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    • "Participants were randomized to receive either a short-or a long-form baseline questionnaire, with some questions being asked of only 50% of the cohort. Completion rates and missing data were similar for both versions (Rothman et al., 2009). The follow-up questionnaires assessed changes in various exposures, frequency and timing of intercourse, and whether pregnancy occurred. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that both female and male obesity may delay time-to-pregnancy (TTP). Little is known about central adiposity or weight gain and fecundability in women. We examined the association between anthropometric factors and TTP among 1651 Danish women participating in an internet-based prospective cohort study of pregnancy planners (2007-2008). We categorized body mass index (BMI = kg/m(2)) as underweight (<20), normal weight (20-24), overweight (25-29), obese (30-34) and very obese (> or =35). We used discrete-time Cox regression to estimate fecundability ratios (FRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for potential confounders. We found longer TTPs for overweight (FR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.70-1.00), obese (FR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.58-0.97), and very obese (FR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.42-0.88) women, compared with normal weight women. After further control for waist circumference, FRs for overweight, obese, and very obese women were 0.72 (95% CI = 0.58-0.90), 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.85) and 0.48 (95% CI = 0.31-0.74), respectively. Underweight was associated with reduced fecundability among nulliparous women (FR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.63-1.06) and increased fecundability among parous women (FR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.08-2.39). Male BMI was not materially associated with TTP after control for female BMI. Compared with women who maintained a stable weight since age 17 (-5 to 4 kg), women who gained > or =15 kg had longer TTPs (FR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.59-0.88) after adjustment for BMI at age 17. Associations of waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio with TTP depended on adjustment for female BMI: null associations were observed before adjustment for BMI and weakly positive associations were observed after adjustment for BMI. Our results confirm previous studies showing reduced fertility in overweight and obese women. The association between underweight and fecundability varied by parity.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Human Reproduction
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    ABSTRACT: A good questionnaire design for a clinical trial will minimise bias and maximise precision in the estimates of treatment effect within budget. Attempts to collect more data than will be analysed may risk reducing recruitment (reducing power) and increasing losses to follow-up (possibly introducing bias). The mode of administration can also impact on the cost, quality and completeness of data collected. There is good evidence for design features that improve data completeness but further research is required to evaluate strategies in clinical trials. Theory-based guidelines for style, appearance, and layout of self-administered questionnaires have been proposed but require evaluation.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Trials
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    ABSTRACT: The traditional epidemiologic modes of data collection, including paper-and-pencil questionnaires and interviews, have several limitations, such as decreasing response rates over the last decades and high costs in large study populations. The use of Web-based questionnaires may be an attractive alternative but is still scarce in epidemiologic research because of major concerns about selective nonresponse and reliability of the data obtained. The authors discuss advantages and disadvantages of Web-based questionnaires and current developments in this area. In addition, they focus on some practical issues and safety concerns involved in the application of Web-based questionnaires in epidemiologic research. They conclude that many problems related to the use of Web-based questionnaires have been solved or will most likely be solved in the near future and that this mode of data collection offers serious benefits. However, questionnaire design issues may have a major impact on response and completion rates and on reliability of the data. Theoretically, Web-based questionnaires could be considered an alternative or complementary mode in the range of epidemiologic methods of data collection. Practice and comparisons with the traditional survey techniques should reveal whether they can fulfill their expectations.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2010 · American journal of epidemiology
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