelle Prinzipien ableiten, die übergreifende Gültigkeit haben und in verschiedenen integrativen Modellen zusammengefasst wurden (Epstein, 1994;Kahneman, 2003;Payne, 2008;Sherman et al., 2008;Smith & DeCoster, 2000). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Im folgenden Kapitel 2 werden die theoretischen und begrifflichen Grundlagen der Consumer Decision Neuroscience dargestellt. Dabei werden in Abschnitt 2.1 zunächst ökonomische, behavioristische und kognitive Ansätze beschrieben, wobei das Kapitel mit ersten Dual-Process Theorien und dazugehörigen Kritikpunkten endet, die eine theoretische Weiterentwicklung der Modelle durch die Integration von neurowissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen zur Erklärung von Konsumentenentscheidungsprozessen avisieren. Die Forschungsgebiete, die sich aus dieser neurowissenschaftlichen Integration ergeben, werden in Abschnitt 2.2 definiert, systematisiert und differenziert, um anschließend das daraus entstandene Forschungsgebiet der Consumer Decision Neuroscience von bestehenden Forschungsgebieten abzugrenzen. Aufbauend auf den beiden vorangegangenen Kapiteln, wird in Abschnitt 2.3 anschließend das Reflektiv-Impulsiv Modell als eine neurowissenschaftlich fundierte Dual-Process Theorie vorgestellt, die als konzeptioneller Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit dient.
... Applying this logic to judgments of truth, even when a positive truthfluency association exists, individuals might infer truth from misattributed or misinterpreted processing ease. However, given awareness (e.g., Jacoby & Whitehouse, 1989), enough cognitive resources (Gilbert, 1989;Jacoby et al., 1992), and motivation (Schwarz, 2004b), individuals may be able to correct rapid and automatic attributions or interpretations in order to debias judgments. Furthermore, individuals more strongly rely on fluency as a cue to judge truth when they have learned from past experience that using fluency as a cue resulted in valid truth judgments (Scholl et al., 2014). ...
Article
Information is more likely believed to be true when it feels easy rather than difficult to process. An ecological learning explanation for this fluency-truth effect implicitly or explicitly presumes that truth and fluency are positively associated. Specifically, true information may be easier to process than false information and individuals may reverse this link in their truth judgments. The current research investigates the important but so far untested precondition of the learning explanation for the fluency-truth effect. In particular, five experiments (total N = 712) test whether participants experience information known to be true as easier to process than information known to be false. Participants in Experiment 1a judged true statements easier to read than false statements. Experiment 1b was a preregistered direct replication with a large sample and again found increased legibility for true statements-importantly, however, this was not the case for statements for which the truth status was unknown. Experiment 1b thereby shows that it is not the actual truth or falsehood of information but the believed truth or falsehood that is associated with processing fluency. In Experiment 2, true calculations were rated as easier to read than false calculations. Participants in Experiment 3 judged it easier to listen to calculations generally known to be true than to calculations generally known to be false. Experiment 4 shows an effect of truth on processing fluency independent of statement familiarity. Discussion centers on the current explanation for the fluency-truth effect and the validity of processing fluency as a cue in truth judgments.
... Ebenso lassen sich Dual-Process Theorien anhand ihres Bezugsrahmensdomain-spezifisch oder integrativgeneralisiert -differenzieren. Die ersten Dual-Process Theorien fokussierten ein spezifisches Phänomen, wie beispielsweise Persuasion (Chaiken, 1987;Petty & Cacioppo, 1986), das Verhältnis zwischen Einstellung und Verhalten (Fazio, 1990;Wilson, Lindsey, & Schooler, 2000), Vorurteile und Stereotypenbildung (Devine, 1989), Prozesse der Eindrucksbildung über Andere (Brewer, 1988;Fiske & Neuberg, 1990) oder Zuschreibung von Gemütszuständen (Gilbert, 1989;Trope, 1986). Zunächst nur auf ein spezifisches Phänomen angewendet, lassen sich anhand der phänomenspezifischen Dual-Process Theorien generelle Prinzipien ableiten, die übergreifende Gültigkeit haben und in verschiedenen integrativen Modellen zusammengefasst wurden (Epstein, 1994;Kahneman, 2003;Payne, 2008;Sherman et al., 2008;Smith & DeCoster, 2000). ...
... To maximize treatment efficacy, it is also important to consider how grief can affect multiple members of the same family. Gilbert (1989) determined that couples that experience loss and mourn together resolve their grief quicker. Alternatively, couples may feel disconnected due to mourning differently and not feeling like they can relate to each other (Rando, 1983). ...
Article
Persistent complex bereavement/complicated grief occurs when, after a period of 12 months following a death, there remains an ongoing intense yearning and sorrow for the deceased, preoccupation with the death and its circumstances, difficulty accepting its reality, and disruption in personal identity. This case study illustrates the successful application of Complicated Grief Treatment (CGT), a manualized research-supported intervention, with a husband and wife each receiving individual therapy simultaneously with separate clinicians. The core of CGT involves graded completion of imaginal and situational revisiting (i.e., exposure) exercises. To target maladaptive rumination and counterfactual thinking more explicitly, strategies from a research-based treatment for trauma, Cognitive Processing Therapy, were also incorporated for one member of the couple. To our knowledge, CGT has not been examined with couples receiving individual therapy delivered simultaneously. As such, practitioners have little information about how to proceed with cases where multiple members of the same family are experiencing complicated grief. We will detail the treatment provided, outlining the course of care for each member of the couple, highlighting unique adjustments made to tailor implementation to each individual and to deliver the intervention simultaneously. Quantitative and qualitative data show the effects of treatment on symptoms of complicated grief, depression, and relationship satisfaction.
... Dual-process theories have been widely accepted and used by cognitive and social psychologists to explain different behavioral phenomena (Alter et al., 2007), such as heuristics and biases in decision-making (Kahneman and Frederick, 2002), causal attribution (Gilbert, 1989), social cognition (Epley et al., 2004;Evans, 2008), overconfidence bias (Griffin and Tversky, 1992), and higher-order reasoning (Evans, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Stocks and flows are the foundations of dynamic systems. Most people have difficulties inferring the behavior of a stock from its flows. Recent studies have argued that understanding of stock-flows can improve if individuals engage in analytical thinking. In this study, we examine the effect of analytical thinking and the mediating effect of Little's Law understanding on stock-flow performance. Little's Law is one of the fundamental laws of queueing systems. Queueing systems are made of stocks and flows and their components, including arrivals, departures, and queue are the inflow, outflow, and accumulation in stock-flow systems. Thus, it can be predicted that grasping Little's Law can mediate the effect of analytical thinking on stock-flow performance. In order to examine the research hypotheses, two empirical studies were designed. The results supported our hypotheses in both studies. Analytical thinking had a positive effect on stock-flow performance. Little's Law understanding partially mediated this effect. © 2021 System Dynamics Society.
... Also related to egocentric biases are in-group biases, where we are more understanding about members of our own group. Perspective-taking requires cognitive effort (system 2) and people are more vulnerable to this bias in high pressure environments (Gilbert, 1989). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
An ethical value-action gap exists when there is a discrepancy between intentions and actions. This discrepancy may be caused by social and structural obstacles as well as cognitive biases. Computational models of cognition and affect can provide insights into the value-action gap and how it can be reduced. In particular, metacognition ("thinking about thinking") plays an important role in many of these models as a mechanism for self-regulation and reasoning about mental attitudes. This paper outlines a roadmap for translating cognitive-affective models into assistant agents to help make value-aligned decisions.
... Dual process theory argues that in system 1 thoughts and preferences come to mind quickly and without reflection. Spinoza suggested that people believe every assertion they understand, but quickly un-believe those assertions that are found to be at odds with other established facts (Gilbert, 1989). Spinoza argued that to comprehend a proposition, a person has to implicitly accept that proposition; only later, if the person realised that this proposition conflicted with some other, might he or she change his or her mind (Gilbert, 1991). ...
Book
Full-text available
This open access book takes a fresh look at the nature of the digital travel experience, at a time when more and more people are engaged in online social interaction, games, and other virtual experiences essentially involving online visits to other places. It examines whether these experiences can seem real to the virtual traveller and, if so, under what conditions and on what grounds. The book unpacks philosophical theories relevant to the feeling of being somewhere, emphasising the importance of perception and being-in-the-world. Notions of place are outlined, based on work in tourism studies, human geography, and other applied social fields, with an aim to investigate how and when different experiences of place arise for the traveller and how these relate to telepresence – the sense of being there in another place through digital media. Findings from recent empirical studies of digital travel are presented, including a survey from which the characteristics of “digital travellers” are identified. A review of selected interactive design trends and possibilities leads to the conclusion, which draws these strands together and looks to the future of this topical and expanding field.
... Ebenso lassen sich Dual-Process Theorien anhand ihres Bezugsrahmensdomain-spezifisch oder integrativgeneralisiert -differenzieren. Die ersten Dual-Process Theorien fokussierten ein spezifisches Phänomen, wie beispielsweise Persuasion (Chaiken, 1987;Petty & Cacioppo, 1986), das Verhältnis zwischen Einstellung und Verhalten (Fazio, 1990;Wilson, Lindsey, & Schooler, 2000), Vorurteile und Stereotypenbildung (Devine, 1989), Prozesse der Eindrucksbildung über Andere (Brewer, 1988;Fiske & Neuberg, 1990) oder Zuschreibung von Gemütszuständen (Gilbert, 1989;Trope, 1986). Zunächst nur auf ein spezifisches Phänomen angewendet, lassen sich anhand der phänomenspezifischen Dual-Process Theorien generelle Prinzipien ableiten, die übergreifende Gültigkeit haben und in verschiedenen integrativen Modellen zusammengefasst wurden (Epstein, 1994;Kahneman, 2003;Payne, 2008;Sherman et al., 2008;Smith & DeCoster, 2000). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung In dieser zusammenfassenden Schlussbemerkung werden das Ziel und die wichtigsten Erkenntnisse konkludierend dargestellt.
... Dual process theory argues that in system 1 thoughts and preferences come to mind quickly and without reflection. Spinoza suggested that people believe every assertion they understand, but quickly un-believe those assertions that are found to be at odds with other established facts (Gilbert, 1989). Spinoza argued that to comprehend a proposition, a person has to implicitly accept that proposition; only later, if the person realised that this proposition conflicted with some other, might he or she change his or her mind (Gilbert, 1991). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
To understand the experience of being present somewhere else, via a digital environment, we start by considering how we can experience being anywhere. We present several different philosophical and psychological perspectives on this, stressing the importance of perception. Each has something to offer and add to our understanding of digital travel. We compare four philosophical views: representationalism, relationism, enactivism and the sense-data view. Each has its strengths and weaknesses, but relationism is best placed to accommodate perceptual illusions, which is a prevalent view of the psychological nature of telepresence experiences. As suggested by enactivism and the direct perception approach, the possibilities for action in the world are important to the nature of our experience of places. This, in turn, is influenced by the characteristics of the world in which we act, through affordances.
... People are by nature worried about and sensitive to biases that may be impacting their impressions because they wish to feel that their knowledge is accurate and true (e.g., Gilbert, 1989;Monteith, 1993;Plant & Devine, 1998;Wegener & Petty, 1995;Wilson & Brekke, 1994). When suspicions of an unwanted bias impacting one's cognition arise, attempts to correct and remove the unwanted influence often follow. ...
... In high-fit cases, the intuitive connection between a cause and a firm's core business match allays consumer suspicion and entices consumers to believe that the company is sincerely committed to the cause (Du et al., 2010;Ellen et al., 2006;Gilbert, 1989). Instead, in the case of low fit, consumers may find it difficult to deal with the incongruity between the company and the supported cause, which in turn tends to arouse suspicion of readers Du et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Companies engaged in cause-related marketing (CRM) must demonstrate sincere commitment to gain consumer support. In this paper, we observe that consumers infer companies' commitment to the cause by the language used in the CRM promotional material. In a series of experiments, we compare the popular expression “we can make a difference” to “we hope to make a difference” in influencing consumers' response to the CRM. When consumers question company's motives—which can happen, for instance, when they do not perceive a congruency between the company and the supported cause (low firm/cause fit)—consumers seem to perceive the company to be less committed to the cause when the company says they “can” make a difference rather than “hope” to make a difference. Our conclusions offer implications for CRM by highlighting the importance of the words used and their semantic nuances to correctly reflect the company's motivations and thus communicate effectively.
... One possibility is that external attributions may be more malleable than internal attributions. According to the two-step attribution process (Gilbert, 1989(Gilbert, , 1991, perceivers make internal attributions spontaneously and then, if motivated and cognitively able, consider external causes. In the current study, it is possible that participants readily made internal attributions and then, only when the label was present, also considered the plausibility of external causes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Gender harassment is prevalent in contexts where women are underrepresented and negatively stereotyped, yet instances of gender harassment are often discounted as unimportant and inconsequential. The current research presents an examination of gender harassment operating on a male-majority university campus in the form of a sex-based slur known as the “Princess Syndrome.” Across two studies, the present research investigated the prevalence, meaning, and adverse consequences of the label. Study 1 indicated that the label was widespread at the university: 70% of participants had heard of the label, nearly half had used the label, and 1 out of 4 female participants had been targeted by the label. Inductive content analysis of open-ended responses revealed that the label was a derogatory term used to insult and degrade women by stigmatizing women as manipulative, exploitative, and stuck up. In Study 2, participants read about and rated a female student who was either labeled with the “Princess Syndrome” or not. Consistent with predictions, participants were more likely to discount the female student’s success in an engineering course as due to external factors (e.g., luck), rated her as less competent, and were less likely to choose to work with her on a team project when she was labeled with the “Princess Syndrome” than when she was not labeled. Results contribute to a growing body of literature demonstrating that sex-based slurs matter and suggest that slurs such as the “Princess Syndrome” may constitute a consequential yet understudied source of gender harassment for undergraduate women in STEM that reinforces and maintains gender inequity.
... People constantly judge other individuals (Gilbert, 1989;Jones & Nisbett, 1987). ...
Article
Full-text available
People's automatic (unintentional, uncontrollable, and efficient) preference between social groups often determines their automatic preference between unknown individual members of these groups, a prominent example for automatic prejudice. What happens when the person making the judgment has long known the target individuals? Practice might automatize the deliberate judgment of the individuals. Then, if deliberate judgment is nonprejudiced, automatic prejudice might decrease. In 29 studies (total N = 4,907), we compared preferences between a famous member of a dominant social group and a famous member of a stigmatized social group on indirect measures of evaluation that were developed to measure automatic preference and on self-report measures. In most studies, we chose pairs based on prior self-reported preference for the member of the stigmatized group. The measures showed discrepancy, with indirect measures suggesting an automatic preference for the member of the dominant group. We replicated these results with various target individuals, two pairs of social groups (Black/White, old/young), two indirect measures, and in two countries (Studies 1-23). The indirectly measured prodominant preference was stronger when visual characteristics of the group were present rather than absent (Studies 24 and 25), suggesting a stronger effect of group characteristics on automatic than on deliberate preference between the individuals. On self-report and indirect measures, the preferences between individuals were related to the preferences between their groups (Studies 26 and 27) yet also to individuating information (Studies 28 and 29). Our results suggest that group evaluation plays a central role in the automatic evaluation of familiar (and not only novel) members of stigmatized groups. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Ebenso lassen sich Dual-Process Theorien anhand ihres Bezugsrahmensdomain-spezifisch oder integrativgeneralisiert -differenzieren. Die ersten Dual-Process Theorien fokussierten ein spezifisches Phänomen, wie beispielsweise Persuasion (Chaiken, 1987;Petty & Cacioppo, 1986), das Verhältnis zwischen Einstellung und Verhalten (Fazio, 1990;Wilson, Lindsey, & Schooler, 2000), Vorurteile und Stereotypenbildung (Devine, 1989), Prozesse der Eindrucksbildung über Andere (Brewer, 1988;Fiske & Neuberg, 1990) oder Zuschreibung von Gemütszuständen (Gilbert, 1989;Trope, 1986). Zunächst nur auf ein spezifisches Phänomen angewendet, lassen sich anhand der phänomenspezifischen Dual-Process Theorien generelle Prinzipien ableiten, die übergreifende Gültigkeit haben und in verschiedenen integrativen Modellen zusammengefasst wurden (Epstein, 1994;Kahneman, 2003;Payne, 2008;Sherman et al., 2008;Smith & DeCoster, 2000). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung In Kapitel 5 werden die wesentlichen Erkenntnisse zusammengefasst (Abschnitt 5.1) und die daraus ableitbaren Implikationen für die Forschung und Praxis beschrieben (Abschnitt 5.2). Die Ergebnisse aus den Beiträgen zur Consumer Decision Neuroscience bieten sowohl einen Erkenntnisgewinn für die wissenschaftliche Forschung als auch die Möglichkeit, praktisch-normative Handlungsimplikationen abzuleiten, die die Erkenntnisse im anwendungsorientierten Kontext nutzbar machen. Im Anschluss wird die vorliegende Arbeit vor dem Hintergrund theoretischer Weiterentwicklung kritisch reflektiert (Abschnitt 5.3).
... Ebenso lassen sich Dual-Process Theorien anhand ihres Bezugsrahmensdomain-spezifisch oder integrativgeneralisiert -differenzieren. Die ersten Dual-Process Theorien fokussierten ein spezifisches Phänomen, wie beispielsweise Persuasion (Chaiken, 1987;Petty & Cacioppo, 1986), das Verhältnis zwischen Einstellung und Verhalten (Fazio, 1990;Wilson, Lindsey, & Schooler, 2000), Vorurteile und Stereotypenbildung (Devine, 1989), Prozesse der Eindrucksbildung über Andere (Brewer, 1988;Fiske & Neuberg, 1990) oder Zuschreibung von Gemütszuständen (Gilbert, 1989;Trope, 1986). Zunächst nur auf ein spezifisches Phänomen angewendet, lassen sich anhand der phänomenspezifischen Dual-Process Theorien generelle Prinzipien ableiten, die übergreifende Gültigkeit haben und in verschiedenen integrativen Modellen zusammengefasst wurden (Epstein, 1994;Kahneman, 2003;Payne, 2008;Sherman et al., 2008;Smith & DeCoster, 2000). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung In Kapitel 3 werden die ausgewählten Beiträge in das Reflektiv-Impulsiv Modell eingeordnet und in diesem Zusammenhang die wesentlichen inhaltlichen Aspekte der einzelnen Beiträge beschrieben. Dadurch soll das neurowissenschaftlich fundierte Modell anhand verschiedener methodischer Vorgehensweisen als übergeordneter Rahmen für die Beschreibung, Unterstützung und Vorhersage von Konsumentenentscheidungsprozessen im Rahmen der Consumer Decision Neuroscience geprüft werden.
... Teniendo como preceptos central la psicología cognitiva 7 , sostenemos que el razonamiento en la elección del sucesor en la empresa familiar no se guía necesariamente por el cálculo matemático de probabilidades, (Hollander & Elman, 1988) y que más bien parece existir una exposición a un modelo de razonamiento más de tipo heurístico intuitivo (Gilbert, 1989), (Gilbert, 2002), (Wilson, 2002), (Epstein, 2003), que se podría relacionar con las prácticas cognitivas cotidianas en la empresa familiar, y que han sido construidas a partir de la formación de juicios y de procesos de categorización cognitiva. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La empresa familiar en crecimiento, aquella entre pequeña y mediana que adopta prácticas sanas de gobierno corporativo, atrae para sí importantes cambios: orden en los procesos, cuenta con estable estructuras de gobernanza, todos los actores conocen sus roles, escriben un protocolo familiar, y la familia propietaria se reunirá de forma disciplinada. Esto genera un crecimiento inmediato que los podrá llevar al siguiente nivel. Sin embargo, después de no mucho tiempo y con una empresa de tamaño mediano o grande, y con la familia propietaria en el directorio, entienden que hay un elemento perdido pues el crecimiento se ha detenido; y es aquí donde el emprendedor corporativo (corporate entrepreneurship) podría hacer un aporte significativo y hacer del crecimiento algo sostenible.
Article
Full-text available
We are becoming negligent or neglect per se on heavy cognitive load, due to unawareness of unconciously on the fast move towards our goals, without realising that we are closing in a mental hygiene problem, which if unattended can lead to problems. Sensory overload and heavy cognitive load can have negative effects on task completion, and it is important to note that the experience of cognitive load is not the same in everyone. The elderly, students, and children experience different, and more often higher, amounts of cognitive load. High cognitive load in the elderly has been shown to affect their center of balance. With increased distractions and cell phone use students are more prone to experiencing high cognitive load which can reduce academic success
Preprint
When people judge unknown individuals who belong to known social groups, the judgment of the social group governs the judgment of the individuals. What happens when the target individuals are well-known? In 21 studies (total N = 3,142), we tested the automatic and deliberate evaluative judgment of popular Black and White movie actors. People reported a preference for the Black actors over the White actors, but automatic judgments usually revealed an opposite preference (Studies 1-17). An increase in the salience of the group membership increased the pro-white automatic preference, but had no effect on deliberate judgment (Studies 18-19). The automatic judgment of the famous individuals was more strongly related to automatic than to deliberate group judgment (Studies 20-21). Our results suggest that group membership does not only determine the automatic judgment of unknown individuals, it dominates even the automatic judgment of well-known people.
Preprint
People’s automatic preference for dominant groups over stigmatized groups often determines their automatic preference between unknown individual members of these groups, a prominent example for automatic prejudice. What happens when the person making the judgment has known the target individuals for quite some time? Practice might automatize the deliberate (non-prejudiced) judgment of the individuals, potentially eliminating automatic prejudice. In 27 studies (total N = 4,372), we compared automatic and deliberate preferences between a famous member of a dominant social group and a famous member of a stigmatized group. In most studies, we chose pairs based on prior self-reported preference for the member of the stigmatized group. Across all studies, automatic preference was discrepant from the deliberate preference, often favoring the member of the dominant group. We replicated these results with various target individuals, two pairs of social groups (Black/White, Old/Young), two automatic evaluation measures, and in two countries (Studies 1-23). Induced high salience of group membership increased the automatic preference for the member of the dominant group, but had no effect on deliberate preference (Studies 24-25). The automatic preference between the individuals was related more strongly to automatic than to deliberate group preference (Studies 26-27). Our results provide novel evidence for the prevalence of automatic prejudice and suggest that long familiarity with the members of a stigmatized group does not automatize the positive deliberate evaluation of these individuals, and does not dethrone group evaluation from its central role in the automatic evaluation of the individual.
Article
Full-text available
Causes of behavior are often classified as either dispositional (e.g., personality) or situational (e.g., circumstances). However, the disposition–situation dichotomy confounds locus (internal vs. external) and stability (unstable vs. stable) of attribution, rendering it unclear whether locus or stability drives changes in dispositionality. In the present research, we examine the dispositional shift—that is, psychologically distant (vs. near) events are attributed to dispositional (vs. situational) causes. Using construal level theory, we hypothesize that the dispositional shift is caused by a change in stability (but not necessarily locus) of attribution. Two experiments support this hypothesis. In Experiment 1, distant (vs. near) future events were attributed to more stable causes. In Experiment 2, actions by a socially distant person (vs. oneself) were also attributed to more stable (but also more internal) causes. Thus, important psychological manipulations, here psychological distance, can influence causal dimensions selectively, supporting the independence of stability and locus of attribution.
Book
Full-text available
This book LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT prepares professionals to grow as a Leader in their field of specialization and HR practitioners who want to develop as a leader in their respective filed, and other students of management who specializes in Commerce, Entrepreneurship Management, BBA, MBA, or Business Strategy related subjects, Entrepreneurial practitioners, and includes the dynamic concepts of newer Entrepreneurial Strategies happening across the world, and also caters to the syllabus for BBA and MBA of all the leading Indian Universities specifically to Bangalore University, Anna University, Bharathiar University, Kerala University, Calicut University, and other Indian Universities. These concepts in this book will prepare all Entrepreneurial professionals who are evolving into higher-level professionals who can use this book LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT, prepares professionals to grow as a Leader in their field of specialization and HR practitioners who want to develop as a leader in their respective filed, and other students of management who specializes in Commerce, Entrepreneurship Management, BBA, MBA, or Business Strategy related subjects, Entrepreneurial practitioners, and includes the dynamic concepts of newer Entrepreneurial Strategies happening across the world, and also caters to the syllabus for BBA and MBA of all the leading Indian Universities specifically Bangalore University, Anna University, Bharathiar University, Kerala University, Calicut University, and other Indian Universities. These concepts in this book will prepare all Entrepreneurial professionals who are evolving into higher-level professionals who can use this book for their challenging and rewarding career. The readers can apply these concepts in their day to day management strategy functions to have effective practical advancements in their challenging and rewarding career. The readers can apply these concepts in their day to day management strategy functions to have effective practical advancements in their career. This book LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT, prepares professionals to grow as a Leader in their field of specialization and HR practitioners who wants to develop as a leader in their respective filed, and other students of management who specializes in Commerce, Entrepreneurship Management, BBA, MBA, or Business Strategy related subjects, Entrepreneurial practitioners, and includes the dynamic concepts of newer Entrepreneurial Strategies happening across the world, and also caters to the syllabus for BBA and MBA of all the leading Indian Universities specifically to Bangalore University, Anna University, Bharathiar University, Kerala University, Calicut University, and other Indian Universities. These concepts in this book will prepare all Entrepreneurial professionals who are evolving into higher level professionals who can use this book for their challenging and rewarding career. The readers can apply these concepts in their day to day management strategy functions to have effective practical advancements in their career.
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel wird dargelegt, wie Personen zu einem Eindruck und einer Beurteilung einer anderen Person kommen. Dabei wird auf die Rolle von äußerlich beobachtbaren Merkmalen des zu Beurteilenden und des Verhaltens einer Person eingegangen. Fehleinschätzungen resultieren häufig daraus, dass bei der Beurteilung von Verhalten situative Gegebenheiten zu wenig berücksichtigt und damit letztendlich dispositionale Faktoren überschätzt werden. Es wird zudem auf Merkmale der Situation bei der Eindrucksbildung eingegangen. Je nach Blickwinkel und Auffälligkeit können Beurteilungen ein und desselben Verhaltens sehr unterschiedlich ausfallen. Schließlich werden auch Merkmale des Beurteilers dargelegt, die einen Einfluss auf die Eindrucksbildung ausüben. Auch aufgrund dieser Merkmale ist die Beurteilung anderer Personen meist nicht das, was wir „objektiv“ nennen würden. Aus diesem Grund ist es sinnvoll, verzerrende Mechanismen zu kennen und sie bei weitreichenden Beurteilungen zu vermindern.
Article
Though human social interaction in general seems effortless at times, successful engagement in collaborative or exploitative social interaction requires the availability of cognitive resources. Research on Dual-Process suggests that two systems, the affective (non-reflective) and the cognitive (reflective), are responsible for different types of reasoning. Nevertheless, the evidence on which system leads to what type of behavioral outcome, in terms of prosociality, is at best contradicting and perplexing. In the present paper, we examined the role of the two systems, operationalized as working memory depletion, in prosocial decision-making. We hypothesize that the nature of the available cognitive resources could affect whether humans engage in collaborative or exploitative social interaction. Using Operation Span to manipulate the availability of working memory, we examined how taxing the cognitive system affects cooperation and cheating. In two experiments, we provide evidence that concurrent load, but not cumulative load is detrimental to cooperation, whereas neither concurrent nor cumulative load seems to affect cheating behavior. These findings are in contrast to several previous assumptions. We discuss limitations, possible explanations, and future directions.
Article
Weakly familiar brands are likely disadvantaged compared to well-known brands in influencing consumers' pre-purchase quality perceptions. In this research we find that an unfamiliar brand can successfully use an Exceptionally Strong Warranty (ESW) as a quality signal under some conditions. When used in an offer alone, ESW results in more favorable perceptions of quality than a weaker market-standard warranty provided consumers' self-assessed knowledge for the product concerned is high enough, and regardless of their objective product knowledge. However, ESW is not an effective quality signal for consumers with low levels of self-assessed product knowledge unless it is accompanied by a supporting trusted signal like Third-Party Organization Endorsement (TPOE). It appears that consumers with high self-assessed knowledge tend to accept an ESW from an unfamiliar brand heuristically whereas the signal needs assistance from a naturally trusted signal like TPOE to be effective for low knowledge consumers also.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of food retailer's Approaching the Expiration Date (AED) labelling on consumers' retailer-related response. Specifically, the main effect of food retailer's AED labelling on consumers' patronage intention, the mediation effect of food retailer's concern for consumers and the boundary condition of this effect are explored. The selected context of research is that food retailers are reluctant to stick an AED label on nearly expired food due to negative effect on selling them. Design/methodology/approach Two separate pretests and two separate experiments have been conducted to investigate the influence of food retailer's AED labelling on patronage intention. Pretest 1 develops the stimulus material of food retailer's AED labelling. Study 1 investigates the influence of AED labelling on patronage intention and mediation effect of consumers' perception of retailer's concern for consumers. Pretest 2 develops the stimulus material of government regulation on food retailer's AED labelling. Study 2 explores the boundary condition of the positive effect, namely the moderation effect of whether retailer's AED labelling is voluntary or mandatory. Findings The main findings of this research highlight the positive influence of food retailer's AED labelling on consumers' patronage intention. In addition, the current research reveals the underlying mechanism food retailer's concern for consumers and the boundary condition whether the AED labelling is voluntary or mandatory. Originality/value Although previous researches has explored the effect of food retailer's AED labelling on consumers' response, most of them focus on consumer purchase intention of the nearly expired food and neglect its effect on consumers' food retailer-related response. It is a need for food retailer to explore the potential positive influence of food retailer's AED labelling on consumers' patronage intention.
Article
Full-text available
El artículo explora algunos principios del comportamiento económico desde una aproximación biológica y sicológica, mediante un análisis reflexivo sobre la posibilidad de explicar las actuaciones económicas de los individuos a partir de la revisión de aspectos propios de disciplinas que están más allá de las fronteras de las ciencias económicas. Se destaca la importancia que tienen las emociones en la toma de decisiones. La comprensión de estas motivaciones ayuda a mejorar el diseño y la evaluación de las políticas públicas y las decisiones de inversión; además, se muestra que el contexto de desigualdad y felicidad incide en la formación del juicio heurístico.
Book
Full-text available
Contemporary research-based leadership development practices and applications across the world.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.