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The self-concordance model of healthy goal-striving: When personal goals correctly represent the pe

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... Self-determination theory (SDT) is a personality and motivation theory that states that an individual's behaviours may be explained by personal beliefs and value judgments rather than external factors; however, motivation has a supportive and determinative role in personality development (Budak, 2000;Sheldon, 2001). ...
... This theory is based on external motivation; however, it indicates that intrinsic motivation is essential. Sheldon (2001) defines organismic integration as a process in which the behaviours are based on extrinsic motivation at first. In a process, these behaviours turn into the results of intrinsic motivation. ...
... In line with the selfdetermination theory, integrated regulation is a natural consequence of the internalization process. As individuals internalize extrinsic motivation, these actions turn into a part of the individuals' identity action (Deci and Ryan, 2000;Sheldon andEliot, 1998, 1999). Within the scope of this study, the organismic integration theory, which is included in the self-determination theory, was accepted as a prominent theoretical framework, and the behaviours of individuals were composed concerning the gradual process. ...
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Mokken scaling techniques are a useful tool for researchers aiming to construct unidimensional scales and sub-scales that comprise multiple binary or polytomous items. This technique offers stochastic cumulative scaling models, and these models are ideally suited when the participants' level of the assessed traits are investigated with item parameters. Mokken models belong to the class of Nonparametric Item Response Theory and extend the deterministic Guttman scaling technique. In the current study, the Occupational Motivation Scale (OMI) suitability that had been developed based on the Guttman scaling method was investigated. The scale was applied to 155 undergraduate students, and Mokken scale analysis was performed in the R program with the "mokken" package. The Mokken scale analysis yielded that the OMI was composed of two sub-scales convenient with Monotone Homogeneity Model for individuals' ordering based on total scores. The sub-scales measure the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and the number of items decreased from 60 to 41; however, the reliability of the scale was found high, 0,92. As a result, it can be concluded that OMI was enabled to be scaled in Mokken scale and with fewer items, the scale can measure the same latent trait with high reliability.
... From this perspective, it could be assumed that even during the lockdown period, athletes directed their behavior (consciously or unconsciously) to achieve some goals. Grounded within the larger SDT framework, the selfconcordance model (SCM; Sheldon and Elliot, 1999) focuses on the motives underlying personal goal striving and allows, through an idiographic methodology proposed by Sheldon (2002), the examination of specific goals generated by the person and their underlying motivational regulations. According to the SCM, goals can be guided by two different forms of motivation termed as autonomous or controlled, depending on whether goal motives are more or less concordant with the person. ...
... Personal goal motives items were adapted for use with Spanish athletes drawing from the ideographic methodology employed in previous self-concordance research (Sheldon, 2002). Most of past studies assessed more than one self-generated goal by participant, so the reliability of personal goal motives was obtained through the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). ...
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The lockdown resulting from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a huge impact on peoples’ health. In sport specifically, athletes have had to deal with frustration of their objectives and changes in their usual training routines. The challenging and disruptive situation could hold implications for their well-being. This study examined the effect of the COVID-19 lockdown on changes in athletes’ reported eudaimonic well-being (subjective vitality) and goal motives (autonomous and controlled) over time (i.e., pre-lockdown and during lockdown). The relationship of resilience to changes in subjective vitality was also determined, and changes in athletes’ goal motives were examined as potential mediators. Participants were 127 Spanish university athletes aged between 18 and 34 years ( M = 21.14; SD = 2.77). Approximately 4 months before the start of the lockdown in Spain (T1), athletes responded to a questionnaire assessing their resilience, goal motives, and subjective vitality. Around 6 months later into the lockdown period (T2), athletes’ goal motives and subjective vitality were assessed again. Growth modeling using hierarchical linear models revealed a significant decrease of autonomous goal motives and subjective vitality during the lockdown, but athletes did not show change over time in controlled goal motives. Path analysis, adjusting T2 measures for their corresponding T1 measures, showed that resilience significantly predicted changes in athletes’ autonomous goal motives, which then accounted for changes in subjective vitality. The indirect effect was significant. Resilience did not predict changes in athletes’ controlled goal motives. However, changes in controlled goal motives negatively predicted changes in subjective vitality during lockdown. The findings suggest negative impacts of the COVID-19 lockdown on athletes’ goal motives and eudaimonic well-being. Results also support the hypothesized mediational role of autonomous goal motives in the relationship between resilience and subjective vitality during the lockdown. As such, findings confirm the relevance of resilience to a key feature of athletes’ eudaimonic well-being and the importance of enhancing their autonomous goal striving.
... Przenosząc teorię autodeterminacji Deciego i Ryana (1985Ryana ( , 2000 na grunt dualistycznego modelu pasji Valleranda i zespołu (2003), należy przyjąć, że pełna internalizacja reprezentacji aktywności powinna prowadzić do rozwoju autonomicznie regulowanej harmonijnej pasji, podczas gdy niepełna internalizacja hipotetycznie prowadzi do obsesyjnej pasji, regulowanej instrumentalnie (poprzez introjekcję lub identyfikację). Pełna internalizacja Sheldon, 2002;Vallerand, 1997) występuje wtedy, gdy jednostki dobrowolnie akceptują aktywność jako ważną samą w sobie, bez żadnych związanych z nią nacisków ani ingerencji ze strony środowiska społecznego. Tym samym mają możliwość realizacji potrzeby autonomii w działaniu. ...
... Kiedy jednostka nie ma możliwości pełnej realizacji podstawowych potrzeb, w wyniku np. nadmiernie kontrolującego (frustracja potrzeby autonomii), wymagającego (frustracja potrzeby kompetencji) lub niedającego relacyjnego bezpieczeństwa środowiska (frustracja potrzeby wspierających relacji), proces internalizacji jest niepełny Sheldon, 2002;Vallerand, 1997). Wówczas pasja ma wymiar obsesyjny i wiąże się z doświadczaniem presji intra-i/lub interpersonalnej, zazwyczaj dlatego, że z daną czynnością wiążą się pewne uwarunkowania, takie jak potrzeba potwierdzania własnej wartości lub potrzeba zyskiwania akceptacji społecznej. ...
Book
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Pasja to zamiłowanie do jakiejś aktywności, którą osoba wysoko ceni i przypisuje jej dużą wartość, której poświęca czas i wysiłek oraz uważa za część swojej tożsamości (Vallerand i in., 2003). Dualistyczny model pasji zakłada istnienie dwóch ortogonalnych wymiarów pasji - harmonijnej i obsesyjnej, które, odpowiednio, są albo w zgodzie, albo w konflikcie z innymi aspektami Ja osoby. W badaniu przeprowadzonym w 2021 roku zweryfikowano w jaki sposób posiadanie pasji, zwłaszcza w jej harmonijnym wymiarze, do studiowanej dziedziny nauki, wiąże się z przeżywaniem pozytywnych i negatywnych emocji podczas studiowania, samoregulacją w nauce, jakością relacji akademickich (koleżeńskich oraz z wykładowcami), a także z rezultatami nauczania w postaci ocen akademickich. Uczestnikami badania było 617 studentów polskich uczelni wyższych w wieku od 18 do 34 lat (M = 21.81, SD = 2.11). Do pomiaru zmiennych wykorzystano zrewidowaną Skalę Pasji (Marsh, Vallerand i in., 2013), w polskiej adaptacji Mudło-Głagolskiej, Lewandowskiej i Kasprzak (2019), PANAS-X w polskiej adaptacji Fajkowskiej i Marszał-Wiśniewskiej (2009), Kwestionariusz Samoregulacji w Studiowaniu autorstwa Zinczuk-Zielaznej oraz Skalę Jakości Relacji Interpersonalnych (SJRI) (Senécal i in., 1992). Pasjonaci studiowania, w porównaniu do osób niespełniających kryteriów pasji, silniej przeżywali pozytywne emocje w procesie studiowania oraz dokonywali bardziej autonomicznej samoregulacji. Ponadto pasjonaci nawiązywali lepsze jakościowo relacje akademickie (poziome i pionowe) oraz uzyskali wyższe oceny akademickie. Studenci pasjonujący się swoim kierunkiem przeżywali mniej negatywnych emocji oraz w mniejszym stopniu kierowali się zewnętrzną motywacją rozumianą jako unikanie kary, uleganie regułom.
... development of one's best potentials and their application in fulfilling personally expressive and self-concordant goals [1][2][3]. There have been many attempts to capture the psychological construct of eudaimonic well-being, particularly including the widely implemented Questionnaire for Eudaimonic Well-Being (QEWB) [4]. ...
... This study surveyed two samples of participants. 1 Those in sample 1 were recruited through an email invitation containing information about the survey including informed consent. Reward points were then given to each person that returned a completed questionnaire. ...
Article
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Background An increasing amount of research is now highlighting the importance of approaching issues of happiness through eudaimonic well-being. However, the literature does not conclusively show a full understanding of the construct of eudaimonic well-being, as previous studies primarily focused on younger samples from Western countries and only a few studies have attempted to explore its psychological construct through exploratory approaches. Therefore, we conducted a survey among a wide range of age groups in Japan to capture the psychological construct of eudaimonic well-being, through an exploratory analytic approach using Questionnaire for Eudaimonic Wellbeing (QEWB). Methods A total of 1126 Japanese participants (580 females, 546 males) were included for analysis. Participants were divided into three age groups according to their age, including 10s to 20s (18–29 years), 30s to 40s (30–49 years) and 50s to 60s (50–69 years). After narrowing down the total number of factors by exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), we conducted an ESEM and bifactor ESEM with oblique goemin and oblique bi-geomin rotations for choosing and assessing the final model based on the rotated results and its interpretability. Results The results of a parallel analysis and goodness-of-fit indices obtained by ESEM indicated that the QEWB consisted of three or more factors. Both a three-to-six factor and bifactor ESEM with oblique goemin rotation showed that three-factor structure for the 30s to 40s and 50s to 60s and four-factor structure for the 10s to 20s should be chosen, respectively. “Deep and Meaningful Engagement,” a factor only relevant to the 10s to 20s may be an expanded version of what original paper called the Intense Involvement in Activities, with more emphasis on the enthusiastic attitude one has towards activities. Conclusions The structure of eudaimonic well-being may differ across cultures and ages, thus requiring further investigation in the field.
... However, if you are instead disenchanted by swimming, it might simply be that swimming doesn't suit you-it is not in accordance with your 'true self' (Sheldon 2002). 8 Your self (or daimon) is communicated to you by the degree of motivation you experience for certain values and activities and the corresponding affective signals you receive when undertaking those activities and affirming those values. ...
... This implies that goals that are autonomously chosen and meaningful rather than simply interesting will have a greater impact on SWB. In line with this, Sheldon has consistently replicated results showing that goals have stronger effects on wellbeing when they are selfconcordant (Sheldon and Kasser 1995;Elliot 1998, 1999;Sheldon and Houser-Marko 2001;Sheldon 2002). ...
Chapter
The study of subjective wellbeing has grown substantially in recent decades and is now seeking to influence public policy. The complexities of this new application have revealed weaknesses in the foundations of the field. Its operationalist epistemology was appropriate given its historical context, but undermines its ability to explain the mechanisms by which policy can improve subjective wellbeing. Likewise, the field’s deliberate avoidance of the evaluative element of “wellbeing”—what is “good for” somebody—leaves it poorly equipped to engage with the ethical and political complexities of policymaking. The present volume provides the theoretical depth that the field of subjective wellbeing is lacking by integrating psychological, philosophical, economic, and political perspectives on wellbeing. The end result is a rich and ethically sensitive theory of subjective wellbeing that can underpin scholarly research, inform therapy and self-help, and guide wellbeing public policy
... Fryer, Ginns, and Walker (2014) also found evidence that externally regulated goals, such as school grades, seem to have low impact on motivation and learning, whereas internally regulated goals may have a positive effect on student motivation. Indeed, even though externally regulated goals may be self-chosen, they may not be perceived as personal goals, and they may not have the person's complete commitment as internally regulated goals do (Sheldon 2002). On the other hand, goals that have an intrinsic content are usually pursued for self-concordant reasons, making goal attainment more likely (Sheldon 2002). ...
... Indeed, even though externally regulated goals may be self-chosen, they may not be perceived as personal goals, and they may not have the person's complete commitment as internally regulated goals do (Sheldon 2002). On the other hand, goals that have an intrinsic content are usually pursued for self-concordant reasons, making goal attainment more likely (Sheldon 2002). Within school contexts, Bong (2001) argues that students may be more likely to phrase goal contents that reflect areas in which they feel confident in their abilities. ...
Thesis
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Self-determination is considered best practice for students with intellectual disability (ID), as it is linked to positive post-school outcomes (Wehmeyer, 2015). The promotion of self-determination through student-directed learning may also be beneficial for students’ academic performance and motivation for school work (Reeve, 2002). However, research suggests that students with ID may be less susceptible to self-determination interventions, as they gain lower effects from such interventions than their typically developing peers (e.g. Wehmeyer et al., 2012). In Norway, self-determination for individuals with ID is both a political and an educational goal (Norwegian White Paper, 2016). However, there is a lack of validated instruments that can assess self-determination in a Norwegian school context, and Norwegian special educators lack evidence-based instructional models that can be used to enhance the self-determination of their students with ID. This doctoral thesis addresses these issues by i) validating the AIR Self-Determination Scale for use with Norwegian students with mild ID, ii) investigating the effects of an intervention with the Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction on the self-determination and academic goal attainment of Norwegian students with mild ID, and iii) exploring which specific adaptations are required to both the measure and instructional model in order to meet the specific cognitive needs of students with mild ID.
... Underlying both mental health and academic performance is a broader conception of 'eudaimonic' well-being as self-realisation and meaning (Ryan & Deci, 2001;Waterman, 1993 (Schippers & Ziegler, 2019). However, having self-concordant goals (i.e., goals that align with one's values and passions), relates to higher academic performance (Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001), higher subjective well-being (Sheldon, 2002), and lower symptoms of depression (Sheldon & Kasser, 1998). The potential impact of life-crafting interventions appears to be promising, particularly because it is online and, therefore, scalable. ...
... Similar to the Japanese concept of 'Ikigai'; a reason for being (Sone et al., 2008), and eudaimonic well-being, which includes meaning and self-realisation (Ryan & Deci, 2001). This purpose is self-concordant when it is both intrinsically as well as extrinsically worth pursuing (Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001;Sheldon 2002). The exercises stimulate participants to choose goals that the person truly holds to be important. ...
Thesis
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Academic thriving stands for a combination of academic outcomes as well as success in other relevant domains, such as well-being or finding the right job. What causes students to thrive academically? The studies in this dissertation contributed to this question with the use of experimental, interdisciplinary and longitudinal studies, and a critical theoretical examination of the arguments against evidence-based education. A large-scale field experiment showed that first-year students who reflected on their desired future, prioritized goals, and wrote detailed plans on how to reach these goals, performed significantly better (in study credits and retention) than students who made a control assignment. This low-cost and scalable goal-setting assignment was made at the start of college and only took the students two hours to complete. Personalized follow-up feedback delivered by an AI-enhanced chatbot could further improve benefits to study outcomes as well as well-being. The final study in this dissertation tracked the effects of different types of work on the study progress of teacher education students over a four-year span. This longitudinal study showed that student who had a paid job in education gained more study credits than students with other types of work or without a job. Additionally it showed that working 8 hours per week relates with the most study progress in the first and third semester of college.
... Research suggests that undergraduate students often have difficulty with finding meaning (Steger et al., 2008) or a clear sense of purpose or direction in life (Schippers and Ziegler, 2019). However, having self-concordant goals (i.e., goals that align with one's values and passions), relates to higher academic performance (Sheldon and Houser-Marko, 2001), higher subjective wellbeing (Sheldon, 2002), and lower symptoms of depression (Sheldon and Kasser, 1998). ...
... Similar to the Japanese concept of 'Ikigai'; a reason for being (Sone et al., 2008), and eudaimonic well-being, which includes meaning and self-realization (Ryan and Deci, 2001). This purpose is selfconcordant when it is both intrinsically as well as extrinsically worth pursuing (Sheldon and Houser-Marko, 2001;Sheldon, 2002). The exercises stimulate participants to choose goals that the person truly believes to be important. ...
Article
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One in three university students experiences mental health problems during their study. A similar percentage leaves higher education without obtaining the degree for which they enrolled. Research suggests that both mental health problems and academic underperformance could be caused by students lacking control and purpose while they are adjusting to tertiary education. Currently, universities are not designed to cater to all the personal needs and mental health problems of large numbers of students at the start of their studies. Within the literature aimed at preventing mental health problems among students (e.g., anxiety or depression), digital forms of therapy recently have been suggested as potentially scalable solutions to address these problems. Integrative psychological artificial intelligence (AI) in the form of a chatbot, for example, shows great potential as an evidence-based solution. At the same time, within the literature aimed at improving academic performance, the online life-crafting intervention in which students write about values and passions, goals, and goal-attainment plans has shown to improve the academic performance and retention rates of students. Because the life-crafting intervention is delivered through the curriculum and doesn’t bear the stigma that is associated with therapy, it can reach larger populations of students. But life-crafting lacks the means for follow-up or the interactiveness that online AI-guided therapy can offer. In this narrative review, we propose to integrate the current literature on chatbot interventions aimed at the mental health of students with research about a life-crafting intervention that uses an inclusive curriculum-wide approach. When a chatbot asks students to prioritize both academic as well as social and health-related goals and provides personalized follow-up coaching, this can prevent -often interrelated- academic and mental health problems. Right on-time delivery, and personalized follow-up questions enhance the effects of both -originally separated- intervention types. Research on this new combination of interventions should use design principles that increase user-friendliness and monitor the technology acceptance of its participants.
... However, if you are instead disenchanted by swimming, it might simply be that swimming doesn't suit you-it is not in accordance with your 'true self' (Sheldon 2002). 8 Your self (or daimon) is communicated to you by the degree of motivation you experience for certain values and activities and the corresponding affective signals you receive when undertaking those activities and affirming those values. ...
... This implies that goals that are autonomously chosen and meaningful rather than simply interesting will have a greater impact on SWB. In line with this, Sheldon has consistently replicated results showing that goals have stronger effects on wellbeing when they are selfconcordant (Sheldon and Kasser 1995;Elliot 1998, 1999;Sheldon and Houser-Marko 2001;Sheldon 2002). ...
Chapter
The study of subjective wellbeing is dominated by two traditions: the psychological and philosophical. If the psychological is deficient, it makes sense to look for solutions in the philosophical. As such, this chapter begins with a thorough but not exhaustive review of the principal philosophical theories of wellbeing: mental state, objective list, preference satisfaction, eudaimonic, and subjectivist. As philosophers are predominantly concerned with the evaluative character of wellbeing, a key benefit of this exercise is that it sensitizes us to the complex value judgments that must be made when defining wellbeing. However, the philosophical tradition has its own problems. In particular, its tendency to delineate and classify has led it to overlook complementarities and overlaps between supposedly competing theories. And its disinterest in “applied” questions has left the practical issue of how you get wellbeing largely investigated, despite the insights it provides regarding what wellbeing is.
... However, if you are instead disenchanted by swimming, it might simply be that swimming doesn't suit you-it is not in accordance with your 'true self' (Sheldon 2002). 8 Your self (or daimon) is communicated to you by the degree of motivation you experience for certain values and activities and the corresponding affective signals you receive when undertaking those activities and affirming those values. ...
... This implies that goals that are autonomously chosen and meaningful rather than simply interesting will have a greater impact on SWB. In line with this, Sheldon has consistently replicated results showing that goals have stronger effects on wellbeing when they are selfconcordant (Sheldon and Kasser 1995;Elliot 1998, 1999;Sheldon and Houser-Marko 2001;Sheldon 2002). ...
Book
The study of “subjective wellbeing” has seen explosive growth in recent decades, opening important new discourses in personality and social psychology, happiness economics, and moral philosophy. Now it is moving into the policy domain. In this it has arguably overstepped its limits. The shallow theoretical base of subjective wellbeing research, the limitations of its measurement instruments, and its ethical naivety make policymaking on the basis of its findings a risky venture. The present volume is an attempt to shore up these weaknesses and set subjective wellbeing scholarship on a course for several more decades of growth and maturation. It presents a theory of subjective wellbeing in two parts. The first is the subjective wellbeing production function—a model of wellbeing as outcome. The second is the coalescence of being—a model of the self-actualization process by which wellbeing is achieved. This two-part model integrates ideas from subjective wellbeing studies with complementary ideas in analytical and continental philosophy, clinical, moral, and developmental psychology, and welfare economics. Importantly, this theory is ethically sensitive, bridging the gap between the philosophical and psychological perspectives on wellbeing in a way that illuminates the complexities facing the application of subjective wellbeing in public policy. The book also provides a thorough review of various ways in which subjective wellbeing can be studied empirically, and the hard trade-offs we face between long surveys that capture the richness of the concept and the parsimony required by social surveys and policy analysis.
... However, if you are instead disenchanted by swimming, it might simply be that swimming doesn't suit you-it is not in accordance with your 'true self' (Sheldon 2002). 8 Your self (or daimon) is communicated to you by the degree of motivation you experience for certain values and activities and the corresponding affective signals you receive when undertaking those activities and affirming those values. ...
... This implies that goals that are autonomously chosen and meaningful rather than simply interesting will have a greater impact on SWB. In line with this, Sheldon has consistently replicated results showing that goals have stronger effects on wellbeing when they are selfconcordant (Sheldon and Kasser 1995;Elliot 1998, 1999;Sheldon and Houser-Marko 2001;Sheldon 2002). ...
Chapter
While subjective well-being scholarship has its merits, it is not without its weaknesses, and these are the subject of this chapter. While the definition and approach of the field were appropriate in its historical context, they are inappropriate and indeed problematic for applications in public policy. In particular, this chapter demonstrates that the field is naive about the normative implications of “wellbeing” theories and that its measurement instruments lack precision. Both of these faults find their origins in the field’s atheoretic inclinations and operationalist epistemology. It is time to replace this with a more realist epistemology. That requires a thorough theory of subjective wellbeing that engages extensively with normativity, which this book provides.
... However, if you are instead disenchanted by swimming, it might simply be that swimming doesn't suit you-it is not in accordance with your 'true self' (Sheldon 2002). 8 Your self (or daimon) is communicated to you by the degree of motivation you experience for certain values and activities and the corresponding affective signals you receive when undertaking those activities and affirming those values. ...
... This implies that goals that are autonomously chosen and meaningful rather than simply interesting will have a greater impact on SWB. In line with this, Sheldon has consistently replicated results showing that goals have stronger effects on wellbeing when they are selfconcordant (Sheldon and Kasser 1995;Elliot 1998, 1999;Sheldon and Houser-Marko 2001;Sheldon 2002). ...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is twofold. First, to review philosophical arguments against wellbeing theories of the sort I have outlined. This should hopefully sensitize subjective wellbeing scholars to the ethical nuances of applying subjective wellbeing outside the context of academic research. Ethical critiques of subjective wellbeing are especially potent when it is government rather than friends or therapists trying to promote it. This is the second purpose of the chapter: to argue that government should be very cautious about promoting subjective wellbeing directly. They should instead focus on welfare—the options available to citizens. The final part of the chapter discusses ways to begin applying subjective wellbeing in public policy without crossing ethical risky red lines.
... However, if you are instead disenchanted by swimming, it might simply be that swimming doesn't suit you-it is not in accordance with your 'true self' (Sheldon 2002). 8 Your self (or daimon) is communicated to you by the degree of motivation you experience for certain values and activities and the corresponding affective signals you receive when undertaking those activities and affirming those values. ...
... This implies that goals that are autonomously chosen and meaningful rather than simply interesting will have a greater impact on SWB. In line with this, Sheldon has consistently replicated results showing that goals have stronger effects on wellbeing when they are selfconcordant (Sheldon and Kasser 1995;Elliot 1998, 1999;Sheldon and Houser-Marko 2001;Sheldon 2002). ...
Chapter
How do you measure a construct as complex as subjective wellbeing? The first part of this chapter reviews the many tools available for measuring each dimension of the construct, as well as the well-being profile—a new measure that holds some promise for capturing subjective wellbeing holistically in only fifteen questions. The second part of the chapter then explains why even fifteen questions is likely too long for many applications in policy and social science. Life satisfaction scales hold a great deal of promise as a unidimensional and sufficiently cardinal measure of subjective wellbeing for these applications. However, there are several concerns about these scales, notably inconsistent scale use across respondents or within respondents over time, that need to be investigated more thoroughly. The chapter provides a conceptual analysis of these concerns and uses them to differentiate adaptation, scale-norming, and reference point shifts.
... Dans un tel contexte, les projets des étudiants sont considérés comme en accord avec le soi. Ils sont dits personnels parce qu'ils satisfont des besoins psychologiques fondamentaux propres à la personne considérée (Sheldon, 2002(Sheldon, , 2004. De tels projets présentent un degré élevé d'autodétermination qui se traduit par un engagement de l'individu vis-à-vis de ceux-ci (Koestner, Lekes, Powers & Chicoine, 2002). ...
... La catégorie intérêt situationnel a trait à un sujet étudiant qui manifeste une implication pour la situation de formation qui l'environne : l'étudiant se sent interpellé émotionnellement et cognitivement par cette situation. Certains chercheurs, comme Sheldon (2002), avaient déjà évoqué le fait que les projets pouvaient être identifiés comme personnels dans la Conditions d'émergence du projet personnel de l'étudiant au sein de situation... ...
... It is an intervening or mediating construct between an independent construct of self and a dependent or outcome construct of L2 learning motivation. This middle level is not unique to self-theories; it has been used in other research programs or other frameworks using terms such as: personal strivings (Emmons, 1996), personal projects (Little, 1983;Little, Salmela-Aro, & Phillips, 2007;Romero, Villar, Luengo, & Gomez-Fraguela, 2009), and personal goals (Salmela-Aro, Aunola, & Nurmi, 2007;Sheldon, 2002Sheldon, , 2004Sheldon & Elliott, 1999). Other concepts include current concerns (Klinger, 1975), identity goals (Gollwitzer, 1987), life goals (Nurmi, 1991(Nurmi, , 1992, and developmental goals (Heckhausen, 1999;Heckhausen & Heckhausen, 2008). ...
Article
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This study contributes to the limited research assessing how constructs (e.g., grit) from Positive Psychology (PosPsy) can contribute to better understanding motivation for learning a second language (L2). A total number of 441 Japanese female university students enrolled in English language classes participated in this study. Results showed that a positive global self-construct (i.e., grit), positive L2 domain self-constructs (i.e., grit for L2 learning and interested L2 self) and positive L2 motivational constructs (i.e., L2 reading and listening self-efficacy) and negative L2 motivational variables (i.e., L2 reading and listening anxiety) can be reliably measured with self-report scales with female Japanese students and how the relationship strength among variables followed the predicted order. This paper contributes by introducing new concepts from PosPsy to motivation in L2 learning and offers validation evidence that scales can be created to measure selected constructs from PosPsy that augment L2 motivation studies.
... We assessed pupils' weekly autonomous motivation for school using two items ("I wanted to come to school this week"; "What we learned at school this week was interesting"), which resulted from an adaptation of similar-content items commonly applied within the SDT educational well-being research (Sheldon 2002;Vansteenkiste et al. 2004), and specifically adapted to capture weekly variations. Participants responded to this item using a Likert scale ranging from 1 (Completely disagree) to 4 (Completely agree). ...
Article
Full-text available
The main purpose of the present study was to investigate whether there is a crossover effect from teacher’s general (trait-level) work engagement to their pupils’ weekly positive affect in school and to examine whether pupils’ weekly autonomous motivation for school functions as an underlying mechanism that may explain this crossover effect. Building upon the self-determination theory and the emotion contagion theory, we argue that teachers’ general work engagement can be a strong resource for pupils, which can foster their psychological investment and interest in school-related activities, skills, and tasks (i.e. autonomous motivation), and, in turn, their positive affect. To test our hypotheses, we employed a weekly diary methodology by following 50 teachers and their 916 pupils in six different countries for three consecutive work weeks, which yielded 2735 reports from pupils and their teachers. The results of multilevel modeling provided support for the hypothesised research model. When teachers were generally more engaged in their work, their pupils reported more weekly positive affect in school, and this positive crossover effect was mediated by pupils’ weekly autonomous motivation for school. These findings extend current literature by revealing the potential underlying mechanism that can explain how teachers’ work engagement transmits to pupils’ positive affect in school.
... The assumption that the passionate activity is embedded in one's self-concept is in line with the Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2017), in which individuals are conceptualized as having a natural tendency to integrate elements of the environment into their self and identity. These elements can be integrated within the self in an autonomous or controlled way (Sheldon, 2002;Vallerand & Ratelle, 2002). ...
Article
Research reveals that harmonious passion leads to more positive emotions than obsessive passion, whereas the opposite result is true with respect to negative emotions. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the role of cognitive appraisals as mediators of the passion-emotion relationships. In Study 1, 227 participants engaged in different sports completed an online questionnaire about their passion for their specific sport, as well as cognitive appraisals and emotions generally experienced during an important game of their sport. Results of a structural equation modeling analysis and an indirect effect test showed that harmonious passion was linked to positive emotions through the mediating role of challenge appraisals, and that obsessive passion was linked to negative emotions through the mediating role of threat appraisals. In Study 2, 194 athletes completed questionnaires before and after a competitive game and focused on cognitive appraisals and emotions experienced during the game. Results of analyses conducted separately in the victory and defeat conditions based on game outcomes supported the model found in Study 1 in the case of defeat for both types of passion, and in the case of victory for harmonious passion only. Obsessive passion was not linked to threat appraisals among victorious athletes. These results suggest that both types of passion trigger different cognitive appraisals that lead to corresponding emotions. Future research is needed to replicate these findings and to better understand the role of passion and cognitive appraisals in emotions experienced in the realm of sports.
... Self-concordant goals are goals which represent a people's enduring interests and self-defining values (Sheldon, 2002). People pursuing more self-concordant goals evidence higher subjective well-being, as shown in participants from both Western and non-Western cultures (Sheldon et al., 2004). ...
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Self-concordant goals are goals which represent a people’s enduring interests and self-defining values (Sheldon, 2002). People pursuing more self-concordant goals evidence higher subjective well-being, as shown in participants from both Western and non-Western cultures (Sheldon et al., 2004). In a different literature, attributional style research has found that tendencies to provide optimistic explanations of life events also predict well-being. We hypothesized that people pursuing self-concordant goals would make more optimistic attributions about goal-specific outcomes, and that this tendency would help explain the link between selfconcordance and well-being. Structural equation and multiple group modelling of 253 American and 230 Russian university students found support for these hypotheses. Self-concordance primarily predicted optimism following positive outcomes (that they will recur), not following negative outcomes (that they will end), and also, the mediational pattern was slightly different in the Russian than in the American sample. The results suggest that when people choose life-goals that fit their interests and values, they derive resources including the ability to interpret positive goal-outcomes in an optimistic way. This helps to explain why pursuing such goals makes them happy.
... Self-concordance builds on the construct of selfdetermination by considering why people decide to pursue certain goals (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999). More specifically, self-concordance considers the extent to which goals are aligned with an individual's needs, values, and interests (Sheldon, 2002). Concordant goals thus lend support for psychological need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy, competency, relatedness), which in turn facilitates commitment and boosts well-being as goals are achieved (Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001). ...
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This article proposes an integrative model for the psychological resources of grit. The growing body of work in nursing on the topic of grit indicates considerable interest in achieving long-term goals, especially amidst uncertainty from the COVID-19 pandemic. Motivational behaviors are thought to influence engagement in continuing education in nursing, thereby improving clinical practice and patient outcomes. The model was informed by a comprehensive review of the literature. Sixteen attributes for acquiring and strengthening four psychological resources of grit were identified. Each attribute is discussed along with interrelationships and implications for professional nursing development. Given the complex demands placed on health professionals, this model is both timely and relevant for all nurse and education providers interested in enhancing personal characteristics that may mitigate against stress and build capabilities for goal achievement.
... Past research has shown that values and regulations concerning non-interesting activities can be internalized in either a controlled or an autonomous fashion (see Deci et al., 1994;Sheldon, 2002;Vallerand, 2001Vallerand, , 2007Vallerand, Fortier, & Guay, 1997). Similarly, it is posited that activities that people like will also be internalized in the person's identity to the extent that these are highly valued and meaningful for the person. ...
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The purpose of the present paper is to present the Dualistic Model of Passion (Vallerand et al., 2003) and show its importance for positive psychology. Passion is defined as a strong inclination toward a self-defining activity that people like (or love), find important, and in which they invest time and energy. Furthermore, two types of passion (harmonious and obsessive) are proposed. Harmonious passion leads people to choose to engage in the activity that they love. Conversely, obsessive passion creates an internal pressure to engage in the beloved activity. Harmonious passion is hypothesized to lead to more adaptive outcomes than obsessive passion. Results of several studies reveal that passion matters with respect to a number of outcomes deemed important for positive psychology such as flow and positive emotions, psychological well-being, physical health, relationships, and performance. Passion can indeed make people's lives worth living to the extent that it is harmonious in nature. Resumen El objetivo del presente trabajo es presentar el Modelo Dualista de la Pasión (Vallerand et al., 2003) y mostrar su importancia para la psicología positiva. La pasión se define como una fuerte inclinación hacia una actividad que a la gente le gusta (o ama), le parece importante, y en la que invierte tiempo y energía. El modelo plantea la existencia de dos tipos de pasión (armoniosa y obsesiva). La pasión armoniosa conduce a la gente a elegir dedicarse a la actividad que aman. Por el contrario, la pasión obsesiva crea una presión interna para dedicarse a la actividad deseada. Se hipotetiza que la pasión armoniosa conduce a resultados más adaptativos que la pasión obsesiva. Los resultados de diferentes estudios revelan que la pasión es im-portante en relación a una serie de resultados que se consideran importantes para la Psicología positiva tales como el fluir (flow) y las emociones positivas, el bienestar psicológico, la salud física, las relaciones, y el rendimiento. La pasión realmente puede hacer que la gente tenga vidas que merezcan la pena en la medida en que dicha pasión sea de naturaleza armónica. Palabras clave: pasión, teoría de la auto-determinación, rendimiento, bienestar.
... Self-concordant goals are goals which represent a people's enduring interests and self-defining values (Sheldon, 2002). People pursuing more self-concordant goals evidence higher subjective well-being, as shown in participants from both Western and non-Western cultures (Sheldon et al., 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
Self-concordant goals are goals which represent a people’s enduring interests and self-defining values (Sheldon, 2002). People pursuing more self-concordant goals evidence higher subjective well-being, as shown in participants from both Western and non-Western cultures (Sheldon et al., 2004). In a different literature, attributional style research has found that tendencies to provide optimistic explanations of life events also predict well-being. We hypothesized that people pursuing self-concordant goals would make more optimistic attributions about goal-specific outcomes, and that this tendency would help explain the link between self-concordance and well-being. Structural equation and multiple group modelling of 253 American and 230 Russian university students found support for these hypotheses. Self-concordance primarily predicted optimism following positive outcomes (that they will recur), not following negative outcomes (that they will end), and also, the mediational pattern was slightly different in the Russian than in the American sample. The results suggest that when people choose life-goals that fit their interests and values, they derive resources including the ability to interpret positive goal-outcomes in an optimistic way. This helps to explain why pursuing such goals makes them happy.
... While people with clear goals have been found to have higher levels of wellbeing than those who are, in a sense, aimless, achieving inauthentic goals has been found to have only small effects on well-being (Deci and Ryan 1985;Oyserman et al. 2012;Locke & Latham 1990). Achieving self-concordant goals, on the other hand, has large and sustained well-being effects (Sheldon 2002). ...
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Self-actualisation is a central theme in many accounts of well-being. Yet theories of how self-actualisation is prosecuted and how exactly it leads to well-being are relatively underdeveloped. This paper addresses this shortfall by explicating a novel theory of self-actualisation—the coalescence of being. The theory is founded on insights from existential philosophy, but these are built upon substantially by integrating recent ideas from psychology, notably self-determination theory, self-discrepancy theory and terror-management theory. The central mechanism of coalescence is the individual trying to harmonise their actual-, ideal- and ought-selves. They do this by positing their ideal-self and ought-self as a goal and then living in accordance with this aspiration. When their actual self is disclosed to them in their actions or in the assessment of others they can gauge their progress towards this goal. Success brings positive affect, while failure gives rise to negative affect. Introspecting upon these signals helps the individual to better understand whether their goals are self-congruent or need adjusting. Iterative recalibration of the three self-constructs on the basis of this introspection accelerates the coalescence process. The final part of the paper analyses how coalescence leads to well-being as defined by a range of theories of well-being.
... This particular pathway was only later discovered by researchers at the Centre of Applied Positive Psychology in the United Kingdom, who would identify self-concordance-a model incorporating the human desires for competent performance, autonomous control, and interpersonal relatedness to our peers-as the mechanism by which eudemonic growth and wellbeing is achieved through the application of signature strengths (Govindji & Liney, 2007;Sheldon, 2002: Sheldon & Elliot, 1999. The creation of a concordant self, as well as the lifelong achievement of self-concordant goals, serves as a means to cultivate wellbeing from the broadest diversity of sources, and is only achieved through an ongoing process of discovery and experimentation; and these processes are always more successful with the help of supportive partnerships (Proyer et al., 2014b;Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001;Slemp et al., 2015). ...
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Artificial intelligence has generated more ambivalence than any technology in human history. As Silicon Valley enters the third decade of its self-proclaimed era of artificial intelligence, there is still surprisingly little agreement about the nature of the 21st century’s defining invention, and even less about how our relationship with this seminal technology should be managed in the future. Positive psychology offers software engineers methods to cultivate a greater understanding of the unique strengths of the artificial intelligence programs they develop, as well as the effects to wellbeing triggered by the applications they deploy. In this paper, I will propose three tools inspired by my chosen field of study for use by artificial intelligence innovators: (a) a classification of the artificial intelligence strengths and virtues; (b) the THETIS dimensions of cybernetic wellbeing, and; (c) the definition of a positive existential posthuman philosophy of artificial intelligence design. The philosophy of positive psychology is perhaps most succinctly summarized with a single phrase: “other people matter.” If Silicon Valley is to deliver a clearer and more compelling vision of the future of artificial intelligence—one in which human and machine agents work and thrive in collaborative harmony—then it must update its innovation practices to embrace a similarly transformative point of view: “other consciousnesses matter,” too.
... Los individuos hacen suyas las actividades, las integran en su identidad y se definen a través de ellas. Pero esta interiorización puede ocurrir de una manera autónoma o controlada (Sheldon, 2002). En líneas generales un proceso de interiorización autónoma, en el que la persona libremente decide involucrarse y con el tiempo interiorizar una actividad, generará una pasión harmoniosa. ...
... way to achieving goals and, thus, engagement at work (Gagné, 2014). Features of the broader context are likely to shape how engagement is experienced (Johns, 2006) by internalized culture and values (Sheldon, 2002) because they define what work is meaningful (Meyer, 2014). In a nutshell, the main aim of this paper is research on how resilience can be related to context rather than individual psychology can also affect the coping process at work, resulting in engagement. ...
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Psychological resilience has been, to a certain extent, explained by Western individualistic, and static factors. However, dynamic factors that affect the resilience through the process are proofed to be more important, i.e. culture. In some collectivist nations, like Afghanistan, the meaning of work embedded in what their own culture taught them. Afghan cultural context may provide the foundation for different ways of knowing, including resilience, by people in that nation. So, the main aim of this research is to find out the impact of psychological resilience on work engagement from the Afghan national cultural perspective. In a study of 713 staffs from 27 universities in Afghanistan show that work engagement dimensions are more related to the social and family factor of resilience than individual ones, supporting the cultural cohesion theory of individuals of Afghan people. Resiliency and energy are also one of the critical components of work engagement, vitality as a more individualistic work engagement factor lost its importance. 
... A meta-analysis found that PPIs, generally, have a small positive, but stable effect on SWB (Bolier et al., 2013). Examples of PPIs found to be effective in enhancing well-being are counting one's blessings (Emmons & McCullough, 2003), practicing kindness (Otake et al., 2006), setting personal goals (Sheldon, 2002), expressing gratitude (Seligman et al., 2005;Sheldon & Lyubomirsky, 2006) and using personal strengths (Seligman et al., 2005). The majority of these interventions are delivered in a self-help format. ...
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Subjective well-being (SWB) may buffer against psychosocial stressors such as the birth of a child. To assess the effectiveness of an unguided internet intervention ('Mamma Mia') on SWB among perinatal women, we investigated (1) whether the intervention group reported higher levels of SWB, (2) whether the effect of Mamma Mia changed over time (i.e. whether the intervention was more effective at some time points), (3) and potential moderators. In total, 1342 pregnant women were randomized to the Mamma Mia or control group. Data were collected at gestational weeks 21-25 and 37, and 1.5, 3, and 6 months after birth. Cognitive well-being was measured using the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Affective well-being was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. There were no significant differences in reported life satisfaction and positive affect between the groups. However, participants in the Mamma Mia group showed less negative affect during follow-up, suggesting that Mamma Mia can enhance the affective component of perinatal women's sense of SWB. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Despite a lack of a unanimous definition of goal striving, it generally refers to the ways in which people manage their thoughts and execute actions in the service of goal attainment (Diefendorff et al., 2000). Various goal striving models have been developed, including the tripartite model (Ntoumanis & Sedikides, 2018), the self-concordance model (Sheldon, 2002), the mindset theory of action phases (Gollwitzer, 1990), to name a few. In this study, we decided to take a process perspective of goal striving, which focuses on how the problems of goal pursuit are resolved by individuals (Oettingen & Gollwitzer, 2001). ...
Article
Long-term goal striving has been recognized as an important stage in goal achievement. Compared with the development of measurements of goal setting, researchers tended to measure goal striving in different manners. This study examined the conceptual structure of goal striving and validated a new scale to operationalize the construct within academic learning contexts. A 25-item scale was validated with 522 Chinese university students to assess its factor structure, reliability, gender invariance, criterion-related validity, and incremental validity. Confirmatory factor analysis results supported both the first-order and second-order model. Overall, the scale showed good reliability, validity, and invariance across gender. We suggested that this new scale could be used as an effective measure to assess the level of goal striving among university students in a Chinese context.
... A noteworthy limitation of previous studies is that most of them only considered one or two dimensions of well-being (e.g., subjective wellbeing; Orkibi & Ronen, 2017). The current study, therefore, differs from previous studies by using a multidimensional conceptualization of well-being which includes three key components: subjective well-being (Diener, 2009;Myers & Diener, 1995), eudaimonic well-being (Ryff, 1989;Sheldon, 2002;Waterman et al., 2010), and social well-being (Keyes, 1998). ...
Article
Research rooted in self-determination theory (SDT) has shown that need-supportive teaching, which involves support for students' needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, is associated with better motivation, engagement, and achievement. However, there is a lack of research on how need-supportive teaching is associated with student well-being. In addition, past studies on SDT have mostly confined themselves to a limited range of cultural contexts, usually Western cultures. To address these gaps, we examined the association between need-supportive teaching and students' well-being across eight distinct cultural groups (Western Europe, East-Central Europe, East Europe, Latin America, English-speaking, Confucian, Southeast Asia, African, and the Middle East). We analyzed secondary data from the Program for International Student Assessment which included responses from 513,295 students nested in 70 societies. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that need-supportive teaching was associated with better subjective, eudaimonic, and social well-being. Results held across the eight cultural groups and were robust to the inclusion of covariates at the individual (gender, socioeconomic status, immigration status, and parent support) and school (school socioeconomic status and percentage of local students within a school) levels. Our study provides strong support to the SDT assumption that need-supportive teaching is associated with optimal functioning across different cultural contexts. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... One might speculate that people who pursue goals that are in line with their personal values and motives experience positive affect because they succeed in self-generating positive affect when there are opportunities to initiate action. People who pursue goals that are not in line with their personal values and motives, however, may have greater difficulties in self-generating positive affect that supports action initiation (Sheldon, 2004;Sheldon & Elliot, 1999). Thus, people who pursue goals that are not in line with their personal values and motives may be more dependent on the presence of time pressure to get things done. ...
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The current work seeks to identify factors that support action initiation from the theoretical lens of self-regulation. Specifically, we focus on factors that reduce procrastination, the delay of the initiation or completion of activities. We draw from action control theory and propose that positive affect operates as a personal and time pressure as a situational factor that unblock routes to action. High positive affect makes people less prone to procrastination because positive affect reduces behavioral inhibition and facilitates the enactment of intentions. By contrast, when positive affect is low, people depend on time pressure as an action facilitating stimulus. We present results of a daily diary study with 108 participants that support our hypotheses. We replicate the findings in the context of work in a second daily diary study with 154 employees. We discuss benefits and drawbacks of the enactment of intentions under time pressure and implications of the results for how to reduce procrastination.
... Particularly, the systematic inclusion of social value is considered a critical step for entrepreneurship to contribute to sustainable development and underrepresented among existing entrepreneurial types, and in CE in general (Hobson & Lynch, 2016;Merli et al., 2018;Schaltegger & Wagner, 2011). A reason for the dominance of environmental over social value might be that circular founders barely mention relatedness (i.e., the desire for companionship; Sheldon, 2002;Gagne & Deci, 2005) or some form of obligation toward their own community as an underlying motivation for their entrepreneurial endeavors. ...
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The circular economy (CE) is now widely seen as a key concept to drive sustainability transformations. Existing research on circular business models has tentatively indicated that circular entrepreneurship may be able to play a pivotal role in the transition process. However, grassroots activity in CE has not yet received substantive scholarly attention, nor have the founders of circular ventures. This study attempts to start closing this gap by presenting the first empirical analysis of circular founders' motivations and identities. Our work is based on interviews with 57 founders of circular start‐ups in Europe and Australia. The analysis reveals distinct characteristics for these entrepreneurs. We find that noneconomic motives are dominant drivers of grassroots circular entrepreneurs while they include a triple bottom line orientation (i.e., economic, social, and environmental value) in principle. Yet, circular start‐up founders barely formalize socio‐political dimensions in their activities despite being motivated by social altruism. Furthermore, circular founders have an inventive mindset when starting their entrepreneurial journey, possibly driven by their limited market‐oriented positioning, limited entrepreneurial experience, and managerial education. However, their scaling ambitions grow significantly over time, as opposed to social and sustainable entrepreneurs. Overall, our findings suggest adding grassroots circular entrepreneurs or circular founders as a distinct group of sustainability entrepreneurs to the scientific discourse on sustainability‐motivated entrepreneurship and circular innovation studies.
... With the development and implementation of the strategic dimensions, the participants built up a personal goal structure, differentiating between focal and instrumental goals [121]. Both types of goals were constituted by the participants through intrinsic and identified motivations, i.e., they chose the goals and objectives that represent their system of beliefs, values and attitudes [122]. These are so-called self-concordant goals [123]. ...
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Entrepreneurial resilience refers to the capacity to face, overcome and project oneself after suffering life events with a negative impact. Emerging adulthood and the characteristics of university life facilitate the occurrence of stressful situations that can affect well-being. The aim of this phenomenological research is to explore the strategic components of entrepreneurial resilience and how young university students have shaped their entrepreneurial resilience after experiencing negative life events. The present research is a multiple case study that was developed through a mixed methodology. The methodological sequence was quantitative and qualitative, with priority given to the qualitative phase of the research. Ten university students with high levels of resilience were interviewed. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The results indicate that resilience is built through intrapersonal and exopersonal processes. These processes make up a set of strategic dimensions related to entrepreneurial behaviour that are used for the construction of personal projects.
... The first premise is based on the hypothesis that the relationship between autonomous motives from self-determination theory and the constructs from the theory of planned behavior is a formative one. People who have high levels of autonomous motivation in a given domain are likely to experience their behavior in that domain as personally relevant and valued in that it is concordant with their psychological needs (Sheldon, 2002). As a consequence, autonomously-motivated people will have a greater tendency to critically examine the importance and value of the outcomes of engaging in any future target behavior. ...
Chapter
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The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of recent research that integrates two key theories of motivation: the theory of planned behavior and self-determination theory. The chapter will adopt an evidence-based approach to evaluate how the integration of these theories provides a more complete model of motivation. After an overview of the component theories, two theoretical premises for theoretical integration will be discussed: (1) self-determination theory provides a formative explanation for the origin of the antecedents of intentional behavior and (2) self-determination theory constructs operate at a generalized contextual level and reflect the origin or locus of causality of an action while theory of planned behavior constructs are situational and reflect expectations regarding engagement in a specific future behavior. Empirical evidence for the integration of these theories is then presented in the form of a meta-analysis of 13 published studies. The meta-analytically derived correlations corrected for sampling and measurement error will then be used as a basis for a path analysis examining the pattern of relations among the variables from the integrated theory. The implications of the integrated models for future research and interventions are discussed.
... The Spanish version of the Goal Motives Questionnaire (Martínez- González et al., 2021a) was used to assess the athletes' personal goal motives. Based on the idiographic methodology proposed by Sheldon (2002), and following the procedures used in previous studies with athletes (e.g., Smith et al., 2007Smith et al., , 2011Smith and Ntoumanis, 2014), this questionnaire was adapted to measure personal goals in the Spanish sport domain. Although it was created recently, the first data have shown acceptable validity and reliability (α = 0.67 and 0.70) (Martínez- González et al., 2021a). ...
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Athletes have to face several challenges during the sport season, and one of them could involve dealing with unattainable goals. In these situations, being able to reengage in other goals as a form of goal adjustment and in response to contextual demands is adaptive. According to previous literature, some aspects of the athletes’ social context, such as coach-created motivational climates, could encourage more adaptive responses in athletes, and so it is possible that these climates would also promote athletes’ goal regulation and goal reengagement. The purpose of this study was twofold: to analyze whether athletes’ perception of empowering and disempowering climates were related to their goal reengagement through the mediation of goal motives; and to examine the interaction between the two climates when they predict reengagement through athletes’ goal motives. Participants were 414 Spanish university athletes (49.5% male, 50.5% female) who belonged to different university teams, with ages ranging from 17 to 33 years old ( M = 20.61, SD = 2.58). In the sport facilities, all of them completed questionnaires that evaluated their perception of empowering and disempowering climates, their goal motives, and their goal reengagement. Structural equation modeling (SEM) results showed that perceived empowering climate positively predicted autonomous goal motives, which in turn had a positive relationship with goal reengagement. Conversely, perceived disempowering climate positively predicted controlled goal motives, which were not related to goal reengagement. Thus, we only found support for the indirect relationship between perceived empowering climate and goal reengagement through autonomous goal motives. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that interaction effects between perceived empowering and disempowering climates were not significant in the prediction of goal reengagement through goal motives. Findings revealed that the perception of empowering climates promotes athletes’ goal reengagement when goals become unattainable via the increase in their autonomous goal motives. Conversely, when athletes perceive disempowering climates, they have more controlled goal motives, which are not related to goal reengagement. In addition, the study supports the need to educate coaches to create more empowering and less disempowering climates.
... Particularly, the systematic inclusion of social value is considered a critical step for entrepreneurship to contribute to sustainable development and underrepresented among existing entrepreneurial types, and in CE in general (Hobson & Lynch, 2016;Merli et al., 2018;Schaltegger & Wagner, 2011). A reason for the dominance of environmental over social value might be that circular founders barely mention relatedness (i.e., the desire for companionship; Sheldon, 2002;Gagne & Deci, 2005) or some form of obligation toward their own community as an underlying motivation for their entrepreneurial endeavors. ...
Chapter
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Following the slow uptake of CE on a corporate level, independent circular entrepreneurship is increasingly considered a relevant driver for a CE transition. Newly established firms can drive circular innovations either directly, through scaling and subsequent impact on mass markets or indirectly, when acting as technological pioneers and role models. Young ventures are better equipped than incumbents to spearhead the disruptive, systemic shift that CE entails. This is due to their relative independence, higher risk tolerance, and ability to implement circular practices and structures from scratch, i.e. creating value based on circularity along the entire entrepreneurial process and value chain. The development path and success of an entrepreneurial venture strongly depends on the founders’ motivation, personal value system and entrepreneurial identity. Traditional/commercial as well as social and sustainable entrepreneurial motivation and identity are much discussed topics in academic literature. In contrast, there is little scientific evidence on the motivation and identity of circular entrepreneurs. However, understanding the motivations of the new "breed" of circular entrepreneurs can help creating an environment in which innovative circular ventures can flourish and is pivotal to promote the bottom-up entrepreneurial development of the CE.
Chapter
Meaning and purpose form a key pillar of psychological wellbeing. Individuals and organizations that score high on these metrics have been found to exhibit a range of positive effects which in turn impact the ‘triple bottom line’ (people, profits, planet). This chapter introduces meaning as a multi-faceted construct and outlines how Steger’s SPIRE and CARMA models can be applied in a one-to-one coaching setting to benefit individuals and help leaders create the conditions for meaningful work, respectively. Several practical methods and techniques on how to measure, identify, create and shape meaning through coaching are presented along with specific questions a coach may ask and a case study to demonstrate how the literature on meaning may inform coaching practice. Consideration also is given to whom meaning-centred coaching benefits most, placing meaning-oriented positive psychology coaching within a future-focused organizational context.
Chapter
Whilst coaching has traditionally focused on enhancing performance, over recent years and with the emergence of positive psychology, the focus on outcomes has broadened to include wellbeing and resilience alongside performance. Within the field of positive psychology, a large focus has been on the scientific study of wellbeing and whilst academic debate continues, there is now a large body of accessible knowledge about what wellbeing is and what makes for a well-lived life. This includes the contribution of work as a protective factor that can enhance wellbeing but also act as a significant risk factor to physical and mental wellbeing. This chapter will explore the science of wellbeing and how it can be applied in the context of work through evidence-based coaching to support individuals, teams and organisations to flourish. Focusing on the PERMA model of wellbeing, it will explore how the experience of Positive Emotions; Engagement; Relationships; Meaning and Accomplishment are key to thriving workplaces and organisations.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has brought on a sense of freedoms lost with the emergence of regulatory practices aimed at reducing the spread of the virus. This loss has likely impacted experiences of leisure, particularly in western societies where the perception of freedom is a significant indicator of leisure. The article explores the significance of relationality and leisure from a decolonizing perspective. Building upon observations of the author’s experiences during the pandemic, the article will drawn upon relational ontology, the centrality of relationship, and connection with self, family, and other entities of life.
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This document is concerned with analyzing the current state of the technical diving community. More specifically, the work conducted in the scope of this project focused specifically on the community and the people within it. Furthermore, the effects of changes in the diving world were analyzed in conjunction with, and their effects upon, said community. The technical diving community as part of the scuba world can be viewed as a relatively small group of individuals which take their hobby or even profession to the extreme. However, very little is known about the state of the community as a whole, and the excessive costs connected with the activity, as well as the amount of time investment needed, can lead to the impression that there may be an ongoing decrease in the number of active technical divers, and that the community itself may be heading for a potential crisis. The aim of this dissertation, thus, is to analyze and assert the extent and scope of the aforementioned changes in the community, and to create a clearer picture of the current state it finds itself in. To this end, a qualitative approach was selected, rather than a quantitative one. The quantitative data used in this paper is therefore taken from other sources, and not conducted by the authors. To satisfy the qualitative approach, a series of interviews were conducted, to more directly allow the creation of an understanding of the collected quantitative data. Demographically speaking, a widely spread sample of people were chosen, to allow a 360-degree view of the situation in the community, and to potentially reveal further issues or discrepancies between different groups connected to technical diving. The empirical results of the interviews were finally analyzed using the three main categories of the Unified Human Motivation Model intrapsychic, instrumental, and interpersonal, as well as gender biases according to the Leaky Pipeline Model. This created a detailed understanding of a wide range of factors that influence the motivation of different individuals in their tech diving activities. Furthermore, it allows a roundabout perspective of the community, differentiating the different views of the unique individuals on certain topics. The final recommendations and the conclusion resulting from the work conducted were drawn up, showing that the main issues that confront the tech diving community is security, empowerment and belonging. Divers need to be able to feel safe with their abilities, their equipment, and their instructors in order to feel good about diving. Furthermore, the costs can prevent many people from even considering the hobby, as they cannot afford it.
Chapter
In the volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous world within which we live today it has never been more important to take a proactive approach to career transition and management. Experience of, or the threat of redundancy and its impact on our emotional, psychological and financial wellbeing can invoke anxiety and a feeling of overwhelm. Loving our work, working hard and being loyal to our organisation are no guarantees of job security or career progression. For many people who don’t love their work there are the additional challenges of sustaining engagement and motivation when there is a misalignment with what they want and offer and what their organisation wants and offers. This chapter will explore how positive psychology coaching can support people to take a pragmatic and positive approach to career transition. Drawing on the theoretical bases of resilience and mental toughness, hope and optimism it will focus on how coaching interventions support people to sustain their vitality and emotional wellbeing; gain greater understanding of what they offer and want in their careers; consolidate their learning to define and align their brand to future career options; and articulate their offer and value with confidence and authenticity.
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Background: Of the main elements that may be considered the most important internal or external factor for an athlete in achieving his objective and manifesting various behaviors is motivation and passion. Aims: The present research aims to normalize passion questionnaires in athletic society. Method: Statistical population of this study includes athletes in each of futsal, volleyball, basketball, water polo leagues. To review data, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and for data, gathering Vallerand passion (2003) questionnaire with three elements of obsessive passion (6 questions), harmonious passion (6 questions), and passion measure (5 questions) were used. Overall, 250 questionnaires were distributed, and in the end, 200 accurate questionnaires were analyzed. To normalize questionnaires confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses and LISREL software wasused. Results: Results obtained confirmed the reliability of the questionnaire. Research results showed that the present questionnaire is an appropriate instrument for measuring passion with an emphasis on the importance of sport status among athletes. Furthermore, the research final model showed that harmonious passion is a priority and obsessive passion is considered as the second priority in sport. Conclusions: It is suggested that researchers in their future research utilize this questionnaire in various and larger samples
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